11. The Routing Table Structure The routing table data structure contains all the information necessary to forward an IP data packet toward its destination. Each routing table entry describes the collection of best paths to a particular destination. When forwarding an IP data packet, the routing table entry providing the best match for the packet's IP destination is located. The matching routing table entry then provides the next hop towards the packet's destination. OSPF also provides for the existence of a default route (Destination ID = DefaultDestination, Address Mask = 0x00000000). When the default route exists, it matches all IP destinations (although any other matching entry is a better match). Finding the routing table entry that best matches an IP destination is further described in Section 11.1. There is a single routing table in each router. Two sample routing tables are described in Sections 11.2 and 11.3. The building of the routing table is discussed in Section 16.
The rest of this section defines the fields found in a routing table entry. The first set of fields describes the routing table entry's destination. Destination Type Destination type is either "network" or "router". Only network entries are actually used when forwarding IP data traffic. Router routing table entries are used solely as intermediate steps in the routing table build process. A network is a range of IP addresses, to which IP data traffic may be forwarded. This includes IP networks (class A, B, or C), IP subnets, IP supernets and single IP hosts. The default route also falls into this category. Router entries are kept for area border routers and AS boundary routers. Routing table entries for area border routers are used when calculating the inter-area routes (see Section 16.2), and when maintaining configured virtual links (see Section 15). Routing table entries for AS boundary routers are used when calculating the AS external routes (see Section 16.4). Destination ID The destination's identifier or name. This depends on the Destination Type. For networks, the identifier is their associated IP address. For routers, the identifier is the OSPF Router ID. Address Mask Only defined for networks. The network's IP address together with its address mask defines a range of IP addresses. For IP subnets, the address mask is referred to as the subnet mask. For host routes, the mask is "all ones" (0xffffffff). Optional Capabilities When the destination is a router this field indicates the optional OSPF capabilities supported by the destination router. The only optional capability defined by this specification is the ability to process AS-external-LSAs. For a further discussion of OSPF's optional capabilities, see Section 4.5.
The set of paths to use for a destination may vary based on the OSPF area to which the paths belong. This means that there may be multiple routing table entries for the same destination, depending on the values of the next field. Area This field indicates the area whose link state information has led to the routing table entry's collection of paths. This is called the entry's associated area. For sets of AS external paths, this field is not defined. For destinations of type "router", there may be separate sets of paths (and therefore separate routing table entries) associated with each of several areas. For example, this will happen when two area border routers share multiple areas in common. For destinations of type "network", only the set of paths associated with the best area (the one providing the preferred route) is kept. The rest of the routing table entry describes the set of paths to the destination. The following fields pertain to the set of paths as a whole. In other words, each one of the paths contained in a routing table entry is of the same path-type and cost (see below). Path-type There are four possible types of paths used to route traffic to the destination, listed here in decreasing order of preference: intra-area, inter-area, type 1 external or type 2 external. Intra-area paths indicate destinations belonging to one of the router's attached areas. Inter-area paths are paths to destinations in other OSPF areas. These are discovered through the examination of received summary-LSAs. AS external paths are paths to destinations external to the AS. These are detected through the examination of received AS-external-LSAs. Cost The link state cost of the path to the destination. For all paths except type 2 external paths this describes the entire path's cost. For Type 2 external paths, this field describes the cost of the portion of the path internal to the AS. This
cost is calculated as the sum of the costs of the path's constituent links. Type 2 cost Only valid for type 2 external paths. For these paths, this field indicates the cost of the path's external portion. This cost has been advertised by an AS boundary router, and is the most significant part of the total path cost. For example, a type 2 external path with type 2 cost of 5 is always preferred over a path with type 2 cost of 10, regardless of the cost of the two paths' internal components. Link State Origin Valid only for intra-area paths, this field indicates the LSA (router-LSA or network-LSA) that directly references the destination. For example, if the destination is a transit network, this is the transit network's network-LSA. If the destination is a stub network, this is the router-LSA for the attached router. The LSA is discovered during the shortest-path tree calculation (see Section 16.1). Multiple LSAs may reference the destination, however a tie-breaking scheme always reduces the choice to a single LSA. The Link State Origin field is not used by the OSPF protocol, but it is used by the routing table calculation in OSPF's Multicast routing extensions (MOSPF). When multiple paths of equal path-type and cost exist to a destination (called elsewhere "equal-cost" paths), they are stored in a single routing table entry. Each one of the "equal-cost" paths is distinguished by the following fields: Next hop The outgoing router interface to use when forwarding traffic to the destination. On broadcast, Point-to-MultiPoint and NBMA networks, the next hop also includes the IP address of the next router (if any) in the path towards the destination. Advertising router Valid only for inter-area and AS external paths. This field indicates the Router ID of the router advertising the summary- LSA or AS-external-LSA that led to this path.
11.1. Routing table lookup When an IP data packet is received, an OSPF router finds the routing table entry that best matches the packet's destination. This routing table entry then provides the outgoing interface and next hop router to use in forwarding the packet. This section describes the process of finding the best matching routing table entry. Before the lookup begins, "discard" routing table entries should be inserted into the routing table for each of the router's active area address ranges (see Section 3.5). (An area range is considered "active" if the range contains one or more networks reachable by intra-area paths.) The destination of a "discard" entry is the set of addresses described by its associated active area address range, and the path type of each "discard" entry is set to "inter-area". Several routing table entries may match the destination address. In this case, the "best match" is the routing table entry that provides the most specific (longest) match. Another way of saying this is to choose the entry that specifies the narrowest range of IP addresses. For example, the entry for the address/mask pair of (22.214.171.124, 0xffffff00) is more specific than an entry for the pair (126.96.36.199, 0xffff0000). The default route is the least specific match, since it matches all destinations. (Note that for any single routing table entry, multiple paths may be possible. In these cases, the calculations in Sections 16.1, 16.2, and 16.4 always yield the paths having the most preferential path-type, as described in Section 11). If there is no matching routing table entry, or the best match routing table entry is one of the above "discard" routing table entries, then the packet's IP destination is considered unreachable. Instead of being forwarded, the packet should then be discarded and an ICMP destination unreachable message should be returned to the packet's source. 11.2. Sample routing table, without areas Consider the Autonomous System pictured in Figure 2. No OSPF areas have been configured. A single metric is shown per
outbound interface. The calculation of Router RT6's routing table proceeds as described in Section 2.2. The resulting routing table is shown in Table 12. Destination types are abbreviated: Network as "N", Router as "R". There are no instances of multiple equal-cost shortest paths in this example. Also, since there are no areas, there are no inter-area paths. Routers RT5 and RT7 are AS boundary routers. Intra-area routes have been calculated to Routers RT5 and RT7. This allows external routes to be calculated to the destinations advertised by RT5 and RT7 (i.e., Networks N12, N13, N14 and N15). It is assumed all AS-external-LSAs originated by RT5 and RT7 are advertising type 1 external metrics. This results in type 1 external paths being calculated to destinations N12-N15. 11.3. Sample routing table, with areas Consider the previous example, this time split into OSPF areas. An OSPF area configuration is pictured in Figure 6. Router RT4's routing table will be described for this area configuration. Router RT4 has a connection to Area 1 and a backbone connection. This causes Router RT4 to view the AS as the concatenation of the two graphs shown in Figures 7 and 8. The resulting routing table is displayed in Table 13. Again, Routers RT5 and RT7 are AS boundary routers. Routers RT3, RT4, RT7, RT10 and RT11 are area border routers. Note that there are two routing entries for the area border router RT3, since it has two areas in common with RT4 (Area 1 and the backbone). Backbone paths have been calculated to all area border routers. These are used when determining the inter-area routes. Note that all of the inter-area routes are associated with the backbone; this is always the case when the calculating router is itself an area border router. Routing information is condensed at area boundaries. In this example, we assume that Area 3 has been defined so that networks N9-N11 and the host route to H1
Type Dest Area Path Type Cost Next Adv. Hop(s) Router(s) ____________________________________________________________ N N1 0 intra-area 10 RT3 * N N2 0 intra-area 10 RT3 * N N3 0 intra-area 7 RT3 * N N4 0 intra-area 8 RT3 * N Ib 0 intra-area 7 * * N Ia 0 intra-area 12 RT10 * N N6 0 intra-area 8 RT10 * N N7 0 intra-area 12 RT10 * N N8 0 intra-area 10 RT10 * N N9 0 intra-area 11 RT10 * N N10 0 intra-area 13 RT10 * N N11 0 intra-area 14 RT10 * N H1 0 intra-area 21 RT10 * R RT5 0 intra-area 6 RT5 * R RT7 0 intra-area 8 RT10 * ____________________________________________________________ N N12 * type 1 ext. 10 RT10 RT7 N N13 * type 1 ext. 14 RT5 RT5 N N14 * type 1 ext. 14 RT5 RT5 N N15 * type 1 ext. 17 RT10 RT7 Table 12: The routing table for Router RT6 (no configured areas). are all condensed to a single route when advertised into the backbone (by Router RT11). Note that the cost of this route is the maximum of the set of costs to its individual components. There is a virtual link configured between Routers RT10 and RT11. Without this configured virtual link, RT11 would be unable to advertise a route for networks N9-N11 and Host H1 into the backbone, and there would not be an entry for these networks in Router RT4's routing table. In this example there are two equal-cost paths to Network N12. However, they both use the same next hop (Router RT5).
Router RT4's routing table would improve (i.e., some of the paths in the routing table would become shorter) if an additional virtual link were configured between Router RT4 and Router RT3. The new virtual link would itself be associated with the first entry for area border router RT3 in Table 13 (an intra-area path through Area 1). This would yield a cost of 1 for the virtual link. The routing table entries changes that would be caused by the addition of this virtual link are shown Type Dest Area Path Type Cost Next Adv. Hops(s) Router(s) __________________________________________________________________ N N1 1 intra-area 4 RT1 * N N2 1 intra-area 4 RT2 * N N3 1 intra-area 1 * * N N4 1 intra-area 3 RT3 * R RT3 1 intra-area 1 * * __________________________________________________________________ N Ib 0 intra-area 22 RT5 * N Ia 0 intra-area 27 RT5 * R RT3 0 intra-area 21 RT5 * R RT5 0 intra-area 8 * * R RT7 0 intra-area 14 RT5 * R RT10 0 intra-area 22 RT5 * R RT11 0 intra-area 25 RT5 * __________________________________________________________________ N N6 0 inter-area 15 RT5 RT7 N N7 0 inter-area 19 RT5 RT7 N N8 0 inter-area 18 RT5 RT7 N N9-N11,H1 0 inter-area 36 RT5 RT11 __________________________________________________________________ N N12 * type 1 ext. 16 RT5 RT5,RT7 N N13 * type 1 ext. 16 RT5 RT5 N N14 * type 1 ext. 16 RT5 RT5 N N15 * type 1 ext. 23 RT5 RT7 Table 13: Router RT4's routing table in the presence of areas.
in Table 14. 12. Link State Advertisements (LSAs) Each router in the Autonomous System originates one or more link state advertisements (LSAs). This memo defines five distinct types of LSAs, which are described in Section 4.3. The collection of LSAs forms the link-state database. Each separate type of LSA has a separate function. Router-LSAs and network-LSAs describe how an area's routers and networks are interconnected. Summary-LSAs provide a way of condensing an area's routing information. AS- external-LSAs provide a way of transparently advertising externally-derived routing information throughout the Autonomous System. Each LSA begins with a standard 20-byte header. This LSA header is discussed below. Type Dest Area Path Type Cost Next Adv. Hop(s) Router(s) ________________________________________________________________ N Ib 0 intra-area 16 RT3 * N Ia 0 intra-area 21 RT3 * R RT3 0 intra-area 1 * * R RT10 0 intra-area 16 RT3 * R RT11 0 intra-area 19 RT3 * ________________________________________________________________ N N9-N11,H1 0 inter-area 30 RT3 RT11 Table 14: Changes resulting from an additional virtual link.
12.1. The LSA Header The LSA header contains the LS type, Link State ID and Advertising Router fields. The combination of these three fields uniquely identifies the LSA. There may be several instances of an LSA present in the Autonomous System, all at the same time. It must then be determined which instance is more recent. This determination is made by examining the LS sequence, LS checksum and LS age fields. These fields are also contained in the 20-byte LSA header. Several of the OSPF packet types list LSAs. When the instance is not important, an LSA is referred to by its LS type, Link State ID and Advertising Router (see Link State Request Packets). Otherwise, the LS sequence number, LS age and LS checksum fields must also be referenced. A detailed explanation of the fields contained in the LSA header follows. 12.1.1. LS age This field is the age of the LSA in seconds. It should be processed as an unsigned 16-bit integer. It is set to 0 when the LSA is originated. It must be incremented by InfTransDelay on every hop of the flooding procedure. LSAs are also aged as they are held in each router's database. The age of an LSA is never incremented past MaxAge. LSAs having age MaxAge are not used in the routing table calculation. When an LSA's age first reaches MaxAge, it is reflooded. An LSA of age MaxAge is finally flushed from the database when it is no longer needed to ensure database synchronization. For more information on the aging of LSAs, consult Section 14. The LS age field is examined when a router receives two instances of an LSA, both having identical LS sequence numbers and LS checksums. An instance of age MaxAge is then
always accepted as most recent; this allows old LSAs to be flushed quickly from the routing domain. Otherwise, if the ages differ by more than MaxAgeDiff, the instance having the smaller age is accepted as most recent. See Section 13.1 for more details. 12.1.2. Options The Options field in the LSA header indicates which optional capabilities are associated with the LSA. OSPF's optional capabilities are described in Section 4.5. One optional capability is defined by this specification, represented by the E-bit found in the Options field. The unrecognized bits in the Options field should be set to zero. The E-bit represents OSPF's ExternalRoutingCapability. This bit should be set in all LSAs associated with the backbone, and all LSAs associated with non-stub areas (see Section 3.6). It should also be set in all AS-external-LSAs. It should be reset in all router-LSAs, network-LSAs and summary-LSAs associated with a stub area. For all LSAs, the setting of the E-bit is for informational purposes only; it does not affect the routing table calculation. 12.1.3. LS type The LS type field dictates the format and function of the LSA. LSAs of different types have different names (e.g., router-LSAs or network-LSAs). All LSA types defined by this memo, except the AS-external-LSAs (LS type = 5), are flooded throughout a single area only. AS-external-LSAs are flooded throughout the entire Autonomous System, excepting stub areas (see Section 3.6). Each separate LSA type is briefly described below in Table 15. 12.1.4. Link State ID This field identifies the piece of the routing domain that is being described by the LSA. Depending on the LSA's LS type, the Link State ID takes on the values listed in Table
LS Type LSA description ________________________________________________ 1 These are the router-LSAs. They describe the collected states of the router's interfaces. For more information, consult Section 12.4.1. ________________________________________________ 2 These are the network-LSAs. They describe the set of routers attached to the network. For more information, consult Section 12.4.2. ________________________________________________ 3 or 4 These are the summary-LSAs. They describe inter-area routes, and enable the condensation of routing information at area borders. Originated by area border routers, the Type 3 summary-LSAs describe routes to networks while the Type 4 summary-LSAs describe routes to AS boundary routers. ________________________________________________ 5 These are the AS-external-LSAs. Originated by AS boundary routers, they describe routes to destinations external to the Autonomous System. A default route for the Autonomous System can also be described by an AS-external-LSA. Table 15: OSPF link state advertisements (LSAs). 16. Actually, for Type 3 summary-LSAs (LS type = 3) and AS- external-LSAs (LS type = 5), the Link State ID may
LS Type Link State ID _______________________________________________ 1 The originating router's Router ID. 2 The IP interface address of the network's Designated Router. 3 The destination network's IP address. 4 The Router ID of the described AS boundary router. 5 The destination network's IP address. Table 16: The LSA's Link State ID. additionally have one or more of the destination network's "host" bits set. For example, when originating an AS- external-LSA for the network 10.0.0.0 with mask of 255.0.0.0, the Link State ID can be set to anything in the range 10.0.0.0 through 10.255.255.255 inclusive (although 10.0.0.0 should be used whenever possible). The freedom to set certain host bits allows a router to originate separate LSAs for two networks having the same address but different masks. See Appendix E for details. When the LSA is describing a network (LS type = 2, 3 or 5), the network's IP address is easily derived by masking the Link State ID with the network/subnet mask contained in the body of the LSA. When the LSA is describing a router (LS type = 1 or 4), the Link State ID is always the described router's OSPF Router ID. When an AS-external-LSA (LS Type = 5) is describing a default route, its Link State ID is set to DefaultDestination (0.0.0.0). 12.1.5. Advertising Router This field specifies the OSPF Router ID of the LSA's originator. For router-LSAs, this field is identical to the Link State ID field. Network-LSAs are originated by the
network's Designated Router. Summary-LSAs originated by area border routers. AS-external-LSAs are originated by AS boundary routers. 12.1.6. LS sequence number The sequence number field is a signed 32-bit integer. It is used to detect old and duplicate LSAs. The space of sequence numbers is linearly ordered. The larger the sequence number (when compared as signed 32-bit integers) the more recent the LSA. To describe to sequence number space more precisely, let N refer in the discussion below to the constant 2**31. The sequence number -N (0x80000000) is reserved (and unused). This leaves -N + 1 (0x80000001) as the smallest (and therefore oldest) sequence number; this sequence number is referred to as the constant InitialSequenceNumber. A router uses InitialSequenceNumber the first time it originates any LSA. Afterwards, the LSA's sequence number is incremented each time the router originates a new instance of the LSA. When an attempt is made to increment the sequence number past the maximum value of N - 1 (0x7fffffff; also referred to as MaxSequenceNumber), the current instance of the LSA must first be flushed from the routing domain. This is done by prematurely aging the LSA (see Section 14.1) and reflooding it. As soon as this flood has been acknowledged by all adjacent neighbors, a new instance can be originated with sequence number of InitialSequenceNumber. The router may be forced to promote the sequence number of one of its LSAs when a more recent instance of the LSA is unexpectedly received during the flooding process. This should be a rare event. This may indicate that an out-of- date LSA, originated by the router itself before its last restart/reload, still exists in the Autonomous System. For more information see Section 13.4.
12.1.7. LS checksum This field is the checksum of the complete contents of the LSA, excepting the LS age field. The LS age field is excepted so that an LSA's age can be incremented without updating the checksum. The checksum used is the same that is used for ISO connectionless datagrams; it is commonly referred to as the Fletcher checksum. It is documented in Annex B of [Ref6]. The LSA header also contains the length of the LSA in bytes; subtracting the size of the LS age field (two bytes) yields the amount of data to checksum. The checksum is used to detect data corruption of an LSA. This corruption can occur while an LSA is being flooded, or while it is being held in a router's memory. The LS checksum field cannot take on the value of zero; the occurrence of such a value should be considered a checksum failure. In other words, calculation of the checksum is not optional. The checksum of an LSA is verified in two cases: a) when it is received in a Link State Update Packet and b) at times during the aging of the link state database. The detection of a checksum failure leads to separate actions in each case. See Sections 13 and 14 for more details. Whenever the LS sequence number field indicates that two instances of an LSA are the same, the LS checksum field is examined. If there is a difference, the instance with the larger LS checksum is considered to be most recent. See Section 13.1 for more details. 12.2. The link state database A router has a separate link state database for every area to which it belongs. All routers belonging to the same area have identical link state databases for the area. The databases for each individual area are always dealt with separately. The shortest path calculation is performed separately for each area (see Section 16). Components of the
area link-state database are flooded throughout the area only. Finally, when an adjacency (belonging to Area A) is being brought up, only the database for Area A is synchronized between the two routers. The area database is composed of router-LSAs, network-LSAs and summary-LSAs (all listed in the area data structure). In addition, external routes (AS-external-LSAs) are included in all non-stub area databases (see Section 3.6). An implementation of OSPF must be able to access individual pieces of an area database. This lookup function is based on an LSA's LS type, Link State ID and Advertising Router. There will be a single instance (the most up-to-date) of each LSA in the database. The database lookup function is invoked during the LSA flooding procedure (Section 13) and the routing table calculation (Section 16). In addition, using this lookup function the router can determine whether it has itself ever originated a particular LSA, and if so, with what LS sequence number. An LSA is added to a router's database when either a) it is received during the flooding process (Section 13) or b) it is originated by the router itself (Section 12.4). An LSA is deleted from a router's database when either a) it has been overwritten by a newer instance during the flooding process (Section 13) or b) the router originates a newer instance of one of its self-originated LSAs (Section 12.4) or c) the LSA ages out and is flushed from the routing domain (Section 14). Whenever an LSA is deleted from the database it must also be removed from all neighbors' Link state retransmission lists (see Section 10). 12.3. Representation of TOS For backward compatibility with previous versions of the OSPF specification ([Ref9]), TOS-specific information can be included in router-LSAs, summary-LSAs and AS-external-LSAs. The encoding of TOS in OSPF LSAs is specified in Table 17. That table relates the OSPF encoding to the IP packet header's TOS field (defined in [Ref12]). The OSPF encoding is expressed as a decimal
integer, and the IP packet header's TOS field is expressed in the binary TOS values used in [Ref12]. OSPF encoding RFC 1349 TOS values ___________________________________________ 0 0000 normal service 2 0001 minimize monetary cost 4 0010 maximize reliability 6 0011 8 0100 maximize throughput 10 0101 12 0110 14 0111 16 1000 minimize delay 18 1001 20 1010 22 1011 24 1100 26 1101 28 1110 30 1111 Table 17: Representing TOS in OSPF. 12.4. Originating LSAs Into any given OSPF area, a router will originate several LSAs. Each router originates a router-LSA. If the router is also the Designated Router for any of the area's networks, it will originate network-LSAs for those networks. Area border routers originate a single summary-LSA for each known inter-area destination. AS boundary routers originate a single AS-external-LSA for each known AS external destination. Destinations are advertised one at a time so that the change in any single route can be flooded without reflooding the entire collection of routes. During the flooding procedure, many LSAs can be carried by a single Link State Update packet.
As an example, consider Router RT4 in Figure 6. It is an area border router, having a connection to Area 1 and the backbone. Router RT4 originates 5 distinct LSAs into the backbone (one router-LSA, and one summary-LSA for each of the networks N1-N4). Router RT4 will also originate 8 distinct LSAs into Area 1 (one router-LSA and seven summary-LSAs as pictured in Figure 7). If RT4 has been selected as Designated Router for Network N3, it will also originate a network-LSA for N3 into Area 1. In this same figure, Router RT5 will be originating 3 distinct AS-external-LSAs (one for each of the networks N12-N14). These will be flooded throughout the entire AS, assuming that none of the areas have been configured as stubs. However, if area 3 has been configured as a stub area, the AS-external-LSAs for networks N12-N14 will not be flooded into area 3 (see Section 3.6). Instead, Router RT11 would originate a default summary- LSA that would be flooded throughout area 3 (see Section 12.4.3). This instructs all of area 3's internal routers to send their AS external traffic to RT11. Whenever a new instance of an LSA is originated, its LS sequence number is incremented, its LS age is set to 0, its LS checksum is calculated, and the LSA is added to the link state database and flooded out the appropriate interfaces. See Section 13.2 for details concerning the installation of the LSA into the link state database. See Section 13.3 for details concerning the flooding of newly originated LSAs. The ten events that can cause a new instance of an LSA to be originated are: (1) The LS age field of one of the router's self-originated LSAs reaches the value LSRefreshTime. In this case, a new instance of the LSA is originated, even though the contents of the LSA (apart from the LSA header) will be the same. This guarantees periodic originations of all LSAs. This periodic updating of LSAs adds robustness to the link state algorithm. LSAs that solely describe unreachable destinations should not be refreshed, but should instead be flushed from the routing domain (see Section 14.1).
When whatever is being described by an LSA changes, a new LSA is originated. However, two instances of the same LSA may not be originated within the time period MinLSInterval. This may require that the generation of the next instance be delayed by up to MinLSInterval. The following events may cause the contents of an LSA to change. These events should cause new originations if and only if the contents of the new LSA would be different: (2) An interface's state changes (see Section 9.1). This may mean that it is necessary to produce a new instance of the router-LSA. (3) An attached network's Designated Router changes. A new router-LSA should be originated. Also, if the router itself is now the Designated Router, a new network-LSA should be produced. If the router itself is no longer the Designated Router, any network-LSA that it might have originated for the network should be flushed from the routing domain (see Section 14.1). (4) One of the neighboring routers changes to/from the FULL state. This may mean that it is necessary to produce a new instance of the router-LSA. Also, if the router is itself the Designated Router for the attached network, a new network-LSA should be produced. The next four events concern area border routers only: (5) An intra-area route has been added/deleted/modified in the routing table. This may cause a new instance of a summary- LSA (for this route) to be originated in each attached area (possibly including the backbone). (6) An inter-area route has been added/deleted/modified in the routing table. This may cause a new instance of a summary- LSA (for this route) to be originated in each attached area (but NEVER for the backbone).
(7) The router becomes newly attached to an area. The router must then originate summary-LSAs into the newly attached area for all pertinent intra-area and inter-area routes in the router's routing table. See Section 12.4.3 for more details. (8) When the state of one of the router's configured virtual links changes, it may be necessary to originate a new router-LSA into the virtual link's Transit area (see the discussion of the router-LSA's bit V in Section 12.4.1), as well as originating a new router-LSA into the backbone. The last two events concern AS boundary routers (and former AS boundary routers) only: (9) An external route gained through direct experience with an external routing protocol (like BGP) changes. This will cause an AS boundary router to originate a new instance of an AS-external-LSA. (10) A router ceases to be an AS boundary router, perhaps after restarting. In this situation the router should flush all AS-external-LSAs that it had previously originated. These LSAs can be flushed via the premature aging procedure specified in Section 14.1. The construction of each type of LSA is explained in detail below. In general, these sections describe the contents of the LSA body (i.e., the part coming after the 20-byte LSA header). For information concerning the building of the LSA header, see Section 12.1. 12.4.1. Router-LSAs A router originates a router-LSA for each area that it belongs to. Such an LSA describes the collected states of the router's links to the area. The LSA is flooded throughout the particular area, and no further.
.................................... . 192.1.2 Area 1 . . + . . | . . | 3+---+1 . . N1 |--|RT1|-----+ . . | +---+ \ . . | \ _______N3 . . + \/ \ . 1+---+ . * 192.1.1 *------|RT4| . + /\_______/ . +---+ . | / | . . | 3+---+1 / | . . N2 |--|RT2|-----+ 1| . . | +---+ +---+8 . 6+---+ . | |RT3|----------------|RT6| . + +---+ . +---+ . 192.1.3 |2 . 188.8.131.52|7 . | . | . +------------+ . . 192.1.4 (N4) . .................................... Figure 15: Area 1 with IP addresses shown The format of a router-LSA is shown in Appendix A (Section A.4.2). The first 20 bytes of the LSA consist of the generic LSA header that was discussed in Section 12.1. router-LSAs have LS type = 1. A router also indicates whether it is an area border router, or an AS boundary router, by setting the appropriate bits (bit B and bit E, respectively) in its router-LSAs. This enables paths to those types of routers to be saved in the routing table, for later processing of summary-LSAs and AS- external-LSAs. Bit B should be set whenever the router is actively attached to two or more areas, even if the router is not currently attached to the OSPF backbone area. Bit E should never be set in a router-LSA for a stub area (stub areas cannot contain AS boundary routers).
In addition, the router sets bit V in its router-LSA for Area A if and only if the router is the endpoint of one or more fully adjacent virtual links having Area A as their Transit area. The setting of bit V enables other routers in Area A to discover whether the area supports transit traffic (see TransitCapability in Section 6). The router-LSA then describes the router's working connections (i.e., interfaces or links) to the area. Each link is typed according to the kind of attached network. Each link is also labelled with its Link ID. This Link ID gives a name to the entity that is on the other end of the link. Table 18 summarizes the values used for the Type and Link ID fields. Link type Description Link ID __________________________________________________ 1 Point-to-point Neighbor Router ID link 2 Link to transit Interface address of network Designated Router 3 Link to stub IP network number network 4 Virtual link Neighbor Router ID Table 18: Link descriptions in the router-LSA. In addition, the Link Data field is specified for each link. This field gives 32 bits of extra information for the link. For links to transit networks, numbered point-to-point links and virtual links, this field specifies the IP interface address of the associated router interface (this is needed by the routing table calculation, see Section 16.1.1). For links to stub networks, this field specifies the stub network's IP address mask. For unnumbered point-to-point links, the Link Data field should be set to the unnumbered interface's MIB-II [Ref8] ifIndex value.
Finally, the cost of using the link for output is specified. The output cost of a link is configurable. With the exception of links to stub networks, the output cost must always be non-zero. To further describe the process of building the list of link descriptions, suppose a router wishes to build a router-LSA for Area A. The router examines its collection of interface data structures. For each interface, the following steps are taken: o If the attached network does not belong to Area A, no links are added to the LSA, and the next interface should be examined. o If the state of the interface is Down, no links are added. o If the state of the interface is Loopback, add a Type 3 link (stub network) as long as this is not an interface to an unnumbered point-to-point network. The Link ID should be set to the IP interface address, the Link Data set to the mask 0xffffffff (indicating a host route), and the cost set to 0. o Otherwise, the link descriptions added to the router-LSA depend on the OSPF interface type. Link descriptions used for point-to-point interfaces are specified in Section 184.108.40.206, for virtual links in Section 220.127.116.11, for broadcast and NBMA interfaces in 18.104.22.168, and for Point-to-MultiPoint interfaces in 22.214.171.124. After consideration of all the router interfaces, host links are added to the router-LSA by examining the list of attached hosts belonging to Area A. A host route is represented as a Type 3 link (stub network) whose Link ID is the host's IP address, Link Data is the mask of all ones (0xffffffff), and cost the host's configured cost (see Section C.7).
126.96.36.199. Describing point-to-point interfaces For point-to-point interfaces, one or more link descriptions are added to the router-LSA as follows: o If the neighboring router is fully adjacent, add a Type 1 link (point-to-point). The Link ID should be set to the Router ID of the neighboring router. For numbered point-to-point networks, the Link Data should specify the IP interface address. For unnumbered point-to-point networks, the Link Data field should specify the interface's MIB-II [Ref8] ifIndex value. The cost should be set to the output cost of the point-to-point interface. o In addition, as long as the state of the interface is "Point-to-Point" (and regardless of the neighboring router state), a Type 3 link (stub network) should be added. There are two forms that this stub link can take: Option 1 Assuming that the neighboring router's IP address is known, set the Link ID of the Type 3 link to the neighbor's IP address, the Link Data to the mask 0xffffffff (indicating a host route), and the cost to the interface's configured output cost. Option 2 If a subnet has been assigned to the point-to- point link, set the Link ID of the Type 3 link to the subnet's IP address, the Link Data to the subnet's mask, and the cost to the interface's configured output cost. 188.8.131.52. Describing broadcast and NBMA interfaces For operational broadcast and NBMA interfaces, a single link description is added to the router-LSA as follows:
o If the state of the interface is Waiting, add a Type 3 link (stub network) with Link ID set to the IP network number of the attached network, Link Data set to the attached network's address mask, and cost equal to the interface's configured output cost. o Else, there has been a Designated Router elected for the attached network. If the router is fully adjacent to the Designated Router, or if the router itself is Designated Router and is fully adjacent to at least one other router, add a single Type 2 link (transit network) with Link ID set to the IP interface address of the attached network's Designated Router (which may be the router itself), Link Data set to the router's own IP interface address, and cost equal to the interface's configured output cost. Otherwise, add a link as if the interface state were Waiting (see above). 184.108.40.206. Describing virtual links For virtual links, a link description is added to the router-LSA only when the virtual neighbor is fully adjacent. In this case, add a Type 4 link (virtual link) with Link ID set to the Router ID of the virtual neighbor, Link Data set to the IP interface address associated with the virtual link and cost set to the cost calculated for the virtual link during the routing table calculation (see Section 15). 220.127.116.11. Describing Point-to-MultiPoint interfaces For operational Point-to-MultiPoint interfaces, one or more link descriptions are added to the router-LSA as follows: o A single Type 3 link (stub network) is added with Link ID set to the router's own IP interface address, Link Data set to the mask 0xffffffff (indicating a host route), and cost set to 0.
o For each fully adjacent neighbor associated with the interface, add an additional Type 1 link (point-to- point) with Link ID set to the Router ID of the neighboring router, Link Data set to the IP interface address and cost equal to the interface's configured output cost. 18.104.22.168. Examples of router-LSAs Consider the router-LSAs generated by Router RT3, as pictured in Figure 6. The area containing Router RT3 (Area 1) has been redrawn, with actual network addresses, in Figure 15. Assume that the last byte of all of RT3's interface addresses is 3, giving it the interface addresses 22.214.171.124 and 126.96.36.199, and that the other routers have similar addressing schemes. In addition, assume that all links are functional, and that Router IDs are assigned as the smallest IP interface address. RT3 originates two router-LSAs, one for Area 1 and one for the backbone. Assume that Router RT4 has been selected as the Designated router for network 188.8.131.52. RT3's router-LSA for Area 1 is then shown below. It indicates that RT3 has two connections to Area 1, the first a link to the transit network 184.108.40.206 and the second a link to the stub network 220.127.116.11. Note that the transit network is identified by the IP interface of its Designated Router (i.e., the Link ID = 18.104.22.168 which is the Designated Router RT4's IP interface to 22.214.171.124). Note also that RT3 has indicated that it is an area border router. ; RT3's router-LSA for Area 1 LS age = 0 ;always true on origination Options = (E-bit) ; LS type = 1 ;indicates router-LSA Link State ID = 126.96.36.199 ;RT3's Router ID Advertising Router = 188.8.131.52 ;RT3's Router ID bit E = 0 ;not an AS boundary router
bit B = 1 ;area border router #links = 2 Link ID = 184.108.40.206 ;IP address of Desig. Rtr. Link Data = 220.127.116.11 ;RT3's IP interface to net Type = 2 ;connects to transit network # TOS metrics = 0 metric = 1 Link ID = 18.104.22.168 ;IP Network number Link Data = 0xffffff00 ;Network mask Type = 3 ;connects to stub network # TOS metrics = 0 metric = 2 Next RT3's router-LSA for the backbone is shown. It indicates that RT3 has a single attachment to the backbone. This attachment is via an unnumbered point-to-point link to Router RT6. RT3 has again indicated that it is an area border router. ; RT3's router-LSA for the backbone LS age = 0 ;always true on origination Options = (E-bit) ; LS type = 1 ;indicates router-LSA Link State ID = 22.214.171.124 ;RT3's router ID Advertising Router = 126.96.36.199 ;RT3's router ID bit E = 0 ;not an AS boundary router bit B = 1 ;area border router #links = 1 Link ID = 188.8.131.52 ;Neighbor's Router ID Link Data = 0.0.0.3 ;MIB-II ifIndex of P-P link Type = 1 ;connects to router # TOS metrics = 0 metric = 8 12.4.2. Network-LSAs A network-LSA is generated for every transit broadcast or NBMA network. (A transit network is a network having two or more attached routers). The network-LSA describes all the routers that are attached to the network.
The Designated Router for the network originates the LSA. The Designated Router originates the LSA only if it is fully adjacent to at least one other router on the network. The network-LSA is flooded throughout the area that contains the transit network, and no further. The network-LSA lists those routers that are fully adjacent to the Designated Router; each fully adjacent router is identified by its OSPF Router ID. The Designated Router includes itself in this list. The Link State ID for a network-LSA is the IP interface address of the Designated Router. This value, masked by the network's address mask (which is also contained in the network-LSA) yields the network's IP address. A router that has formerly been the Designated Router for a network, but is no longer, should flush the network-LSA that it had previously originated. This LSA is no longer used in the routing table calculation. It is flushed by prematurely incrementing the LSA's age to MaxAge and reflooding (see Section 14.1). In addition, in those rare cases where a router's Router ID has changed, any network-LSAs that were originated with the router's previous Router ID must be flushed. Since the router may have no idea what it's previous Router ID might have been, these network-LSAs are indicated by having their Link State ID equal to one of the router's IP interface addresses and their Advertising Router equal to some value other than the router's current Router ID (see Section 13.4 for more details). 184.108.40.206. Examples of network-LSAs Again consider the area configuration in Figure 6. Network-LSAs are originated for Network N3 in Area 1, Networks N6 and N8 in Area 2, and Network N9 in Area 3. Assuming that Router RT4 has been selected as the Designated Router for Network N3, the following network-LSA is generated by RT4 on behalf of Network N3 (see Figure 15 for the address assignments): ; Network-LSA for Network N3
LS age = 0 ;always true on origination Options = (E-bit) ; LS type = 2 ;indicates network-LSA Link State ID = 220.127.116.11 ;IP address of Desig. Rtr. Advertising Router = 18.104.22.168 ;RT4's Router ID Network Mask = 0xffffff00 Attached Router = 22.214.171.124 ;Router ID Attached Router = 126.96.36.199 ;Router ID Attached Router = 188.8.131.52 ;Router ID Attached Router = 184.108.40.206 ;Router ID