Proposed STD

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Pages: 118

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Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) G. Enyedi Request for Comments: 7811 A. Csaszar Category: Standards Track Ericsson ISSN: 2070-1721 A. Atlas C. Bowers Juniper Networks A. Gopalan University of Arizona June 2016 An Algorithm for Computing IP/LDP Fast Reroute Using Maximally Redundant Trees (MRT-FRR) Abstract This document supports the solution put forth in "An Architecture for IP/LDP Fast Reroute Using Maximally Redundant Trees (MRT-FRR)" (RFC 7812) by defining the associated MRT Lowpoint algorithm that is used in the Default MRT Profile to compute both the necessary Maximally Redundant Trees with their associated next hops and the alternates to select for MRT-FRR. Status of This Memo This is an Internet Standards Track document. This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). It represents the consensus of the IETF community. It has received public review and has been approved for publication by the Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG). Further information on Internet Standards is available in Section 2 of RFC 7841. Information about the current status of this document, any errata, and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7811.

Copyright Notice Copyright (c) 2016 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the document authors. All rights reserved. This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal Provisions Relating to IETF Documents (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of publication of this document. Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as described in the Simplified BSD License. Table of Contents 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. Requirements Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3. Terminology and Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 4. Algorithm Key Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4.1. Partial Ordering for Disjoint Paths . . . . . . . . . . . 7 4.2. Finding an Ear and the Correct Direction . . . . . . . . 8 4.3. Lowpoint Values and Their Uses . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 4.4. Blocks in a Graph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 4.5. Determining Localroot and Assigning Block-ID . . . . . . 16 5. MRT Lowpoint Algorithm Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 5.1. Interface Ordering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 5.2. MRT Island Identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 5.3. GADAG Root Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 5.4. Initialization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 5.5. Constructing the GADAG Using Lowpoint Inheritance . . . . 23 5.6. Augmenting the GADAG by Directing All Links . . . . . . . 25 5.7. Compute MRT Next Hops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 5.7.1. MRT Next Hops to All Nodes Ordered with Respect to the Computing Node . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 5.7.2. MRT Next Hops to All Nodes Not Ordered with Respect to the Computing Node . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 5.7.3. Computing Redundant Tree Next Hops in a 2-Connected Graph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 5.7.4. Generalizing for a Graph That Isn't 2-Connected . . . 33 5.7.5. Complete Algorithm to Compute MRT Next Hops . . . . . 34 5.8. Identify MRT Alternates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 5.9. Named Proxy-Nodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 5.9.1. Determining Proxy-Node Attachment Routers . . . . . . 45 5.9.2. Computing If an Island Neighbor (IN) Is Loop-Free . . 45 5.9.3. Computing MRT Next Hops for Proxy-Nodes . . . . . . . 47 5.9.4. Computing MRT Alternates for Proxy-Nodes . . . . . . 53

6. MRT Lowpoint Algorithm: Next-Hop Conformance . . . . . . . . 61 7. Broadcast Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 7.1. Computing MRT Next Hops on Broadcast Networks . . . . . . 62 7.2. Using MRT Next Hops as Alternates in the Event of Failures on Broadcast Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 8. Evaluation of Alternative Methods for Constructing GADAGs . . 64 9. Operational Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 9.1. GADAG Root Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 9.2. Destination-Rooted GADAGs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 10. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 11. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 11.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 11.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Appendix A. Python Implementation of MRT Lowpoint Algorithm . . 70 Appendix B. Constructing a GADAG Using SPFs . . . . . . . . . . 110 Appendix C. Constructing a GADAG Using a Hybrid Method . . . . . 115 Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 1. Introduction MRT Fast Reroute requires that packets can be forwarded not only on the shortest-path tree, but also on two Maximally Redundant Trees (MRTs), referred to as the MRT-Blue and the MRT-Red. A router that experiences a local failure must also have predetermined which alternate to use. This document defines how to compute these three things for use in MRT-FRR and describes the algorithm design decisions and rationale. The algorithm is based on those presented in [MRTLinear] and expanded in [EnyediThesis]. The MRT Lowpoint algorithm is required for implementation when the Default MRT Profile is implemented. The MRT Lowpoint Algorithm defined in this document, when used for MRT Fast-Reroute as described in [RFC7812], guarantees 100% recovery for single failures when the network is 2-connected. This guaranteed coverage does not depend on the link metrics, which an operator may be using to traffic-engineer the IP network. Thus, the link metrics and general network topology are largely decoupled from the guaranteed coverage. Just as packets routed on a hop-by-hop basis require that each router compute a shortest-path tree that is consistent, it is necessary for each router to compute the MRT-Blue next hops and MRT-Red next hops in a consistent fashion. This document defines the MRT Lowpoint algorithm to be used as a standard in the Default MRT Profile for MRT-FRR.

A router's Forwarding Information Base (FIB) will continue to contain primary next hops for the current shortest-path tree for forwarding traffic. In addition, a router's FIB will contain primary next hops for the MRT-Blue for forwarding received traffic on the MRT-Blue and primary next hops for the MRT-Red for forwarding received traffic on the MRT-Red. What alternate next hops a Point of Local Repair (PLR) selects need not be consistent -- but loops must be prevented. To reduce congestion, it is possible for multiple alternate next hops to be selected; in the context of MRT alternates, each of those alternate next hops would be equal-cost paths. This document defines an algorithm for selecting an appropriate MRT alternate for consideration. Other alternates, e.g., Loop-Free Alternates (LFAs) that are downstream paths, may be preferred when available. See the "Operational Considerations" section of [RFC7812] for a more detailed discussion of combining MRT alternates with those produced by other FRR technologies. [E]---[D]---| [E]<--[D]<--| [E]-->[D]---| | | | | ^ | | | | | | V | | V V [R] [F] [C] [R] [F] [C] [R] [F] [C] | | | ^ ^ ^ | | | | | | | | V | [A]---[B]---| [A]-->[B]---| [A]<--[B]<--| (a) (b) (c) A 2-connected graph MRT-Blue towards R MRT-Red towards R Figure 1 The MRT Lowpoint algorithm can handle arbitrary network topologies where the whole network graph is not 2-connected, as in Figure 2, as well as the easier case where the network graph is 2-connected (Figure 1). Each MRT is a spanning tree. The pair of MRTs provide two paths from every node X to the root of the MRTs. Those paths share the minimum number of nodes and the minimum number of links. Each such shared node is a cut-vertex. Any shared links are cut- links.

[E]---[D]---| |---[J] | | | | | | | | | | [R] [F] [C]---[G] | | | | | | | | | | | [A]---[B]---| |---[H] (a) a graph that is not 2-connected [E]<--[D]<--| [J] [E]-->[D]---| |---[J] | ^ | | | | | ^ V | | | V V V | [R] [F] [C]<--[G] | [R] [F] [C]<--[G] | ^ ^ ^ | ^ | | | | | | V | V | | [A]-->[B]---| |---[H] [A]<--[B]<--| [H] (b) MRT-Blue towards R (c) MRT-Red towards R Figure 2: A Network That Is Not 2-Connected 2. Requirements Language The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119]. 3. Terminology and Definitions Please see the Terminology section of [RFC7812] for a complete list of terminology relevant to this document. The list below does not repeat terminology introduced in that RFC. spanning tree: A tree that contains links and that connects all nodes in the network graph. back-edge: In the context of a spanning tree computed via a depth- first search, a back-edge is a link that connects a descendant of a node x with an ancestor of x. partial ADAG: A subset of an Almost Directed Acyclic Graph (ADAG) that doesn't yet contain all the nodes in the block. A partial ADAG is created during the MRT Lowpoint algorithm and then expanded until all nodes in the block are included and it becomes an ADAG. DFS: Depth-First Search

DFS ancestor: A node n is a DFS ancestor of x if n is on the DFS- tree path from the DFS root to x. DFS descendant: A node n is a DFS descendant of x if x is on the DFS-tree path from the DFS root to n. ear: A path along nodes that are not yet included in the Generalized ADAG (GADAG) that starts at a node that is already included in the GADAG and that ends at a node that is already included in the GADAG. The starting and ending nodes may be the same node if it is a cut-vertex. X>>Y or Y<<X: Indicates the relationship between X and Y in a partial order, such as found in a GADAG. X>>Y means that X is higher in the partial order than Y. Y<<X means that Y is lower in the partial order than X. X>Y or Y<X: Indicates the relationship between X and Y in the total order, such as found via a topological sort. X>Y means that X is higher in the total order than Y. Y<X means that Y is lower in the total order than X. X ?? Y: Indicates that X is unordered with respect to Y in the partial order. UNDIRECTED: In the GADAG, each link is marked as OUTGOING, INCOMING, or both. Until the directionality of the link is determined, the link is marked as UNDIRECTED to indicate that its direction hasn't been determined. OUTGOING: A link marked as OUTGOING has direction in the GADAG from the interface's router to the remote end. INCOMING: A link marked as INCOMING has direction in the GADAG from the remote end to the interface's router. 4. Algorithm Key Concepts There are five key concepts that are critical for understanding the MRT Lowpoint algorithm. The first is the idea of partially ordering the nodes in a network graph with regard to each other and to the GADAG root. The second is the idea of finding an ear of nodes and adding them in the correct direction. The third is the idea of a Lowpoint value and how it can be used to identify cut-vertices and to find a second path towards the root. The fourth is the idea that a non-2-connected graph is made up of blocks, where a block is a

2-connected cluster, a cut-link or an isolated node. The fifth is the idea of a localroot for each node; this is used to compute ADAGs in each block. 4.1. Partial Ordering for Disjoint Paths Given any two nodes X and Y in a graph, a particular total order means that either X<Y or X>Y in that total order. An example would be a graph where the nodes are ranked based upon their unique IP loopback addresses. In a partial order, there may be some nodes for which it can't be determined whether X<<Y or X>>Y. A partial order can be captured in a directed graph, as shown in Figure 3. In a graphical representation, a link directed from X to Y indicates that X is a neighbor of Y in the network graph and X<<Y. [A]<---[R] [E] R << A << B << C << D << E | ^ R << A << B << F << G << H << D << E | | V | Unspecified Relationships: [B]--->[C]--->[D] C and F | ^ C and G | | C and H V | [F]--->[G]--->[H] Figure 3: Directed Graph Showing a Partial Order To compute MRTs, the root of the MRTs is at both the very bottom and the very top of the partial ordering. This means that from any node X, one can pick nodes higher in the order until the root is reached. Similarly, from any node X, one can pick nodes lower in the order until the root is reached. For instance, in Figure 4, from G the higher nodes picked can be traced by following the directed links and are H, D, E, and R. Similarly, from G the lower nodes picked can be traced by reversing the directed links and are F, B, A, and R. A graph that represents this modified partial order is no longer a DAG; it is termed an Almost DAG (ADAG) because if the links directed to the root were removed, it would be a DAG.

[A]<---[R]<---[E] R << A << B << C << R | ^ ^ R << A << B << C << D << E << R | | | R << A << B << F << G << H << D << E << R V | | [B]--->[C]--->[D] Unspecified Relationships: | ^ C and F | | C and G V | C and H [F]--->[G]--->[H] Figure 4: ADAG Showing a Partial Order with R Lowest and Highest Most importantly, if a node Y>>X, then Y can only appear on the increasing path from X to the root and never on the decreasing path. Similarly, if a node Z<<X, then Z can only appear on the decreasing path from X to the root and never on the increasing path. When following the increasing paths, it is possible to pick multiple higher nodes and still have the certainty that those paths will be disjoint from the decreasing paths. For example, in the previous example, node B has multiple possibilities to forward packets along an increasing path: it can either forward packets to C or F. 4.2. Finding an Ear and the Correct Direction For simplicity, the basic idea of creating a GADAG by adding ears is described assuming that the network graph is a single 2-connected cluster so that an ADAG is sufficient. Generalizing to multiple blocks is done by considering the block-roots instead of the GADAG root -- and the actual algorithm is given in Section 5.5. In order to understand the basic idea of finding an ADAG, first suppose that we have already a partial ADAG, which doesn't contain all the nodes in the block yet, and we want to extend it to cover all the nodes. Suppose that we find a path from a node X to Y such that X and Y are already contained by our partial ADAG, but all the remaining nodes along the path are not added to the ADAG yet. We refer to such a path as an "ear". Recall that our ADAG is closely related to a partial order. More precisely, if we remove root R, the remaining DAG describes a partial order of the nodes. If we suppose that neither X nor Y is the root, we may be able to compare them. If one of them is definitely lesser with respect to our partial order (say X<<Y), we can add the new path to the ADAG in a direction from X to Y. As an example, consider Figure 5.

E---D---| E<--D---| E<--D<--| | | | | ^ | | ^ | | | | V | | V | | R F C R F C R F C | | | | ^ | | ^ ^ | | | V | | V | | A---B---| A-->B---| A-->B---| (a) (b) (c) (a) A 2-connected graph (b) Partial ADAG (C is not included) (c) Resulting ADAG after adding path (or ear) B-C-D Figure 5 In this partial ADAG, node C is not yet included. However, we can find path B-C-D, where both endpoints are contained by this partial ADAG (we say those nodes are "ready" in the following text), and the remaining node (node C) is not contained yet. If we remove R, the remaining DAG defines a partial order, and with respect to this partial order, we can say that B<<D; so, we can add the path to the ADAG in the direction from B to D (arcs B->C and C->D are added). If B>>D, we would add the same path in reverse direction. If, in the partial order where an ear's two ends are X and Y, X<<Y, then there must already be a directed path from X to Y in the ADAG. The ear must be added in a direction such that it doesn't create a cycle; therefore, the ear must go from X to Y. In the case when X and Y are not ordered with each other, we can select either direction for the ear. We have no restriction since neither of the directions can result in a cycle. In the corner case when one of the endpoints of an ear, say X, is the root (recall that the two endpoints must be different), we could use both directions again for the ear because the root can be considered both as smaller and as greater than Y. However, we strictly pick that direction in which the root is lower than Y. The logic for this decision is explained in Section 5.7 A partial ADAG is started by finding a cycle from the root R back to itself. This can be done by selecting a non-ready neighbor N of R and then finding a path from N to R that doesn't use any links between R and N. The direction of the cycle can be assigned either way since it is starting the ordering.

Once a partial ADAG is already present, it will always have a node that is not the root R in it. The following is a brief proof that a partial ADAG can always have ears added to it: just select a non- ready neighbor N of a ready node Q, such that Q is not the root R, find a path from N to the root R in the graph with Q removed. This path is an ear where the first node of the ear is Q, the next is N, then the path until the first ready node the path reached (that ready node is the other endpoint of the path). Since the graph is 2-connected, there must be a path from N to R without Q. It is always possible to select a non-ready neighbor N of a ready node Q so that Q is not the root R. Because the network is 2-connected, N must be connected to two different nodes and only one can be R. Because the initial cycle has already been added to the ADAG, there are ready nodes that are not R. Since the graph is 2-connected, while there are non-ready nodes, there must be a non- ready neighbor N of a ready node that is not R. Generic_Find_Ears_ADAG(root) Create an empty ADAG. Add root to the ADAG. Mark root as IN_GADAG. Select an arbitrary cycle containing root. Add the arbitrary cycle to the ADAG. Mark cycle's nodes as IN_GADAG. Add cycle's non-root nodes to process_list. While there exist connected nodes in graph that are not IN_GADAG Select a new ear. Let its endpoints be X and Y. If Y is root or (Y<<X) Add the ear towards X to the ADAG Else // (a) X is root, or (b) X<<Y, or (c) X, Y not ordered Add the ear towards Y to the ADAG Figure 6: Generic Algorithm to Find Ears and Their Direction in 2-Connected Graph The algorithm in Figure 6 merely requires that a cycle or ear be selected without specifying how. Regardless of the method for selecting the path, we will get an ADAG. The method used for finding and selecting the ears is important; shorter ears result in shorter paths along the MRTs. The MRT Lowpoint algorithm uses the Lowpoint Inheritance method for constructing an ADAG (and ultimately a GADAG). This method is defined in Section 5.5. Other methods for constructing GADAGs are described in Appendices B and C. An evaluation of these different methods is given in Section 8. As an example, consider Figure 5 again. First, we select the shortest cycle containing R, which can be R-A-B-F-D-E (uniform link costs were assumed), so we get to the situation depicted in

Figure 5(b). Finally, we find a node next to a ready node; that must be node C and assume we reached it from ready node B. We search a path from C to R without B in the original graph. The first ready node along this is node D, so the open ear is B-C-D. Since B<<D, we add arc B->C and C->D to the ADAG. Since all the nodes are ready, we stop at this point. 4.3. Lowpoint Values and Their Uses A basic way of computing a spanning tree on a network graph is to run a DFS, such as given in Figure 7. This tree has the important property that if there is a link (x, n), then either n is a DFS ancestor of x or n is a DFS descendant of x. In other words, either n is on the path from the root to x or x is on the path from the root to n. global_variable: dfs_number DFS_Visit(node x, node parent) D(x) = dfs_number dfs_number += 1 x.dfs_parent = parent for each link (x, w) if D(w) is not set DFS_Visit(w, x) Run_DFS(node gadag_root) dfs_number = 0 DFS_Visit(gadag_root, NONE) Figure 7: Basic DFS Algorithm Given a node x, one can compute the minimal DFS number of the neighbors of x, i.e., min( D(w) if (x,w) is a link). This gives the earliest attachment point neighboring x. What is interesting, though, is the earliest attachment point from x and x's descendants. This is what is determined by computing the Lowpoint value. In order to compute the low point value, the network is traversed using DFS and the vertices are numbered based on the DFS walk. Let this number be represented as DFS(x). All the edges that lead to already-visited nodes during DFS walk are back-edges. The back-edges are important because they give information about reachability of a node via another path.

The low point number is calculated by finding: Low(x) = Minimum of ( (DFS(x), Lowest DFS(n, x->n is a back-edge), Lowest Low(n, x->n is tree edge in DFS walk) ). A detailed algorithm for computing the lowpoint value is given in Figure 8. Figure 9 illustrates how the Lowpoint algorithm applies to an example graph. global_variable: dfs_number Lowpoint_Visit(node x, node parent, interface p_to_x) D(x) = dfs_number L(x) = D(x) dfs_number += 1 x.dfs_parent = parent x.dfs_parent_intf = p_to_x.remote_intf x.lowpoint_parent = NONE for each ordered_interface intf of x if D(intf.remote_node) is not set Lowpoint_Visit(intf.remote_node, x, intf) if L(intf.remote_node) < L(x) L(x) = L(intf.remote_node) x.lowpoint_parent = intf.remote_node x.lowpoint_parent_intf = intf else if intf.remote_node is not parent if D(intf.remote_node) < L(x) L(x) = D(intf.remote_node) x.lowpoint_parent = intf.remote_node x.lowpoint_parent_intf = intf Run_Lowpoint(node gadag_root) dfs_number = 0 Lowpoint_Visit(gadag_root, NONE, NONE) Figure 8: Computing Lowpoint Value

[E]---| [J]-------[I] [P]---[O] | | | | | | | | | | | | [R] [D]---[C]--[F] [H]---[K] [N] | | | | | | | | | | | | [A]--------[B] [G]---| [L]---[M] (a) a non-2-connected graph [E]----| [J]---------[I] [P]------[O] (5, ) | (10, ) (9, ) (16, ) (15, ) | | | | | | | | | | | | [R] [D]---[C]---[F] [H]----[K] [N] (0, ) (4, ) (3, ) (6, ) (8, ) (11, ) (14, ) | | | | | | | | | | | | [A]---------[B] [G]----| [L]------[M] (1, ) (2, ) (7, ) (12, ) (13, ) (b) with DFS values assigned (D(x), L(x)) [E]----| [J]---------[I] [P]------[O] (5,0) | (10,3) (9,3) (16,11) (15,11) | | | | | | | | | | | | [R] [D]---[C]---[F] [H]----[K] [N] (0,0) (4,0) (3,0) (6,3) (8,3) (11,11) (14,11) | | | | | | | | | | | | [A]---------[B] [G]----| [L]------[M] (1,0) (2,0) (7,3) (12,11) (13,11) (c) with lowpoint values assigned (D(x), L(x)) Figure 9: Example Lowpoint Value Computation From the lowpoint value and lowpoint parent, there are three very useful things that motivate our computation. First, if there is a child c of x such that L(c) >= D(x), then there are no paths in the network graph that go from c or its descendants to an ancestor of x; therefore, x is a cut-vertex. In Figure 9, this can be seen by looking at the DFS children of C. C has two children, D and F and L(F) = 3 = D(C); so, it is clear that C is a cut-vertex and F is in a block where C is the block's root. L(D) = 0<3 = D(C), so D has a path to the ancestors of C; in this case, D can go via E

to reach R. Comparing the lowpoint values of all a node's DFS- children with the node's DFS-value is very useful because it allows identification of the cut-vertices and thus the blocks. Second, by repeatedly following the path given by lowpoint_parent, there is a path from x back to an ancestor of x that does not use the link [x, x.dfs_parent] in either direction. The full path need not be taken, but this gives a way of finding an initial cycle and then ears. Third, as seen in Figure 9, even if L(x)<D(x), there may be a block that contains both the root and a DFS-child of a node while other DFS-children might be in different blocks. In this example, C's child D is in the same block as R while F is not. It is important to realize that the root of a block may also be the root of another block. 4.4. Blocks in a Graph A key idea for the MRT Lowpoint algorithm is that any non-2-connected graph is made up by blocks (e.g., 2-connected clusters, cut-links, and/or isolated nodes). To compute GADAGs and thus MRTs, computation is done in each block to compute ADAGs or Redundant Trees and then those ADAGs or Redundant Trees are combined into a GADAG or MRT.

[E]---| [J]-------[I] [P]---[O] | | | | | | | | | | | | [R] [D]---[C]--[F] [H]---[K] [N] | | | | | | | | | | | | [A]--------[B] [G]---| [L]---[M] (a) A graph with four blocks: three 2-connected clusters and one cut-link [E]<--| [J]<------[I] [P]<--[O] | | | ^ | ^ V | V | V | [R] [D]<--[C] [F] [H]<---[K] [N] ^ | ^ ^ | V | | [A]------->[B] [G]---| [L]-->[M] (b) MRT-Blue for destination R [E]---| [J]-------->[I] [P]-->[O] | | | V V V [R] [D]-->[C]<---[F] [H]<---[K] [N] ^ | ^ | ^ | | V | | | V [A]<-------[B] [G]<--| [L]<--[M] (c) MRT-Red for destination R Figure 10 Consider the example depicted in Figure 10 (a). In this figure, a special graph is presented, showing us all the ways 2-connected clusters can be connected. It has four blocks: block 1 contains R, A, B, C, D, E; block 2 contains C, F, G, H, I, J; block 3 contains K, L, M, N, O, P; and block 4 is a cut-link containing H and K. As can be observed, the first two blocks have one common node (node C) and blocks 2 and 3 do not have any common node, but they are connected through a cut-link that is block 4. No two blocks can have more than one common node, since two blocks with at least two common nodes would qualify as a single 2-connected cluster.

Moreover, observe that if we want to get from one block to another, we must use a cut-vertex (the cut-vertices in this graph are C, H, K), regardless of the path selected, so we can say that all the paths from block 3 along the MRTs rooted at R will cross K first. This observation means that if we want to find a pair of MRTs rooted at R, then we need to build up a pair of RTs in block 3 with K as a root. Similarly, we need to find another pair of RTs in block 2 with C as a root, and finally, we need the last pair of RTs in block 1 with R as a root. When all the trees are selected, we can simply combine them; when a block is a cut-link (as in block 4), that cut-link is added in the same direction to both of the trees. The resulting trees are depicted in Figure 10 (b) and (c). Similarly, to create a GADAG it is sufficient to compute ADAGs in each block and connect them. It is necessary, therefore, to identify the cut-vertices, the blocks and identify the appropriate localroot to use for each block. 4.5. Determining Localroot and Assigning Block-ID Each node in a network graph has a localroot, which is the cut-vertex (or root) in the same block that is closest to the root. The localroot is used to determine whether two nodes share a common block. Compute_Localroot(node x, node localroot) x.localroot = localroot for each DFS child node c of x if L(c) < D(x) //x is not a cut-vertex Compute_Localroot(c, x.localroot) else mark x as cut-vertex Compute_Localroot(c, x) Compute_Localroot(gadag_root, gadag_root) Figure 11: A Method for Computing Localroots There are two different ways of computing the localroot for each node. The stand-alone method is given in Figure 11 and better illustrates the concept; it is used by the GADAG construction methods given in Appendices B and C. The MRT Lowpoint algorithm computes the localroot for a block as part of computing the GADAG using lowpoint inheritance; the essence of this computation is given in Figure 12. Both methods for computing the localroot produce the same results.

Get the current node, s. Compute an ear (either through lowpoint inheritance or by following dfs parents) from s to a ready node e. (Thus, s is not e, if there is such ear.) if s is e for each node x in the ear that is not s x.localroot = s else for each node x in the ear that is not s or e x.localroot = e.localroot Figure 12: Ear-Based Method for Computing Localroots Once the localroots are known, two nodes X and Y are in a common block if and only if one of the following three conditions apply. o Y's localroot is X's localroot : They are in the same block and neither is the cut-vertex closest to the root. o Y's localroot is X: X is the cut-vertex closest to the root for Y's block o Y is X's localroot: Y is the cut-vertex closest to the root for X's block Once we have computed the localroot for each node in the network graph, we can assign for each node, a Block-ID that represents the block in which the node is present. This computation is shown in Figure 13. global_var: max_block_id Assign_Block_ID(x, cur_block_id) x.block_id = cur_block_id foreach DFS child c of x if (c.local_root is x) max_block_id += 1 Assign_Block_ID(c, max_block_id) else Assign_Block_ID(c, cur_block_id) max_block_id = 0 Assign_Block_ID(gadag_root, max_block_id) Figure 13: Assigning Block-ID to Identify Blocks