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RFC 2744

Generic Security Service API Version 2 : C-bindings

Pages: 101
Proposed STD
Obsoletes:  1509
Part 1 of 4 – Pages 1 to 20
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Network Working Group                                             J. Wray
Request for Comments: 2744                                Iris Associates
Obsoletes: 1509                                              January 2000
Category: Standards Track

          Generic Security Service API Version 2 : C-bindings

Status of this Memo

   This document specifies an Internet standards track protocol for the
   Internet community, and requests discussion and suggestions for
   improvements.  Please refer to the current edition of the "Internet
   Official Protocol Standards" (STD 1) for the standardization state
   and status of this protocol.  Distribution of this memo is unlimited.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2000).  All Rights Reserved.


   This document specifies C language bindings for Version 2, Update 1
   of the Generic Security Service Application Program Interface (GSS-
   API), which is described at a language-independent conceptual level
   in RFC-2743 [GSSAPI].  It obsoletes RFC-1509, making specific
   incremental changes in response to implementation experience and
   liaison requests.  It is intended, therefore, that this memo or a
   successor version thereof will become the basis for subsequent
   progression of the GSS-API specification on the standards track.

   The Generic Security Service Application Programming Interface
   provides security services to its callers, and is intended for
   implementation atop a variety of underlying cryptographic mechanisms.
   Typically, GSS-API callers will be application protocols into which
   security enhancements are integrated through invocation of services
   provided by the GSS-API. The GSS-API allows a caller application to
   authenticate a principal identity associated with a peer application,
   to delegate rights to a peer, and to apply security services such as
   confidentiality and integrity on a per-message basis.
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1.   Introduction

   The Generic Security Service Application Programming Interface
   [GSSAPI] provides security services to calling applications.  It
   allows a communicating application to authenticate the user
   associated with another application, to delegate rights to another
   application, and to apply security services such as confidentiality
   and integrity on a per-message basis.

   There are four stages to using the GSS-API:

   a) The application acquires a set of credentials with which it may
      prove its identity to other processes. The application's
      credentials vouch for its global identity, which may or may not be
      related to any local username under which it may be running.

   b) A pair of communicating applications establish a joint security
      context using their credentials.  The security context is a pair
      of GSS-API data structures that contain shared state information,
      which is required in order that per-message security services may
      be provided.  Examples of state that might be shared between
      applications as part of a security context are cryptographic keys,
      and message sequence numbers.  As part of the establishment of a
      security context, the context initiator is authenticated to the
      responder, and may require that the responder is authenticated in
      turn.  The initiator may optionally give the responder the right
      to initiate further security contexts, acting as an agent or
      delegate of the initiator.  This transfer of rights is termed
      delegation, and is achieved by creating a set of credentials,
      similar to those used by the initiating application, but which may
      be used by the responder.

      To establish and maintain the shared information that makes up the
      security context, certain GSS-API calls will return a token data
      structure, which is an opaque data type that may contain
      cryptographically protected data.  The caller of such a GSS-API
      routine is responsible for transferring the token to the peer
      application, encapsulated if necessary in an application-
      application protocol.  On receipt of such a token, the peer
      application should pass it to a corresponding GSS-API routine
      which will decode the token and extract the information, updating
      the security context state information accordingly.
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   c) Per-message services are invoked to apply either:

      integrity and data origin authentication, or confidentiality,
      integrity and data origin authentication to application data,
      which are treated by GSS-API as arbitrary octet-strings.  An
      application transmitting a message that it wishes to protect will
      call the appropriate GSS-API routine (gss_get_mic or gss_wrap) to
      apply protection, specifying the appropriate security context, and
      send the resulting token to the receiving application.  The
      receiver will pass the received token (and, in the case of data
      protected by gss_get_mic, the accompanying message-data) to the
      corresponding decoding routine (gss_verify_mic or gss_unwrap) to
      remove the protection and validate the data.

   d) At the completion of a communications session (which may extend
      across several transport connections), each application calls a
      GSS-API routine to delete the security context.  Multiple contexts
      may also be used (either successively or simultaneously) within a
      single communications association, at the option of the

2.   GSS-API Routines

      This section lists the routines that make up the GSS-API, and
      offers a brief description of the purpose of each routine.
      Detailed descriptions of each routine are listed in alphabetical
      order in section 5.

   Table 2-1  GSS-API Credential-management Routines

   Routine                Section              Function
   -------                -------              --------
   gss_acquire_cred           5.2  Assume a global identity; Obtain
                                   a GSS-API credential handle for
                                   pre-existing credentials.
   gss_add_cred               5.3  Construct credentials
   gss_inquire_cred           5.21 Obtain information about a
   gss_inquire_cred_by_mech   5.22 Obtain per-mechanism information
                                   about a credential.
   gss_release_cred           5.27 Discard a credential handle.
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   Table 2-2  GSS-API Context-Level Routines

   Routine                 Section              Function
   -------                 -------              --------
   gss_init_sec_context       5.19 Initiate a security context with
                                   a peer application
   gss_accept_sec_context     5.1  Accept a security context
                                   initiated by a
                                   peer application
   gss_delete_sec_context     5.9  Discard a security context
   gss_process_context_token  5.25 Process a token on a security
                                   context from a peer application
   gss_context_time           5.7  Determine for how long a context
                                   will remain valid
   gss_inquire_context        5.20 Obtain information about a
                                   security context
   gss_wrap_size_limit        5.34 Determine token-size limit for
                                   gss_wrap on a context
   gss_export_sec_context     5.14 Transfer a security context to
                                   another process
   gss_import_sec_context     5.17 Import a transferred context

   Table 2-3  GSS-API Per-message Routines

   Routine                 Section              Function
   -------                 -------              --------
   gss_get_mic                5.15 Calculate a cryptographic message
                                   integrity code (MIC) for a
                                   message; integrity service
   gss_verify_mic             5.32 Check a MIC against a message;
                                   verify integrity of a received
   gss_wrap                   5.33 Attach a MIC to a message, and
                                   optionally encrypt the message
                                   confidentiality service
   gss_unwrap                 5.31 Verify a message with attached
                                   MIC, and decrypt message content
                                   if necessary.
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   Table 2-4  GSS-API Name manipulation Routines

   Routine                 Section              Function
   -------                 -------              --------
   gss_import_name            5.16 Convert a contiguous string name
                                   to internal-form
   gss_display_name           5.10 Convert internal-form name to
   gss_compare_name           5.6  Compare two internal-form names

   gss_release_name           5.28 Discard an internal-form name
   gss_inquire_names_for_mech 5.24 List the name-types supported by
                                   the specified mechanism
   gss_inquire_mechs_for_name 5.23 List mechanisms that support the
                                   specified name-type
   gss_canonicalize_name      5.5  Convert an internal name to an MN
   gss_export_name            5.13 Convert an MN to export form
   gss_duplicate_name         5.12 Create a copy of an internal name

   Table 2-5  GSS-API Miscellaneous Routines

   Routine                Section              Function
   -------                -------              --------
   gss_add_oid_set_member    5.4  Add an object identifier to
                                  a set
   gss_display_status        5.11 Convert a GSS-API status code
                                  to text
   gss_indicate_mechs        5.18 Determine available underlying
                                  authentication mechanisms
   gss_release_buffer        5.26 Discard a buffer
   gss_release_oid_set       5.29 Discard a set of object
   gss_create_empty_oid_set  5.8  Create a set containing no
                                  object identifiers
   gss_test_oid_set_member   5.30 Determines whether an object
                                       identifier is a member of a set.

   Individual GSS-API implementations may augment these routines by
   providing additional mechanism-specific routines if required
   functionality is not available from the generic forms. Applications
   are encouraged to use the generic routines wherever possible on
   portability grounds.
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3.   Data Types and Calling Conventions

   The following conventions are used by the GSS-API C-language

3.1. Integer types

   GSS-API uses the following integer data type:

   OM_uint32    32-bit unsigned integer

   Where guaranteed minimum bit-count is important, this portable data
   type is used by the GSS-API routine definitions.  Individual GSS-API
   implementations will include appropriate typedef definitions to map
   this type onto a built-in data type.  If the platform supports the
   X/Open xom.h header file, the OM_uint32 definition contained therein
   should be used; the GSS-API header file in Appendix A contains logic
   that will detect the prior inclusion of xom.h, and will not attempt
   to re-declare OM_uint32.  If the X/Open header file is not available
   on the platform, the GSS-API implementation should use the smallest
   natural unsigned integer type that provides at least 32 bits of

3.2. String and similar data

   Many of the GSS-API routines take arguments and return values that
   describe contiguous octet-strings.  All such data is passed between
   the GSS-API and the caller using the gss_buffer_t data type.  This
   data type is a pointer to a buffer descriptor, which consists of a
   length field that contains the total number of bytes in the datum,
   and a value field which contains a pointer to the actual datum:

   typedef struct gss_buffer_desc_struct {
      size_t    length;
      void      *value;
   } gss_buffer_desc, *gss_buffer_t;

   Storage for data returned to the application by a GSS-API routine
   using the gss_buffer_t conventions is allocated by the GSS-API
   routine.  The application may free this storage by invoking the
   gss_release_buffer routine.  Allocation of the gss_buffer_desc object
   is always the responsibility of the application;  unused
   gss_buffer_desc objects may be initialized to the value
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3.2.1. Opaque data types

   Certain multiple-word data items are considered opaque data types at
   the GSS-API, because their internal structure has no significance
   either to the GSS-API or to the caller.  Examples of such opaque data
   types are the input_token parameter to gss_init_sec_context (which is
   opaque to the caller), and the input_message parameter to gss_wrap
   (which is opaque to the GSS-API).  Opaque data is passed between the
   GSS-API and the application using the gss_buffer_t datatype.

3.2.2. Character strings

   Certain multiple-word data items may be regarded as simple ISO
   Latin-1 character strings.  Examples are the printable strings passed
   to gss_import_name via the input_name_buffer parameter. Some GSS-API
   routines also return character strings.  All such character strings
   are passed between the application and the GSS-API implementation
   using the gss_buffer_t datatype, which is a pointer to a
   gss_buffer_desc object.

   When a gss_buffer_desc object describes a printable string, the
   length field of the gss_buffer_desc should only count printable
   characters within the string.  In particular, a trailing NUL
   character should NOT be included in the length count, nor should
   either the GSS-API implementation or the application assume the
   presence of an uncounted trailing NUL.

3.3. Object Identifiers

   Certain GSS-API procedures take parameters of the type gss_OID, or
   Object identifier.  This is a type containing ISO-defined tree-
   structured values, and is used by the GSS-API caller to select an
   underlying security mechanism and to specify namespaces.  A value of
   type gss_OID has the following structure:

   typedef struct gss_OID_desc_struct {
      OM_uint32   length;
      void        *elements;
   } gss_OID_desc, *gss_OID;

   The elements field of this structure points to the first byte of an
   octet string containing the ASN.1 BER encoding of the value portion
   of the normal BER TLV encoding of the gss_OID.  The length field
   contains the number of bytes in this value.  For example, the gss_OID
   value corresponding to {iso(1) identified-organization(3) icd-
   ecma(12) member-company(2) dec(1011) cryptoAlgorithms(7) DASS(5)},
   meaning the DASS X.509 authentication mechanism, has a length field
   of 7 and an elements field pointing to seven octets containing the
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   following octal values: 53,14,2,207,163,7,5. GSS-API implementations
   should provide constant gss_OID values to allow applications to
   request any supported mechanism, although applications are encouraged
   on portability grounds to accept the default mechanism.  gss_OID
   values should also be provided to allow applications to specify
   particular name types (see section 3.10).  Applications should treat
   gss_OID_desc values returned by GSS-API routines as read-only.  In
   particular, the application should not attempt to deallocate them
   with free().  The gss_OID_desc datatype is equivalent to the X/Open
   OM_object_identifier datatype[XOM].

3.4. Object Identifier Sets

   Certain GSS-API procedures take parameters of the type gss_OID_set.
   This type represents one or more object identifiers (section 2.3).  A
   gss_OID_set object has the following structure:

   typedef struct gss_OID_set_desc_struct {
      size_t    count;
      gss_OID   elements;
   } gss_OID_set_desc, *gss_OID_set;

   The count field contains the number of OIDs within the set.  The
   elements field is a pointer to an array of gss_OID_desc objects, each
   of which describes a single OID.  gss_OID_set values are used to name
   the available mechanisms supported by the GSS-API, to request the use
   of specific mechanisms, and to indicate which mechanisms a given
   credential supports.

   All OID sets returned to the application by GSS-API are dynamic
   objects (the gss_OID_set_desc, the "elements" array of the set, and
   the "elements" array of each member OID are all dynamically
   allocated), and this storage must be deallocated by the application
   using the gss_release_oid_set() routine.

3.5. Credentials

   A credential handle is a caller-opaque atomic datum that identifies a
   GSS-API credential data structure.  It is represented by the caller-
   opaque type gss_cred_id_t, which should be implemented as a pointer
   or arithmetic type.  If a pointer implementation is chosen, care must
   be taken to ensure that two gss_cred_id_t values may be compared with
   the == operator.

   GSS-API credentials can contain mechanism-specific principal
   authentication data for multiple mechanisms.  A GSS-API credential is
   composed of a set of credential-elements, each of which is applicable
   to a single mechanism.  A credential may contain at most one
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   credential-element for each supported mechanism. A credential-element
   identifies the data needed by a single mechanism to authenticate a
   single principal, and conceptually contains two credential-references
   that describe the actual mechanism-specific authentication data, one
   to be used by GSS-API for initiating contexts,  and one to be used
   for accepting contexts.  For mechanisms that do not distinguish
   between acceptor and initiator credentials, both references would
   point to the same underlying mechanism-specific authentication data.

   Credentials describe a set of mechanism-specific principals, and give
   their holder the ability to act as any of those principals. All
   principal identities asserted by a single GSS-API credential should
   belong to the same entity, although enforcement of this property is
   an implementation-specific matter.  The GSS-API does not make the
   actual credentials available to applications; instead a credential
   handle is used to identify a particular credential, held internally
   by GSS-API.  The combination of GSS-API credential handle and
   mechanism identifies the principal whose identity will be asserted by
   the credential when used with that mechanism.

   The gss_init_sec_context and gss_accept_sec_context routines allow
   the value GSS_C_NO_CREDENTIAL to be specified as their credential
   handle parameter.  This special credential-handle indicates a desire
   by the application to act as a default principal.  While individual
   GSS-API implementations are free to determine such default behavior
   as appropriate to the mechanism, the following default behavior by
   these routines is recommended for portability:


      1) If there is only a single principal capable of initiating
         security contexts for the chosen mechanism that the application
         is authorized to act on behalf of, then that principal shall be
         used, otherwise

      2) If the platform maintains a concept of a default network-
         identity for the chosen mechanism, and if the application is
         authorized to act on behalf of that identity for the purpose of
         initiating security contexts, then the principal corresponding
         to that identity shall be used, otherwise

      3) If the platform maintains a concept of a default local
         identity, and provides a means to map local identities into
         network-identities for the chosen mechanism, and if the
         application is authorized to act on behalf of the network-
         identity image of the default local identity for the purpose of
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         initiating security contexts using the chosen mechanism, then
         the principal corresponding to that identity shall be used,

      4) A user-configurable default identity should be used.


      1) If there is only a single authorized principal identity capable
         of accepting security contexts for the chosen mechanism, then
         that principal shall be used, otherwise

      2) If the mechanism can determine the identity of the target
         principal by examining the context-establishment token, and if
         the accepting application is authorized to act as that
         principal for the purpose of accepting security contexts using
         the chosen mechanism, then that principal identity shall be
         used, otherwise

      3) If the mechanism supports context acceptance by any principal,
         and if mutual authentication was not requested, any principal
         that the application is authorized to accept security contexts
         under using the chosen mechanism may be used, otherwise

      4)A user-configurable default identity shall be used.

   The purpose of the above rules is to allow security contexts to be
   established by both initiator and acceptor using the default behavior
   wherever possible.  Applications requesting default behavior are
   likely to be more portable across mechanisms and platforms than ones
   that use gss_acquire_cred to request a specific identity.

3.6. Contexts

   The gss_ctx_id_t data type contains a caller-opaque atomic value that
   identifies one end of a GSS-API security context.  It should be
   implemented as a pointer or arithmetic type.  If a pointer type is
   chosen, care should be taken to ensure that two gss_ctx_id_t values
   may be compared with the == operator.

   The security context holds state information about each end of a peer
   communication, including cryptographic state information.
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3.7. Authentication tokens

   A token is a caller-opaque type that GSS-API uses to maintain
   synchronization between the context data structures at each end of a
   GSS-API security context.  The token is a cryptographically protected
   octet-string, generated by the underlying mechanism at one end of a
   GSS-API security context for use by the peer mechanism at the other
   end.  Encapsulation (if required) and transfer of the token are the
   responsibility of the peer applications.  A token is passed between
   the GSS-API and the application using the gss_buffer_t conventions.

3.8. Interprocess tokens

   Certain GSS-API routines are intended to transfer data between
   processes in multi-process programs.  These routines use a caller-
   opaque octet-string, generated by the GSS-API in one process for use
   by the GSS-API in another process.  The calling application is
   responsible for transferring such tokens between processes in an OS-
   specific manner.  Note that, while GSS-API implementors are
   encouraged to avoid placing sensitive information within interprocess
   tokens, or to cryptographically protect them, many implementations
   will be unable to avoid placing key material or other sensitive data
   within them.  It is the application's responsibility to ensure that
   interprocess tokens are protected in transit, and transferred only to
   processes that are trustworthy. An interprocess token is passed
   between the GSS-API and the application using the gss_buffer_t

3.9. Status values

   Every GSS-API routine returns two distinct values to report status
   information to the caller: GSS status codes and Mechanism status

3.9.1. GSS status codes

   GSS-API routines return GSS status codes as their OM_uint32 function
   value.  These codes indicate errors that are independent of the
   underlying mechanism(s) used to provide the security service.  The
   errors that can be indicated via a GSS status code are either generic
   API routine errors (errors that are defined in the GSS-API
   specification) or calling errors (errors that are specific to these
   language bindings).

   A GSS status code can indicate a single fatal generic API error from
   the routine and a single calling error.  In addition, supplementary
   status information may be indicated via the setting of bits in the
   supplementary info field of a GSS status code.
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   These errors are encoded into the 32-bit GSS status code as follows:

      MSB                                                        LSB
      |  Calling Error | Routine Error  |    Supplementary Info    |
   Bit 31            24 23            16 15                       0

   Hence if a GSS-API routine returns a GSS status code whose upper 16
   bits contain a non-zero value, the call failed.  If the calling error
   field is non-zero, the invoking application's call of the routine was
   erroneous.  Calling errors are defined in table 5-1.  If the routine
   error field is non-zero, the routine failed for one of the routine-
   specific reasons listed below in table 5-2.  Whether or not the upper
   16 bits indicate a failure or a success, the routine may indicate
   additional information by setting bits in the supplementary info
   field of the status code. The meaning of individual bits is listed
   below in table 5-3.

   Table 3-1  Calling Errors

   Name                   Value in field           Meaning
   ----                   --------------           -------
   GSS_S_CALL_INACCESSIBLE_READ  1       A required input parameter
                                         could not be read
   GSS_S_CALL_INACCESSIBLE_WRITE 2       A required output parameter
                                          could not be written.
   GSS_S_CALL_BAD_STRUCTURE      3       A parameter was malformed
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   Table 3-2  Routine Errors

   Name                   Value in field           Meaning
   ----                   --------------           -------
   GSS_S_BAD_MECH                1       An unsupported mechanism
                                         was requested
   GSS_S_BAD_NAME                2       An invalid name was
   GSS_S_BAD_NAMETYPE            3       A supplied name was of an
                                         unsupported type
   GSS_S_BAD_BINDINGS            4       Incorrect channel bindings
                                         were supplied
   GSS_S_BAD_STATUS              5       An invalid status code was
   GSS_S_BAD_MIC GSS_S_BAD_SIG   6       A token had an invalid MIC
   GSS_S_NO_CRED                 7       No credentials were
                                         supplied, or the
                                         credentials were
                                         unavailable or
   GSS_S_NO_CONTEXT              8       No context has been
   GSS_S_DEFECTIVE_TOKEN         9       A token was invalid
   GSS_S_DEFECTIVE_CREDENTIAL   10       A credential was invalid
   GSS_S_CREDENTIALS_EXPIRED    11       The referenced credentials
                                         have expired
   GSS_S_CONTEXT_EXPIRED        12       The context has expired
   GSS_S_FAILURE                13       Miscellaneous failure (see
   GSS_S_BAD_QOP                14       The quality-of-protection
                                         requested could not be
   GSS_S_UNAUTHORIZED           15       The operation is forbidden
                                         by local security policy
   GSS_S_UNAVAILABLE            16       The operation or option is
   GSS_S_DUPLICATE_ELEMENT      17       The requested credential
                                         element already exists
   GSS_S_NAME_NOT_MN            18       The provided name was not a
                                         mechanism name
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   Table 3-3  Supplementary Status Bits

   Name                   Bit Number           Meaning
   ----                   ----------           -------
   GSS_S_CONTINUE_NEEDED   0 (LSB)   Returned only by
                                     gss_init_sec_context or
                                     gss_accept_sec_context. The
                                     routine must be called again
                                     to complete its function.
                                     See routine documentation for
                                     detailed description
   GSS_S_DUPLICATE_TOKEN   1         The token was a duplicate of
                                     an earlier token
   GSS_S_OLD_TOKEN         2         The token's validity period
                                     has expired
   GSS_S_UNSEQ_TOKEN       3         A later token has already been
   GSS_S_GAP_TOKEN         4         An expected per-message token
                                     was not received

   The routine documentation also uses the name GSS_S_COMPLETE, which is
   a zero value, to indicate an absence of any API errors or
   supplementary information bits.

   All GSS_S_xxx symbols equate to complete OM_uint32 status codes,
   rather than to bitfield values.  For example, the actual value of the
   symbol GSS_S_BAD_NAMETYPE (value 3 in the routine error field) is
   3<<16.  The macros GSS_CALLING_ERROR(), GSS_ROUTINE_ERROR() and
   GSS_SUPPLEMENTARY_INFO() are provided, each of which takes a GSS
   status code and removes all but the relevant field.  For example, the
   value obtained by applying GSS_ROUTINE_ERROR to a status code removes
   the calling errors and supplementary info fields, leaving only the
   routine errors field.  The values delivered by these macros may be
   directly compared with a GSS_S_xxx symbol of the appropriate type.
   The macro GSS_ERROR() is also provided, which when applied to a GSS
   status code returns a non-zero value if the status code indicated a
   calling or routine error, and a zero value otherwise.  All macros
   defined by GSS-API evaluate their argument(s) exactly once.

   A GSS-API implementation may choose to signal calling errors in a
   platform-specific manner instead of, or in addition to the routine
   value;  routine errors and supplementary info should be returned via
   major status values only.

   The GSS major status code GSS_S_FAILURE is used to indicate that the
   underlying mechanism detected an error for which no specific GSS
   status code is defined.  The mechanism-specific status code will
   provide more details about the error.
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3.9.2. Mechanism-specific status codes

   GSS-API routines return a minor_status parameter, which is used to
   indicate specialized errors from the underlying security mechanism.
   This parameter may contain a single mechanism-specific error,
   indicated by a OM_uint32 value.

   The minor_status parameter will always be set by a GSS-API routine,
   even if it returns a calling error or one of the generic API errors
   indicated above as fatal, although most other output parameters may
   remain unset in such cases.  However, output parameters that are
   expected to return pointers to storage allocated by a routine must
   always be set by the routine, even in the event of an error, although
   in such cases the GSS-API routine may elect to set the returned
   parameter value to NULL to indicate that no storage was actually
   allocated.  Any length field associated with such pointers (as in a
   gss_buffer_desc structure) should also be set to zero in such cases.

3.10. Names

   A name is used to identify a person or entity.  GSS-API authenticates
   the relationship between a name and the entity claiming the name.

   Since different authentication mechanisms may employ different
   namespaces for identifying their principals, GSSAPI's naming support
   is necessarily complex in multi-mechanism environments (or even in
   some single-mechanism environments where the underlying mechanism
   supports multiple namespaces).

   Two distinct representations are defined for names:

   An internal form.  This is the GSS-API "native" format for names,
      represented by the implementation-specific gss_name_t type.  It is
      opaque to GSS-API callers.  A single gss_name_t object may contain
      multiple names from different namespaces, but all names should
      refer to the same entity.  An example of such an internal name
      would be the name returned from a call to the gss_inquire_cred
      routine, when applied to a credential containing credential
      elements for multiple authentication mechanisms employing
      different namespaces.  This gss_name_t object will contain a
      distinct name for the entity for each authentication mechanism.

      For GSS-API implementations supporting multiple namespaces,
      objects of type gss_name_t must contain sufficient information to
      determine the namespace to which each primitive name belongs.
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   Mechanism-specific contiguous octet-string forms.  A format
      capable of containing a single name (from a single namespace).
      Contiguous string names are always accompanied by an object
      identifier specifying the namespace to which the name belongs, and
      their format is dependent on the authentication mechanism that
      employs the name.  Many, but not all, contiguous string names will
      be printable, and may therefore be used by GSS-API applications
      for communication with their users.

   Routines (gss_import_name and gss_display_name) are provided to
   convert names between contiguous string representations and the
   internal gss_name_t type.  gss_import_name may support multiple
   syntaxes for each supported namespace, allowing users the freedom to
   choose a preferred name representation. gss_display_name should use
   an implementation-chosen printable syntax for each supported name-

   If an application calls gss_display_name(), passing the internal name
   resulting from a call to gss_import_name(), there is no guarantee the
   the resulting contiguous string name will be the same as the original
   imported string name.  Nor do name-space identifiers necessarily
   survive unchanged after a journey through the internal name-form.  An
   example of this might be a mechanism that authenticates X.500 names,
   but provides an algorithmic mapping of Internet DNS names into X.500.
   That mechanism's implementation of gss_import_name() might, when
   presented with a DNS name, generate an internal name that contained
   both the original DNS name and the equivalent X.500 name.
   Alternatively, it might only store the X.500 name.  In the latter
   case, gss_display_name() would most likely generate a printable X.500
   name, rather than the original DNS name.

   The process of authentication delivers to the context acceptor an
   internal name.  Since this name has been authenticated by a single
   mechanism, it contains only a single name (even if the internal name
   presented by the context initiator to gss_init_sec_context had
   multiple components).  Such names are termed internal mechanism
   names, or "MN"s and the names emitted by gss_accept_sec_context() are
   always of this type.  Since some applications may require MNs without
   wanting to incur the overhead of an authentication operation, a
   second function, gss_canonicalize_name(), is provided to convert a
   general internal name into an MN.

   Comparison of internal-form names may be accomplished via the
   gss_compare_name() routine, which returns true if the two names being
   compared refer to the same entity.  This removes the need for the
   application program to understand the syntaxes of the various
   printable names that a given GSS-API implementation may support.
   Since GSS-API assumes that all primitive names contained within a
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   given internal name refer to the same entity, gss_compare_name() can
   return true if the two names have at least one primitive name in
   common.  If the implementation embodies knowledge of equivalence
   relationships between names taken from different namespaces, this
   knowledge may also allow successful comparison of internal names
   containing no overlapping primitive elements.

   When used in large access control lists, the overhead of invoking
   gss_import_name() and gss_compare_name() on each name from the ACL
   may be prohibitive.  As an alternative way of supporting this case,
   GSS-API defines a special form of the contiguous string name which
   may be compared directly (e.g. with memcmp()).  Contiguous names
   suitable for comparison are generated by the gss_export_name()
   routine, which requires an MN as input.  Exported names may be re-
   imported by the gss_import_name() routine, and the resulting internal
   name will also be an MN.  The gss_OID constant GSS_C_NT_EXPORT_NAME
   indentifies the "export name" type, and the value of this constant is
   given in Appendix A.  Structurally, an exported name object consists
   of a header containing an OID identifying the mechanism that
   authenticated the name, and a trailer containing the name itself,
   where the syntax of the trailer is defined by the individual
   mechanism specification.   The precise format of an export name is
   defined in the language-independent GSS-API specification [GSSAPI].

   Note that the results obtained by using gss_compare_name() will in
   general be different from those obtained by invoking
   gss_canonicalize_name() and gss_export_name(), and then comparing the
   exported names.  The first series of operation determines whether two
   (unauthenticated) names identify the same principal; the second
   whether a particular mechanism would authenticate them as the same
   principal.  These two operations will in general give the same
   results only for MNs.

   The gss_name_t datatype should be implemented as a pointer type. To
   allow the compiler to aid the application programmer by performing
   type-checking, the use of (void *) is discouraged.  A pointer to an
   implementation-defined type is the preferred choice.

   Storage is allocated by routines that return gss_name_t values. A
   procedure, gss_release_name, is provided to free storage associated
   with an internal-form name.
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3.11. Channel Bindings

   GSS-API supports the use of user-specified tags to identify a given
   context to the peer application.  These tags are intended to be used
   to identify the particular communications channel that carries the
   context.  Channel bindings are communicated to the GSS-API using the
   following structure:

   typedef struct gss_channel_bindings_struct {
      OM_uint32       initiator_addrtype;
      gss_buffer_desc initiator_address;
      OM_uint32       acceptor_addrtype;
      gss_buffer_desc acceptor_address;
      gss_buffer_desc application_data;
   } *gss_channel_bindings_t;

   The initiator_addrtype and acceptor_addrtype fields denote the type
   of addresses contained in the initiator_address and acceptor_address
   buffers.  The address type should be one of the following:

   GSS_C_AF_UNSPEC     Unspecified address type
   GSS_C_AF_LOCAL      Host-local address type
   GSS_C_AF_INET       Internet address type (e.g. IP)
   GSS_C_AF_IMPLINK    ARPAnet IMP address type
   GSS_C_AF_PUP        pup protocols (eg BSP) address type
   GSS_C_AF_CHAOS      MIT CHAOS protocol address type
   GSS_C_AF_NS         XEROX NS address type
   GSS_C_AF_NBS        nbs address type
   GSS_C_AF_ECMA       ECMA address type
   GSS_C_AF_DATAKIT    datakit protocols address type
   GSS_C_AF_CCITT      CCITT protocols
   GSS_C_AF_SNA        IBM SNA address type
   GSS_C_AF_DECnet     DECnet address type
   GSS_C_AF_DLI        Direct data link interface address type
   GSS_C_AF_LAT        LAT address type
   GSS_C_AF_HYLINK     NSC Hyperchannel address type
   GSS_C_AF_APPLETALK  AppleTalk address type
   GSS_C_AF_BSC        BISYNC 2780/3780 address type
   GSS_C_AF_DSS        Distributed system services address type
   GSS_C_AF_OSI        OSI TP4 address type
   GSS_C_AF_X25        X.25
   GSS_C_AF_NULLADDR   No address specified

   Note that these symbols name address families rather than specific
   addressing formats.  For address families that contain several
   alternative address forms, the initiator_address and acceptor_address
   fields must contain sufficient information to determine which address
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   form is used.  When not otherwise specified, addresses should be
   specified in network byte-order (that is, native byte-ordering for
   the address family).

   Conceptually, the GSS-API concatenates the initiator_addrtype,
   initiator_address, acceptor_addrtype, acceptor_address and
   application_data to form an octet string.  The mechanism calculates a
   MIC over this octet string, and binds the MIC to the context
   establishment token emitted by gss_init_sec_context. The same
   bindings are presented by the context acceptor to
   gss_accept_sec_context, and a MIC is calculated in the same way. The
   calculated MIC is compared with that found in the token, and if the
   MICs differ, gss_accept_sec_context will return a GSS_S_BAD_BINDINGS
   error, and the context will not be established.  Some mechanisms may
   include the actual channel binding data in the token (rather than
   just a MIC); applications should therefore not use confidential data
   as channel-binding components.

   Individual mechanisms may impose additional constraints on addresses
   and address types that may appear in channel bindings.  For example,
   a mechanism may verify that the initiator_address field of the
   channel bindings presented to gss_init_sec_context contains the
   correct network address of the host system.  Portable applications
   should therefore ensure that they either provide correct information
   for the address fields, or omit addressing information, specifying
   GSS_C_AF_NULLADDR as the address-types.

3.12. Optional parameters

   Various parameters are described as optional.  This means that they
   follow a convention whereby a default value may be requested.  The
   following conventions are used for omitted parameters.  These
   conventions apply only to those parameters that are explicitly
   documented as optional.

3.12.1. gss_buffer_t types

   Specify GSS_C_NO_BUFFER as a value.  For an input parameter this
   signifies that default behavior is requested, while for an output
   parameter it indicates that the information that would be returned
   via the parameter is not required by the application.

3.12.2. Integer types (input)

   Individual parameter documentation lists values to be used to
   indicate default actions.
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3.12.3. Integer types (output)

   Specify NULL as the value for the pointer.

3.12.4. Pointer types

   Specify NULL as the value.

3.12.5. Object IDs

   Specify GSS_C_NO_OID as the value.

3.12.6. Object ID Sets

   Specify GSS_C_NO_OID_SET as the value.

3.12.7. Channel Bindings

   Specify GSS_C_NO_CHANNEL_BINDINGS to indicate that channel bindings
   are not to be used.

(page 20 continued on part 2)

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