UCL Technical Report 120
Mailgroup Note 19
Network Working Group S.E. Kille
Request for Comments: 987 University College London
June 1986 Mapping between X.400 and RFC 822
Status of This Memo
This RFC suggests a proposed protocol for the ARPA-Internet
community, and requests discussion and suggestions for improvements.
Distribution of this memo is unlimited.
This document describes a set of mappings which will enable
interworking between systems operating the CCITT X.400 (1984) series
of protocols [CCITT84a], and systems using the RFC 822 mail protocol
[Crocker82a], or protocols derived from RFC 822. The approach aims
to maximise the services offered across the boundary, whilst not
requiring unduly complex mappings. The mappings should not require
any changes to end systems.
This specification should be used when this mapping is performed on
the ARPA-Internet or in the UK Academic Community. This
specification may be modified in the light of implementation
experience, but no substantial changes are expected.
Chapter 1 -- Overview
The X.400 series protocols have been defined by CCITT to provide
an Interpersonal Messaging Service (IPMS), making use of a store
and forward Message Transfer Service. It is expected that this
standard will be implemented very widely. As well as the base
standard (X.400), work is underway on various functional standards
of profiles which specify how X.400 will be used in various
communities. Many of the major functional standards (e.g. from
CEPT, CEN/CENELEC, and NBS) are likely to be similar. Some of the
decisions in this document are in the light of this work. No
reference is given, as these documents are not currently stable.
1.2. RFC 822RFC 822 evolved as a messaging standard on the DARPA (the US
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) Internet. It is
currently used on the ARPA-Internet in conjunction with two other
standards: RFC 821, also known as Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
(SMTP) [Postel82a], and RFC 920 which is a specification for a
domain name system and a distributed name service [Postel84a].
RFC 822, or protocols derived from RFC 822 are used in a number of
other networks. In particular:
UUCP is the UNIX to UNIX CoPy protocol <0>, which is usually
used over dialup telephone networks to provide a simple
message transfer mechanism. There are some extensions to
RFC 822, particularly in the addressing. They are likely to
use domains which conform to RFC 920, but not the
corresponding domain nameservers [Horton86a].
Some portions of CSNET will follow the ARPA-Internet
protocols. The dialup portion of CSNET uses the Phonenet
protocols as a replacement for RFC 821. This portion is
likely to use domains which conform to RFC 920, but not the
corresponding domain nameservers.
Some parts of BITNET use RFC 822 related protocols, with
JNT Mail Networks
A number of X.25 networks, particularly those associated
with the UK Academic Community, use the JNT (Joint Network
Team) Mail Protocol, also known as Greybook [Kille84a].
This is used with domains and name service specified by the
JNT NRS (Name Registration Scheme) [Larmouth83a].
The mappings specified here are appropriate for all of these
1.3. The Need for Conversion
There is a large community using RFC 822 based protocols for mail
services, who will wish to communicate with X.400 systems. This
will be a requirement, even in cases where communities intend to
make a transition to use of X.400, where conversion will be needed
to ensure a smooth service transition. It is expected that there
will be more than one gateway <1>, and this specification will
enable them to behave in a consistent manner. These gateways are
sometimes called mail relays. Consistency between gateways is
desirable to provide:
1. Consistent service to users.
2. The best service in cases where a message passes through
1.4. General Approach
There are a number of basic principles underlying the details of
1. The specification should be pragmatic. There should not
be a requirement for complex mappings for 'Academic'
reasons. Complex mappings should not be required to
support trivial additional functionality.
2. Subject to 1), functionality across a gateway should be as
high as possible.
3. It is always a bad idea to lose information as a result of
any transformation. Hence, it is a bad idea for a gateway
to discard information in the objects it processes. This
includes requested services which cannot be fully mapped.
4. All mail gateways actually operate at exactly one level
above the layer on which they conceptually operate. This
implies that the gateway must not only be cognisant of the
semantics of objects at the gateway level, but also be
cognisant of higher level semantics. If meaningful
transformation of the objects that the gateway operates on
is to occur, then the gateway needs to understand more
than the objects themselves.
1.5. Gatewaying Model
The CCITT X.400 series recommendations specify a number of
services and protocols. The services are specified in X.400.
Two of these services are fundamental to this document:
1. The Message Transfer Service, which can be provided by
either the P1 or P3 protocols, which are specified in
X.411 [CCITT84b]. This document talks in terms of P1,
but the mappings are equally applicable to P3.
2. The Interpersonal Messaging Service (IPMS), which is
provided by the P2 protocol specified in X.420
This document considers only IPMS, and not of any other usage
of the Message Transfer Service. This is reasonable, as
RFC 822, broadly speaking, provides a service corresponding to
IPMS, and no services other than IPMS have been defined over
the Message Transfer Service. As none of the RTS (Reliable
Transfer Service) service elements is available to the IPMS
user, this level and lower levels are of no concern in this
gatewaying specification. Note that in this memo "IP" means
"InterPersonal" (not Internet Protocol).
The Message Transfer Service defines an end-to-end service over
a series of Message Transfer Agents (MTA). It also defines a
protocol, P1, which is used between a pair of MTAs. This
protocol is simply a file format (Message Protocol Data Unit,
or MPDU), transferred between two MTAs using the RTS. There
are three types of MPDU:
This contains envelope information, and uninterpreted
contents. The envelope includes an ID, an originator, a
list of recipients, and trace information. It is used to
carry data for higher level services.
This contains only envelope information. It is used to
determine whether a User UMPDU could be delivered to a
given O/R (originator/recipient) name.
This contains envelope information, and specified
contents. It is used to indicate delivery success or
failure of a User or Probe MPDU over the Message Transfer
IPMS (P2) specifies two content types for the P1 User MPDU
(User Agent Protocol Data Units or UAPDU):
Interpersonal Message (IM-UAPDU)
This has two components: a heading, and a body. The body
is structured as a sequence of body parts, which may be
basic components (e.g.IA5 text, or G3 fax), or IP
Messages. The header contains end to end user
information, such as subject, primary recipients (To:),
and priority. The validity of these fields is not
guaranteed by the Message Transfer Service. This
provides the basic IPMS.
Status Report (SR-UAPDU)
This UAPDU has defined contents. It is used to indicate
that a message has been received by a User Agent. It
does not have to be implemented.
1.5.2. RFC 822RFC 822 is based on the assumption that there is an underlying
service, which is here called the 822-P1 service. The 822-P1
service provides three basic functions:
1. Identification of a list of recipients.
2. Identification of an error return address.
3. Transfer of an RFC 822 message.
It is possible to achieve 2) within the RFC 822 header. Some
822-P1 protocols, in particular SMTP, can provide additional
functionality, but as these are neither mandatory in SMTP, nor
available in other 822-P1 protocols, they are not considered
here. Details of aspects specific to a number of 822-P1
protocols are given in appendices B to E. An RFC 822 message
consists of a header, and content which is uninterpreted ASCII
text. The header is divided into fields, which are the
protocol elements. Most of these fields are analogous to P2
header elements, although some are analogous to P1 envelope
1.5.3. The Gateway
Given this functional description of the two protocols, the
functional nature of a gateway can now be considered. It would
be elegant to consider the 822-P1 service mapping onto P1 and
RFC 822 mapping onto P2, but reality just does not fit.
Therefore one must consider that P1 or P1 + P2 on one side are
mapped into RFC 822 + 822-P1 on the other in a slightly tangled
manner. The details of the tangle will be made clear in
chapter 5. The following basic mappings are thus proposed.
When going from RFC 822 to X.400, an RFC 822 message and the
associated 822-P1 information is always mapped into an IM-UAPDU
and the associated P1 envelope. Going from X.400 to RFC 822,
an RFC 822 message and the associated 822-P1 information may be
1. A Delivery Report MPDU
2. An SR-UAPDU and the associated P1 envelope.
3. An IM-UAPDU and the associated P1 envelope.
Probe MPDUs must be processed by the gateway - this is
discussed in chapter 5. Any other User MPDUs are not mapped by
the gateway, and should be rejected at the gateway.
1.6. Document Structure
This document has five chapters:
1. Overview - this document.
2. Service Elements - This describes the (end user) services
mapped by a gateway.
3. Basic mappings - This describes some basic notation used
in chapters 3-5, the mappings between character sets, and
some fundamental protocol elements.
4. Addressing - This considers the mapping between X.400 O/R
names and RFC 822 addresses, which is a fundamental
5. Protocol Elements - This describes the details of all
There are also six appendices:
A. Quoted String Encodings.
B. Mappings Specific to JNT Mail.
C. Mappings Specific to Internet Mail.
D. Mappings Specific to Phonenet Mail.
E. Mappings Specific to UUCP Mail.
F. Format of Address Tables.
This document is eclectic, and credit should be given:
- Study of the EAN X.400 system code which performs this
function [Neufeld85a]. Some detailed clarification was
made by the DFN report on EAN [Bonacker85a].
- An unpublished ICL report, which considered a subset of
the problem [ICL84a].
- A document by Marshall Rose [Rose85a].
- A document by Mark Horton [Horton85a]. The string
encodings of chapter 3 were derived directly from this
work, as is much of chapter 4.
- Discussion on a number of electronic mailing lists.
- Meetings in the UK and the US.
Chapter 2 -- Service Elements
RFC 822 and X.400 provide a number of services to the end user. This
document describes the extent to which each service can be supported
across an X.400 <-> RFC 822 gateway. The cases considered are single
transfers across such a gateway, although the problems of multiple
crossings are noted where appropriate.
When a service element is described as supported, this means that
when this service element is specified by a message originator for a
recipient behind a gateway, that it is mapped by the gateway to
provide the service implied by the element. For example, if an
RFC 822 originator specifies a Subject: field, this is considered to
be supported, as an X.400 recipient will get a subject indication.
- Semantic correspondence.
- No loss of information.
- Any actions required by the service element.
For some services, the corresponding protocol elements map well, and
so the service can be fully provided. In other cases, the service
cannot be provided, as there is a complete mismatch. In the
remaining cases, the service can be partially fulfilled. The level
of partial support is summarised.
NOTE: It should be clear that support of service elements on
reception is not a gatewaying issue. It is assumed that all
outbound messages are fully conforming to the appropriate
2.1. RFC 822RFC 822 does not explicitly define service elements, as distinct
from protocol elements. However, all of the RFC 822 header
fields, with the exception of trace, can be regarded as
corresponding to implicit RFC 822 service elements. A mechanism
of mapping used in several cases, is to place the text of the
header into the body of the IP Message. This can usually be
regarded as partial support, as it allows the information to be
conveyed to the end user even though there is no corresponding
X.400 protocol element. Support for the various service elements
(headers) is now listed.
Supported. For messages where there is also a sender field,
the mapping is to "Authorising Addresses", which has subtly
different semantics to the general RFC 822 usage of From:.
Supported, for a single reference in msg-id form. Other
cases are passed in the message text.
Passed in the message text.
Passed in the message text.
Passed in the message text. This may not be very useful.
Passed in the message text. In principle, these could be
supported in a fuller manner, but this is not suggested.
In particular X-* fields, and "illegal" fields in common
usage (e.g. "Fruit-of-the-day:") are passed in the message
When mapping from X.400 to RFC 822, it is not proposed to map any
elements into the body of an RFC 822 message. Rather, new RFC 822
headers are defined. It is intended that these fields will be
registered, and that co-operating RFC 822 systems may use them.
Where these new fields are used, and no system action is implied,
the service can be regarded as being almost supported. Chapter 5
describes how to map these new headers in both directions. Other
elements are provided, in part, by the gateway as they cannot be
provided by RFC 822. Some service elements are are marked N/A
(not applicable). These elements are only applicable to User
Agent / Message Transfer Agent interaction and have no end-to-end
implication. These elements do not need to be mapped by the
2.2.1. Message Transfer Service Elements
Content Type Indication
Not mapped. As it can only have one value (P2), there is
little use in creating a new RFC 822 header field, unless it
was to distinguish delivery reports.
Supported by a new RFC 822 header.
Delivery Time Stamp Indication
Supported, by use of a new RFC 822 header. This new header
is required, as X.400 has two message-ids whereas RFC 822
has only one.
Not supported, although in general an RFC 822 system will
return errors as IP messages. In other elements, this
pragmatic result is treated as effective support of this
Original Encoded Information Types Indication
Supported as a new RFC 822 header.
Registered Encoded Information Types
Submission Time Stamp Indication
Alternate Recipient Allowed
Not supported. Any value is ignored by the gateway.
Support is optional. The framework is provided so that
messages may be held at the gateway. However, a gateway
following this specification does not have to do this. This
is in line with the emerging functional standards.
Deferred Delivery Cancellation
Supported at gateway. Thus, a notification is sent by the
gateway to the originator <2>.
Disclosure of Other Recipients
Supported by use of a new RFC 822 header.
Grade of Delivery Selection
Supported as a new RFC 822 header. In general, this will
only be for user information in the RFC 822 world.
Prevention of Non-delivery Notification
Not Supported, as there is no control in the RFC 822 world
(but see Non-delivery Notification).
Return of Contents
This is normally the case, although the user has no control
(but see Non-delivery Notification).
Supported. Note that in practice this support is restricted
by the nature of the gateway.
Supported, for appropriate values (See the IPMS Typed Body
Supported, in the sense that there will be implicit
conversion to IA5 in cases where this is practical.
Supported at the gateway (i.e. the gateway services the
Alternate Recipient Assignment
Hold for Delivery
2.2.2. Interpersonal Message Service Elements
Supported. IA5 is fully supported. ForwardedIPMessage is
supported, with some loss of information. A subset of TTX
is supported (see section 5 for the specification of this
subset), with some loss of information. SFD may be
supported, with some loss of information. TTX and SFD are
only supported when conversion is allowed. Other types are
Blind Copy Recipient Indication
Supported as new RFC 822 header.
Authorising User's Indication
Supported, although the mapping (From:) is not quite the
Primary and Copy Recipients Indication
Expiry Date Indication
Supported as new RFC 822 header. In general, only human
action can be expected.
Cross Referencing Indication
Supported as new RFC 822 header.
Supported as new RFC 822 header.
Supported as new RFC 822 header.
Reply Request Indication
Supported as comment next to address.
Forwarded IP-message Indication
Supported, with some loss of information.
Body Part Encryption Indication
Supported, with some loss of information, in that the
structuring cannot be formalised in RFC 822.
Chapter 3 -- Basic Mappings
The P1 and P2 protocols are encoded in a structured manner
according to the X.409 specifications, whereas RFC 822 is text
encoded. To define a detailed mapping, it is necessary to refer
to detailed protocol elements in each format. This is described.
3.1.4. RFC 822
Structured text is defined according to the Extended Backus
Naur Form (EBNF) defined in section 2 of RFC 822 [Crocker82a].
In the EBNF definitions used in this specification, the syntax
rules given in Appendix D of RFC 822 are assumed. When these
EBNF tokens are referred to outside an EBNF definition, they
are identified by the string "882." appended to the beginning
of the string (e.g. 822.addr-spec). Additional syntax rules,
to be used throughout this specification are defined in this
The EBNF is used in two ways.
1. To describe components of RFC 822 messages (or of
822-P1 components). In this case, the lexical analysis
defined in section 3 of RFC 822 should be used. When
these new EBNF tokens are referred to outside an EBNF
definition, they are identified by the string "EBNF."
appended to the beginning of the string (e.g.
2. To describe the structure of IA5 or ASCII information
not in an RFC 822 message. In these cases, tokens will
either be self delimiting, or be delimited by self
delimiting tokens. Comments and LWSP are not used as
An element is referred to with the following syntax, defined in
element = protocol "." definition *( "." definition )
protocol = "P1" / "P2"
definition = identifier / context
identifier = ALPHA *< ALPHA or DIGIT or "-" >
context = "[" 1*DIGIT "]"
For example, P2.Heading.subject defines the subject element of
the P2 heading. The same syntax is also used to refer to
element values. For example,
P1.EncodedInformationTypes..g3Fax refers to a value of
3.2. ASCII and IA5
A gateway will interpret all IA5 as ASCII. Thus, they are treated
identically for the rest of this document.
3.3. Universal Primitives
There is a need to convert between ASCII text, and some of the
Universal Primitive types defined in X.409 [CCITT84d]. For each
case, an EBNF syntax definition is given, for use in all of this
specification. All EBNF syntax definitions of Universal
Primitives are in lower case, whereas X.409 primitives are
referred to with the first letter in upper case. Except as noted,
all mappings are symmetrical.
Boolean is encoded as:
boolean = "TRUE" / "FALSE"
NumericString is encoded as:
numericstring = *DIGIT
PrintableString is a restricted IA5String defined as:
printablestring = *( ps-char / ps-delim )
ps-char = 1DIGIT / 1ALPHA / " " / "'" / "+" / ")"
/ "," / "-" / "." / "/" / ":" / "=" / "?"
ps-delim = "("
A structured subset of EBNF.printablestring is now defined.
This can be used to encode ASCII in the PrintableString
ps-encoded = *( ps-char / ps-encoded-char )
ps-encoded-char = "(a)" ; (@)
/ "(p)" ; (%)
/ "(b)" ; (!)
/ "(q)" ; (")
/ "(u)" ; (_)
/ "(" 3DIGIT ")"
The 822.3DIGIT in EBNF.ps-encoded-char must have range 0-127
(Decimal), and is interpreted in decimal as the corresponding
ASCII character. Special encodings are given for: at sign (@),
percent (%), exclamation mark/bang (!), double quote ("), and
underscore (_). These characters are not included in
PrintableString, but are common in RFC 822 addresses. The
abbreviations will ease specification of RFC 822 addresses from
an X.400 system.
An asymmetric mapping between PrintableString and ASCII can now
be defined <3>. To encode ASCII as PrintableString, the
EBNF.ps-encoded syntax is used, with all EBNF.ps-char AND
EBNF.ps-delim mapped directly <4>. All other 822.CHAR are
encoded as EBNF.ps-encoded-char. There are two cases of
encoding PrintableString as ASCII. If the PrintableString can
be parsed as EBNF.ps-encoded, then the previous mapping should
be reversed. If not, it should be interpreted as
Some examples are now given. Note the arrows which indicate
'a demo.' <-> 'a demo.'
foo(a)bar <-> foo@bar
(q)(u)(p)(q) <-> "_%"
(a) <-> @
(a) <- (a)
(040)a(041) -> (a)
(040)(a) -> (@
((a) <- (@
The algorithm is designed so that it is simple to use in all
common cases, so that it is general, and so that it is
straightforward to code. It is not attempting to minimise the
number of pathological cases.
T.61 strings are, in general, only used for conveying human
interpreted information. Thus, the aim of a mapping should be
to render the characters appropriately in the remote character
set, rather than to maximise reversibility. The mappings
defined in the CEN/CENELEC X.400 functional standard should be
used [CEN/CENELEC/85a]. These are based on the mappings of
X.408 (sections 4.2.2 and 5.2.2).
Both UTCTime and the RFC 822 822.date-time syntax contain: Year
(lowest two digits), Month, Day of Month, hour, minute, second
(optional), and Timezone. 822.date-time also contains an
optional day of the week, but this is redundant. Therefore a
symmetrical mapping can be made between these constructs <5>.
The UTCTime format which specifies the timezone offset should
be used, in line with CEN/CENELEC recommendations.
Chapter 4 -- Addressing
Addressing is probably the trickiest problem of an X.400 <-> RFC 822
gateway. Therefore it is given a separate chapter. This chapter, as
a side effect, also defines a standard textual representation of
Initially we consider an address in the (human) mail user sense of
"what is typed at the mailsystem to reference a human". A basic
RFC 822 address is defined by the EBNF EBNF.822-address:
822-address = [ route ] addr-spec
In an 822-P1 protocol, the originator and each recipient should be
considered to be defined by such a construct. In an RFC 822 header,
the EBNF.822-address is encapsulated in the 822.address syntax rule,
and there may also be associated comments. None of this extra
information has any semantics, other than to the end user.
The basic X.400 address is defined by P1.ORName. In P1 all recipient
P1.ORnames are encapsulated within P1.RecipientInfo, and in P2 all
P2.ORNames <6> are encapsulated within P2.ORDescriptor.
It can be seen that RFC 822 822.address must be mapped with
P2.ORDescriptor, and that RFC 822 EBNF.822-address must be mapped
with P1.ORName (originator) and P1.RecipientInfo (recipients).
This chapter is structured as follows:
4.2 A textual representation of P1.ORName. This is needed for
the later mappings, and as a side effect provides a standard
representation for O/R names.
4.3 Mapping between EBNF.822-address and P1.ORName
4.4 The Full P1 / 822-P1 Mapping
4.5 The Full P2 / RFC 822 Mapping
4.6 Mapping Message-IDs.
4.1. A textual representation of P1.ORName.
P1.ORName is structured as a set of attribute value pairs. It is
clearly necessary to be able to encode this in ASCII for
gatewaying purposes. A general encoding is given here, which may
be used as a basis for a user interface, as well as for the
defined gateway mapping.
4.1.1. Basic Representation
A series of BNF definitions of each possible attribute value
pair is given, which is given a 1:1 mapping with the X.400
encoding. The rest of the mapping then talks in terms of these
BNF components, with the mapping to X.400 encoding being
attributevalue = c / admd / prmd / x121 / t-id / o / ou
/ ua-id / pn.g / pn.i / pn.s / pn.gq / dd.value
c = printablestring ; P1.CountryName
admd = printablestring ; P1.AdministrationDomainName
prmd = printablestring ; P1.PrivateDomainName
x121 = numericstring ; P1.X121Address
t-id = numericstring ; P1.TerminalID
o = printablestring ; P1.OrganisationName
ou = printablestring ; P1.OrganisationalUnit
ua-id = numericstring ; P1.UniqueUAIdentifier
pn.s = printablestring ; P1.PersonalName.surName
pn.g = printablestring ; P1.PersonalName.givenName
pn.i = printablestring ; P1.PersonalName.initials
pn.gq = printablestring ; P1.PersonalName.generation
dd.value = printablestring ; P1.DomainDefined
In cases where an attribute can be encoded as either a
PrintableString or NumericString (Country, ADMD, PRMD) it is
assumed that the NumericString encoding will be adopted if
possible. This prevents the encoding of PrintableString where
the characters are all numbers. This restriction seems
preferable to the added complexity of a general solution.
Similarly, we can define a set of attribute types.
dd.type = printablestring ; P1.DomainDefinedAttribute.type
"C" ; P1.CountryName
/ "ADMD" ; P1.AdministrationDomainName
/ "PRMD" ; P1.PrivateDomainName
/ "X121" ; P1.X121Address
/ "T-ID" ; P1.TerminalID
/ "O" ; P1.OrganisationName
/ "OU" ; P1.OrganisationalUnit
/ "UA-ID" ; P1.UniqueUAIdentifier
/ "S" ; P1.PersonalName.surName
/ "G" ; P1.PersonalName.givenName
/ "I" ; P1.PersonalName.initials
/ "GQ" ; P1.PersonalName.generationQualifier
"RFC-822" ; dd.type = "RFC-822"
/ "JNT-Mail" ; dd.type = "JNT-Mail"
/ "UUCP" ; dd.type = "UUCP"
4.1.2. Encoding of Personal Name
Handling of Personal Name based purely on the
EBNF.standard-type syntax defined above is likely to be clumsy.
It seems desirable to utilise the "human" conventions for
encoding these components. A syntax is proposed here. It is
designed to cope with the common cases of O/R Name
1. There is no generational qualifier
2. Initials contain only letters <7>.
3. Given Name does not contain full stop ("."), and is at
least two characters long.
4. If Surname contains full stop, then it may not be in
the first two characters, and either initials or given
name is present.
The following EBNF is defined:
encoded-pn = [ given "." ] *( initial "." ) surname
given = 2*<ps-char not including ".">
initial = ALPHA
surname = printablestring
Subject to the above restriction, this is a reversible mapping.
GivenName = "Marshall"
Surname = "Rose"
Maps with "Marshall.Rose"
Initials = "MT"
Surname = "Rose"
Maps with "M.T.Rose"
GivenName = "Marshall"
Initials = "MT"
Surname = "Rose"
Maps with "Marshall.M.T.Rose"
Note that CCITT guidelines suggest that Initials is used to
encode ALL initials. Therefore, the proposed encoding is
"natural" when either GivenName or Initials, but not both, are
present. The case where both are present can be encoded, but
this appears to be contrived!
4.1.3. Two encodings of P1.ORName
Given this structure, we can specify a BNF representation of an
std-orname = 1*( "/" attribute "=" value ) "/"
attribute = standard-type
/ "DD." std-printablestring
value = std-printablestring
= *( std-char / std-pair )
std-char = <ps-delim, and any ps-char except "/"
std-pair = "$" ( ps-delim / ps-char )
If the type is PN, the value is interpreted according to
EBNF.encoded-pn, and the components of P1.PersonalName derived
accordingly. If the value is registered-dd-type, if the value
is registered at the SRI NIC as an accepted Domain Defined
Attribute type, then the value should be interpreted
accordingly. This restriction maximises the syntax checking
which can be done at a gateway.
Another syntax is now defined. This is intended to be
compatible with the syntax used for 822.domains. This syntax
is not intended to be handled by users.
dmn-orname = dmn-part *( "." dmn-part )
dmn-part = attribute "$" value
attribute = standard-type
/ "~" dmn-printablestring
value = dmn-printablestring
= *( dmn-char / dmn-pair )
dmn-char = <ps-delim, and any ps-char except ".">
dmn-pair = "\."
For example: C$US.ADMD$ATT.~ROLE$Big\.Chief
4.2. Mapping between EBNF.822-address and P1.ORName
Ideally, the mapping specified would be entirely symmetrical and
global, to enable addresses to be referred to transparently in the
remote system, with the choice of gateway being left to the
Message Transfer Service. There are two fundamental reasons why
this is not possible:
1. The syntaxes are sufficiently different to make this
2. In the general case, there would not be the necessary
administrative co-operation between the X.400 and RFC 822
worlds, which would be needed for this to work.
Therefore, an asymmetrical mapping is defined.
4.2.1. X.400 encoded in RFC 822
The std-orname syntax is used to encode O/R Name information
in the 822.local-part of EBNF.822-address. Further O/R Name
information may be associated with the 822.domain component.
This cannot be used in the general case, basically due to
character set problems, and lack of order in X.400 O/R Names.
The only way to encode the full PrintableString character set
in a domain is by use of the 822.domain-ref syntax. This is
likely to cause problems on many systems. The effective
character set of domains is in practice reduced from the
RFC 822 set, by restrictions imposed by domain conventions and
A generic 822.address consists of a 822.local-part and a
sequence of 822.domains (e.g.
<@domain1,@domain2:user@domain3>). All except the 822.domain
associated with the 822.local-part (domain3 in this case)
should be considered to specify routing within the RFC 822
world, and will not be interpreted by the gateway (although
they may have identified the gateway from within the RFC 822
world). The 822.domain associated with the 822.local-part may
also identify the gateway from within the RFC 822 world. This
final 822.domain may be used to determine some number of O/R
Name attributes. The following O/R Name attributes are
considered as a hierarchy, and may be specified by the domain.
They are (in order of hierarchy):
Country, ADMD, PRMD, Organisation, Organisational Unit
There may be multiple Organisational Units.
Associations may be defined between domain specifications, and
some set of attributes. This association proceeds
hierarchically: i.e. if a domain implies ADMD, it also implies
country. If one of the hierarchical components is omitted from
an X.400 structure, this information can be associated with the
corresponding domain (e.g. a domain can be mapped onto a
Country/ADMD/Organisation tuple). Subdomains under this are
associated according to the O/R Name hierarchy. For example:
=> "AC.UK" might be associated with
C="234", ADMD="BT", PRMD="DES"
then domain "R-D.Salford.AC.UK" maps with
C="234", ADMD="BT", PRMD="DES", O="Salford", OU="R-D"
There are two basic reasons why a domain/attribute mapping
might be maintained, as opposed to using simply subdomains:
1. As a shorthand to avoid redundant X.400 information.
In particular, there will often be only one ADMD per
country, and so it does not need to be given
2. To deal with cases where attribute values do not fit
domain-syntax = ALPHA [ *alphanumhyphen alphanum ]
alphanum = <ALPHA or DIGIT>
alphanumhyphen = <ALPHA or DIGIT or HYPHEN>
Although RFC 822 allows for a more general syntax, this
restriced syntax is chosen as it is the one chosen by the
various domain service administrations.
This provides a general aliasing mechanism.
This set of mappings need only be known by the gateways
relaying between the RFC 822 world, and the O/R Name namespace
associated with the mapping in question. However, it is
desirable (for the optimal mapping of third party addresses)
for all gateways to know these mappings. A format for the
exchange of this information is defined in Appendix F.
From the standpoint of the RFC 822 Message Transfer System, the
domain specification is simply used to route the message in the
standard manner. The standard domain mechanisms are used to
identify gateways, and are used to select appropriate gateways
for the corresponding O/R Name namespace. In most cases, this
will be done by registering the higher levels, and assuming
that the gateway can handle the lower levels.
As a further mechanism to simplify the encoding of common
cases, where the only attributes to be encoded on the LHS are
Personal Name attributes which comply with the restrictions of
4.2.2, the 822.local-part may be encoded as EBNF.encoded-pn.
An example encoding is:
encodes the P1.ORName consisting of
P1.CountryName = "US"
P1.AdministrationDomainName = "ATT"
P1.OrganisationName = "Xerox"
P1.OrganisationalUnit = "Marketing"
P1.PersonalName.surName = "Linnimouth"
P1.PersonalName.initials = "J"
P1.PersonalName.GenerationQualifier = "5"
If the GenerationQualifier was not present, the encoding
J.Linnimouth@Marketing.Xerox.COM could be used.
Note that in this example, the first three attributes are
determined by the domain Xerox.COM. The OrganisationalUnit is
There has been an implicit assumption that an RFC 822 domain is
either X.400 or RFC 822. This is pragmatic, but undesirable,
as the namespace should be structured on a logical basis which
does not necessarily correspond to the choice of Message
Transfer protocols. The restriction can be lifted, provided
that the nameservice deals with multiple message transfer
protocols. This can happen in a straightforward manner for the
UK NRS, as explained in [Kille86a]. It could also be achieved
with the DARPA Domain Nameserver scheme by use of the WKS
4.2.2. RFC 822 Encoded in X.400
In some cases, the encoding defined above may be reversed, to
give a "natural" encoding of genuine RFC 822 addresses. This
depends largely on the allocation of appropriate management
The general case is mapped by use of domain defined attributes.
Three are defined, according to the full environment used to
interpret the RFC 822 information.
1. Domain defined type "RFC-822". This string is to be
interpreted in the context of RFC 822, and RFC 920
2. Domain defined type "JNT-Mail". This string is to be
interpreted in the context of the JNT Mail protocol,
and the NRS [Kille84a,Larmouth83a].
3. Domain defined type "UUCP". This is interpreted
according to the constraints of the UUCP world
These three are values currently known to be of use. Further
recognised values may be defined. These will be maintained in
a list at the SRI Network Information Center.
Other O/R Name attributes will be used to identify a context in
which the O/R Name will be interpreted. This might be a
Management Domain, or some part of a Management Domain which
identifies a gateway MTA. For example:
C = "GB"
ADMD = "BT"
PRMD = "AC"
"JNT-Mail" = "Jimmy(a)UK.CO.BT-RESEARCH-LABS"
C = "US"
ADMD = "Telemail"
PRMD = "San Fransisco"
O = "U Cal"
OU = "Berkeley"
"RFC-822" = "postel(a)usc-isib.arpa"
Note in each case the PrintableString encoding of "@" as "(a)".
In the first example, the "JNT-Mail" domain defined attribute
is interpreted everywhere within the (Administrative or
Private) Management Domain. In the second example, further
attributes are needed within the Management Domain to identify
a gateway. Thus, this scheme can be used with varying levels
of Management Domain co-operation.
4.2.3. RFC 822 -> X.400
There are two basic cases:
1. X.400 addresses encoded in RFC 822. This will also
include RFC 822 addresses which are given reversible
2. "Genuine" RFC 822 addresses.
The mapping should proceed as follows, by first assuming case
1. If the 822-address is not of the form:
local-part "@" domain
go to stage 2.
2. Attempt to parse domain as:
*( domain-syntax "." ) known-domain
Where known-domain is the longest possible match in a
list of gatewayed domains. If this fails, and the domain
does not explicitly identify the local gateway, go to
stage 2. If it succeeds, allocate the attributes
associated with EBNF.known-domain, and systematically
allocate the attributes implied by each
3. Map 822.local-part to ASCII, according to the
definition of Appendix A. This step should be applied:
A. If the source network cannot support
822.quoted-string (as discussed in Appendix A).
B. If the address is an 822-P1 recipient.
This mapping is always applied in case B, as it
increases the functionality of the gateway, and does
not imply any loss of generality. Mapping case B
allows sites which cannot generate 822.quoted-string
to address recipients the gateway, without the gateway
having to know this explicitly. There is no loss of
functionality, as the quoting character of Appendix A
(#) is not in PrintableString. This seems desirable.
It should not be applied in to other addresses, as a
third party RFC#822 address containing the sequence
EBNF.atom-encoded (as defined in Appendix A) would be
4. Map the result of 3) to EBNF.ps-encoded according to
5. Parse the result of 4) according to the EBNF
EBNF.std-orname. If this parse fails, parse the result
of 4) according to the EBNF EBNF.encoded-pn. If this
also fails, go to stage 2. Otherwise, the result is a
set of type/value pairs.
6. Associate the EBNF.attribute-value syntax (determined
from the identified type) with each value, and check
that it conforms. If not, go to stage 2.
7. Ensure that the set of attributes conforms both to the
X.411 P1.ORName specification and to the restrictions
on this set given in X.400. If not go to stage 2.
8. Build the O/R Name from this information.
This will only be reached if the RFC 822 EBNF.822-address is
not a valid X.400 encoding. If the address is an 822-P1
recipient address, it must be rejected, as there is a need to
interpret such an address in X.400. For the 822-P1 return
address, and any addresses in the RFC 822 header, they should
now be encoded as RFC 822 addresses in an X.400 O/R Name:
1. Convert the EBNF.822-address to PrintableString, as
specified in chapter 3.
2. The domain defined attribute ("RFC-822", "JNT-Mail" or