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RFC 8193

 
 
 

Information Model for Large-Scale Measurement Platforms (LMAPs)

Part 2 of 3, p. 19 to 41
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4.4.  Logging Information

   The MA may report on the success or failure of Configuration or
   Instruction communications from the Controller.  In addition, further
   operational logs may be produced during the operation of the MA, and
   updates to Capabilities may also be reported.  Reporting this
   information is achieved in exactly the same manner as scheduling any
   other Task.  We make no distinction between a Measurement Task
   conducting an active or passive network measurement and one that
   solely retrieves static or dynamic information from the MA such as
   Capabilities or Logging Information.  One or more logging Tasks can
   be programmed or configured to capture subsets of the Logging
   Information.  These logging Tasks are then executed by Schedules,
   which also specify that the resultant data is to be transferred over
   the Controller Channels.

   The type of Logging Information will fall into three different
   categories:

   1.  Success/failure/warning messages in response to information
       updates from the Controller.  Failure messages could be produced
       due to some inability to receive or parse the Controller
       communication or if the MA is not able to act as instructed.  For
       example:

       *  "Measurement Schedules updated OK"

       *  "Unable to parse JSON"

       *  "Missing mandatory element: Measurement Timing"

       *  "'Start' does not conform to schema - expected datetime"

       *  "Date specified is in the past"

       *  "'Hour' must be in the range 1..24"

       *  "Schedule A refers to non-existent Measurement Task
          Configuration"

       *  "Measurement Task Configuration X registry, entry Y not found"

       *  "Updated Measurement Task Configurations do not include M used
          by Measurement Schedule N"

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   2.  Operational updates from the MA.  For example:

       *  "Out of memory: cannot record result"

       *  "Collector 'collector.example.com' not responding"

       *  "Unexpected restart"

       *  "Suppression timeout"

       *  "Failed to execute Measurement Task Configuration H"

   3.  Status updates from the MA.  For example:

       *  "Device interface added: eth3"

       *  "Supported measurements updated"

       *  "New IP address on eth0: xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx"

   This Information Model document does not detail the precise format of
   Logging Information since it is to a large extent protocol and MA
   specific.  However, some common information can be identified.

4.4.1.  Definition of ma-log-obj

     object {
         uuid                ma-log-agent-id;
         datetime            ma-log-event-time;
         int                 ma-log-code;
         string              ma-log-description;
     } ma-log-obj;

   The ma-log-obj models the generic aspects of a logging object and
   consists of the following elements:

   ma-log-agent-id:          A uuid uniquely identifying the Measurement
                             Agent.

   ma-log-event-time:        The date and time of the Event reported in
                             the logging object.

   ma-log-code:              A machine-readable code describing the
                             Event.

   ma-log-description:       A human-readable description of the Event.

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4.5.  Capability and Status Information

   The MA will hold Capability Information that can be retrieved by a
   Controller.  Capabilities include the device interface details
   available to Measurement Tasks as well as the set of Measurement
   Tasks/Roles (specified by registry entries) that are actually
   installed or available on the MA.  Status Information includes the
   times that operations were last performed such as contacting the
   Controller or producing Reports.

4.5.1.  Definition of ma-capability-obj

     object {
         string                  ma-capability-hardware;
         string                  ma-capability-firmware;
         string                  ma-capability-version;
        [string                  ma-capability-tags<0..*>;]
        [ma-capability-task-obj  ma-capability-tasks<0..*>;]
     } ma-capability-obj;

   The ma-capability-obj provides information about the Capabilities of
   the Measurement Agent and consists of the following elements:

   ma-capability-hardware:   A description of the hardware of the device
                             the Measurement Agent is running on.

   ma-capability-firmware:   A description of the firmware of the device
                             the Measurement Agent is running on.

   ma-capability-version:    The version of the Measurement Agent.

   ma-capability-tags:       An optional unordered set of tags that
                             provide additional information about the
                             Capabilities of the Measurement Agent.

   ma-capability-tasks:      An optional unordered set of capability
                             objects for each supported Task.

4.5.2.  Definition of ma-capability-task-obj

     object {
         string              ma-capability-task-name;
         ma-registry-obj     ma-capability-task-functions<0..*>;
         string              ma-capability-task-version;
     } ma-capability-task-obj;

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   The ma-capability-task-obj provides information about the capability
   of a Task and consists of the following elements:

   ma-capability-task-name:        A name uniquely identifying a Task.

   ma-capability-task-functions:   A possibly empty unordered set of
                                   registry entries identifying
                                   functions this Task implements.

   ma-capability-task-version:     The version of the Measurement Task.

4.5.3.  Definition of ma-status-obj

     object {
         uuid                       ma-status-agent-id;
        [uri                        ma-status-device-id;]
         datetime                   ma-status-last-started;
         ma-status-interface-obj    ma-status-interfaces<0..*>;
        [ma-status-schedule-obj     ma-status-schedules<0..*>;]
        [ma-status-suppression-obj  ma-status-suppressions<0..*>;]
     } ma-status-obj;

   The ma-status-obj provides Status Information about the Measurement
   Agent and consists of the following elements:

   ma-status-agent-id:       A uuid uniquely identifying the Measurement
                             Agent.

   ma-status-device-id:      A URI identifying the device.

   ma-status-last-started:   The date and time the Measurement Agent
                             last started.

   ma-status-interfaces:     An unordered set of network interfaces
                             available on the device.

   ma-status-schedules:      An optional unordered set of status objects
                             for each Schedule.

   ma-status-suppressions:   An optional unordered set of status objects
                             for each Suppression.

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4.5.4.  Definition of ma-status-schedule-obj

     object {
         string                  ma-status-schedule-name;
         string                  ma-status-schedule-state;
         int                     ma-status-schedule-storage;
         counter                 ma-status-schedule-invocations;
         counter                 ma-status-schedule-suppressions;
         counter                 ma-status-schedule-overlaps;
         counter                 ma-status-schedule-failures;
         datetime                ma-status-schedule-last-invocation;
        [ma-status-action-obj    ma-status-schedule-actions<0..*>;]
     } ma-status-schedule-obj;

   The ma-status-schedule-obj provides Status Information about the
   status of a Schedule and consists of the following elements:

   ma-status-schedule-name:            The name of the Schedule this
                                       status object refers to.

   ma-status-schedule-state:           The state of the Schedule.  The
                                       value 'enabled' indicates that
                                       the Schedule is currently
                                       enabled.  The value 'suppressed'
                                       indicates that the Schedule is
                                       currently suppressed.  The value
                                       'disabled' indicates that the
                                       Schedule is currently disabled.
                                       The value 'running' indicates
                                       that the Schedule is currently
                                       running.

   ma-status-schedule-storage:         The amount of secondary storage
                                       (e.g., allocated in a file
                                       system) holding temporary data
                                       allocated to the Schedule in
                                       bytes.  This object reports the
                                       amount of allocated physical
                                       storage and not the storage used
                                       by logical data records.  Data
                                       models should use a 64-bit
                                       integer type.

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   ma-status-schedule-invocations      Number of invocations of this
                                       Schedule.  This counter does not
                                       include suppressed invocations or
                                       invocations that were prevented
                                       due to an overlap with a previous
                                       invocation of this Schedule.

   ma-status-schedule-suppressions     Number of suppressed executions
                                       of this Schedule.

   ma-status-schedule-overlaps         Number of executions prevented
                                       due to overlaps with a previous
                                       invocation of this Schedule.

   ma-status-schedule-failures         Number of failed executions of
                                       this Schedule.  A failed
                                       execution is an execution where
                                       at least one Action failed.

   ma-status-schedule-last-invocation: The date and time of the last
                                       invocation of this Schedule.

   ma-status-schedule-actions:         An optional ordered list of
                                       status objects for each Action of
                                       the Schedule.

4.5.5.  Definition of ma-status-action-obj

     object {
         string              ma-status-action-name;
         string              ma-status-action-state;
         int                 ma-status-action-storage;
         counter             ma-status-action-invocations;
         counter             ma-status-action-suppressions;
         counter             ma-status-action-overlaps;
         counter             ma-status-action-failures;
         datetime            ma-status-action-last-invocation;
         datetime            ma-status-action-last-completion;
         int                 ma-status-action-last-status;
         string              ma-status-action-last-message;
         datetime            ma-status-action-last-failed-completion;
         int                 ma-status-action-last-failed-status;
         string              ma-status-action-last-failed-message;
     } ma-status-action-obj;

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   The ma-status-action-obj provides Status Information about an Action
   of a Schedule and consists of the following elements:

   ma-status-action-name:                   The name of the Action of a
                                            Schedule this status object
                                            refers to.

   ma-status-action-state:                  The state of the Action.
                                            The value 'enabled'
                                            indicates that the Action is
                                            currently enabled.  The
                                            value 'suppressed' indicates
                                            that the Action is currently
                                            suppressed.  The value
                                            'disabled' indicates that
                                            the Action is currently
                                            disabled.  The value
                                            'running' indicates that the
                                            Action is currently running.

   ma-status-action-storage:                The amount of secondary
                                            storage (e.g., allocated in
                                            a file system) holding
                                            temporary data allocated to
                                            the Action in bytes.  This
                                            object reports the amount of
                                            allocated physical storage
                                            and not the storage used by
                                            logical data records.  Data
                                            models should use a 64-bit
                                            integer type.

   ma-status-action-invocations             Number of invocations of
                                            this Action.  This counter
                                            does not include suppressed
                                            invocations or invocations
                                            that were prevented due to
                                            an overlap with a previous
                                            invocation of this Action.

   ma-status-action-suppressions            Number of suppressed
                                            executions of this Action.

   ma-status-action-overlaps                Number of executions
                                            prevented due to overlaps
                                            with a previous invocation
                                            of this Action.

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   ma-status-action-failures                Number of failed executions
                                            of this Action.

   ma-status-action-last-invocation:        The date and time of the
                                            last invocation of this
                                            Action.

   ma-status-action-last-completion:        The date and time of the
                                            last completion of this
                                            Action.

   ma-status-action-last-status:            The status code returned by
                                            the last execution of this
                                            Action.

   ma-status-action-last-message:           The status message produced
                                            by the last execution of
                                            this Action.

   ma-status-action-last-failed-completion: The date and time of the
                                            last failed completion of
                                            this Action.

   ma-status-action-last-failed-status:     The status code returned by
                                            the last failed execution of
                                            this Action.

   ma-status-action-last-failed-message:    The status message produced
                                            by the last failed execution
                                            of this Action.

4.5.6.  Definition of ma-status-suppression-obj

     object {
         string                  ma-status-suppression-name;
         string                  ma-status-suppression-state;
     } ma-status-suppression-obj;

   The ma-status-suppression-obj provides Status Information about the
   status of a Suppression and consists of the following elements:

   ma-status-suppression-name:   The name of the Suppression this status
                                 object refers to.

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   ma-status-suppression-state:  The state of the Suppression.  The
                                 value 'enabled' indicates that the
                                 Suppression is currently enabled.  The
                                 value 'active' indicates that the
                                 Suppression is currently active.  The
                                 value 'disabled' indicates that the
                                 Suppression is currently disabled.

4.5.7.  Definition of ma-status-interface-obj

     object {
         string              ma-status-interface-name;
         string              ma-status-interface-type;
        [int                 ma-status-interface-speed;]
        [string              ma-status-interface-link-layer-address;]
        [ip-address          ma-status-interface-ip-addresses<0..*>;]
        [ip-address          ma-status-interface-gateways<0..*>;]
        [ip-address          ma-status-interface-dns-servers<0..*>;]
     } ma-status-interface-obj;

   The ma-status-interface-obj provides Status Information about network
   interfaces and consists of the following elements:

   ma-status-interface-name:               A name uniquely identifying a
                                           network interface.

   ma-status-interface-type:               The type of the network
                                           interface.

   ma-status-interface-speed:              An optional indication of the
                                           speed of the interface
                                           (measured in bits per
                                           second).

   ma-status-interface-link-layer-address: An optional link-layer
                                           address of the interface.

   ma-status-interface-ip-addresses:       An optional ordered list of
                                           IP addresses assigned to the
                                           interface.

   ma-status-interface-gateways:           An optional ordered list of
                                           gateways assigned to the
                                           interface.

   ma-status-interface-dns-servers:        An optional ordered list of
                                           DNS servers assigned to the
                                           interface.

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4.6.  Reporting Information

   At a point in time specified by a Schedule, the MA will execute Tasks
   that communicate a set of measurement results to the Collector.
   These Reporting Tasks will be configured to transmit Task results
   over a specified Report Channel to a Collector.

   It should be noted that the output from Tasks does not need to be
   sent to communication Channels.  It can alternatively, or
   additionally, be sent to other Tasks on the MA.  This facilitates
   using a first Measurement Task to control the operation of a later
   Measurement Task (such as first probing available line speed and then
   adjusting the operation of a video testing measurement) and also to
   allow local processing of data to output alarms (e.g., when
   performance drops from earlier levels).  Of course, subsequent Tasks
   also include Tasks that implement the Reporting Protocol(s) and
   transfer data to one or more Collectors.

   The Report generated by a Reporting Task is structured hierarchically
   to avoid repetition of report header and Measurement Task
   Configuration information.  The report starts with the timestamp of
   the report generation on the MA and details about the MA including
   the optional Measurement Agent Identifier and Group-ID (controlled by
   the Configuration Information).

   Much of the report information is optional and will depend on the
   implementation of the Reporting Task and any parameters defined in
   the Task Configuration for the Reporting Task.  For example, some
   Reporting Tasks may choose not to include the Measurement Task
   Configuration or Action parameters, while others may do so dependent
   on the Controller setting a configurable parameter in the Task
   Configuration.

   It is possible for a Reporting Task to send just the report header
   (datetime and optional Agent Identifier and/or Group-ID) if no
   measurement data is available.  Whether to send such empty reports
   again is dependent on the implementation of the Reporting Task and
   potential Task Configuration parameter.

   The handling of measurement data on the MA before generating a Report
   and transfer from the MA to the Collector is dependent on the
   implementation of the device, MA, and/or scheduled Tasks and not
   defined by the LMAP standards.  Such decisions may include limits to
   the measurement data storage and what to do when such available
   storage becomes depleted.  It is generally suggested that
   implementations running out of storage stop executing new Measurement
   Tasks and retain old measurement data.

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   No context information, such as line speed or broadband product are
   included within the report header information as this data is
   reported by individual Tasks at the time they execute.  Either a
   Measurement Task can report contextual parameters that are relevant
   to that particular measurement or specific Tasks can be used to
   gather a set of contextual and environmental data at certain times
   independent of the Reporting Schedule.

   After the report header information, the results are reported grouped
   according to different Measurement Task Configurations.  Each Task
   section optionally starts with replicating the Measurement Task
   Configuration information before the result headers (titles for data
   columns) and the result data rows.  The Options reported are those
   used for the scheduled execution of the Measurement Task and
   therefore include the Options specified in the Task Configuration as
   well as additional Options specified in the Action.  The Action
   Options are appended to the Task Configuration Options in exactly the
   same order as they were provided to the Task during execution.

   The result row data includes a time for the start of the measurement
   and optionally an end time where the duration also needs to be
   considered in the data analysis.

   Some Measurement Tasks may optionally include an indication of the
   cross-traffic although the definition of cross-traffic is left up to
   each individual Measurement Task.  Some Measurement Tasks may also
   output other environmental measures in addition to cross-traffic such
   as CPU utilization or interface speed.

   Whereas the Configuration and Instruction Information represent
   information transmitted via the Control Protocol, the Report
   represents the information that is transmitted via the Report
   Protocol.  It is constructed at the time of sending a report and
   represents the inherent structure of the information that is sent to
   the Collector.

4.6.1.  Definition of ma-report-obj

     object {
         datetime              ma-report-date;
        [uuid                  ma-report-agent-id;]
        [string                ma-report-group-id;]
        [string                ma-report-measurement-point;]
        [ma-report-result-obj  ma-report-results<0..*>;]
     } ma-report-obj;

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   The ma-report-obj provides the metadata of a single report and
   consists of the following elements:

   ma-report-date:               The date and time when the report was
                                 sent to a Collector.

   ma-report-agent-id:           An optional uuid uniquely identifying
                                 the Measurement Agent.

   ma-report-group-id:           An optional identifier of the group of
                                 Measurement Agents this Measurement
                                 Agent belongs to.

   ma-report-measurement-point:  An optional identifier for the
                                 measurement point indicating where the
                                 Measurement Agent is located on a path
                                 (see [RFC7398] for further details).

   ma-report-results:            An optional and possibly empty
                                 unordered set of result objects.

4.6.2.  Definition of ma-report-result-obj

     object {
         string                  ma-report-result-schedule-name;
         string                  ma-report-result-action-name;
         string                  ma-report-result-task-name;
        [ma-option-obj           ma-report-result-options<0..*>;]
        [string                  ma-report-result-tags<0..*>;]
         datetime                ma-report-result-event-time;
         datetime                ma-report-result-start-time;
        [datetime                ma-report-result-end-time;]
        [string                  ma-report-result-cycle-number;]
         int                     ma-report-result-status;
        [ma-report-conflict-obj  ma-report-result-conflicts<0..*>;]
        [ma-report-table-obj     ma-report-result-tables<0..*>;]
     } ma-report-result-obj;

   The ma-report-result-obj provides the metadata of a result report of
   a single executed Action.  It consists of the following elements:

   ma-report-result-schedule-name: The name of the Schedule that
                                   produced the result.

   ma-report-result-action-name:   The name of the Action in the
                                   Schedule that produced the result.

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   ma-report-result-task-name:     The name of the Task that produced
                                   the result.

   ma-report-result-options:       An optional ordered joined list of
                                   options provided by the Task object
                                   and the Action object when the Action
                                   was started.

   ma-report-result-tags:          An optional unordered set of tags.
                                   This is the joined set of tags
                                   provided by the Task object, Action
                                   object, and Schedule object when the
                                   Action was started.

   ma-report-result-event-time:    The date and time of the Event that
                                   triggered the Schedule of the Action
                                   that produced the reported result
                                   values.  The date and time does not
                                   include any added randomization.

   ma-report-result-start-time:    The date and time of the start of the
                                   Action that produced the reported
                                   result values.

   ma-report-result-end-time:      An optional date and time indicating
                                   when the Action finished.

   ma-report-result-cycle-number:  An optional cycle number derived from
                                   ma-report-result-event-time.  It is
                                   the time closest to
                                   ma-report-result-event-time that is a
                                   multiple of the
                                   ma-event-cycle-interval of the Event
                                   that triggered the execution of the
                                   Schedule.  The value is only present
                                   in an ma-report-result-obj if the
                                   Event that triggered the execution of
                                   the Schedule has a defined
                                   ma-event-cycle-interval.  The cycle
                                   number is represented in the format
                                   YYYYMMDD.HHMMSS where YYYY represents
                                   the year, MM the month (1..12), DD
                                   the day of the months (01..31), HH
                                   the hour (00..23), MM the minute
                                   (00..59), and SS the second (00..59).
                                   The cycle number is using Coordinated
                                   Universal Time (UTC).

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   ma-report-result-status:        The status code returned by the
                                   execution of the Action.

   ma-report-result-conflicts:     A possibly empty set of conflict
                                   Actions that might have impacted the
                                   measurement results being reported.

   ma-report-result-tables:        An optional and possibly empty
                                   unordered set of result tables.

4.6.3.  Definition of ma-report-conflict-obj

     object {
         string  ma-report-conflict-schedule-name;
         string  ma-report-conflict-action-name;
         string  ma-report-conflict-task-name;
     } ma-report-conflict-obj;

   The ma-report-conflict-obj provides the information about a
   conflicting Action that might have impacted the measurement results.
   It consists of the following elements:

   ma-report-result-schedule-name: The name of the Schedule that may
                                   have impacted the result.

   ma-report-result-action-name:   The name of the Action in the
                                   Schedule that may have impacted the
                                   result.

   ma-report-result-task-name:     The name of the Task that may have
                                   impacted the result.

4.6.4.  Definition of ma-report-table-obj

     object {
        [ma-registry-obj     ma-report-table-functions<0..*>;]
        [string]             ma-report-table-column-labels<0..*>;]
        [ma-report-row-obj   ma-report-table-rows<0..*>;]
     } ma-report-table-obj;

   The ma-report-table-obj represents a result table and consists of the
   following elements:

   ma-report-table-functions:      An optional and possibly empty
                                   unordered set of registry entries
                                   identifying the functions for which
                                   results are reported.

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   ma-report-table-column-labels:  An optional and possibly empty
                                   ordered list of column labels.

   ma-report-table-rows:           A possibly empty ordered list of
                                   result rows.

4.6.5.  Definition of ma-report-row-obj

     object {
         data                ma-report-row-values<0..*>;
     } ma-report-row-obj;

   The ma-report-row-obj represents a result row and consists of the
   following elements:

   ma-report-row-values:     A possibly empty ordered list of result
                             values.  When present, it contains an
                             ordered list of values that align to the
                             set of column labels for the report.

4.7.  Common Objects: Schedules

   A Schedule specifies the execution of a single or repeated series of
   Actions.  An Action extends a configured Task with additional
   specific parameters.  Each Schedule contains basically two elements:
   an ordered list of Actions to be executed and an Event object
   triggering the execution of the Schedule.  The Schedule states what
   Actions to run (with what configuration) and when to run the Actions.
   A Schedule may optionally have an Event that stops the execution of
   the Schedule or a maximum duration after which a Schedule is stopped.

   Multiple Actions contained as an ordered list of a single Measurement
   Schedule will be executed according to the execution mode of the
   Schedule.  In sequential mode, Actions will be executed sequentially
   and in parallel mode, all Actions will be executed concurrently.  In
   pipelined mode, data produced by one Action is passed to the
   subsequent Action.  Actions contained in different Schedules execute
   in parallel with such conflicts being reported in the Reporting
   Information where necessary.  If two or more Schedules have the same
   start time, then the two will execute in parallel.  There is no
   mechanism to prioritize one Schedule over another or to mutex
   scheduled Tasks.

   As well as specifying which Actions to execute, the Schedule also
   specifies how to link the data outputs from each Action to other
   Schedules.  Specifying this within the Schedule allows the highest
   level of flexibility since it is even possible to send the output
   from different executions of the same Task Configuration to different

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   destinations.  A single Task producing multiple different outputs is
   expected to properly tag the different results.  An Action receiving
   the output can then filter the results based on the tag if necessary.
   For example, a Measurement Task might report routine results to a
   data Reporting Task in a Schedule that communicates hourly via the
   broadband interface, but it also outputs emergency conditions via an
   alarm Reporting Task in a different Schedule communicating
   immediately over a General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) Channel.  Note
   that Task-to-Task data transfer is always specified in association
   with the scheduled execution of the sending Task -- there is no need
   for a corresponding input specification for the receiving Task.
   While it is likely that an MA implementation will use a queue
   mechanism between the Schedules or Actions, this Information Model
   does not mandate or define a queue.  The Information Model, however,
   reports the storage allocated to Schedules and Actions so that
   storage usage can be monitored.  Furthermore, it is recommended that
   MA implementations by default retain old data and stop the execution
   of new Measurement Tasks if the MA runs out of storage capacity.

   When specifying the Task to execute within the Schedule, i.e.,
   creating an Action, it is possible to add to the Option parameters.
   This allows the Task Configuration to determine the common
   characteristics of a Task, while selected parameters (e.g., the test
   target URL) are defined within as Option parameters of the Action in
   the Schedule.  A single Task's Configuration can even be used
   multiple times in the same Schedule with different additional
   parameters.  This allows for efficiency in creating and transferring
   the Instruction.  Note that the semantics of what happens if an
   Option is defined multiple times (in either the Task Configuration,
   the Action, or both) is not standardized and will depend upon the
   Task.  For example, some Tasks may legitimately take multiple values
   for a single parameter.

   Where Options are specified in both the Action and the Task
   Configuration, the Action Options are appended to those specified in
   the Task Configuration.

   Example:  An Action of a Schedule references a single Measurement
      Task Configuration for measuring UDP latency.  It specifies that
      results are to be sent to a Schedule with a Reporting Action.
      This Reporting Task of the Reporting Action is executed by a
      separate Schedule that specifies that it should run hourly at 5
      minutes past the hour.  When run, this Reporting Action takes the
      data generated by the UDP latency Measurement Task as well as any
      other data to be included in the hourly report and transfers it to
      the Collector over the Report Channel specified within its own
      Schedule.

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   Schedules and Actions may optionally also be given tags that are
   included in result reports sent to a Collector.  In addition,
   Schedules can be given Suppression tags that may be used to select
   Schedules and Actions for Suppression.

4.7.1.  Definition of ma-schedule-obj

     object {
         string              ma-schedule-name;
         ma-event-obj        ma-schedule-start;
        [ma-event-obj        ma-schedule-end;]
        [int                 ma-schedule-duration;]
         ma-action-obj       ma-schedule-actions<0..*>;
         string              ma-schedule-execution-mode;
        [string              ma-schedule-tags<0..*>;]
        [string              ma-schedule-suppression-tags<0..*>;]
     } ma-schedule-obj;

   The ma-schedule-obj is the main scheduling object.  It consists of
   the following elements:

   ma-schedule-name:             A name uniquely identifying a
                                 scheduling object.

   ma-schedule-start:            An Event object indicating when the
                                 Schedule starts.

   ma-schedule-end:              An optional Event object controlling
                                 the forceful termination of scheduled
                                 Actions.  When the Event occurs, all
                                 Actions of the Schedule will be forced
                                 to terminate gracefully.

   ma-schedule-duration:         An optional duration in seconds for the
                                 Schedule.  All Actions of the Schedule
                                 will be forced to terminate gracefully
                                 after the duration number of seconds
                                 past the start of the Schedule.

   ma-schedule-actions:          A possibly empty ordered list of
                                 Actions to invoke when the Schedule
                                 starts.

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   ma-schedule-execution-mode:   Indicates whether the Actions should be
                                 executed sequentially, in parallel, or
                                 in a pipelined mode (where data
                                 produced by one Action is passed to the
                                 subsequent Action).  The default
                                 execution mode is pipelined.

   ma-schedule-tags:             An optional unordered set of tags that
                                 are reported together with the
                                 measurement results to a Collector.

   ma-schedule-suppression-tags: An optional unordered set of
                                 Suppression tags that are used to
                                 select Schedules to be suppressed.

4.7.2.  Definition of ma-action-obj

     object {
         string              ma-action-name;
         string              ma-action-config-task-name;
        [ma-option-obj       ma-action-task-options<0..*>;]
        [string              ma-action-destinations<0..*>;]
        [string              ma-action-tags<0..*>;]
        [string              ma-action-suppression-tags<0..*>;]
      } ma-action-obj;

   The ma-action-obj models a Task together with its Schedule-specific
   Task Options and Destination Schedules.  It consists of the following
   elements:

   ma-action-name:               A name uniquely identifying an Action
                                 of a scheduling object.

   ma-action-config-task-name:   A name identifying the configured Task
                                 to be invoked by the Action.

   ma-action-task-options:       An optional and possibly empty ordered
                                 list of options (name-value pairs) that
                                 are passed to the Task by appending
                                 them to the options configured for the
                                 Task object.

   ma-action-destinations:       An optional and possibly empty
                                 unordered set of names of Destination
                                 Schedules that consume output produced
                                 by this Action.

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   ma-action-tags:               An optional unordered set of tags that
                                 are reported together with the
                                 measurement results to a Collector.

   ma-action-suppression-tags:   An optional unordered set of
                                 Suppression tags that are used to
                                 select Actions to be suppressed.

4.8.  Common Objects: Channels

   A Channel defines a bidirectional communication mechanism between the
   MA and a Controller or Collector.  Multiple Channels can be defined
   to enable results to be split or duplicated across different
   Collectors.

   Each Channel contains the details of the remote endpoint (including
   location and security credential information such as a certificate).
   The timing of when to communicate over a Channel is specified by the
   Schedule, which executes the corresponding Control or Reporting Task.
   The certificate can be the digital certificate associated to the
   Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) in the URL, or it can be the
   certificate of the Certification Authority that was used to issue the
   certificate for the FQDN of the target URL (which will be retrieved
   later on using a communication protocol such as Transport Layer
   Security (TLS)).  In order to establish a secure Channel, the MA will
   use its own security credentials (in the Configuration Information)
   and the given credentials for the individual Channel endpoint.

   As with the Task Configurations, each Channel is also given a text
   name by which it can be referenced as a Task Option.

   Although the same in terms of information, Channels used for
   communication with the Controller are referred to as Control Channels
   whereas Channels to Collectors are referred to as Report Channels.
   Hence, Control Channels will be referenced from Control Tasks
   executed by a Control Schedule, whereas Report Channels will be
   referenced from within Reporting Tasks executed by an Instruction
   Schedule.

   Multiple interfaces are also supported.  For example, the Reporting
   Task could be configured to send some results over GPRS.  This is
   especially useful when such results indicate the loss of connectivity
   on a different network interface.

   Example:  A Channel used for reporting results may specify that
      results are to be sent to the URL (https://collector.example.org/
      report/), using the appropriate digital certificate to establish a
      secure Channel.

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4.8.1.  Definition of ma-channel-obj

     object {
         string              ma-channel-name;
         url                 ma-channel-target;
         credentials         ma-channel-credentials;
         [string             ma-channel-interface-name;]
     } ma-channel-obj;

   The ma-channel-obj consists of the following elements:

   ma-channel-name:            A unique name identifying the Channel
                               object.

   ma-channel-target:          A URL identifying the target Channel
                               endpoint.

   ma-channel-credentials:     The security credentials needed to
                               establish a secure Channel.

   ma-channel-interface-name:  An optional name of the network interface
                               to be used.  If not present, the IP
                               protocol stack will select a suitable
                               interface.

4.9.  Common Objects: Task Configurations

   Conceptually, each Task Configuration defines the parameters of a
   Task that the MA may perform at some point in time.  It does not by
   itself actually instruct the MA to perform them at any particular
   time (this is done by a Schedule).  Tasks can be Measurement Tasks
   (i.e., those Tasks actually performing some type of passive or active
   measurement) or any other scheduled activity performed by the MA such
   as transferring information to or from the Controller and Collectors.
   Other examples of Tasks may include data manipulation or processing
   Tasks conducted on the MA.

   A Measurement Task Configuration is the same in information terms to
   any other Task Configuration.  Both Measurement and non-Measurement
   Tasks may have registry entries to enable the MA to uniquely identify
   the Task it should execute and retrieve the schema for any parameters
   that may be passed to the Task.  Registry entries are specified as a
   URI and can therefore be used to identify the Task within a namespace
   or point to a web or local file location for the Task information.
   As mentioned previously, these URIs may be used to identify the
   Measurement Task in a public namespace such as the to-be-created IPPM
   registry described in [IPPM-REG].

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   Example:  A Measurement Task Configuration may configure a single
      Measurement Task for measuring UDP latency.  The Measurement Task
      Configuration could define the destination port and address for
      the measurement as well as the duration, internal packet timing
      strategy, and other parameters (for example, a stream for one hour
      and sending one packet every 500 ms).  It may also define the
      output type and possible parameters (for example, the output type
      can be the 95th percentile mean) where the Measurement Task
      accepts such parameters.  It does not define when the Task starts
      (this is defined by the Schedule element), so it does not by
      itself instruct the MA to actually perform this Measurement Task.

   The Task Configuration will include a local short name for reference
   by a Schedule.  Task Configurations may also refer to registry
   entries as described above.  In addition, the Task can be configured
   through a set of configuration Options.  The nature and number of
   these Options will depend upon the Task.  These Options are expressed
   as name-value pairs, although the 'value' may be a structured object
   instead of a simple string or numeric value.  The implementation of
   these name-value pairs will vary between data models.

   An Option that must be present for Reporting Tasks is the Channel
   reference specifying how to communicate with a Collector.  This is
   included in the Task Options and will have a value that matches a
   Channel name that has been defined in the Instruction.  Similarly,
   Control Tasks will have a similar Option with the value set to a
   specified Control Channel.

   A Reporting Task might also have a flag parameter, defined as an
   Option, to indicate whether to send a report without measurement
   results if there is no measurement result data pending to be
   transferred to the Collector.  In addition, many Tasks will receive
   (as a parameter) information about which interface to use.

   In addition, the Task Configuration may optionally also be given tags
   that can carry a Measurement Cycle ID.  The purpose of this ID is to
   easily identify a set of measurement results that have been produced
   by Measurement Tasks with comparable Options.  This ID could be
   manually incremented or otherwise changed when an Option change is
   implemented, which could mean that two sets of results should not be
   directly compared.

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4.9.1.  Definition of ma-task-obj

     object {
         string              ma-task-name;
         ma-registry-obj     ma-task-functions<0..*>;
        [ma-option-obj       ma-task-options<0..*>;]
        [string              ma-task-tags<0..*>;]
     } ma-task-obj;

   The ma-task-obj defines a configured Task that can be invoked as part
   of an Action.  A configured Task can be referenced by its name, and
   it contains a possibly empty set of URIs to link to registry entries.
   Options allow the configuration of Task parameters (in the form of
   name-value pairs).  The ma-task-obj consists of the following
   elements:

   ma-task-name:             A name uniquely identifying a configured
                             Task object.

   ma-task-functions:        A possibly empty unordered set of registry
                             entries identifying the functions of the
                             configured Task.

   ma-task-options:          An optional and possibly empty ordered list
                             of options (name-value pairs) that are
                             passed to the configured Task.

   ma-task-tags:             An optional unordered set of tags that are
                             reported together with the measurement
                             results to a Collector.

4.9.2.  Definition of ma-option-obj

     object {
         string              ma-option-name;
        [object              ma-option-value;]
     } ma-option-obj;

   The ma-option-obj models a name-value pair and consists of the
   following elements:

   ma-option-name:           The name of the option.

   ma-option-value:          The optional value of the option.

   The ma-option-obj is used to define Task Configuration Options.  Task
   Configuration Options are generally Task specific.  For Tasks
   associated with an entry in a registry, the registry may define well-

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   known option names (e.g., the so-called parameters in the to-be-
   created IPPM metric registry described in [IPPM-REG]).  Control and
   Reporting Tasks need to know the Channel they are going to use.  The
   common option name for specifying the Channel is "channel" where the
   option's value refers to the name of an ma-channel-obj.

4.10.  Common Objects: Registry Information

   Tasks and Actions can be associated with entries in a registry.  A
   registry object refers to an entry in a registry (identified by a
   URI), and it may define a set of roles.

4.10.1.  Definition of ma-registry-obj

     object {
         uri                 ma-registry-uri;
        [string              ma-registry-role<0..*>;]
     } ma-registry-obj;

   The ma-registry-obj refers to an entry of a registry, and it defines
   the associated role(s).  The ma-registry-obj consists of the
   following elements:

   ma-registry-uri:          A URI identifying an entry in a registry.

   ma-registry-role:         An optional and possibly empty unordered
                             set of roles for the identified registry
                             entry.



(page 41 continued on part 3)

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