Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) S. Perreault Request for Comments: 7659 Jive Communications Category: Standards Track T. Tsou ISSN: 2070-1721 Huawei Technologies S. Sivakumar Cisco Systems T. Taylor PT Taylor Consulting October 2015 Definitions of Managed Objects for Network Address Translators (NATs) Abstract This memo defines a portion of the Management Information Base (MIB) for devices implementing the Network Address Translator (NAT) function. The new MIB module defined in this document, NATV2-MIB, is intended to replace module NAT-MIB (RFC 4008). NATV2-MIB is not backwards compatible with NAT-MIB, for reasons given in the text of this document. A companion document deprecates all objects in NAT- MIB. NATV2-MIB can be used for the monitoring of NAT instances on a device capable of NAT function. Compliance levels are defined for three application scenarios: basic NAT, pooled NAT, and carrier-grade NAT (CGN). Status of This Memo This is an Internet Standards Track document. This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). It represents the consensus of the IETF community. It has received public review and has been approved for publication by the Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG). Further information on Internet Standards is available in Section 2 of RFC 5741. Information about the current status of this document, any errata, and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7659.
Copyright Notice Copyright (c) 2015 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the document authors. All rights reserved. This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal Provisions Relating to IETF Documents (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of publication of this document. Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as described in the Simplified BSD License. Table of Contents 1. The Internet-Standard Management Framework . . . . . . . . . 3 2. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3. Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.1. Content Provided by the NATV2-MIB Module . . . . . . . . 5 3.1.1. Configuration Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.1.2. Notifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3.1.3. State Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.1.4. Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.2. Outline of MIB Module Organization . . . . . . . . . . . 12 3.3. Detailed MIB Module Walk-Through . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 3.3.1. Textual Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 3.3.2. Notifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 3.3.3. The Subscriber Table: natv2SubscriberTable . . . . . 14 3.3.4. The Instance Table: natv2InstanceTable . . . . . . . 15 3.3.5. The Protocol Table: natv2ProtocolTable . . . . . . . 15 3.3.6. The Address Pool Table: natv2PoolTable . . . . . . . 16 3.3.7. The Address Pool Address Range Table: natv2PoolRangeTable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 3.3.8. The Address Map Table: natv2AddressMapTable . . . . . 17 3.3.9. The Port Map Table: natv2PortMapTable . . . . . . . . 17 3.4. Conformance: Three Application Scenarios . . . . . . . . 18 4. Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 5. Operational and Management Considerations . . . . . . . . . . 74 5.1. Configuration Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 5.2. Transition from and Coexistence with NAT-MIB (RFC 4008) . 76 6. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 7. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 8. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 8.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 8.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
1. The Internet-Standard Management Framework For a detailed overview of the documents that describe the current Internet-Standard Management Framework, please refer to section 7 of RFC 3410 [RFC3410]. Managed objects are accessed via a virtual information store, termed the Management Information Base or MIB. MIB objects are generally accessed through the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). Objects in the MIB are defined using the mechanisms defined in the Structure of Management Information (SMI). This memo specifies a MIB module that is compliant to the SMIv2, which is described in STD 58, RFC 2578 [RFC2578], STD 58, RFC 2579 [RFC2579] and STD 58, RFC 2580 [RFC2580]. 2. Introduction This memo defines a portion of the Management Information Base (MIB) for devices implementing NAT functions. This MIB module, NATV2-MIB, may be used for the monitoring of such devices. NATV2-MIB supersedes NAT-MIB [RFC4008], which did not fit well with existing NAT implementations, and hence was not itself much implemented. [RFC7658] provides a detailed analysis of the deficiencies of NAT-MIB. Relative to [RFC4008] and based on the analysis just mentioned, the present document introduces the following changes: o removed all writable configuration except that related to control of the generation of notifications and the setting of quotas on the use of NAT resources; o minimized the read-only exposure of configuration to what is needed to provide context for the state and statistical information presented by the MIB module; o removed the association between mapping and interfaces, retaining only the mapping aspect; o replaced references to NAT types with references to NAT behaviors as specified in [RFC4787]; o replaced a module-specific enumeration of protocols with the standard protocol numbers provided by the IANA Protocol Numbers registry.
This MIB module adds the following features not present in [RFC4008]: o additional writable protective limits on NAT state data; o additional objects to report state, statistics, and notifications; o support for the carrier-grade NAT (CGN) application, including subscriber-awareness, support for an arbitrary number of address realms, and support for multiple NAT instances running on a single device; o expanded support for address pools; o revised indexing of port map entries to simplify traceback from externally observable packet parameters to the corresponding internal endpoint. These features are described in more detail below. The remainder of this document is organized as follows: o Section 3 provides a verbal description of the content and organization of the MIB module. o Section 4 provides the MIB module definition. o Section 5 discusses operational and management issues relating to the deployment of NATV2-MIB. One of these issues is NAT management when both NAT-MIB [RFC4008] and NATV2-MIB are deployed. o Sections 6 and 7 provide a security discussion and a request to IANA for allocation of an object identifier for the module in the mib-2 tree, respectively. The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119]. This document uses the following terminology: Upper-layer protocol: The protocol following the outer IP header of a packet. This follows the terminology of [RFC2460], but as that document points out, "upper" is not necessarily a correct description of the protocol relationships (e.g., where IP is encapsulated in IP). The abbreviated term "protocol" will often be used where it is unambiguous.
Trigger: With respect to notifications, the logical recognition of the event that the notification is intended to report. Report: The actual production of a notification message. Reporting can happen later than triggering, or may never happen for a given notification instance, because of the operation of notification rate controls. Address realm: A network domain in which the network addresses are uniquely assigned to entities such that datagrams can be routed to them. (Definition taken from [RFC2663], Section 2.1.) The abbreviated term "realm" will often be used. 3. Overview This section provides a prose description of the contents and organization of the NATV2-MIB module. 3.1. Content Provided by the NATV2-MIB Module The content provided by the NATV2-MIB module can be classed under four headings: configuration data, notifications, state information, and statistics. 3.1.1. Configuration Data As mentioned above, the intent in designing the NATV2-MIB module was to minimize the amount of configuration data presented to that needed to give a context for interpreting the other types of information provided. Detailed descriptions of the configuration data are included with the descriptions of the individual tables. In general, that data is limited to what is needed for indexing and cross- referencing between tables. The two exceptions are the objects describing NAT instance behavior in the NAT instance table and the detailed enumeration of resources allocated to each address pool in the pool table and its extension. The NATV2-MIB module provides three sets of read-write objects, specifically related to other aspects of the module content. The first set controls the rate at which specific notifications are generated. The second set provides thresholds used to trigger the notifications. These objects are listed in Section 3.1.2. A third set of read-write objects sets limits on resource consumption per NAT instance and per subscriber. When these limits are reached, packets requiring further consumption of the given resource are
dropped rather than translated. Statistics described in Section 3.1.4 record the numbers of packets dropped. Limits are provided for: o total number of address map entries over the NAT instance. Limit is set by object natv2InstanceLimitAddressMapEntries in table natv2InstanceTable. Dropped packets are counted in natv2InstanceAddressMapEntryLimitDrops in that table. o total number of port map entries over the NAT instance. Limit is set by object natv2InstanceLimitPortMapEntries in table natv2InstanceTable. Dropped packets are counted in natv2InstancePortMapEntryLimitDrops in that table. o total number of held fragments (applicable only when the NAT instance can receive fragments out of order; see [RFC4787], Section 11). Limit is set by object natv2InstanceLimitPendingFragments in table natv2InstanceTable. Dropped packets are counted by natv2InstanceFragmentDrops in the same table. o total number of active subscribers (i.e., subscribers having at least one mapping table entry) over the NAT instance. Limit is set by object natv2InstanceLimitSubscriberActives in table natv2InstanceTable. Dropped packets are counted by natv2InstanceSubscriberActiveLimitDrops in the same table. o number of port map entries for an individual subscriber. Limit is set by object natv2SubscriberLimitPortMapEntries in table natv2SubscriberTable. Dropped packets are counted by natv2SubscriberPortMapFailureDrops in the same table. Note that, unlike in the instance table, the per-subscriber count is lumped in with the count of packets dropped because of failures to allocate a port map entry for other reasons to save on storage. 3.1.2. Notifications NATV2-MIB provides five notifications, intended to provide warning of the need to provision or reallocate NAT resources. As indicated in the previous section, each notification is associated with two read- write objects: a control on the rate at which that notification is generated and a threshold value used to trigger the notification in the first place. The default setting within the MIB module specification is that all notifications are disabled. The setting of threshold values is discussed in Section 5.
The five notifications are as follows: o Two notifications relate to the management of address pools. One indicates that usage equals or exceeds an upper threshold and is therefore a warning that the pool may be over-utilized unless more addresses are assigned to it. The other notification indicates that usage equals or has fallen below a lower threshold, suggesting that some addresses allocated to that pool could be reallocated to other pools. Address pool usage is calculated as the percentage of the total number of ports allocated to the address pool that are already in use, for the most-mapped protocol at the time the notification is generated. The notifications identify that protocol and report the number of port map entries for that protocol in the given address pool at the moment the notification was triggered. o Two notifications relate to the number of address and port map entries, respectively, in total over the whole NAT instance. In both cases, the threshold that triggers the notification is an upper threshold. The notifications return the number of mapping entries of the given type, plus a cumulative counter of the number of entries created in that mapping table at the moment the notification was triggered. The intent is that the notifications provide a warning that the total number of address or port map entries is approaching the configured limit. o The final notification is generated on a per-subscriber basis when the number of port map entries for that subscriber crosses the associated threshold. The objects returned by this notification are similar to those returned for the instance-level mapping notifications. This notification is a warning that the number of port map entries for the subscriber is approaching the configured limit for that subscriber. Here is a detailed specification of the notifications. A given notification can be disabled by setting the threshold to -1 (default). Notification: natv2NotificationPoolUsageLow. Indicates that address pool usage for the most-mapped protocol equals or is less than the threshold value. Compared value: natv2PoolNotifiedPortMapEntries as a percentage of total available ports in the pool. Threshold: natv2PoolThresholdUsageLow in natv2PoolTable.
Objects returned: natv2PoolNotifiedPortMapEntries and natv2PoolNotifiedPortMapProtocol in natv2PoolTable. Rate control: natv2PoolNotificationInterval in natv2PoolTable. Notification: natv2NotificationPoolUsageHigh. Indicates that address pool usage for the most-mapped protocol has risen to the threshold value or more. Compared value: natv2PoolNotifiedPortMapEntries as a percentage of total available ports in the pool. Threshold: natv2PoolThresholdUsageHigh in natv2PoolTable. Objects returned: natv2PoolNotifiedPortMapEntries and natv2PoolNotifiedPortMapProtocol in natv2PoolTable. Rate control: natv2PoolNotificationInterval in natv2PoolTable. Notification: natv2NotificationInstanceAddressMapEntriesHigh. Indicates that the total number of entries in the address map table over the whole NAT instance equals or exceeds the threshold value. Compared value: natv2InstanceAddressMapEntries in natv2InstanceTable. Threshold: natv2InstanceThresholdAddressMapEntriesHigh in natv2InstanceTable. Objects returned: natv2InstanceAddressMapEntries and natv2InstanceAddressMapCreations in natv2InstanceTable. Rate control: natv2InstanceNotificationInterval in natv2InstanceTable. Notification: natv2NotificationInstancePortMapEntriesHigh. Indicates that the total number of entries in the port map table over the whole NAT instance equals or exceeds the threshold value. Compared value: natv2InstancePortMapEntries in natv2InstanceTable. Threshold: natv2InstanceThresholdPortMapEntriesHigh in natv2InstanceTable. Objects returned: natv2InstancePortMapEntries and natv2InstancePortMapCreations in natv2InstanceTable.
Rate control: natv2InstanceNotificationInterval in natv2InstanceTable. Notification: natv2NotificationSubscriberPortMapEntriesHigh. Indicates that the total number of entries in the port map table for the given subscriber equals or exceeds the threshold value configured for that subscriber. Compared value: natv2SubscriberPortMapEntries in natv2SubscriberTable. Threshold: natv2SubscriberThresholdPortMapEntriesHigh in natv2SubscriberTable. Objects returned: natv2SubscriberPortMapEntries and natv2SubscriberPortMapCreations in natv2SubscriberTable. Rate control: natv2SubscriberNotificationInterval in natv2SubscriberTable. 3.1.3. State Information State information provides a snapshot of the content and extent of the NAT mapping tables at a given moment of time. The address and port mapping tables are described in detail below. In addition to these tables, two state variables are provided: current number of entries in the address mapping table, and current number of entries in the port mapping table. With one exception, these are provided at four levels of granularity: per NAT instance, per protocol, per address pool, and per subscriber. Address map entries are not tracked per protocol, since address mapping is protocol independent. 3.1.4. Statistics NATV2-MIB provides a number of counters, intended to help with both the provisioning of the NAT and the debugging of problems. As with the state data, these counters are provided at the four levels of NAT instance, protocol, address pool, and subscriber when they make sense. Each counter is cumulative, beginning from a "last discontinuity time" recorded by an object that is usually in the table containing the counter. The basic set of counters, as reflected in the NAT instance table, is as follows: Translations: number of packets processed and translated (in this case, in total for the NAT instance).
Address map entry creations: cumulative number of address map entries created, including static mappings. Port map entry creations: cumulative number of port map entries created, including static mappings. Address map limit drops: cumulative number of packets dropped rather than translated because the packet would have triggered the creation of a new address mapping, but the configured limit on number of address map entries has already been reached. Port map limit drops: cumulative number of packets dropped rather than translated because the packet would have triggered the creation of a new port mapping, but the configured limit on number of port map entries has already been reached. Active subscriber limit drops: cumulative number of packets dropped rather than translated because the packet would have triggered the creation of a new address and/or port mapping for a subscriber with no existing entries in either table, but the configured limit on number of active subscribers has already been reached. Address mapping failure drops: cumulative number of packets dropped because the packet would have triggered the creation of a new address mapping, but no address could be allocated in the external realm concerned because all addresses from the selected address pool (or the whole realm, if no address pool has been configured for that realm) have already been fully allocated. Port mapping failure drops: cumulative number of packets dropped because the packet would have triggered the creation of a new port mapping, but no port could be allocated for the protocol concerned. The precise conditions under which these packet drops occur depend on the pooling behavior [RFC4787] configured or implemented in the NAT instance. See the DESCRIPTION clause for the natv2InstancePortMapFailureDrops object for a detailed description of the different cases. These cases were defined with care to ensure that address mapping failure could be distinguished from port mapping failure. Fragment drops: cumulative number of packets dropped because the packet contains a fragment, and the fragment behavior [RFC4787] configured or implemented in the NAT instance indicates that the packet should be dropped. The main case is a NAT instance that meets REQ-14 of [RFC4787], hence it can receive and process out- of-order fragments. In that case, dropping occurs only when the
configured limit on pending fragments provided by NATV2-MIB has already been reached. The other cases are detailed in the DESCRIPTION clause of the natv2InstanceFragmentBehavior object. Other resource drops: cumulative number of packets dropped because of unavailability of some other resource. The most likely case would be packets where the upper-layer protocol is not one supported by the NAT instance. Table 1 indicates the granularities at which these statistics are reported. +-----------------------+------------+----------+------+------------+ | Statistic | NAT | Protocol | Pool | Subscriber | | | Instance | | | | +-----------------------+------------+----------+------+------------+ | Translations | Yes | Yes | No | Yes | | | | | | | | Address map entry | Yes | No | Yes | Yes | | creations | | | | | | | | | | | | Port map entry | Yes | Yes | Yes | Yes | | creations | | | | | | | | | | | | Address map limit | Yes | No | No | No | | drops | | | | | | | | | | | | Port map limit drops | Yes | No | No | Yes | | | | | | | | Active subscriber | Yes | No | No | No | | limit drops | | | | | | | | | | | | Address mapping | Yes | No | Yes | Yes | | failure drops | | | | | | | | | | | | Port mapping failure | Yes | Yes | Yes | Yes | | drops | | | | | | | | | | | | Fragment drops | Yes | No | No | No | | | | | | | | Other resource drops | Yes | No | No | No | +-----------------------+------------+----------+------+------------+ Table 1: Statistics Provided By Level of Granularity
3.2. Outline of MIB Module Organization Figure 1 shows how object identifiers are organized in the NATV2-MIB module. Under the general natv2MIB object identifier in the mib-2 tree, the objects are classed into four groups: natv2MIBNotifications(0): identifies the five notifications described in Section 3.1.2. natv2MIBDeviceObjects(1): identifies objects relating to the whole device, specifically, the subscriber table. natv2MIBInstanceObjects(2): identifies objects relating to individual NAT instances. These include the NAT instance table, the protocol table, the address pool table and its address range expansion, the address map table, and the port map table. natv2MIBConformance(3): identifies the group and compliance clauses, specified for the three application scenarios described in Section 3.4.
natv2MIB | +-------------+-------------+-------------+ | | | | | | | 0 | | | natv2MIBNotifications | | | | | | | 1 | | | natv2MIBDeviceObjects | | Five | | notifications | 2 | | natv2MIBInstanceObjects | | | Subscriber | 3 table | natv2MIBConformance | | | | Six per-NAT- | instance tables | | +----------------------+------- | | | | 1 2 natv2MIBCompliances natv2MIBGroups | | | | Basic Basic pooled pooled carrier-grade NAT carrier-grade NAT Figure 1: Organization of Object Identifiers for NATV2-MIB 3.3. Detailed MIB Module Walk-Through This section reviews the contents of the NATV2-MIB module. The table descriptions include references to subsections of Section 3.1 where desirable to avoid repetition of that information. 3.3.1. Textual Conventions The module defines four key textual conventions: ProtocolNumber, Natv2SubscriberIndex, Natv2InstanceIndex, and Natv2PoolIndex. ProtocolNumber is based on the IANA registry of protocol numbers and hence is potentially reusable by other MIB modules.
Objects of type Natv2SubscriberIndex identify individual subscribers served by the NAT device. The values of these identifiers are administered and, in intent, are permanently associated with their respective subscribers. Reuse of a value after a subscriber has been deleted is discouraged. The scope of the subscriber index was defined to be at the device rather than the NAT instance level to make it easier to shift subscribers between instances (e.g., for load balancing). Objects of type Natv2InstanceIndex identify specific NAT instances on the device. Again, these are administered values intended to be permanently associated with the NAT instances to which they have been assigned. Objects of type Natv2PoolIndex identify individual address pools in a given NAT instance. As with the subscriber and instance index objects, the pool identifiers are administered and intended to be permanently associated with their respective pools. 3.3.2. Notifications Notifications were described in Section 3.1.2. 3.3.3. The Subscriber Table: natv2SubscriberTable Table natv2SubscriberTable is indexed by the subscriber index. One conceptual row contains information relating to a specific subscriber: the subscriber's internal address or prefix for correlation with other management information; state and statistical information as described in Sections 3.1.3 and 3.1.4; the per- subscriber control objects described in Section 3.1.1; and natv2SubscriberDiscontinuityTime, which provides a timestamp of the latest time following, which the statistics have accumulated without discontinuity. Turning back to the address information for a moment: this information includes the identity of the address realm in which the address is routable. That enables support of an arbitrary number of address realms on the same NAT instance. Address realm identifiers are administered values in the form of a limited-length SnmpAdminString. In the absence of configuration to the contrary, the default realm for all internal addresses as recorded in mapping entries is "internal". The term "address realm" is defined in [RFC2663], Section 2.1 and reused in subsequent NAT-related documents.
In the special case of Dual-Stack Lite (DS-Lite) [RFC6333], for unique matching of the subscriber data to other information in the MIB module, it is necessary that the address information should relate to the outer IPv6 header of packets going to or from the host, with the address realm being the one in which that IPv6 address is routable. The presentation of address information for other types of tunneled access to the NAT is out of scope. 3.3.4. The Instance Table: natv2InstanceTable Table natv2InstanceTable is indexed by an object of type Natv2InstanceIndex. A conceptual row of this table provides information relating to a particular NAT instance configured on the device. Configuration information provided by this table includes an instance name of type DisplayString that may have been configured for this instance and a set of objects indicating, respectively, the port mapping, filtering, pooling, and fragment behaviors configured or implemented in the instance. These behaviors are all defined in [RFC4787]. Their values affect the interpretation of some of the statistics provided in the instance table. Read-write objects listed in Section 3.1.2 set the notification rate for instance-level notifications and set the thresholds that trigger them. Additional read-write objects described in Section 3.1.1 set limits on the number of address and port mapping entries, number of pending fragments, and number of active subscribers for the instance. The state and statistical information provided by this table consists of the per-instance items described in Sections 3.1.3 and 3.1.4, respectively. natv2InstanceDiscontinuityTime is a timestamp giving the time beyond which all of the statistical counters in natv2InstanceTable are guaranteed to have accumulated continuously. 3.3.5. The Protocol Table: natv2ProtocolTable The protocol table is indexed by the NAT instance number and an object of type ProtocolNumber as described in Section 3.3.1 (i.e., an IANA-registered protocol number). The set of protocols supported by the NAT instance is implementation dependent, but they MUST include ICMP(1), TCP(6), UDP(17), and ICMPv6(58). Depending on the application, it SHOULD include IPv4 encapsulation(4), IPv6 encapsulation(41), IPsec AH(51), and SCTP(132). Support of PIM(103) is highly desirable.
This table includes no configuration information. The state and statistical information provided by this table consists of the per- protocol items described in Sections 3.1.3 and 3.1.4, respectively. natv2InstanceDiscontinuityTime in natv2InstanceTable is reused as the timestamp giving the time beyond which all of the statistical counters in natv2ProtocolTable are guaranteed to have accumulated continuously. The reasoning is that any event affecting the continuity of per-protocol statistics will affect the continuity of NAT instance statistics, and vice versa. 3.3.6. The Address Pool Table: natv2PoolTable The address pool table is indexed by the NAT instance identifier for the instance on which it is provisioned, plus a pool index of type Natv2PoolIndex. Configuration information provided includes the address realm for which the pool provides addresses, the type of address (IPv4 or IPv6) supported by the realm, plus the port range it makes available for allocation. The same set of port numbers (or, in the ICMP case, identifier values) is made available for every protocol supported by the NAT instance. The port range is specified in terms of minimum and maximum port number. The state and statistical information provided by this table consists of the per-pool items described in Sections 3.1.3 and 3.1.4 respectively, plus two additional state objects described below. natv2PoolTable provides the pool-specific object natv2PoolDiscontinuityTime to indicate the time since the statistical counters have accumulated continuously. Read-write objects to set high and low thresholds for pool usage notifications and for governing the notification rate were identified in Section 3.1.2. Implementation note: the thresholds are defined in terms of percentage of available port utilization. The number of available ports in a pool is equal to (max port - min port + 1) (from the natv2PoolTable configuration information) multiplied by the number of addresses provisioned in the pool (sum of number of addresses provided by each natv2PoolRangeTable conceptual row relating to that pool). At configuration time, the thresholds can be recalculated in terms of total number of port map entries corresponding to the configured percentage, so that runtime comparisons to the current number of port map entries require no further arithmetic operations. natv2PoolTable also provides two state objects that are returned with the notifications. natv2PoolNotifiedPortMapProtocol identifies the most-mapped protocol at the time the notification was triggered.
natv2PoolNotifiedPortMapEntries provides the total number of port map entries for that protocol using addresses owned by this pool at that same time. 3.3.7. The Address Pool Address Range Table: natv2PoolRangeTable natv2PoolRangeTable provides configuration information only. It is an expansion of natv2PoolTable giving the address ranges with which a given address pool has been configured. As such, it is indexed by the combination of NAT instance index, address pool index, and a conceptual row index, where each conceptual row conveys a different address range. The address range is specified in terms of lowest address, highest address rather than the usual prefix notation to provide maximum flexibility. 3.3.8. The Address Map Table: natv2AddressMapTable The address map table provides a table of mappings from internal to external address at a given moment. It is indexed by the combination of NAT instance index, internal realm, internal address type (IPv4 or IPv6) in that realm, the internal address of the local host for which the map entry was created, and a conceptual row index to traverse all of the entries relating to the same internal address. In the special case of DS-Lite [RFC6333], the internal address and realm used in the index are those of the IPv6 outer header. The IPv4 source address for the inner header, for which [RFC6333] has reserved addresses in the 192.0.0.0/29 range, is captured in two additional objects in the corresponding conceptual row: natv2AddressMapInternalMappedAddressType and natv2AddressMapInternalMappedAddress. In cases other than DS-Lite access, these objects have no meaning. (Other tunneled access is out of scope.) The additional information provided by natv2AddressMapTable consists of the external realm, address type in that realm, and mapped external address. Depending on implementation support, the table also provides the index of the address pool from which the external address was drawn and the index of the subscriber to which the map entry belongs. 3.3.9. The Port Map Table: natv2PortMapTable The port map table provides a table of mappings by protocol from external port, address, and realm to internal port, address, and realm. As such, it is indexed by the combination of NAT instance index, protocol number, external realm identifier, address type in that realm, external address, and external port. The mapping from
external realm, address, and port to internal realm, address, and port is unique, so no conceptual row index is needed. The indexing is designed to make it easy to trace individual sessions back to the host, based on the contents of packets observed in the external realm. Beyond the indexing, the information provided by the port map table consists of the internal realm, address type, address, and port number, and, depending on implementation support, the index of the subscriber to which the map entry belongs. As with the address map table, special provision is made for the case of DS-Lite [RFC6333]. The realm and outgoing source address are those for the outer header, and the address type is IPv6. Additional objects natv2PortMapInternalMappedAddressType and natv2PortMapInternalMappedAddress capture the outgoing source address in the inner header, which will be in the well-known 192.0.0.0/29 range. 3.4. Conformance: Three Application Scenarios The conformance statements in NATV2-MIB provide for three application scenarios: basic NAT, NAT supporting address pools, and CGN. A basic NAT MAY limit the number of NAT instances it supports to one, but it MUST support indexing by NAT instance. Similarly, a basic NAT MAY limit the number of realms it supports to two. By definition, a basic NAT is not required to support the subscriber table, the address pool table, or the address pool address range table. Some individual objects in other tables are also not relevant to basic NAT. A NAT supporting address pools adds the address pool table and the address pool address range table to what it implements. Some individual objects in other tables also need to be implemented. A NAT supporting address pools MUST support more than two realms. Finally, a CGN MUST support the full contents of the MIB module. That includes the subscriber table, but it also includes the special provision for DS-Lite access in the address and port map tables.