Tech-invite3GPPspaceIETF RFCsSIP
929190898887868584838281807978777675747372717069686766656463626160595857565554535251504948474645444342414039383736353433323130292827262524232221201918171615141312111009080706050403020100
in Index   Prev   Next

RFC 3921

Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP): Instant Messaging and Presence

Pages: 107
Obsoleted by:  6121
Part 1 of 4 – Pages 1 to 15
None   None   Next

ToP   noToC   RFC3921 - Page 1
Network Working Group                                P. Saint-Andre, Ed.
Request for Comments: 3921                    Jabber Software Foundation
Category: Standards Track                                   October 2004


          Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP):
                     Instant Messaging and Presence

Status of this Memo

   This document specifies an Internet standards track protocol for the
   Internet community, and requests discussion and suggestions for
   improvements.  Please refer to the current edition of the "Internet
   Official Protocol Standards" (STD 1) for the standardization state
   and status of this protocol.  Distribution of this memo is unlimited.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2004).

Abstract

This memo describes extensions to and applications of the core features of the Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP) that provide the basic instant messaging (IM) and presence functionality defined in RFC 2779.
ToP   noToC   RFC3921 - Page 2

Table of Contents

1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2. Syntax of XML Stanzas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 3. Session Establishment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 4. Exchanging Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 5. Exchanging Presence Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 6. Managing Subscriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 7. Roster Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 8. Integration of Roster Items and Presence Subscriptions . . . 32 9. Subscription States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 10. Blocking Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 11. Server Rules for Handling XML Stanzas . . . . . . . . . . . 85 12. IM and Presence Compliance Requirements . . . . . . . . . . 88 13. Internationalization Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 14. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 15. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 16. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 A. vCards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 B. XML Schemas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 C. Differences Between Jabber IM/Presence Protocols and XMPP. . 105 Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 Author's Address. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 Full Copyright Statement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107

1. Introduction

1.1. Overview

The Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP) is a protocol for streaming XML [XML] elements in order to exchange messages and presence information in close to real time. The core features of XMPP are defined in Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP): Core [XMPP-CORE]. These features -- mainly XML streams, use of TLS and SASL, and the <message/>, <presence/>, and <iq/> children of the stream root -- provide the building blocks for many types of near-real-time applications, which may be layered on top of the core by sending application-specific data qualified by particular XML namespaces [XML-NAMES]. This memo describes extensions to and applications of the core features of XMPP that provide the basic functionality expected of an instant messaging (IM) and presence application as defined in RFC 2779 [IMP-REQS].
ToP   noToC   RFC3921 - Page 3

1.2. Requirements

For the purposes of this memo, the requirements of a basic instant messaging and presence application are defined by [IMP-REQS], which at a high level stipulates that a user must be able to complete the following use cases: o Exchange messages with other users o Exchange presence information with other users o Manage subscriptions to and from other users o Manage items in a contact list (in XMPP this is called a "roster") o Block communications to or from specific other users Detailed definitions of these functionality areas are contained in [IMP-REQS], and the interested reader is directed to that document regarding the requirements addressed herein. [IMP-REQS] also stipulates that presence services must be separable from instant messaging services; i.e., it must be possible to use the protocol to provide a presence service, an instant messaging service, or both. Although the text of this memo assumes that implementations and deployments will want to offer a unified instant messaging and presence service, there is no requirement that a service must offer both a presence service and an instant messaging service, and the protocol makes it possible to offer separate and distinct services for presence and for instant messaging. Note: While XMPP-based instant messaging and presence meets the requirements of [IMP-REQS], it was not designed explicitly with that specification in mind, since the base protocol evolved through an open development process within the Jabber open-source community before RFC 2779 was written. Note also that although protocols addressing many other functionality areas have been defined in the Jabber community, such protocols are not included in this memo because they are not required by [IMP-REQS].

1.3. Terminology

This memo inherits the terminology defined in [XMPP-CORE]. The capitalized key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in BCP 14, RFC 2119 [TERMS].
ToP   noToC   RFC3921 - Page 4

2. Syntax of XML Stanzas

The basic semantics and common attributes of XML stanzas qualified by the 'jabber:client' and 'jabber:server' namespaces are defined in [XMPP-CORE]. However, these namespaces also define various child elements, as well as values for the common 'type' attribute, that are specific to instant messaging and presence applications. Thus, before addressing particular "use cases" for such applications, we here further describe the syntax of XML stanzas, thereby supplementing the discussion in [XMPP-CORE].

2.1. Message Syntax

Message stanzas qualified by the 'jabber:client' or 'jabber:server' namespace are used to "push" information to another entity. Common uses in instant messaging applications include single messages, messages sent in the context of a chat conversation, messages sent in the context of a multi-user chat room, headlines and other alerts, and errors.

2.1.1. Types of Message

The 'type' attribute of a message stanza is RECOMMENDED; if included, it specifies the conversational context of the message, thus providing a hint regarding presentation (e.g., in a GUI). If included, the 'type' attribute MUST have one of the following values: o chat -- The message is sent in the context of a one-to-one chat conversation. A compliant client SHOULD present the message in an interface enabling one-to-one chat between the two parties, including an appropriate conversation history. o error -- An error has occurred related to a previous message sent by the sender (for details regarding stanza error syntax, refer to [XMPP-CORE]). A compliant client SHOULD present an appropriate interface informing the sender of the nature of the error. o groupchat -- The message is sent in the context of a multi-user chat environment (similar to that of [IRC]). A compliant client SHOULD present the message in an interface enabling many-to-many chat between the parties, including a roster of parties in the chatroom and an appropriate conversation history. Full definition of XMPP-based groupchat protocols is out of scope for this memo. o headline -- The message is probably generated by an automated service that delivers or broadcasts content (news, sports, market information, RSS feeds, etc.). No reply to the message is expected, and a compliant client SHOULD present the message in an
ToP   noToC   RFC3921 - Page 5
      interface that appropriately differentiates the message from
      standalone messages, chat sessions, or groupchat sessions (e.g.,
      by not providing the recipient with the ability to reply).

   o  normal -- The message is a single message that is sent outside the
      context of a one-to-one conversation or groupchat, and to which it
      is expected that the recipient will reply.  A compliant client
      SHOULD present the message in an interface enabling the recipient
      to reply, but without a conversation history.

   An IM application SHOULD support all of the foregoing message types;
   if an application receives a message with no 'type' attribute or the
   application does not understand the value of the 'type' attribute
   provided, it MUST consider the message to be of type "normal" (i.e.,
   "normal" is the default).  The "error" type MUST be generated only in
   response to an error related to a message received from another
   entity.

   Although the 'type' attribute is OPTIONAL, it is considered polite to
   mirror the type in any replies to a message; furthermore, some
   specialized applications (e.g., a multi-user chat service) MAY at
   their discretion enforce the use of a particular message type (e.g.,
   type='groupchat').

2.1.2. Child Elements

As described under extended namespaces (Section 2.4), a message stanza MAY contain any properly-namespaced child element. In accordance with the default namespace declaration, by default a message stanza is qualified by the 'jabber:client' or 'jabber:server' namespace, which defines certain allowable children of message stanzas. If the message stanza is of type "error", it MUST include an <error/> child; for details, see [XMPP-CORE]. Otherwise, the message stanza MAY contain any of the following child elements without an explicit namespace declaration: 1. <subject/> 2. <body/> 3. <thread/>
2.1.2.1. Subject
The <subject/> element contains human-readable XML character data that specifies the topic of the message. The <subject/> element MUST NOT possess any attributes, with the exception of the 'xml:lang' attribute. Multiple instances of the <subject/> element MAY be included for the purpose of providing alternate versions of the same
ToP   noToC   RFC3921 - Page 6
   subject, but only if each instance possesses an 'xml:lang' attribute
   with a distinct language value.  The <subject/> element MUST NOT
   contain mixed content (as defined in Section 3.2.2 of [XML]).

2.1.2.2. Body
The <body/> element contains human-readable XML character data that specifies the textual contents of the message; this child element is normally included but is OPTIONAL. The <body/> element MUST NOT possess any attributes, with the exception of the 'xml:lang' attribute. Multiple instances of the <body/> element MAY be included but only if each instance possesses an 'xml:lang' attribute with a distinct language value. The <body/> element MUST NOT contain mixed content (as defined in Section 3.2.2 of [XML]).
2.1.2.3. Thread
The <thread/> element contains non-human-readable XML character data specifying an identifier that is used for tracking a conversation thread (sometimes referred to as an "instant messaging session") between two entities. The value of the <thread/> element is generated by the sender and SHOULD be copied back in any replies. If used, it MUST be unique to that conversation thread within the stream and MUST be consistent throughout that conversation (a client that receives a message from the same full JID but with a different thread ID MUST assume that the message in question exists outside the context of the existing conversation thread). The use of the <thread/> element is OPTIONAL and is not used to identify individual messages, only conversations. A message stanza MUST NOT contain more than one <thread/> element. The <thread/> element MUST NOT possess any attributes. The value of the <thread/> element MUST be treated as opaque by entities; no semantic meaning may be derived from it, and only exact comparisons may be made against it. The <thread/> element MUST NOT contain mixed content (as defined in Section 3.2.2 of [XML]).

2.2. Presence Syntax

Presence stanzas are used qualified by the 'jabber:client' or 'jabber:server' namespace to express an entity's current network availability (offline or online, along with various sub-states of the latter and optional user-defined descriptive text), and to notify other entities of that availability. Presence stanzas are also used to negotiate and manage subscriptions to the presence of other entities.
ToP   noToC   RFC3921 - Page 7

2.2.1. Types of Presence

The 'type' attribute of a presence stanza is OPTIONAL. A presence stanza that does not possess a 'type' attribute is used to signal to the server that the sender is online and available for communication. If included, the 'type' attribute specifies a lack of availability, a request to manage a subscription to another entity's presence, a request for another entity's current presence, or an error related to a previously-sent presence stanza. If included, the 'type' attribute MUST have one of the following values: o unavailable -- Signals that the entity is no longer available for communication. o subscribe -- The sender wishes to subscribe to the recipient's presence. o subscribed -- The sender has allowed the recipient to receive their presence. o unsubscribe -- The sender is unsubscribing from another entity's presence. o unsubscribed -- The subscription request has been denied or a previously-granted subscription has been cancelled. o probe -- A request for an entity's current presence; SHOULD be generated only by a server on behalf of a user. o error -- An error has occurred regarding processing or delivery of a previously-sent presence stanza. For detailed information regarding presence semantics and the subscription model used in the context of XMPP-based instant messaging and presence applications, refer to Exchanging Presence Information (Section 5) and Managing Subscriptions (Section 6).

2.2.2. Child Elements

As described under extended namespaces (Section 2.4), a presence stanza MAY contain any properly-namespaced child element. In accordance with the default namespace declaration, by default a presence stanza is qualified by the 'jabber:client' or 'jabber:server' namespace, which defines certain allowable children of presence stanzas. If the presence stanza is of type "error", it MUST include an <error/> child; for details, see [XMPP-CORE]. If the presence stanza possesses no 'type' attribute, it MAY contain any of
ToP   noToC   RFC3921 - Page 8
   the following child elements (note that the <status/> child MAY be
   sent in a presence stanza of type "unavailable" or, for historical
   reasons, "subscribe"):

   1.  <show/>
   2.  <status/>
   3.  <priority/>

2.2.2.1. Show
The OPTIONAL <show/> element contains non-human-readable XML character data that specifies the particular availability status of an entity or specific resource. A presence stanza MUST NOT contain more than one <show/> element. The <show/> element MUST NOT possess any attributes. If provided, the XML character data value MUST be one of the following (additional availability types could be defined through a properly-namespaced child element of the presence stanza): o away -- The entity or resource is temporarily away. o chat -- The entity or resource is actively interested in chatting. o dnd -- The entity or resource is busy (dnd = "Do Not Disturb"). o xa -- The entity or resource is away for an extended period (xa = "eXtended Away"). If no <show/> element is provided, the entity is assumed to be online and available.
2.2.2.2. Status
The OPTIONAL <status/> element contains XML character data specifying a natural-language description of availability status. It is normally used in conjunction with the show element to provide a detailed description of an availability state (e.g., "In a meeting"). The <status/> element MUST NOT possess any attributes, with the exception of the 'xml:lang' attribute. Multiple instances of the <status/> element MAY be included but only if each instance possesses an 'xml:lang' attribute with a distinct language value.
2.2.2.3. Priority
The OPTIONAL <priority/> element contains non-human-readable XML character data that specifies the priority level of the resource. The value MUST be an integer between -128 and +127. A presence stanza MUST NOT contain more than one <priority/> element. The <priority/> element MUST NOT possess any attributes. If no priority is provided,
ToP   noToC   RFC3921 - Page 9
   a server SHOULD consider the priority to be zero.  For information
   regarding the semantics of priority values in stanza routing within
   instant messaging and presence applications, refer to Server Rules
   for Handling XML Stanzas (Section 11).

2.3. IQ Syntax

IQ stanzas provide a structured request-response mechanism. The basic semantics of that mechanism (e.g., that the 'id' attribute is REQUIRED) are defined in [XMPP-CORE], whereas the specific semantics required to complete particular use cases are defined in all cases by an extended namespace (Section 2.4) (note that the 'jabber:client' and 'jabber:server' namespaces do not define any children of IQ stanzas other than the common <error/>). This memo defines two such extended namespaces, one for Roster Management (Section 7) and the other for Blocking Communication (Section 10); however, an IQ stanza MAY contain structured information qualified by any extended namespace.

2.4. Extended Namespaces

While the three XML stanza kinds defined in the "jabber:client" or "jabber:server" namespace (along with their attributes and child elements) provide a basic level of functionality for messaging and presence, XMPP uses XML namespaces to extend the stanzas for the purpose of providing additional functionality. Thus a message or presence stanza MAY contain one or more optional child elements specifying content that extends the meaning of the message (e.g., an XHTML-formatted version of the message body), and an IQ stanza MAY contain one such child element. This child element MAY have any name and MUST possess an 'xmlns' namespace declaration (other than "jabber:client", "jabber:server", or "http://etherx.jabber.org/streams") that defines all data contained within the child element. Support for any given extended namespace is OPTIONAL on the part of any implementation (aside from the extended namespaces defined herein). If an entity does not understand such a namespace, the entity's expected behavior depends on whether the entity is (1) the recipient or (2) an entity that is routing the stanza to the recipient: Recipient: If a recipient receives a stanza that contains a child element it does not understand, it SHOULD ignore that specific XML data, i.e., it SHOULD not process it or present it to a user or associated application (if any). In particular:
ToP   noToC   RFC3921 - Page 10
      *  If an entity receives a message or presence stanza that
         contains XML data qualified by a namespace it does not
         understand, the portion of the stanza that is in the unknown
         namespace SHOULD be ignored.

      *  If an entity receives a message stanza whose only child element
         is qualified by a namespace it does not understand, it MUST
         ignore the entire stanza.

      *  If an entity receives an IQ stanza of type "get" or "set"
         containing a child element qualified by a namespace it does not
         understand, the entity SHOULD return an IQ stanza of type
         "error" with an error condition of <service-unavailable/>.

   Router: If a routing entity (usually a server) handles a stanza that
      contains a child element it does not understand, it SHOULD ignore
      the associated XML data by passing it on untouched to the
      recipient.

3. Session Establishment

Most instant messaging and presence applications based on XMPP are implemented via a client-server architecture that requires a client to establish a session on a server in order to engage in the expected instant messaging and presence activities. However, there are several pre-conditions that MUST be met before a client can establish an instant messaging and presence session. These are: 1. Stream Authentication -- a client MUST complete stream authentication as documented in [XMPP-CORE] before attempting to establish a session or send any XML stanzas. 2. Resource Binding -- after completing stream authentication, a client MUST bind a resource to the stream so that the client's address is of the form <user@domain/resource>, after which the entity is now said to be a "connected resource" in the terminology of [XMPP-CORE]. If a server supports sessions, it MUST include a <session/> element qualified by the 'urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-session' namespace in the stream features it advertises to a client after the completion of stream authentication as defined in [XMPP-CORE]:
ToP   noToC   RFC3921 - Page 11
   Server advertises session establishment feature to client:

   <stream:stream
       xmlns='jabber:client'
       xmlns:stream='http://etherx.jabber.org/streams'
       id='c2s_345'
       from='example.com'
       version='1.0'>
   <stream:features>
     <bind xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-bind'/>
     <session xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-session'/>
   </stream:features>

   Upon being so informed that session establishment is required (and
   after completing resource binding), the client MUST establish a
   session if it desires to engage in instant messaging and presence
   functionality; it completes this step by sending to the server an IQ
   stanza of type "set" containing an empty <session/> child element
   qualified by the 'urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-session' namespace:

   Step 1: Client requests session with server:

   <iq to='example.com'
       type='set'
       id='sess_1'>
     <session xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-session'/>
   </iq>

   Step 2: Server informs client that session has been created:

   <iq from='example.com'
       type='result'
       id='sess_1'/>

   Upon establishing a session, a connected resource (in the terminology
   of [XMPP-CORE]) is said to be an "active resource".

   Several error conditions are possible.  For example, the server may
   encounter an internal condition that prevents it from creating the
   session, the username or authorization identity may lack permissions
   to create a session, or there may already be an active resource
   associated with a resource identifier of the same name.

   If the server encounters an internal condition that prevents it from
   creating the session, it MUST return an error.
ToP   noToC   RFC3921 - Page 12
   Step 2 (alt): Server responds with error (internal server error):

   <iq from='example.com' type='error' id='sess_1'>
     <session xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-session'/>
     <error type='wait'>
       <internal-server-error
           xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-stanzas'/>
     </error>
   </iq>

   If the username or resource is not allowed to create a session, the
   server MUST return an error (e.g., forbidden).

   Step 2 (alt): Server responds with error (username or resource not
   allowed to create session):

   <iq from='example.com' type='error' id='sess_1'>
     <session xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-session'/>
     <error type='auth'>
       <forbidden
           xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-stanzas'/>
     </error>
   </iq>

   If there is already an active resource of the same name, the server
   MUST either (1) terminate the active resource and allow the
   newly-requested session, or (2) disallow the newly-requested session
   and maintain the active resource.  Which of these the server does is
   up to the implementation, although it is RECOMMENDED to implement
   case #1.  In case #1, the server SHOULD send a <conflict/> stream
   error to the active resource, terminate the XML stream and underlying
   TCP connection for the active resource, and return a IQ stanza of
   type "result" (indicating success) to the newly-requested session. In
   case #2, the server SHOULD send a <conflict/> stanza error to the
   newly-requested session but maintain the XML stream for that
   connection so that the newly-requested session has an opportunity to
   negotiate a non-conflicting resource identifier before sending
   another request for session establishment.

   Step 2 (alt): Server informs existing active resource of resource
   conflict (case #1):

   <stream:error>
     <conflict xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-streams'/>
   </stream:error>
   </stream:stream>
ToP   noToC   RFC3921 - Page 13
   Step 2 (alt): Server informs newly-requested session of resource
   conflict (case #2):

   <iq from='example.com' type='error' id='sess_1'>
     <session xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-session'/>
     <error type='cancel'>
       <conflict xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-stanzas'/>
     </error>
   </iq>

   After establishing a session, a client SHOULD send initial presence
   and request its roster as described below, although these actions are
   OPTIONAL.

   Note: Before allowing the creation of instant messaging and presence
   sessions, a server MAY require prior account provisioning.  Possible
   methods for account provisioning include account creation by a server
   administrator as well as in-band account registration using the
   'jabber:iq:register' namespace; the latter method is out of scope for
   this memo, but is documented in [JEP-0077], published by the Jabber
   Software Foundation [JSF].

4. Exchanging Messages

Exchanging messages is a basic use of XMPP and is brought about when a user generates a message stanza that is addressed to another entity. As defined under Server Rules for Handling XML Stanzas (Section 11), the sender's server is responsible for delivering the message to the intended recipient (if the recipient is on the same server) or for routing the message to the recipient's server (if the recipient is on a different server). For information regarding the syntax of message stanzas as well as their defined attributes and child elements, refer to Message Syntax (Section 2.1).

4.1. Specifying an Intended Recipient

An instant messaging client SHOULD specify an intended recipient for a message by providing the JID of an entity other than the sender in the 'to' attribute of the <message/> stanza. If the message is being sent in reply to a message previously received from an address of the form <user@domain/resource> (e.g., within the context of a chat session), the value of the 'to' address SHOULD be of the form <user@domain/resource> rather than of the form <user@domain> unless the sender has knowledge (via presence) that the intended recipient's resource is no longer available. If the message is being sent
ToP   noToC   RFC3921 - Page 14
   outside the context of any existing chat session or received message,
   the value of the 'to' address SHOULD be of the form <user@domain>
   rather than of the form <user@domain/resource>.

4.2. Specifying a Message Type

As noted, it is RECOMMENDED for a message stanza to possess a 'type' attribute whose value captures the conversational context (if any) of the message (see Type (Section 2.1.1)). The following example shows a valid value of the 'type' attribute: Example: A message of a defined type: <message to='romeo@example.net' from='juliet@example.com/balcony' type='chat' xml:lang='en'> <body>Wherefore art thou, Romeo?</body> </message>

4.3. Specifying a Message Body

A message stanza MAY (and often will) contain a child <body/> element whose XML character data specifies the primary meaning of the message (see Body (Section 2.1.2.2)). Example: A message with a body: <message to='romeo@example.net' from='juliet@example.com/balcony' type='chat' xml:lang='en'> <body>Wherefore art thou, Romeo?</body> <body xml:lang='cz'>Pro&#x010D;e&#x017D; jsi ty, Romeo?</body> </message>

4.4. Specifying a Message Subject

A message stanza MAY contain one or more child <subject/> elements specifying the topic of the message (see Subject (Section 2.1.2.1)).
ToP   noToC   RFC3921 - Page 15
   Example: A message with a subject:

   <message
       to='romeo@example.net'
       from='juliet@example.com/balcony'
       type='chat'
       xml:lang='en'>
     <subject>I implore you!</subject>
     <subject
         xml:lang='cz'>&#x00DA;p&#x011B;nliv&#x011B; prosim!</subject>
     <body>Wherefore art thou, Romeo?</body>
     <body xml:lang='cz'>Pro&#x010D;e&#x017D; jsi ty, Romeo?</body>
   </message>

4.5. Specifying a Conversation Thread

A message stanza MAY contain a child <thread/> element specifying the conversation thread in which the message is situated, for the purpose of tracking the conversation (see Thread (Section 2.1.2.3)). Example: A threaded conversation: <message to='romeo@example.net/orchard' from='juliet@example.com/balcony' type='chat' xml:lang='en'> <body>Art thou not Romeo, and a Montague?</body> <thread>e0ffe42b28561960c6b12b944a092794b9683a38</thread> </message> <message to='juliet@example.com/balcony' from='romeo@example.net/orchard' type='chat' xml:lang='en'> <body>Neither, fair saint, if either thee dislike.</body> <thread>e0ffe42b28561960c6b12b944a092794b9683a38</thread> </message> <message to='romeo@example.net/orchard' from='juliet@example.com/balcony' type='chat' xml:lang='en'> <body>How cam'st thou hither, tell me, and wherefore?</body> <thread>e0ffe42b28561960c6b12b944a092794b9683a38</thread> </message>