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RFC 1095

 
 
 

Common Management Information Services and Protocol over TCP/IP (CMOT)

Part 3 of 3, p. 48 to 67
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10.  Lightweight Presentation

   The specification for the lightweight presentation protocol (LPP) is
   contained in RFC 1085, "ISO Presentation Services on top of TCP/IP-
   based internets" [13].  The services defined in that memo are the
   minimal set of ISO presentation services required to support ACSE and
   ROSE.  The protocol specified to provide these services is a
   replacement for the ISO presentation protocol.

10.1.  Lightweight Presentation Services

   All of the ISO presentation services provided by the LPP are
   mandatory: P-CONNECT, P-RELEASE, P-U-ABORT, P-P-ABORT, and P-DATA.

10.2.  Supporting Services

   Depending on the quality of service indicated in the P-CONNECT
   request, the LPP will use either UDP (low quality) or TCP (high
   quality) as the underlying transport protocol.  UDP provides an
   unreliable datagram service, while TCP provides a reliable
   connection-oriented transport service.

   Practically speaking, there are two ways to discover whether a remote
   system supports the LPP over UDP or TCP.  The first is to use some
   undefined form of directory service. This might be nothing more than
   a local table.  The second way is simply to attempt to establish an
   association with the remote application entity using the desired
   quality of service.  If the transport for that service is unavailable
   on the remote system, then the local presentation-service-provided
   will issue a negative P-CONNECT.CONFIRMATION primitive.  This will be
   interpreted by ACSE as a failure to establish an association with the
   desired quality of service.

   The following well-known UDP and TCP port numbers are defined:

             cmot manager     163/tcp
             cmot manager     163/udp
             cmot agent       164/tcp
             cmot agent       164/udp

   When UDP is used, an implementation need not accept a lightweight
   presentation PDU whose length exceeds 484.  The purpose of this

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   restriction is to ensure that CMIP requests and responses can be
   transmitted in a single unfragmented IP datagram.

10.3.  Lightweight Presentation Protocol

   No further agreements are needed for the lightweight presentation
   protocol defined in RFC 1085.

11.  Acknowledgements

   This RFC is the work of many people.  The following members of the
   IETF Netman working group and other interested individuals made
   important contributions:

             Amatzia Ben-Artzi, 3Com
             Asheem Chandna, AT&T Bell Laboratories
             Ken Chapman, Digital Equipment Corporation
             Anthony Chung, Sytek
             George Cohn, Ungermann-Bass
             Gabriele Cressman, Sun Microsystems
             Pranati Kapadia, Hewlett-Packard
             Lee LaBarre, The MITRE Corporation (chair)
             Dave Mackie, 3Com
             Keith McCloghrie, The Wollongong Group
             Jim Robertson, 3Com
             Milt Roselinsky, CMC
             Marshall Rose, The Wollongong Group
             John Scott, Data General
             Lou Steinberg, IBM

12.  References

     [1]  Cerf, V., "IAB Recommendations for the Development of Internet
          Network Management Standards", RFC 1052, April 1988.

     [2]  Rose, M., and K. McCloghrie, "Structure and Identification of
          Management Information for TCP/IP-based internets", RFC 1065,
          August 1988.

     [3]  McCloghrie, K., and M. Rose, "Management Information Base for
          Network Management of TCP/IP-based internets", RFC 1066,
          August 1988.

     [4]  Case, J., M. Fedor, M. Schoffstall, and J. Davin, "A Simple
          Network Management Protocol (SNMP)", RFC 1098, (Obsoletes
          RFC 1067), April 1989.

     [5]  ISO 8824: "Information processing systems - Open Systems

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          Interconnection, Specification of Abstract Syntax Notation One
          (ASN.1)", Geneva, March 1988.

     [6]  ISO 8825: "Information processing systems - Open Systems
          Interconnection, Specification of Basic Encoding Rules for
          Abstract Notation One (ASN.1)", Geneva, March 1988.

     [7]  ISO 8649: "Information processing systems - Open Systems
          Interconnection, Service Definition for Association Control
          Service Element".

     [8]  ISO 8650: "Information processing systems - Open Systems
          Interconnection, Protocol Specification for Association
          Control Service Element".

     [9]  CCITT Recommendation X.219, Working Document for ISO 9072-1:
          "Information processing systems - Text Communication, Remote
          Operations: Model, Notation and Service Definition",
          Gloucester, November 1987.

     [10]  CCITT Recommendation X.229, Working Document for ISO 9072-2:
           "Information processing systems - Text Communication, Remote
           Operations: Protocol Specification", Gloucester,
           November 1987.

     [11]  ISO DIS 9595-2: "Information processing systems - Open
           Systems Interconnection, Management Information Service
           Definition - Part 2: Common Management Information
           Service", 22 December 1988.

     [12]  ISO DIS 9596-2: "Information Processing Systems - Open
           Systems Interconnection, Management Information Protocol
           Specification - Part 2: Common Management Information
           Protocol", 22 December 1988.

     [13]  Rose, M., "ISO Presentation Services on top of TCP/IP-based
           internets", RFC 1085, December 1988.

     [14]  OSI Network Management Forum, "Forum Interoperable Interface
           Protocols", September 1988.

     [15]  ISO DIS 7498-4: "Information processing systems - Open
           Systems Interconnection, Basic Reference Model - Part 4:
           OSI Management Framework".

     [16]  ISO/IEC JTC1/SC21/WG4 N571: "Information processing systems -
           Open Systems Interconnection, Systems Management: Overview",
           London, July 1988.

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     [17]  Klerer, S. Mark, "The OSI Management Architecture: An
           Overview", IEEE Network Magazine, March 1988.

     [18]  Ben-Artzi, A., "Network Management for TCP/IP Networks: An
           Overview", Internet Engineering Task Force working note,
           April 1988.

     [19]  ISO/IEC JTC1/SC21/WG4 N3324: "Information processing
           systems - Open Systems Interconnection, Management
           Information Services - Structure of Management
           Information - Part I: Management Information Model",
           Sydney, December 1988.

     [20]  Postel, J., "User Datagram Protocol", RFC 768, August 1980.

     [21]  Postel, J., "Transmission Control Protocol", RFC 793,
           September 1981.

     [22]  ISO DP 9534: "Information processing systems - Open Systems
           Interconnection, Application Layer Structure", 10 March 1987.

     [23]  Rose, M., "ISO Transport Services on top of the TCP",
           RFC 1006, May 1987.

     [24]  ISO 8822: "Information processing systems - Open Systems
           Interconnection, Connection Oriented Presentation Service
           Definition", June 1987.

     [25]  Postel, J., "Internet Protocol", RFC 791, September 1981.

     [26]  CCITT Draft Recommendation X.500, ISO DIS 9594/1-8: "The
           Directory", Geneva, March 1988.

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Appendix A - The CMOT Group

   CMOT DEFINITIONS ::= BEGIN

   IMPORTS OBJECT-TYPE FROM RFC1065-SMI;

   IMPORTS mib FROM RFC1066-MIB;

     cmot  OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { mib 9 }

     -- The following assignments are made for the purpose of
     -- identification within CMOT and do not refer to MIB objects.

     cmotVersion              OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { cmot 1 }

     cmotAcseInfo             OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { cmot 2 }
     cmotAcseAccessControl    OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { cmotAcseInfo 1 }

     -- The following definition is made for use in referencing a
     -- managed system (for the purpose of proxy management) in the
     -- CMIP Object Instance field. It does not represent a MIB
     -- object.

     cmotSystemID OBJECT-TYPE
             SYNTAX  CmotSystemID
             ACCESS  not-accessible
             STATUS  optional
             ::= { cmot 3 }

     CmotSystemID ::= CHOICE {
             arbitrary     [0] IMPLICIT OCTET STRING,
             proxyIndex    [1] IMPLICIT INTEGER,
             inetAddr      [2] IMPLICIT IpAddress,
             domainName    [3] IMPLICIT OCTET STRING,
             mac802Addr    [4] IMPLICIT OCTET STRING,
             x121Addr      [5] IMPLICIT OCTET STRING,
             nsap          [6] IMPLICIT OCTET STRING,
             netbiosName   [7] IMPLICIT OCTET STRING,
             snaName       [8] IMPLICIT OCTET STRING,
             adminId       [9] IMPLICIT OBJECT IDENTIFIER
     }

      -- All addresses should be conveyed in network-byte order.

   END

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Appendix B - Management Information Summary

   RFC1066-MIB-INTERPRETATION

          { iso org(3) dod(6) internet(1) mgmt(2) 1 }

              DEFINITIONS ::= BEGIN

              IMPORTS mgmt, OBJECT-TYPE FROM RFC1065-SMI;

                mib        OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { mgmt 1 }

                system     OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { mib 1 }
                interfaces OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { mib 2 }
                at         OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { mib 3 }
                ip         OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { mib 4 }
                icmp       OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { mib 5 }
                tcp        OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { mib 6 }
                udp        OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { mib 7 }
                egp        OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { mib 8 }


         -- definition of object class

         OBJECT-CLASS MACRO  ::=
         BEGIN
           TYPE NOTATION  ::= SubClassOf Superiors Names Attributes
           VALUE NOTATION ::= value(VALUE OBJECT IDENTIFIER)

           SubClassOf     ::= "SUBCLASS OF" value(OBJECT-CLASS)
                                            | empty
           Superiors      ::= "SUPERIORS" "{" SuperiorList "}"
                                            | empty
           Names          ::= "NAMES" "{" AttributeList "}"
                                            | empty
           Attributes     ::= "CONTAINS" "{" AttributeList "}"
                                            | empty

           SuperiorList   ::= Superior | Superior "," SuperiorList
           Superior       ::= value(OBJECT-CLASS)

           AttributeList  ::= Attribute | Attribute "," AttributeList
           Attribute      ::= value(OBJECT-TYPE)

         END

         -- the System group

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         system OBJECT-CLASS
                 NAMES  { cmotSystemID }   -- Appendix A
                 CONTAINS  {
                         sysDescr,
                         sysObjectID,
                         sysUpTime
                 }
                 ::= { mib 1 }

         -- the Interfaces group

         interfaces OBJECT-CLASS
                 SUPERIORS  { system }
                 CONTAINS  { ifNumber }
                 ::= { mib 2 }

         ifTable OBJECT-CLASS
                 SUPERIORS  { interfaces }
                 ::= { interfaces 2 }

         ifEntry OBJECT-CLASS
                 SUPERIORS  { ifTable }
                 NAMES { ifIndex }
                 CONTAINS  {
                         ifIndex,
                         ifDescr,
                         ifType,
                         ifMtu,
                         ifSpeed,
                         ifPhysAddress,
                         ifAdminStatus,
                         ifOperStatus,
                         ifLastChange,
                         ifInOctets,
                         ifInUcastPkts,
                         ifInNUcastPkts,
                         ifInDiscards,
                         ifInErrors,
                         ifInUnknownProtos,
                         ifOutOctets,
                         ifOutUcastPkts,
                         ifOutNUcastPkts,
                         ifOutDiscards,
                         ifOutErrors,
                         ifOutQLen
                 }
                 ::= { ifTable 1 }

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         -- the Address Translation group

         at OBJECT-CLASS
                 SUPERIORS  { system }
                 ::= { mib 3 }

         atTable OBJECT-CLASS
                 SUPERIORS  { at }
                 ::= { at 1 }

         atEntry OBJECT-CLASS
                 SUPERIORS  { atTable }
                 NAMES  {
                         atIfIndex,
                         atNetAddress
                 }
                 CONTAINS  {
                         atIfIndex,
                         atPhysAddress,
                         atNetAddress
                 }
                 ::= { atTable 1 }

         -- the IP group

         ip OBJECT-CLASS
                 SUPERIORS  { system }
                 CONTAINS  {
                         ipForwarding,
                         ipDefaultTTL,
                         ipInReceives,
                         ipInHdrErrors,
                         ipInAddrErrors,
                         ipForwDatagrams,
                         ipInUnknownProtos,
                         ipInDiscards,
                         ipInDelivers,
                         ipOutRequests,
                         ipOutDiscards,
                         ipOutNoRoutes,
                         ipReasmTimeout,
                         ipReasmReqds,
                         ipReasmOKs,
                         ipReasmFails,
                         ipFragOKs,
                         ipFragFails,
                         ipFragCreates
                 }

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                 ::= { mib 4 }

         -- the IP Interface table

         ipAddrTable OBJECT-CLASS
                 SUPERIORS  { ip }
                 ::= { ip 20 }

         ipAddrEntry OBJECT-CLASS
                 SUPERIORS  { ipAddrTable }
                 NAMES  { ipAdEntAddr }
                 CONTAINS  {
                         ipAdEntAddr,
                         ipAdEntIfIndex,
                         ipAdEntNetMask,
                         ipAdEntBcastAddr
                 }
                 ::= { ipAddrTable 1 }

         -- the IP Routing table

         ipRoutingTable OBJECT-CLASS
                 SUPERIORS  { ip }
                 ::= { ip 21 }

         ipRouteEntry OBJECT-CLASS
                 SUPERIORS  { ipRoutingTable }
                 NAMES  { ipRouteDest }
                 CONTAINS  {
                         ipRouteDest,
                         ipRouteIfIndex,
                         ipRouteMetric1,
                         ipRouteMetric2,
                         ipRouteMetric3,
                         ipRouteMetric4,
                         ipRouteNextHop,
                         ipRouteType,
                         ipRouteProto,
                         ipRouteAge
                 }
                 ::= { ipRoutingTable 1 }

         -- the ICMP group

         icmp OBJECT-CLASS
                 SUPERIORS  { system }
                 CONTAINS  {
                         icmpInMsgs,

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                         icmpInErrors,
                         icmpInDestUnreachs,
                         icmpInTimeExcds,
                         icmpInParmProbs,
                         icmpInSrcQuenchs,
                         icmpInRedirects,
                         icmpInEchos,
                         icmpInEchoReps,
                         icmpInTimestamps,
                         icmpInTimestampReps,
                         icmpInAddrMasks,
                         icmpInAddrMaskReps,
                         icmpOutMsgs,
                         icmpOutErrors,
                         icmpOutDestUnreachs,
                         icmpOutTimeExcds,
                         icmpOutParmProbs,
                         icmpOutSrcQuenchs,
                         icmpOutRedirects,
                         icmpOutEchos,
                         icmpOutEchoReps,
                         icmpOutTimestamps,
                         icmpOutTimestampReps,
                         icmpOutAddrMasks,
                         icmpOutAddrMaskReps
                 }
                 ::= { mib 5 }

         -- the TCP group

         tcp OBJECT-CLASS
                 SUPERIORS  { system }
                 CONTAINS  {
                         tcpRtoAlgorithm,
                         tcpRtoMin,
                         tcpRtoMax,
                         tcpMaxConn,
                         tcpActiveOpens,
                         tcpPassiveOpens,
                         tcpAttemptFails,
                         tcpEstabResets,
                         tcpCurrEstab,
                         tcpInSegs,
                         tcpOutSegs,
                         tcpRetransSegs
                 }
                 ::= { mib 6 }

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         -- the TCP connections table

         tcpConnTable OBJECT-CLASS
                 SUPERIORS  { tcp }
                 ::= { tcp 13 }

         tcpConnEntry OBJECT-CLASS
                 SUPERIORS  { tcpConnTable }
                 NAMES  {
                         tcpConnLocalAddress,
                         tcpConnLocalPort,
                         tcpConnRemAddress,
                         tcpConnRemPort
                 }
                 CONTAINS  {
                         tcpConnState,
                         tcpConnLocalAddress,
                         tcpConnLocalPort,
                         tcpConnRemAddress,
                         tcpConnRemPort
                 }
                 ::= { tcpConnTable 1 }

         -- the UDP group

        udp OBJECT-CLASS
                 SUPERIORS  { system }
                 CONTAINS  {
                         udpInDatagrams,
                         udpNoPorts,
                         udpInErrors,
                         udpOutDatagrams
                 }
                 ::= { mib 7 }


         -- the EGP group

          egp OBJECT-CLASS
                 SUPERIORS  { system }
                 CONTAINS  {
                         egpInMsgs,
                         egpInErrors,
                         egpOutMsgs,
                         egpOutErrors
                 }
                 ::= { mib 8 }

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          -- the EGP Neighbor table

          egpNeighTable OBJECT-CLASS
                 SUPERIORS  { egp }
                 ::= { egp 5 }

         egpNeighEntry OBJECT-CLASS
                 SUPERIORS  { egpNeighTable }
                 NAMES  { egpNeighAddr }
                 CONTAINS  {
                         egpNeighState,
                         egpNeighAddr
                 }
                 ::= { egpNeighTable 1 }


         END

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Appendix C - Sample Protocol Exchanges

   The following are sample protocol exchanges between a manager and an
   agent.  The manager establishes an association with the agent,
   requests the number of IP address and header errors, requests the
   type of route corresponding to the destination address 10.0.0.51,
   requests the TCP connection with the well-known port for FTP, and
   then releases the association.  All of these samples show the
   lightweight presentation protocol being used over TCP.

   --
   -- the manager sends an ACSE association request carried in a
   -- presentation connect request PDU
   --

   {
      connectRequest {                             -- LPP
         version version-1,
         reference {
            callingSSUserReference "sri-nic.arpa",
            commonReference "880821222531Z"
         },
         asn 1.3.6.1.2.1.9.1.1,
         user-data {                               -- ACSE
            protocol-version version1,
            application-context-name 1.3.6.1.2.1.9.1.1,
            user-information {
               functionalUnits {
                  direct-reference 1.0.9596.2.1.0.0,
                  encoding {
                     single-ASN1-type '010110101010101010110B'
                                                         -- Full Manager
                  }
               }
            }
         }
      }
   }


   --
   -- the agent sends an ACSE association response carried in a
   -- presentation connect response PDU
   --

   {
      connectResponse {                           -- LPP
         user-data {

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            user-information {                    -- ACSE
               functionalUnits {
                  direct-reference 1.0.9596.2.1.0.0,
                  encoding {
                     single-ASN1-type '101001010101010101110B'
                                                           -- Full Agent
                  }
               }
            }
         }
      }
   }


   --
   -- the manager sends a get request to read the values of
   -- ipInHdrErrors and ipInAddrErrors
   --

   {
      userData {                                   -- LPP
         ro-Invoke {                               -- ROSE
            invokeID 10,
            operation-value m-Get(3),
            argument {                             -- CMIP
               baseManagedObjectClass {
                  globalForm ip { 1.3.6.1.2.1.4 }
               },
               baseManagedObjectInstance {
                  distinguishedName {
                     relativeDistinguishedName {}
                  }
               },
               attributeIdList {
                  attributeId {
                     localID 4                     -- ipInHdrErrors
                  },
                  attributeId {
                     localID 5                     -- ipInAddrErrors
                  }
               }
            }
         }
      }
   }

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   --
   -- the agent replies with a get response indicating that
   -- ipInHdrErrors = 0 and ipInAddrErrors = 2
   --

   {
      userData {                                   -- LPP
         ro-Result {                               -- ROSE
            invokeID 10,
            {
               operation-value m-Get(3),
               argument {                          -- CMIP
                  baseManagedObjectClass {
                     globalForm ip { 1.3.6.1.2.1.4 }
                  },
                  baseManagedObjectInstance {
                     distinguishedName {
                        relativeDistinguishedName {}
                     }
                  },
                  currentTime "19880821222541.300000Z",
                  attributeList {
                     attribute {
                        attributeId {
                           localID 4               -- ipInHdrErrors
                        },
                        attributeValue 0
                     },
                     attribute {
                        attributeId {
                           localID 5               -- ipInAddrErrors
                        },
                        attributeValue 2
                     }
                  }
               }
            }
         }
      }
   }


   --
   -- the manager sends a get request to discover the ipRouteType for
   -- the IP routing entry with ipRouteDest = 10.0.0.51
   --

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   {
      userData {                                   -- LPP
         ro-Invoke {                               -- ROSE
            invokeID 11,
            operation-value m-Get (3),
            argument {                             -- CMIP
               baseManagedObjectClass {
                  globalForm ipRouteEntry { 1.3.6.1.2.1.4.21.1 }
               },
               baseManagedObjectInstance {
                  distinguishedName {
                     relativeDistinguishedName {
                        attributeValueAssertion {
                           attributeType ipRouteDest
                                        { 1.3.6.1.2.1.4.21.1.1 },
                           attributeValue 10.0.0.51
                        }
                     }
                  }
               },
               attributeIdList {
                  attributeId {
                     localID 8                     -- ipRouteType
                  }
               }
            }
         }
      }
   }


   --
   -- the agent replies with a get response indicating the appropriate
   -- route type
   --

   {
      userData {                                   -- LPP
         ro-Result {                               -- ROSE
            invokeID 11,
            {
               operation-value m-Get(3),
               argument {                          -- CMIP
                  baseManagedObjectClass {
                     globalForm ipRouteEntry { 1.3.6.1.2.1.4.21.1 }
                  },
                  baseManagedObjectInstance {
                     distinguishedName {

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                        relativeDistinguishedName {
                           attributeValueAssertion {
                              attributeType ipRouteDest
                                           { 1.3.6.1.2.1.4.21.1.1 },
                              attributeValue 10.0.0.51
                           }
                        }
                     }
                  },
                  currentTime "19880821222613.780000Z",
                  attributeList {
                     attribute {
                        attributeId {
                           localID 8               -- ipRouteType
                        },
                        attributeValue "direct"
                     }
                  }
               }
            }
         }
      }
   }


   --
   -- the manager sends a get request to read the TCP connection with
   -- the well-known port for FTP.
   --

   {
      userData {                                   -- LPP
         ro-Invoke {                               -- ROSE
            invokeID 12,
            operation-value m-Get(3),
            argument {                             -- CMIP
               baseManagedObjectClass {
                  globalForm tcpConnTable { 1.3.6.1.2.1.6.13 }
               },

               baseManagedObjectInstance {
                  distinguishedName {
                     relativeDistinguishedName { }
                  }
               },
               scope oneLevel(1),
               filter {
                  item {

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                     equality {
                        attributeType tcpConnLocalPort
                              { 1.3.6.1.2.1.6.13.1.3 }
                        attributeValue 21           -- ftp
                     }
                  }
               }
               attributeIdList { } -- an empty list means all attributes
            }
         }
      }
   }


   --
   -- the agent replies with a get response providing the desired TCP
   -- connection information. If more than one TCP connection had
   -- satisfied the filter condition, a series of one or more linked
   -- reply PDUs would have been returned before the final get response.
   --

   {
      userData {                                   -- LPP
         ro-Result {                               -- ROSE
            invokeID 12,
            {
               operation-value m-Get(3),
               argument {                          -- CMIP
                  baseManagedObjectClass {
                     globalForm tcpConnEntry { 1.3.6.1.2.1.6.13.1 }
                  },
                  baseManagedObjectInstance {
                     distinguishedName {
                        relativeDistinguishedName {
                           attributeValueAssertion {
                              attributeType  { tcpConnLocalAddress },
                              attributeValue 128.10.0.34
                           },
                           attributeValueAssertion {
                              attributeType  { tcpConnLocalPort },
                              attributeValue 21
                           },
                           attributeValueAssertion {
                              attributeType  { tcpConnRemAddress },
                              attributeValue 0.0.0.0
                           },
                           attributeValueAssertion {
                              attributeType  { tcpConnRemPort },

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                              attributeValue 0
                           },
                        }
                     }
                  },
                  currentTime "19880821222541.300000Z",
                  attributeList {
                     attribute {
                        attributeId {
                           localId 1              -- tcpConnState
                        },
                        attributeValue LISTEN
                     },
                     attribute {
                        attributeId {
                           localId 2              -- tcpConnLocalAddress
                        },
                        attributeValue 128.10.0.34
                     },
                     attribute {
                        attributeId {
                           localId 3              -- tcpConnLocalPort
                        },
                        attributeValue 21
                     },
                     attribute {
                        attributeId {
                           localId 4              -- tcpConnRemAddress
                        },
                        attributeValue 0.0.0.0
                     },
                     attribute {
                        attributeId {
                           localId 5              -- tcpConnRemPort
                        },
                        attributeValue 0
                     }
                  }
               }
            }
         }
      }
   }

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   --
   -- the manager sends a presentation release request
   --

   {
      releaseRequest {                             -- LPP
         user-data {                               -- ACSE
            reason normal
         }
      }
   }


   --
   -- the agent sends a presentation release response
   --

   {
      releaseResponse {                            -- LPP
         user-data {                               -- ACSE
            reason normal
         }
      }
   }


Authors' Addresses

   Unnikrishnan S. Warrier
   Unisys Corporation
   2400 Colorado  MS #42-13
   Santa Monica, CA 90406

   Phone: (213) 453-5196

   Email: unni@cs.ucla.edu


   Larry Besaw
   Hewlett-Packard
   3404 East Harmony Road
   Fort Collins, CO 80525

   Phone: (303) 229-6022

   Email: lmb%hpcndaw@hplabs.hp.com