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RFC 1584

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Multicast Extensions to OSPF

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Network Working Group                                             J. Moy
Request for Comments: 1584                                 Proteon, Inc.
Category: Standards Track                                     March 1994

                      Multicast Extensions to OSPF

Status of this Memo

    This document specifies an Internet standards track protocol for the
    Internet community, and requests discussion and suggestions for
    improvements.  Please refer to the current edition of the "Internet
    Official Protocol Standards" (STD 1) for the standardization state
    and status of this protocol.  Distribution of this memo is


    This memo documents enhancements to the OSPF protocol enabling the
    routing of IP multicast datagrams. In this proposal, an IP multicast
    packet is routed based both on the packet's source and its multicast
    destination (commonly referred to as source/destination routing). As
    it is routed, the multicast packet follows a shortest path to each
    multicast destination. During packet forwarding, any commonality of
    paths is exploited; when multiple hosts belong to a single multicast
    group, a multicast packet will be replicated only when the paths to
    the separate hosts diverge.

    OSPF, a link-state routing protocol, provides a database describing
    the Autonomous System's topology. A new OSPF link state
    advertisement is added describing the location of multicast
    destinations. A multicast packet's path is then calculated by
    building a pruned shortest-path tree rooted at the packet's IP
    source. These trees are built on demand, and the results of the
    calculation are cached for use by subsequent packets.

    The multicast extensions are built on top of OSPF Version 2. The
    extensions have been implemented so that a multicast routing
    capability can be introduced piecemeal into an OSPF Version 2
    routing domain. Some of the OSPF Version 2 routers may run the
    multicast extensions, while others may continue to be restricted to
    the forwarding of regular IP traffic (unicasts).

    Please send comments to

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Table of Contents

    1       Introduction ........................................... 4
    1.1     Terminology ............................................ 5
    1.2     Acknowledgments ........................................ 6
    2       Multicast routing in MOSPF ............................. 6
    2.1     Routing characteristics ................................ 6
    2.2     Sample path of a multicast datagram .................... 8
    2.3     MOSPF forwarding mechanism ............................ 10
    2.3.1   IGMP interface: the local group database .............. 10
    2.3.2   A datagram's shortest-path tree ....................... 14
    2.3.3   Support for Non-broadcast networks .................... 16
    2.3.4   Details concerning forwarding cache entries ........... 16
    3       Inter-area multicasting ............................... 18
    3.1     Extent of group-membership-LSAs ....................... 19
    3.2     Building inter-area datagram shortest-path trees ...... 22
    4       Inter-AS multicasting ................................. 27
    4.1     Building inter-AS datagram shortest-path trees ........ 28
    4.2     Stub area behavior .................................... 30
    4.3     Inter-AS multicasting in a core Autonomous System ..... 31
    5       Modelling internal group membership ................... 31
    6       Additional capabilities ............................... 33
    6.1     Mixing with non-multicast routers ..................... 34
    6.2     TOS-based multicast ................................... 35
    6.3     Assigning multiple IP networks to a physical network .. 36
    6.4     Networks on Autonomous System boundaries .............. 37
    6.5     Recommended system configuration ...................... 38
    7       Basic implementation requirements ..................... 40
    8       Protocol data structures .............................. 40
    8.1     Additions to the OSPF area structure .................. 41
    8.2     Additions to the OSPF interface structure ............. 42
    8.3     Additions to the OSPF neighbor structure .............. 43
    8.4     The local group database .............................. 43
    8.5     The forwarding cache .................................. 44
    9       Interaction with the IGMP protocol .................... 45
    9.1     Sending IGMP Host Membership Queries .................. 46
    9.2     Receiving IGMP Host Membership Reports ................ 46
    9.3     Aging local group database entries .................... 47
    9.4     Receiving IGMP Host Membership Queries ................ 47
    10      Group-membership-LSAs ................................. 48
    10.1    Constructing group-membership-LSAs .................... 49
    10.2    Flooding group-membership-LSAs ........................ 52
    11      Detailed description of multicast datagram forwarding . 52
    11.1    Associating a MOSPF interface with a received datagram  55
    11.2    Locating the source network ........................... 55
    11.3    Forwarding locally originated multicasts .............. 57
    12      Construction of forwarding cache entries .............. 58
    12.1    The Vertex data structure ............................. 59

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    12.2    The SPF calculation ................................... 60
    12.2.1  Candidate list Initialization: Case SourceIntraArea ... 65
    12.2.2  Candidate list Initialization: Case SourceInterArea1 .. 66
    12.2.3  Candidate list Initialization: Case SourceInterArea2 .. 66
    12.2.4  Candidate list Initialization: Case SourceExternal .... 67
    12.2.5  Candidate list Initialization: Case SourceStubExternal  70
    12.2.6  Processing labelled vertices .......................... 70
    12.2.7  Merging datagram shortest-path trees .................. 71
    12.2.8  TOS considerations .................................... 72
    12.2.9  Comparison to the unicast SPF calculation ............. 74
    12.3    Adding local database entries to the forwarding cache   75
    13      Maintaining the forwarding cache ...................... 76
    14      Other additions to the OSPF specification ............. 77
    14.1    The Designated Router ................................. 77
    14.2    Sending Hello packets ................................. 78
    14.3    The Neighbor state machine ............................ 78
    14.4    Receiving Database Description packets ................ 78
    14.5    Sending Database Description packets .................. 79
    14.6    Originating Router-LSAs ............................... 79
    14.7    Originating Network-LSAs .............................. 79
    14.8    Originating Summary-link-LSAs ......................... 80
    14.9    Originating AS external-link-LSAs ..................... 80
    14.10   Next step in the flooding procedure ................... 81
    14.11   Virtual links ......................................... 81
    15      References ............................................ 83
            Footnotes ............................................. 84
    A.      Data Formats .......................................... 88
    A.1     The Options field ..................................... 89
    A.2     Router-LSA ............................................ 91
    A.3     Group-membership-LSA .................................. 93
    B.      Configurable Constants ................................ 95
    B.1     Global parameters ..................................... 95
    B.2     Router interface parameters ........................... 95
    C.      Sample datagram shortest-path trees ................... 97
    C.1     An intra-area tree .................................... 98
    C.2     The effect of areas .................................. 100
    C.3     The effect of virtual links .......................... 101
            Security Considerations .............................. 102
            Author's Address ..................................... 102

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1.  Introduction

    This memo documents enhancements to OSPF Version 2 to support IP
    multicast routing. The enhancements have been added in a backward-
    compatible fashion; routers running the multicast additions will
    interoperate with non-multicast OSPF routers when forwarding regular
    (unicast) IP data traffic. The protocol resulting from the addition
    of the multicast enhancements to OSPF is herein referred to as the
    MOSPF protocol.

    IP multicasting is an extension of LAN multicasting to a TCP/IP
    internet. Multicasting support for TCP/IP hosts has been specified
    in [RFC 1112]. In that document, multicast groups are represented by
    IP class D addresses. Individual TCP/IP hosts join (and leave)
    multicast groups through the Internet Group Management Protocol
    (IGMP, also specified in [RFC 1112]). A host need not be a member of
    a multicast group in order to send datagrams to the group. Multicast
    datagrams are to be delivered to each member of the multicast group
    with the same "best-effort" delivery accorded regular (unicast) IP
    data traffic.

    MOSPF provides the ability to forward multicast datagrams from one
    IP network to another (i.e., through internet routers). MOSPF
    forwards a multicast datagram on the basis of both the datagram's
    source and destination (this is sometimes called source/destination
    routing). The OSPF link state database provides a complete
    description of the Autonomous System's topology. By adding a new
    type of link state advertisement, the group-membership-LSA, the
    location of all multicast group members is pinpointed in the
    database. The path of a multicast datagram can then be calculated by
    building a shortest-path tree rooted at the datagram's source. All
    branches not containing multicast members are pruned from the tree.
    These pruned shortest-path trees are initially built when the first
    datagram is received (i.e., on demand).  The results of the shortest
    path calculation are then cached for use by subsequent datagrams
    having the same source and destination.

    OSPF allows an Autonomous System to be split into areas. However,
    when this is done complete knowledge of the Autonomous System's
    topology is lost. When forwarding multicasts between areas, only
    incomplete shortest-path trees can be built. This may lead to some
    inefficiency in routing. An analogous situation exists when the
    source of the multicast datagram lies in another Autonomous System.
    In both cases (i.e., the source of the datagram belongs to a
    different OSPF area, or to a different Autonomous system) the
    neighborhood immediately surrounding the source is unknown. In these
    cases the source's neighborhood is approximated by OSPF summary link
    advertisements or by OSPF AS external link advertisements

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    Routers running MOSPF can be intermixed with non-multicast OSPF
    routers. Both types of routers can interoperate when forwarding
    regular (unicast) IP data traffic. Obviously, the forwarding extent
    of IP multicasts is limited by the number of MOSPF routers present
    in the Autonomous System (and their interconnection, if any). An
    ability to "tunnel" multicast datagrams through non-multicast
    routers is not provided. In MOSPF, just as in the base OSPF
    protocol, datagrams (multicast or unicast) are routed "as is" --
    they are not further encapsulated or decapsulated as they transit
    the Autonomous System.

    1.1.  Terminology

        This memo uses the terminology listed in section 1.2 of [OSPF].
        For this reason, terms such as "Network", "Autonomous System"
        and "link state advertisement" are assumed to be understood. In
        addition, the abbreviation LSA is used for "link state
        advertisement". For example, router links advertisements are
        referred to as router-LSAs and the new link state advertisement
        describing the location of members of a multicast group is
        referred to as a group-membership-LSA.

        [RFC 1112] discusses the data-link encapsulation of IP multicast
        datagrams. In contrast to the normal forwarding of IP unicast
        datagrams, on a broadcast network the mapping of an IP multicast
        destination to a data-link destination address is not done with
        the ARP protocol. Instead, static mappings have been defined
        from IP multicast destinations to data-link addresses. These
        mappings are dependent on network type; for some networks IP
        multicasts are algorithmically mapped to data-link multicast
        addresses, for other networks all IP multicast destinations are
        mapped onto the data-link broadcast address. This document
        loosely describes both of these possible mappings as data-link

        The following terms are also used throughout this document:

        o   Non-multicast router. A router running OSPF Version 2, but
            not the multicast extensions. These routers do not forward
            multicast datagrams, but can interoperate with MOSPF routers
            in the forwarding of unicast packets. Routers running the
            MOSPF protocol are referred to herein as either multicast-
            capable routers or MOSPF routers.

        o   Non-broadcast networks. A network supporting the attachment
            of more than two stations, but not supporting the delivery

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            of a single physical datagram to multiple destinations
            (i.e., not supporting data-link multicast). [OSPF] describes
            these networks as non-broadcast, multi-access networks. An
            example of a non-broadcast network is an X.25 PDN.

        o   Transit network. A network having two or more OSPF routers
            attached.  These networks can forward data traffic that is
            neither locally-originated nor locally-destined. In OSPF,
            with the exception of point-to-point networks and virtual
            links, the neighborhood of each transit network is described
            by a network links advertisement (network-LSA).

        o   Stub network. A network having only a single OSPF router
            attached. A network belonging to an OSPF system is either a
            transit or a stub network, but never both.

    1.2.  Acknowledgments

        The multicast extensions to OSPF are based on Link-State
        Multicast Routing algorithm presented in [Deering]. In addition,
        the [Deering] paper contains a section on Hierarchical Multicast
        Routing (providing the ideas for MOSPF's inter-area multicasting
        scheme) and several Distance Vector (also called Bellman-Ford)
        multicast algorithms. One of these Distance Vector multicast
        algorithms, Truncated Reverse Path Broadcasting, has been
        implemented in the Internet (see [RFC 1075]).

        The MOSPF protocol has been developed by the MOSPF Working Group
        of the Internet Engineering Task Force. Portions of this work
        have been supported by DARPA under NASA contract NAG 2-650.

2.  Multicast routing in MOSPF

    This section describes MOSPF's basic multicast routing algorithm.
    The basic algorithm, run inside a single OSPF area, covers the case
    where the source of the multicast datagram is inside the area
    itself. Within the area, the path of the datagram forms a tree
    rooted at the datagram source.

    2.1.  Routing characteristics

        As a multicast datagram is forwarded along its shortest-path
        tree, the datagram is delivered to each member of the
        destination multicast group. In MOSPF, the forwarding of the
        multicast datagram has the following properties:

        o   The path taken by a multicast datagram depends both on the
            datagram's source and its multicast destination. Called

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            source/destination routing, this is in contrast to most
            unicast datagram forwarding algorithms (like OSPF) that
            route based solely on destination.

        o   The path taken between the datagram's source and any
            particular destination group member is the least cost path
            available. Cost is expressed in terms of the OSPF link-state
            metric. For example, if the OSPF metric represents delay, a
            minimum delay path is chosen. OSPF metrics are configurable.
            A metric is assigned to each outbound router interface,
            representing the cost of sending a packet on that interface.
            The cost of a path is the sum of its constituent (outbound)
            router interfaces[1].

        o   MOSPF takes advantage of any commonality of least cost paths
            to destination group members. However, when members of the
            multicast group are spread out over multiple networks, the
            multicast datagram must at times be replicated. This
            replication is performed as few times as possible (at the
            tree branches), taking maximum advantage of common path

        o   For a given multicast datagram, all routers calculate an
            identical shortest-path tree. There is a single path between
            the datagram's source and any particular destination group
            member. This means that, unlike OSPF's treatment of regular
            (unicast) IP data traffic, there is no provision for equal-
            cost multipath.

        o   On each packet hop, MOSPF normally forwards IP multicast
            datagrams as data-link multicasts. There are two exceptions.
            First, on non-broadcast networks, since there are no data-
            link multicast/broadcast services the datagram must be
            forwarded to specific MOSPF neighbors (see Section 2.3.3).
            Second, a MOSPF router can be configured to forward IP
            multicasts on specific networks as data-link unicasts, in
            order to avoid datagram replication in certain anomalous
            situations (see Section 6.4).

        While MOSPF optimizes the path to any given group member, it
        does not necessarily optimize the use of the internetwork as a
        whole. To do so, instead of calculating source-based shortest-
        path trees, something similar to a minimal spanning tree
        (containing only the group members) would need to be calculated.
        This type of minimal spanning tree is called a Steiner tree in
        the literature. For a comparison of shortest-path tree routing
        to routing using Steiner trees, see [Deering2] and [Bharath-

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    2.2.  Sample path of a multicast datagram

        As an example of multicast datagram routing in MOSPF, consider
        the sample Autonomous System pictured in Figure 1. This figure
        has been taken from the OSPF specification (see [OSPF]). The
        larger rectangles represent routers, the smaller rectangles
        hosts. Oblongs and circles represent multi-access networks[2].
        Lines joining routers are point-to-point serial connections. A
        cost has been assigned to each outbound router interface.

        All routers in Figure 1 are assumed to be running MOSPF. A
        number of hosts have been added to the figure. The hosts
        labelled Ma have joined a particular multicast group (call it
        Group A) via the IGMP protocol.  These hosts are located on
        networks N2, N6 and N11. Similarly, using IGMP the hosts
        labelled Mb have joined a separate multicast group B; these
        hosts are located on networks N1, N2 and N3. Note that hosts can
        join multiple multicast groups; it is only for clarity of
        presentation that each host has joined at most one multicast
        group in this example.  Also, hosts H2 through H5 have been
        added to the figure to serve as sources for multicast datagrams.
        Again, the datagrams' sources have been made separate from the
        group members only for clarity of presentation.

        To illustrate the forwarding of a multicast datagram, suppose
        that Host H2 (attached to Network N4) sends a multicast datagram
        to multicast group B. This datagram originates as a data-link
        layer multicast on Network N4. Router RT3, being a multicast
        router, has "opened up" its interface data-link multicast
        filters. It therefore receives the multicast datagram, and
        attempts to forward it to the members of multicast group B
        (located on networks N1, N2 and N3). This is accomplished by
        sending a single copy of the datagram onto Network N3, again as
        a data-link multicast[3].  Upon receiving the multicast datagram
        from RT3, routers RT1 and RT2 will then multicast the datagram
        on their connected stub networks (N1 and N2 respectively).  Note
        that, since the datagram is sent onto Network N3 as a data-link
        multicast, Router RT4 will also receive a copy. However, it will
        not forward the datagram, since it does not lie on a shortest
        path between the source (Host H2) and any members of multicast
        group B.

        Note that the path of the multicast datagram depends on the
        datagram's source network. If the above multicast datagram was
        instead originated by Host H3, the path taken would be
        identical, since hosts H2 and H3 lie on the same network
        (Network N4). However, if the datagram was originated by Host
        H4, its path would be different. In this case, when Router RT3

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                 | 3+---+    +--+  +--+       N12      N14
               N1|--|RT1|\1  |Mb|  |H4|         \ N13 /
                _|  +---+ \  +--+ /+--+         8\ |8/8
               | +         \ _|__/                \|/
             +--+   +--+    /    \   1+---+8    8+---+6
             |Mb|   |Mb|   *  N3  *---|RT4|------|RT5|--------+
             +--+  /+--+    \____/    +---+      +---+        |
                  +         /   |                  |7         |
                  | 3+---+ /    |                  |          |
                N2|--|RT2|/1    |1                 |6         |
                __|  +---+    +---+8            6+---+        |
               |  +           |RT3|--------------|RT6|        |
             +--+    +--+     +---+     +--+     +---+        |
             |Ma|    |H3|_      |2     _|H2|     Ia|7         |
             +--+    +--+ \     |     / +--+       |          |
                           +---------+             |          |
                               N4                  |          |
                                                   |          |
                                                   |          |
                       N11                         |          |
                   +---------+                     |          |
                        |     \                    |          |    N12
                        |3     +--+                |          |6 2/
                      +---+    |Ma|                |        +---+/
                      |RT9|    +--+                |        |RT7|---N15
                      +---+                        |        +---+ 9
                        |1                   +     |          |1
                       _|__                  |   Ib|5       __|_   +--+
                      /    \      1+----+2   |  3+----+1   /    \--|Ma|
                     *  N9  *------|RT11|----|---|RT10|---*  N6  * +--+
                      \____/       +----+    |   +----+    \____/
                        |                    |                |
                        |1                   +                |1
             +--+   10+----+                N8              +---+
             |H1|-----|RT12|                                |RT8|
             +--+SLIP +----+                                +---+  +--+
                        |2                                    |4  _|H5|
                        |                                     |  / +--+
                   +---------+                            +--------+
                       N10                                    N7

                    Figure 1: A sample MOSPF configuration

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        receives the datagram, RT3 will drop the datagram instead of
        forwarding it (since RT3 is no longer on the shortest path to
        any member of Group B).

        Note that the path of the multicast datagram also depends on the
        destination multicast group. If Host H2 sends a multicast to
        Group A, the path taken is as follows. The datagram again starts
        as a multicast on Network N4. Router RT3 receives it, and
        creates two copies. One is sent onto Network N3 which is then
        forwarded onto Network N2 by RT2. The other copy is sent to
        Router RT10 (via RT6), where the datagram is again split,
        eventually to be delivered onto networks N6 and N11. Note that,
        although multiple copies of the datagram are produced, the
        datagram itself is not modified (except for its IP TTL) as it is
        forwarded. No encapsulation of the datagram is performed; the
        destination of the datagram is always listed as the multicast
        group A.

    2.3.  MOSPF forwarding mechanism

        Each MOSPF router in the path of a multicast datagram bases its
        forwarding decision on the contents of a data cache. This cache
        is called the forwarding cache. There is a separate forwarding
        cache entry for each source/destination combination[4].  Each
        cache entry indicates, for multicast datagrams having matching
        source and destination, which neighboring node (i.e., router or
        network) the datagram must be received from (called the upstream
        node) and which interfaces the datagram should then be forwarded
        out of (called the downstream interfaces).

        A forwarding cache entry is actually built from two component
        pieces.  The first of these components is called the local group
        database. This database, built by the IGMP protocol, indicates
        the group membership of the router's directly attached networks.
        The local group database enables the local delivery of multicast
        datagrams. The second component is the datagram's shortest path
        tree. This tree, built on demand, is rooted at a multicast
        datagram's source. The datagram's shortest path tree enables the
        delivery of multicast datagrams to distant (i.e., not directly
        attached) group members.

        2.3.1.  IGMP interface: the local group database

            The local group database keeps track of the group membership
            of the router's directly attached networks. Each entry in
            the local group database is a [group, attached network]
            pair, which indicates that the attached network has one or
            more IP hosts belonging to the IP multicast destination

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            group. This information is then used by the router when
            deciding which directly attached networks to forward a
            received IP multicast datagram onto, in order to complete
            delivery of the datagram to (local) group members.

            The local group database is built through the operation of
            the Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP; see [RFC
            1112]). When a MOSPF router becomes Designated Router on an
            attached network (call the network N1), it starts sending
            periodic IGMP Host Membership Queries on the network. Hosts
            then respond with IGMP Host Membership Reports, one for each
            multicast group to which they belong. Upon receiving a Host
            Membership Report for a multicast group A, the router
            updates its local group database by adding/refreshing the
            entry [Group A, N1]. If at a later time Reports for Group A
            cease to be heard on the network, the entry is then deleted
            from the local group database.

            It is important to note that on any particular network, the
            sending of IGMP Host Membership Queries and the listening to
            IGMP Host Membership Reports is performed solely by the
            Designated Router. A MOSPF router ignores Host Membership
            Reports received on those networks where the router has not
            been elected Designated Router[5].  This means that at most
            one router performs these IGMP functions on any particular
            network, and ensures that the network appears in the local
            group database of at most one router. This prevents
            multicast datagrams from being replicated as they are
            delivered to local group members. As a result, each router
            in the Autonomous System has a different local group
            database. This is in contrast to the MOSPF link state
            database, and the datagram shortest-path trees (see Section
            2.3.2), all of which are identical in each router belonging
            to the Autonomous System.

            The existence of local group members must be communicated to
            the rest of the routers in the Autonomous System. This
            ensures that a remotely-originated multicast datagram will
            be forwarded to the router for distribution to its local
            group members. This communication is accomplished through
            the creation of a group-membership-LSA. Like other link
            state advertisements, the group-membership-LSA is flooded
            throughout the Autonomous System. The router originates a
            separate group-membership-LSA for each multicast group
            having one or more entries in the router's local group
            database. The router's group-membership-LSA (say for Group
            A) lists those local transit vertices (i.e., the router
            itself and/or any directly connected transit networks) that

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            should not be pruned from Group A's datagram shortest-path
            trees. The router lists itself in its group-membership-LSA
            for Group A if either 1) one or more of the router's
            attached stub networks contain Group A members or 2) the
            router itself is a member of Group A. The router lists a
            directly connected transit network in the group-membership-
            LSA for Group A if both 1) the router is Designated Router
            on the network and 2) the network contains one or more Group
            A members.

            Consider again the example pictured in Figure 1. If Router
            RT3 has been elected Designated Router for Network N3, then
            Table 1: lists the local group database for the routers

            In this case, each of the routers RT1, RT2 and RT3 will
            originate a group-membership-LSA for Group B. In addition,
            RT2 will also be originating a group-membership-LSA for
            Group A. RT1 and RT2's group-membership-LSAs will list
            solely the routers themselves (N1 and N2 are stub networks).
            RT3's group-membership-LSA will list the transit Network N3.

            Figure 2 displays the Autonomous System's link state
            database. A router/transit network is labelled with a
            multicast group if (and only if) it has been mentioned in a
            group-membership-LSA for the group When building the
            shortest-path tree for a particular multicast datagram, this
            labelling enables those branches without group members to be
            pruned from the tree. The process of building a multicast
            datagram's shortest path tree is discussed in Section 2.3.2.

            Note that none of the hosts in Figure 1 belonging to
            multicast groups A and B show up explicitly in the link
            state database (see Figure 2).  In fact, looking at the link
            state database you cannot even determine which stub networks

                 Router   local group database
                 RT1      [Group B, N1]
                 RT2      [Group A, N2], [Group B, N2]
                 RT3      [Group B, N3]
                 RT4      None

                 Table 1: Sample local group databases

Top      ToC       Page 13 

                 |1 |2 |3 |4 |5 |6 |7 |8 |9 |10|11|12|N3|N6|N8|N9|
              ----- ---------------------------------------------
              RT1|  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |0 |  |  |  |
              RT2|  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |0 |  |  |  |
              RT3|  |  |  |  |  |6 |  |  |  |  |  |  |0 |  |  |  |
              RT4|  |  |  |  |8 |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |0 |  |  |  |
              RT5|  |  |  |8 |  |6 |6 |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |
              RT6|  |  |8 |  |7 |  |  |  |  |5 |  |  |  |  |  |  |
              RT7|  |  |  |  |6 |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |0 |  |  |
          *   RT8|  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |0 |  |  |
          *   RT9|  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |0 |
          T  RT10|  |  |  |  |  |7 |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |0 |0 |  |
          O  RT11|  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |0 |0 |
          *  RT12|  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |0 |
          *    N1|3 |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |
               N2|  |3 |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |
               N3|1 |1 |1 |1 |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |
               N4|  |  |2 |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |
               N6|  |  |  |  |  |  |1 |1 |  |1 |  |  |  |  |  |  |
               N7|  |  |  |  |  |  |  |4 |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |
               N8|  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |3 |2 |  |  |  |  |  |
               N9|  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |1 |  |1 |1 |  |  |  |  |
              N10|  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |2 |  |  |  |  |
              N11|  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |3 |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |
              N12|  |  |  |  |8 |  |2 |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |
              N13|  |  |  |  |8 |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |
              N14|  |  |  |  |8 |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |
              N15|  |  |  |  |  |  |9 |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |
               H1|  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |10|  |  |  |  |

                     Figure 2: The MOSPF database.

                 Networks and routers are represented by vertices.
                 An edge of cost X connects Vertex A to Vertex B iff
                 the intersection of Column A and Row B is marked
                 with an X. In addition, RT1, RT2 and N3 are labelled
                 with multicast group A and RT1, N6 and RT9 are
                 labelled with multicast group B.

Top      ToC       Page 14 
            contain multicast group members. The link state database
            simply indicates those routers/transit networks having
            attached group members. This is all that is necessary for
            successful forwarding of multicast datagrams.

        2.3.2.  A datagram's shortest-path tree

            While the local group database facilitates the local
            delivery of multicast datagrams, the datagram's shortest-
            path tree describes the intermediate hops taken by a
            multicast datagram as it travels from its source to the
            individual multicast group members. As mentioned above, the
            datagram's shortest-path tree is a pruned shortest-path tree
            rooted at the datagram's source. Two datagrams having
            differing [source net, multicast destination] pairs may
            have, and in fact probably will have, different pruned
            shortest-path trees.

            A datagram's shortest path tree is built "on demand"[6],
            i.e., when the first multicast datagram is received having a
            particular [source net, multicast destination] combination.
            To build the datagram's shortest-path tree, the following
            calculations are performed. First, the datagram's source IP
            network is located in the link state database. Then using
            the router-LSAs and network-LSAs in the link state database,
            a shortest-path tree is built having the source network as
            root. To complete the process, the branches that do not
            contain routers/transit networks that have been labelled
            with the particular multicast destination (via a group-
            membership-LSA) are pruned from the tree.

            As an example of the building of a datagram's shortest path
            tree, again consider the Autonomous System in Figure 1. The
            Autonomous System's link state database is pictured in
            Figure 2. When a router initially receives a multicast
            datagram sent by Host H2 to the multicast group A, the
            following steps are taken: Host H2 is first determined to be
            on Network N4. Then the shortest path tree rooted at net N4
            is calculated[7], pruning those branches that do not contain
            routers/transit networks that have been labelled with the
            multicast group A. This results in the pruned shortest-path
            tree pictured in Figure 3. Note that at this point all the
            leaves of the tree are routers/transit networks labelled
            with multicast group A (routers RT2 and RT9 and transit
            Network N6).

            In order to forward the multicast datagram, each router must
            find its own position in the datagram's shortest path tree.

Top      ToC       Page 15 
                                       o RT3 (N4, origin)
                                      / \
                                    1/   \8
                                    /     \
                           N3 (Mb) o       o RT6
                                  /         \
                                0/           \7
                                /             \
                   RT2 (Ma,Mb) o               o RT10
                                              / \
                                            3/   \1
                                            /     \
                                        N8 o       o N6 (Ma)
                                  RT11 o
                                N9 o
                      RT9 (Ma) o

                 Figure 3: Sample datagram's shortest-path tree,
                          source N4, destination Group A

            The router's (call it Router RTX) position in the datagram's
            pruned shortest-path tree consists of 1) RTX's parent in the
            tree (this will be the forwarding cache entry's upstream
            node) and 2) the list of RTX's interfaces that lead to
            downstream routers/transit networks that have been labelled
            with the datagram's destination (these will be added to the
            forwarding cache entry as downstream interfaces). Note that
            after calculating the datagram's shortest path tree, a
            router may find that it is itself not on the tree. This
            would be indicated by a forwarding cache entry having no
            upstream node or an empty list of downstream interfaces.

            As an example of a router describing its position on the
            datagram's shortest-path tree, consider Router RT10 in
            Figure 3. Router RT10's upstream node for the datagram is
            Router RT6, and there are two downstream interfaces: one

Top      ToC       Page 16 
            connecting to Network N6 and the other connecting to Network

        2.3.3.  Support for Non-broadcast networks

            When forwarding multicast datagrams over non-broadcast
            networks, the datagram cannot be sent as a link-level
            multicast (since neither link-level multicast nor broadcast
            are supported on these networks), but must instead be
            forwarded separately to specific neighbors. To facilitate
            this, forwarding cache entries can also contain downstream
            neighbors as well as downstream interfaces.

            The IGMP protocol is not defined over non-broadcast
            networks. For this reason, there cannot be group members
            directly attached to non-broadcast networks, nor do non-
            broadcast networks ever appear in local group database

            As an example, suppose that Network N3 in Figure 1 is an
            X.25 PDN.  Consider Router RT3's forwarding cache entry for
            datagrams having source Network N4 and multicast destination
            Group B. In place of having the interface to Network N3
            appear as the downstream interface in the matching
            forwarding cache entry, the neighboring routers RT1 and RT2
            would instead appear as separate downstream neighbors. In
            addition, in this case there could not be a Group B member
            directly attached to Network N3.

        2.3.4.  Details concerning forwarding cache entries

            Each of the downstream interface/neighbors in the cache
            entry is labelled with a TTL value. This value indicates the
            number of hops a datagram forwarded out of the interface (or
            forwarded to the neighbor) would have to travel before
            encountering a router/transit network requesting the
            multicast destination. The reason that a hop count is
            associated with each downstream interface/neighbor is so
            that IP multicast's expanding ring search procedure can be
            more efficiently implemented. By expanding ring search is
            meant the following. Hosts can restrict the frowarding
            extent of the IP multicast datagrams that they send by
            appropriate setting of the TTL value in the datagram's IP
            header.  Then, for example, to search for the nearest server
            the host can send multicasts first with TTL set to 1, then
            2, etc. By attaching a hop count to each downstream
            interface/neighbor in the forwarding cache, datagrams will
            not be forwarded unless they will ultimately reach a

Top      ToC       Page 17 
            multicast destination before their TTL expires[8].  This
            avoids wasting network bandwidth during an expanding ring

            As an example consider Router RT10's forwarding cache in
            Figure 3.  Router RT10's cache entry has two downstream
            interfaces. The first, connecting to Network N6, is labelled
            as having a group member one hop away (Network N6). The
            second, which connects to Network N8, is labelled as having
            a group member two hops away (Router RT9).

            Both the datagram shortest path tree and the local group
            database may contribute downstream interfaces to the
            forwarding cache entries. As an example, if a router has a
            local group database entry of [Group G, NX], then a
            forwarding cache entry for Group G, regardless of
            destination, will list the router interface to Network NX as
            a downstream interface. Such a downstream interface will
            always be labelled with a TTL of 1.

            As an example of forwarding cache entries, again consider
            the Autonomous System pictured in Figure 1. Suppose Host H2
            sends a multicast datagram to multicast group A. In that
            case, some routers will not even attempt to build a
            forwarding cache entry (e.g, router RT5) because they will
            never receive the multicast datagram in the first place.
            Other routers will receive the multicast datagram (since
            they are forwarded as link-level multicasts), but after
            building the pruned shortest path tree will notice that they
            themselves are not a part of the tree (routers RT1, RT4,
            RT7, RT8 and RT12). These latter routers will install an
            empty cache entry, indicating that they do not participate
            in the forwarding of the multicast datagram. A sample of the
            forwarding cache entries built by the other routers in the
            Autonomous System is pictured in Table 2.

            A MOSPF router must clear its entire forwarding cache when
            the Autonomous System's topology changes, because all the
            datagram shortest-path trees must be rebuilt. Likewise, when
            the location of a multicast group's membership changes
            (reflected by a change in group-membership-LSAs), all cache
            entries associated with the particular multicast destination
            group must be cleared. Other than these two cases,
            forwarding cache entries need not ever be deleted or
            otherwise modified; in particular, the forwarding cache
            entries do not have to be aged. However, forwarding cache
            entries can be freely deleted after some period of
            inactivity (i.e., garbage collected), if router memory

Top      ToC       Page 18 
              Router   Upstream     Downstream interfaces
                       node         (interface:hops)
              RT10     Router RT6   (N6:1), (N8:2)
              RT11     Net N8       (N9:1)
              RT3      Net N4       (N3:1), (RT6:3)
              RT6      Router RT3   (RT10:2)
              RT2      Net N3       (N2:1)

               Table 2: Sample forwarding cache entries,
                 for source N4 and destination Group A.

            resources are in short supply.

3.  Inter-area multicasting

    Up to this point this memo has discussed multicast forwarding when
    the entire Autonomous System is a single OSPF area. The logic for
    when the multicast datagram's source and its destination group
    members belong to the same OSPF area is the same. This section
    explains the behavior of the MOSPF protocol when the datagram's
    source and (at least some of) its destination group members belong
    to different OSPF areas. This situation is called inter-area

    Inter-area multicast brings up the following issues, which are
    resolved in succeeding sections:

    o   Are the group-membership-LSAs specific to a single area? And if
        they are, how is group membership information conveyed from one
        area to the next?

    o   How are the datagram shortest-path trees built in the inter-area
        case, since complete information concerning the topology of the
        datagram source's neighborhood is not available to routers in
        other areas?

    o   In an area border router, multiple datagram shortest-path trees
        are built, one for each attached area. How are these separate
        datagram shortest-path trees combined into a single forwarding
        cache entry?

    It should be noted in the following that the basic protocol
    mechanisms in the inter-area case are the same as for the intra-area
    case.  Forwarding of multicasts is still defined by the contents of

Top      ToC       Page 19 
    the forwarding cache. The forwarding cache is still built from the
    same two components: the local group database and the datagram
    shortest-path trees. And while the calculation of the datagram
    shortest-path trees is different in the inter-area case (see Section
    3.2), the local group database is built exactly the same as in the
    intra-area case (i.e., MOSPF's interface with IGMP remains unchanged
    in the presence of areas). Finally, the forwarding algorithm
    described in Section 11 is the same for both the intra-area and
    inter-area cases.

    The following discussion uses the area configuration pictured in
    Figure 4 as an example. This figure, taken from the OSPF
    specification, shows an Autonomous System split into three areas
    (Area 1, Area 2 and Area 3). A single backbone area has been
    configured (everything outside of the shading). Since the backbone
    area must be contiguous, a single virtual link has been configured
    between the area border routers RT10 and RT11. Additionally, an area
    address range has been configured in Router RT11 so that Networks
    N9-N11 and Host H1 will be reported as a single route outside of
    Area 3 (via summary-link-LSAs).

    3.1.  Extent of group-membership-LSAs

        Group-membership-LSAs are specific to a single OSPF area. This
        means that, just as with OSPF router-LSAs, network-LSAs and
        summary-link-LSAs, a group-membership-LSA is flooded throughout
        a single area only[9].  A router attached to multiple areas
        (i.e., an area border router) may end up originating several
        group-membership-LSAs concerning a single multicast destination,
        one for each attached area.  However, as we will see below, the
        contents of these group-membership-LSAs will vary depending on
        their associated areas.

        Just as in OSPF, each MOSPF area has its own link state
        database. The MOSPF database is simply the OSPF link state
        database enhanced by the group-membership-LSAs. Consider again
        the area configuration pictured in Figure 4. The result of
        adding the group-membership-LSAs to the area databases yields
        the databases pictured in Figures 6 and 7.  Figure 6 shows Area
        1's MOSPF database. Figure 7 shows the backbone's MOSPF
        database. Superscripts indicate which transit vertices have been
        advertised as requesting particular multicast destinations. A
        superscript of "w" indicates that the router is advertising
        itself as a wild-card multicast receiver (see below). The dashed
        lines are OSPF summary-link-LSAs or AS external-link-LSAs. Note
        in Figure 7 that Router RT11 has condensed its routes to
        Networks N9-N11 and Host H1 into a single summary-link-LSA.

Top      ToC       Page 20 
           .     +                          .
           .     | 3+---+    +--+  +--+     . N12      N14
           .   N1|--|RT1|\1  |Mb|  |H4|     .   \ N13 /
           .    _|  +---+ \  +--+ /+--+     .   8\ |8/8
           .   | +         \ _|__/          .     \|/
           . +--+   +--+    /    \   1+---+8.   8+---+6
           . |Mb|   |Mb|   *  N3  *---|RT4|------|RT5|--------+
           . +--+  /+--+    \____/    +---+ .    +---+        |
           .      +         /   |           .      |7         |
           .      | 3+---+ /    |           .      |          |
           .    N2|--|RT2|/1    |1          .      |6         |
           .    __|  +---+    +---+8        .   6+---+        |
           .   |  +           |RT3|--------------|RT6|        |
           . +--+    +--+     +---+     +--+.    +---+        |
           . |Ma|    |H3|_      |2     _|H2|.    Ia|7         |
           . +--+    +--+ \     |     / +--+.      |          |
           .               +---------+      .      |          |
           .Area 1             N4           .      |          |
           ..................................      |          |
           ................................        |          |
           .           N11                .        |          |
           .       +---------+            .        |          |
           .            |     \           .        |          |    N12
           .            |3     +--+       .        |          |6 2/
           .          +---+    |Ma|       .        |        +---+/
           .          |RT9|    +--+       .        |        |RT7|---N15
           .          +---+               .......  |        +---+ 9
           .            |1                .. +  ...|..........|1........
           .           _|__               .. |   Ib|5       __|_   +--+.
           .          /    \      1+----+2.. |  3+----+1   /    \--|Ma|.
           .         *  N9  *------|RT11|----|---|RT10|---*  N6  * +--+.
           .          \____/       +----+ .. |   +----+    \____/      .
           .            |            !*******|*****!          |        .
           .            |1           Virtual + Link           |1       .
           . +--+   10+----+              ..N8              +---+      .
           . |H1|-----|RT12|              ..                |RT8|      .
           . +--+SLIP +----+              ..                +---+  +--+.
           .            |2                ..                  |4  _|H5|.
           .            |                 ..                  |  / +--+.
           .       +---------+            ..              +--------+   .
           .           N10          Area 3..Area 2            N7       .

                    Figure 4: A sample MOSPF area configuration

Top      ToC       Page 21 
        Suppose an OSPF router has a local group database entry for
        [Group Y, Network X]. The router then originates a group-
        membership-LSA for Group Y into the area containing Network X.
        For example, in the area configuration pictured in Figure 4,
        Router RT1 originates a group-membership-LSA for Group B. This
        group-membership-LSA is flooded throughout Area 1, and no
        further. Likewise, assuming that Router RT3 has been elected
        Designated Router for Network N3, RT3 originates a group-
        membership-LSA into Area 1 listing the transit Network N3 as
        having group members. Note that in the link state database for
        Area 1 (Figure 6) both Router RT1 and Network N3 have
        accordingly been labelled with Group B.

        In OSPF, the area border routers forward routing information and
        data traffic between areas. In MOSPF. a subset of the area
        border routers, called the inter-area multicast forwarders,
        forward group membership information and multicast datagrams
        between areas. Whether a given OSPF area border router is also a
        MOSPF inter-area multicast forwarder is configuration dependent
        (see Section B.1). In Figure 4 we assume that all area border
        routers are also inter-area multicast forwarders.

        In order to convey group membership information between areas,
        inter-area multicast forwarders "summarize" their attached
        areas' group membership to the backbone. This is very similar
        functionality to the summary-link-LSAs that are generated in the
        base OSPF protocol.  An inter-area multicast forwarder
        calculates which groups have members in its attached non-
        backbone areas. Then, for each of these groups, the inter-area
        multicast forwarder injects a group-membership-LSA into the
        backbone area. For example, in Figure 4 there are two groups
        having members in Area 1: Group A and Group B. For that reason,
        both of Area 1's inter-area multicast forwarders (Routers RT3
        and RT4) inject group-membership-LSAs for these two groups into
        the backbone.  As a result both of these routers are labelled

                membership    +------------------+   datagrams
                    + > > > >>|     Backbone     |< < < < +
                    ^         +------------------+        ^
                    ^        /         |          \       ^
                    ^       /          |           \      ^
               +----^-----+/      +----------+      \+----^-----+
               |  Area 1  |       |  Area 2  |       |  Area 3  |
               +----------+       +----------+       +----------+

                    Figure 5: Inter-area routing architecture

Top      ToC       Page 22 
        with Groups A and B in the backbone link state database (see
        Figure 7).

        However, unlike the summarization of unicast destinations in the
        base OSPF protocol, the summarization of group membership in
        MOSPF is asymmetric. While a non-backbone area's group
        membership is summarized to the backbone, this information is
        not then readvertised into other non-backbone areas. Nor is the
        backbone's group membership summarized for the non-backbone
        areas. Going back to the example in Figure 4, while the presence
        of Area 3's group (Group A) is advertised to the backbone, this
        information is not then redistributed to Area 1. In other words,
        routers internal to Area 1 have no idea of Area 3's group

        At this point, if no extra functionality was added to MOSPF,
        multicast traffic originating in Area 1 destined for Multicast
        Group A would never be forwarded to those Group A members in
        Area 3. To accomplish this, the notion of wild-card multicast
        receivers is introduced. A wild-card multicast receiver is a
        router to which all multicast traffic, regardless of multicast
        destination, should be forwarded. A router's wild-card multicast
        reception status is per-area. In non-backbone areas, all inter-
        area multicast forwarders[10] are wild-card multicast receivers.
        This ensures that all multicast traffic originating in a non-
        backbone area will be forwarded to its inter-area multicast
        forwarders, and hence to the backbone area. Since the backbone
        has complete knowledge of all areas' group membership, the
        datagram can then be forwarded to all group members. Note that
        in the backbone itself there is no need for wild-card multicast
        receivers[11].  As an example, note that Routers RT3 and RT4 are
        wild-card multicast receivers in Area 1 (see Figure 6), while
        there are none in the backbone (see Figure 7).

        This yields the inter-area routing architecture pictured in
        Figure 5.  All group membership is advertised by the non-
        backbone areas into the backbone. Likewise, all IP multicast
        traffic arising in the non-backbone areas is forwarded to the
        backbone. Since at this point group membership information meets
        the multicast datagram traffic, delivery of the multicast
        datagrams becomes possible.

    3.2.  Building inter-area datagram shortest-path trees

        When building datagram shortest-path trees in the presence of
        areas, it is often the case that the source of the datagram and
        (at least some of) the destination group members are in separate
        areas. Since detailed topological information concerning one

Top      ToC       Page 23 

                             |1 |2 |3 |4 |5 |7 |N3|
                          ----- -------------------
                          RT1|  |  |  |  |  |  |0 |
                          RT2|  |  |  |  |  |  |0 |
                          RT3|  |  |  |  |  |  |0 |
                      *   RT4|  |  |  |  |  |  |0 |
                      *   RT5|  |  |14|8 |  |  |  |
                      T   RT7|  |  |20|14|  |  |  |
                      O    N1|3 |  |  |  |  |  |  |
                      *    N2|  |3 |  |  |  |  |  |
                      *    N3|1 |1 |1 |1 |  |  |  |
                           N4|  |  |2 |  |  |  |  |
                        Ia,Ib|  |  |15|22|  |  |  |
                           N6|  |  |16|15|  |  |  |
                           N7|  |  |20|19|  |  |  |
                           N8|  |  |18|18|  |  |  |
                    N9-N11,H1|  |  |19|16|  |  |  |
                          N12|  |  |  |  |8 |2 |  |
                          N13|  |  |  |  |8 |  |  |
                          N14|  |  |  |  |8 |  |  |
                          N15|  |  |  |  |  |9 |  |

                     Figure 6: Area 1's MOSPF database.

             Networks and routers are represented by vertices.
             An edge of cost X connects Vertex A to Vertex B iff
             the intersection of Column A and Row B is marked
             with an X. In addition, RT1, RT2 and N3 are labelled
             with multicast group A, RT1 is labelled with multicast
             group B, and both RT3 and RT4 are labelled as
             wild-card multicast receivers.

Top      ToC       Page 24 

                           |3 |4 |5 |6 |7 |10|11|
                        RT3|  |  |  |6 |  |  |  |
                        RT4|  |  |8 |  |  |  |  |
                        RT5|  |8 |  |6 |6 |  |  |
                        RT6|8 |  |7 |  |  |5 |  |
                        RT7|  |  |6 |  |  |  |  |
                    *  RT10|  |  |  |7 |  |  |2 |
                    *  RT11|  |  |  |  |  |3 |  |
                    T    N1|4 |4 |  |  |  |  |  |
                    O    N2|4 |4 |  |  |  |  |  |
                    *    N3|1 |1 |  |  |  |  |  |
                    *    N4|2 |3 |  |  |  |  |  |
                         Ia|  |  |  |  |  |5 |  |
                         Ib|  |  |  |7 |  |  |  |
                         N6|  |  |  |  |1 |1 |3 |
                         N7|  |  |  |  |5 |5 |7 |
                         N8|  |  |  |  |4 |3 |2 |
                  N9-N11,H1|  |  |  |  |  |  |1 |
                        N12|  |  |8 |  |2 |  |  |
                        N13|  |  |8 |  |  |  |  |
                        N14|  |  |8 |  |  |  |  |
                        N15|  |  |  |  |9 |  |  |

                 Figure 7: The backbone's MOSPF database.

             Networks and routers are represented by vertices.
             An edge of cost X connects Vertex A to Vertex B iff
             the intersection of Column A and Row B is marked
             with an X. In addition, RT3 and RT4 are labelled
             with both multicast groups A and B, and RT7, RT10,
             and RT11 are labelled with multicast group A.

        OSPF area is not distributed to other OSPF areas (the flooding
        of router-LSAs, network-LSAs and group-membership-LSAs is
        restricted to a single OSPF area only), the building of complete
        datagram shortest-path trees is often impossible in the inter-
        area case. To compensate, approximations are made through the
        use of wild-card multicast receivers and OSPF summary-link-LSAs.

        When it first receives a datagram for a particular [source net,
        destination group] pair, a router calculates a separate datagram
        shortest-path tree for each of the router's attached areas. Each
        datagram shortest-path tree is built solely from LSAs belonging

Top      ToC       Page 25 
        to the particular area's link state database. Suppose that a
        router is calculating a datagram shortest-path tree for Area A.
        It is useful then to separate out two cases.

        The first case, Case 1: The source of the datagram belongs to
        Area A has already been described in Section 2.3.2. However, in
        the presence of OSPF areas, during tree pruning care must be
        taken so that the branches leading to other areas remain, since
        it is unknown whether there are group members in these (remote)
        areas. For this reason, only those branches having no group
        members nor wild-card multicast receivers are pruned when
        producing the datagram shortest-path tree.

        As an example, suppose in Figure 4 that Host H2 sends a
        multicast datagram to destination Group A. Then the datagram's
        shortest-path tree for Area 1, built identically by all routers
        in Area 1 that receive the datagram, is shown in Figure 8. Note
        that both inter-area multicast forwarders (RT3 and RT4) are on
        the datagram's shortest-path tree, ensuring the delivery of the
        datagram to the backbone and from there to Areas 2 and 3.

        o   Case 2: The source of the datagram belongs to an area other
            than Area A. In this case, when building the datagram
            shortest-path tree for Area A, the immediate neighborhood of
            the datagram's source is unknown. However, there are
            summary-link-LSAs in the Area A link state database
            indicating the cost of the paths between each of Area A's
            inter-area multicast forwarders and the datagram source.
            These summary links are used to approximate the neighborhood
            of the datagram's source; the tree begins with links
            directly connecting the source to each of the inter-area
            multicast forwarders. These links point in the reverse

                                      o RT3 (W, origin=N4)
                              N3 (Mb) o
                                     / \
                                   0/   \0
                                   /     \
                      RT2 (Ma,Mb) o       o RT4 (W)

                    Figure 8: Datagram's shortest-path tree,
                      Area 1, source N4, destination Group A

Top      ToC       Page 26 
            direction (towards instead of away from the datagram source)
            from the links considered in Case 1 above. All additional
            links added to the tree also point in the reverse direction.
            The final datagram shortest-path tree is then produced by,
            as before, pruning all branches having no group-members nor
            wild-card multicast receivers.

            As an example, suppose again that Host H2 in Figure 4 sends
            a multicast datagram to destination Group A. The datagram's
            shortest-path tree for the backbone is shown in Figure 9.
            The neighborhood around the source (Network N4) has been
            approximated by the summary links advertised by routers RT3
            and RT4. Note that all links in Figure 9's datagram
            shortest-path tree have arrows pointing in the reverse
            direction, towards Network N4 instead of away from it.

        The reverse costs used for the entire tree in Case 2 are forced
        because summary-link-LSAs only specify the cost towards the
        datagram source. In the presence of asymmetric link costs, this
        may lead to less efficient routes when forwarding multicasts

                                     o N4
                                    / \
                                  2/   \3
                                  /     \
                     RT3 (Ma,Mb) o       o RT4 (Ma,Mb)
                                /         \
                              6/           \8
                              /             \
                         RT6 o               o RT5
                             |               |
                            5|               |6
                             |               |
                   RT10 (Ma) o               o RT7 (Ma)
                   RT11 (Ma) o

               Figure 9: Datagram shortest-path tree: Backbone,
                  source N4, destination Group A. Note that
                  reverse costs (i.e., toward origin) are
                             used throughout.

Top      ToC       Page 27 
        between areas.

        Those routers attached to multiple areas must calculate multiple
        trees and then merge them into a single forwarding cache entry.
        As shown in Section 2.3.2, when connected to a single area the
        router's position on the datagram shortest-path tree determines
        (in large part) its forwarding cache entry. When attached to
        multiple areas, and hence calculating multiple datagram
        shortest-path trees, each tree contributes to the forwarding
        cache entry's list of downstream interfaces/neighbors. However,
        only one of the areas' datagram shortest-path trees will
        determine the forwarding cache entry's upstream node. When one
        of the attached areas contains the datagram source, that area
        will determine the upstream node. Otherwise, the tiebreaking
        rules of Section 12.2.7 are invoked.

        Consider again the example of Host H2 in Figure 4 sending a
        multicast datagram to destination Group A. Router RT3 will
        calculate two datagram shortest-path trees, one for Area 1 and
        one for the backbone.  Since the source of the datagram (Host
        H2) belongs to Area 1, the Area 1 datagram shortest-path tree
        determines RT3's upstream node: Network N4. Router RT3
        calculates two downstream interfaces for the datagram: the
        interface to Network N3 (which comes from Area 1's datagram
        shortest-path tree) and the serial line to Router RT6 (which
        comes from the backbone's datagram shortest-path tree). As for
        Router RT10, it calculates two trees, determining its upstream
        node from the backbone tree and its two downstream interfaces
        from the Area 2 tree.  Finally, Router RT11 calculates three
        trees, determining its upstream node from the Area 2 tree and
        its downstream interface from the Area 3 tree.

(page 27 continued on part 2)

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