Another query might be:
Header | OPCODE=CQUERYM, ID=410 |
Question | QTYPE=A, QCLASS=IN, QNAME=B |
Answer | <empty> |
Authority | <empty> |
Additional | ARPA NULL IN |
This query is similar to the previous one, but specifies a target
of ARPA rather than ISI.ARPA. It also allows multiple matches.
In this case the same name server might return:
Header | OPCODE=RESPONSE, ID=410 |
Question | QTYPE=A, QCLASS=IN, QNAME=B |
Answer | B.ISI.ARPA A IN 10.3.0.52 |
| - |
| B.BBN.ARPA A IN 10.0.0.49 |
| - |
| B.BBNCC.ARPA A IN 126.96.36.199 |
Authority | <empty> |
Additional | ARPA NULL IN |
This response contains three answers, B.ISI.ARPA, B.BBN.ARPA, and
Recursive Name Service
Recursive service is an optional feature of name servers.
When a name server receives a query regarding a part of the name
space which is not in one of the name server's zones, the standard
response is a message that refers the requestor to another name
server. By iterating on these referrals, the requestor eventually
is directed to a name server that has the required information.
Name servers may also implement recursive service. In this type
of service, a name server either answers immediately based on
local zone information, or pursues the query for the requestor and
returns the eventual result back to the original requestor.
A name server that supports recursive service sets the Recursion
Available (RA) bit in all responses it generates. A requestor
asks for recursive service by setting the Recursion Desired (RD)
bit in queries. In some situations where recursive service is the
only path to the desired information (see below), the name server
may go recursive even if RD is zero.
If a query requests recursion (RD set), but the name server does
not support recursion, and the query needs recursive service for
an answer, the name server returns a "Not Implemented" (NI) error
code. If the query can be answered without recursion since the
name server is authoritative for the query, it ignores the RD bit.
Because of the difficulty in selecting appropriate timeouts and
error handling, recursive service is best suited to virtual
circuits, although it is allowed for datagrams.
Recursive service is valuable in several special situations:
In a system of small personal computers clustered around one or
more large hosts supporting name servers, the recursive
approach minimizes the amount of code in the resolvers in the
personal computers. Such a design moves complexity out of the
resolver into the name server, and may be appropriate for such
Name servers on the boundaries of different networks may wish
to offer recursive service to create connectivity between
different networks. Such name servers may wish to provide
recursive service regardless of the setting of RD.
Name servers that translate between domain name service and
some other name service may wish to adopt the recursive style.
Implicit recursion may be valuable here as well.
Header section format
| ***** WARNING ***** |
| The following format is preliminary and is |
| included for purposes of explanation only. In |
| particular, the size and position of the |
| OPCODE, RCODE fields and the number and |
| meaning of the single bit fields are subject |
| to change. |
The header contains the following fields:
1 1 1 1 1 1
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
| ID |
|QR| Opcode |AA|TC|RD|RA| | RCODE |
| QDCOUNT |
| ANCOUNT |
| NSCOUNT |
| ARCOUNT |
ID - A 16 bit identifier assigned by the program that
generates any kind of query. This identifier is copied
into all replies and can be used by the requestor to
relate replies to outstanding questions.
QR - A one bit field that specifies whether this message is a
query (0), or a response (1).
OPCODE - A four bit field that specifies kind of query in this
message. This value is set by the originator of a query
and copied into the response. The values are:
0 a standard query (QUERY)
1 an inverse query (IQUERY)
2 an completion query allowing multiple
2 an completion query requesting a single
4-15 reserved for future use
AA - Authoritative Answer - this bit is valid in responses,
and specifies that the responding name server
is an authority for the domain name in the
TC - TrunCation - specifies that this message was truncated
due to length greater than 512 characters.
This bit is valid in datagram messages but not
in messages sent over virtual circuits.
RD - Recursion Desired - this bit may be set in a query and
is copied into the response. If RD is set, it
directs the name server to pursue the query
recursively. Recursive query support is
RA - Recursion Available - this be is set or cleared in a
response, and denotes whether recursive query
support is available in the name server.
RCODE - Response code - this 4 bit field is set as part of
responses. The values have the following
0 No error condition
1 Format error - The name server was unable
to interpret the query.
2 Server failure - The name server was unable
to process this query due to a problem with
the name server.
3 Name Error - Meaningful only for responses
from an authoritative name server, this
code signifies that the domain name
referenced in the query does not exist.
4 Not Implemented - The name server does not
support the requested kind of query.
5 Refused - The name server refuses to
perform the specified operation for policy
reasons. For example, a name server may
not wish to provide the information to the
particular requestor, or a name server may
not wish to perform a particular operation
(e.g. zone transfer) for particular data.
6-15 Reserved for future use.
QDCOUNT - an unsigned 16 bit integer specifying the number of
entries in the question section.
ANCOUNT - an unsigned 16 bit integer specifying the number of
resource records in the answer section.
NSCOUNT - an unsigned 16 bit integer specifying the number of name
server resource records in the authority records
ARCOUNT - an unsigned 16 bit integer specifying the number of
resource records in the additional records section.
Question section format
The question section is used in all kinds of queries other than
inverse queries. In responses to inverse queries, this section
may contain multiple entries; for all other responses it contains
a single entry. Each entry has the following format:
1 1 1 1 1 1
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
/ QNAME /
| QTYPE |
| QCLASS |
QNAME - a variable number of octets that specify a domain name.
This field uses the compressed domain name format
described in the next section of this memo. This field
can be used to derive a text string for the domain name.
Note that this field may be an odd number of octets; no
padding is used.
QTYPE - a two octet code which specifies the type of the query.
The values for this field include all codes valid for a
TYPE field, together with some more general codes which
can match more than one type of RR. For example, QTYPE
might be A and only match type A RRs, or might be MAILA,
which matches MF and MD type RRs. The values for this
field are listed in Appendix 2.
QCLASS - a two octet code that specifies the class of the query.
For example, the QCLASS field is IN for the ARPA
Internet, CS for the CSNET, etc. The numerical values
are defined in Appendix 2.
Resource record format
The answer, authority, and additional sections all share the same
format: a variable number of resource records, where the number of
records is specified in the corresponding count field in the
header. Each resource record has the following format:
1 1 1 1 1 1
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
/ NAME /
| TYPE |
| CLASS |
| TTL |
| RDLENGTH |
/ RDATA /
NAME - a compressed domain name to which this resource record
TYPE - two octets containing one of the RR type codes defined
in Appendix 2. This field specifies the meaning of the
data in the RDATA field.
CLASS - two octets which specify the class of the data in the
TTL - a 16 bit unsigned integer that specifies the time
interval (in seconds) that the resource record may be
cached before it should be discarded. Zero values are
interpreted to mean that the RR can only be used for the
transaction in progress, and should not be cached. For
example, SOA records are always distributed with a zero
TTL to prohibit caching. Zero values can also be used
for extremely volatile data.
RDLENGTH- an unsigned 16 bit integer that specifies the length in
octets of the RDATA field.
RDATA - a variable length string of octets that describes the
resource. The format of this information varies
according to the TYPE and CLASS of the resource record.
For example, the if the TYPE is A and the CLASS is IN,
the RDATA field is a 4 octet ARPA Internet address.
Formats for particular resource records are shown in Appendicies 2
Domain name representation and compression
Domain names messages are expressed in terms of a sequence of
labels. Each label is represented as a one octet length field
followed by that number of octets. Since every domain name ends
with the null label of the root, a compressed domain name is
terminated by a length byte of zero. The high order two bits of
the length field must be zero, and the remaining six bits of the
length field limit the label to 63 octets or less.
To simplify implementations, the total length of label octets and
label length octets that make up a domain name is restricted to
255 octets or less. Since the trailing root label and its dot are
not printed, printed domain names are 254 octets or less.
Although labels can contain any 8 bit values in octets that make
up a label, it is strongly recommended that labels follow the
syntax described in Appendix 1 of this memo, which is compatible
with existing host naming conventions. Name servers and resolvers
must compare labels in a case-insensitive manner, i.e. A=a, and
hence all character strings must be ASCII with zero parity.
Non-alphabetic codes must match exactly.
Whenever possible, name servers and resolvers must preserve all 8
bits of domain names they process. When a name server is given
data for the same name under two different case usages, this
preservation is not always possible. For example, if a name
server is given data for ISI.ARPA and isi.arpa, it should create a
single node, not two, and hence will preserve a single casing of
the label. Systems with case sensitivity should take special
precautions to insure that the domain data for the system is
created with consistent case.
In order to reduce the amount of space used by repetitive domain
names, the sequence of octets that defines a domain name may be
terminated by a pointer to the length octet of a previously
specified label string. The label string that the pointer
specifies is appended to the already specified label string.
Exact duplication of a previous label string can be done with a
single pointer. Multiple levels are allowed.
Pointers can only be used in positions in the message where the
format is not class specific. If this were not the case, a name
server that was handling a RR for another class could make
erroneous copies of RRs. As yet, there are no such cases, but
they may occur in future RDATA formats.
If a domain name is contained in a part of the message subject to
a length field (such as the RDATA section of an RR), and
compression is used, the length of the compressed name is used in
the length calculation, rather than the length of the expanded
Pointers are represented as a two octet field in which the high
order 2 bits are ones, and the low order 14 bits specify an offset
from the start of the message. The 01 and 10 values of the high
order bits are reserved for future use and should not be used.
Programs are free to avoid using pointers in datagrams they
generate, although this will reduce datagram capacity. However
all programs are required to understand arriving messages that
For example, a datagram might need to use the domain names
F.ISI.ARPA, FOO.F.ISI.ARPA, ARPA, and the root. Ignoring the
other fields of the message, these domain names might be
20 | 1 | F |
22 | 3 | I |
24 | S | I |
26 | 4 | A |
28 | R | P |
30 | A | 0 |
40 | 3 | F |
42 | O | O |
44 | 1 1| 20 |
64 | 1 1| 26 |
92 | 0 | |
The domain name for F.ISI.ARPA is shown at offset 20. The domain
name FOO.F.ISI.ARPA is shown at offset 40; this definition uses a
pointer to concatenate a label for FOO to the previously defined
F.ISI.ARPA. The domain name ARPA is defined at offset 64 using a
pointer to the ARPA component of the name F.ISI.ARPA at 20; note
that this reference relies on ARPA being the last label in the
string at 20. The root domain name is defined by a single octet
of zeros at 92; the root domain name has no labels.
Organization of the Shared database
While name server implementations are free to use any internal
data structures they choose, the suggested structure consists of
several separate trees. Each tree has structure corresponding to
the domain name space, with RRs attached to nodes and leaves.
Each zone of authoritative data has a separate tree, and one tree
holds all non-authoritative data. All of the trees corresponding
to zones are managed identically, but the non-authoritative or
cache tree has different management procedures.
Data stored in the database can be kept in whatever form is
convenient for the name server, so long as it can be transformed
back into the format needed for messages. In particular, the
database will probably use structure in place of expanded domain
names, and will also convert many of the time intervals used in
the domain systems to absolute local times.
Each tree corresponding to a zone has complete information for a
"pruned" subtree of the domain space. The top node of a zone has
a SOA record that marks the start of the zone. The bottom edge of
the zone is delimited by nodes containing NS records signifying
delegation of authority to other zones, or by leaves of the domain
tree. When a name server contains abutting zones, one tree will
have a bottom node containing a NS record, and the other tree will
begin with a tree location containing a SOA record.
Note that there is one special case that requires consideration
when a name server is implemented. A node that contains a SOA RR
denoting a start of zone will also have NS records that identify
the name servers that are expected to have a copy of the zone.
Thus a name server will usually find itself (and possibly other
redundant name servers) referred to in NS records occupying the
same position in the tree as SOA records. The solution to this
problem is to never interpret a NS record as delimiting a zone
started by a SOA at the same point in the tree. (The sample
programs in this memo deal with this problem by processing SOA
records only after NS records have been processed.)
Zones may also overlap a particular part of the name space when
they are of different classes.
Other than the abutting and separate class cases, trees are always
expected to be disjoint. Overlapping zones are regarded as a
non-fatal error. The scheme described in this memo avoids the
overlap issue by maintaining separate trees; other designs must
take the appropriate measures to defend against possible overlap.
Non-authoritative data is maintained in a separate tree. This
tree is unlike the zone trees in that it may have "holes". Each
RR in the cache tree has its own TTL that is separately managed.
The data in this tree is never used if authoritative data is
available from a zone tree; this avoids potential problems due to
cached data that conflicts with authoritative data.
The shared database will also contain data structures to support
the processing of inverse queries and completion queries if the
local system supports these optional features. Although many
schemes are possible, this memo describes a scheme that is based
on tables of pointers that invert the database according to key.
Each kind of retrieval has a separate set of tables, with one
table per zone. When a zone is updated, these tables must also be
updated. The contents of these tables are discussed in the
"Inverse query processing" and "Completion query processing"
sections of this memo.
The database implementation described here includes two locks that
are used to control concurrent access and modification of the
database by name server query processing, name server maintenance
operations, and resolver access:
The first lock ("main lock") controls access to all of the
trees. Multiple concurrent reads are allowed, but write access
can only be acquired by a single process. Read and write
access are mutually exclusive. Resolvers and name server
processes that answer queries acquire this lock in read mode,
and unlock upon completion of the current message. This lock
is acquired in write mode by a name server maintenance process
when it is about to change data in the shared database. The
actual update procedures are described under "NAME SERVER
MAINTENANCE" but are designed to be brief.
The second lock ("cache queue lock") controls access to the
cache queue. This queue is used by a resolver that wishes to
add information to the cache tree. The resolver acquires this
lock, then places the RRs to be cached into the queue. The
name server maintenance procedure periodically acquires this
lock and adds the queue information to the cache. The
rationale for this procedure is that it allows the resolver to
operate with read-only access to the shared database, and
allows the update process to batch cache additions and the
associated costs for inversion calculations. The name server
maintenance procedure must take appropriate precautions to
avoid problems with data already in the cache, inversions, etc.
This organization solves several difficulties:
When searching the domain space for the answer to a query, a
name server can restrict its search for authoritative data to
that tree that matches the most labels on the right side of the
domain name of interest.
Since updates to a zone must be atomic with respect to
searches, maintenance operations can simply acquire the main
lock, insert a new copy of a particular zone without disturbing
other zones, and then release the storage used by the old copy.
Assuming a central table pointing to valid zone trees, this
operation can be a simple pointer swap.
TTL management of zones can be performed using the SOA record
for the zone. This avoids potential difficulties if individual
RRs in a zone could be timed out separately. This issue is
discussed further in the maintenance section.
The following algorithm outlines processing that takes place at a
name server when a query arrives:
1. Search the list of zones to find zones which have the same
class as the QCLASS field in the query and have a top domain
name that matches the right end of the QNAME field. If there
are none, go to step 2. If there are more than one, pick the
zone that has the longest match and go to step 3.
2. Since the zone search failed, the only possible RRs are
contained in the non-authoritative tree. Search the cache tree
for the NS record that has the same class as the QCLASS field
and the largest right end match for domain name. Add the NS
record or records to the authority section of the response. If
the cache tree has RRs that are pertinent to the question
(domain names match, classes agree, not timed-out, and the type
field is relevant to the QTYPE), copy these RRs into the answer
section of the response. The name server may also search the
cache queue. Go to step 4.
3. Since this zone is the best match, the zone in which QNAME
resides is either this zone or a zone to which this zone will
directly or indirectly delegate authority. Search down the
tree looking for a NS RR or the node specified by QNAME.
If the node exists and has no NS record, copy the relevant
RRs to the answer section of the response and go to step 4.
If a NS RR is found, either matching a part or all of QNAME,
then QNAME is in a delegated zone outside of this zone. If
so, copy the NS record or records into the authority section
of the response, and search the remainder of the zone for an
A type record corresponding to the NS reference. If the A
record is found, add it to the additional section. Go to
If the node is not found and a NS is not found, there is no
such name; set the Name error bit in the response and exit.
4. When this step is reached, the answer and authority sections
are complete. What remains is to complete the additional
section. This procedure is only possible if the name server
knows the data formats implied by the class of records in the
answer and authority sections. Hence this procedure is class
dependent. Appendix 3 discusses this procedure for Internet
While this algorithm deals with typical queries and databases,
several additions are required that will depend on the database
supported by the name server:
Special procedures are required when the QCLASS of the query is
"*". If the database contains several classes of data, the
query processing steps above are performed separately for each
CLASS, and the results are merged into a single response. The
name error condition is not meaningful for a QCLASS=* query.
If the requestor wants this information, it must test each
If the database is limited to data of a particular class, this
operation can be performed by simply reseting the authoritative
bit in the response, and performing the query as if QCLASS was
the class used in the database.
* labels in database RRs
Some zones will contain default RRs that use * to match in
cases where the search fails for a particular domain name. If
the database contains these records then a failure must be
retried using * in place of one or more labels of the search
key. The procedure is to replace labels from the left with
"*"s looking for a match until either all labels have been
replaced, or a match is found. Note that these records can
never be the result of caching, so a name server can omit this
processing for zones that don't contain RRs with * in labels,
or can omit this processing entirely if * never appears in
local authoritative data.
Inverse query processing
Name servers that support inverse queries can support these
operations through exhaustive searches of their databases, but
this becomes impractical as the size of the database increases.
An alternative approach is to invert the database according to the
For name servers that support multiple zones and a large amount of
data, the recommended approach is separate inversions for each
zone. When a particular zone is changed during a refresh, only
its inversions need to be redone.
Support for transfer of this type of inversion may be included in
future versions of the domain system, but is not supported in this
Completion query processing
Completion query processing shares many of the same problems in
data structure design as are found in inverse queries, but is
different due to the expected high rate of use of top level labels
(ie., ARPA, CSNET). A name server that wishes to be efficient in
its use of memory may well choose to invert only occurrences of
ARPA, etc. that are below the top level, and use a search for the
rare case that top level labels are used to constrain a
NAME SERVER MAINTENANCE
Name servers perform maintenance operations on their databases to
insure that the data they distribute is accurate and timely. The
amount and complexity of the maintenance operations that a name
server must perform are related to the size, change rate, and
complexity of the database that the name server manages.
Maintenance operations are fundamentally different for
authoritative and non-authoritative data. A name server actively
attempts to insure the accuracy and timeliness of authoritative
data by refreshing the data from master copies. Non-authoritative
data is merely purged when its time-to-live expires; the name
server does not attempt to refresh it.
Although the refreshing scheme is fairly simple to implement, it
is somewhat less powerful than schemes used in other distributed
database systems. In particular, an update to the master does not
immediately update copies, and should be viewed as gradually
percolating though the distributed database. This is adequate for
the vast majority of applications. In situations where timliness
is critical, the master name server can prohibit caching of copies
or assign short timeouts to copies.
Conceptual model of maintenance operations
The vast majority of information in the domain system is derived
from master files scattered among hosts that implement name
servers; some name servers will have no master files, other name
servers will have one or more master files. Each master file
contains the master data for a single zone of authority rather
than data for the whole domain name space. The administrator of a
particular zone controls that zone by updating its master file.
Master files and zone copies from remote servers may include RRs
that are outside of the zone of authority when a NS record
delegates authority to a domain name that is a descendant of the
domain name at which authority is delegated. These forward
references are a problem because there is no reasonable method to
guarantee that the A type records for the delegatee are available
unless they can somehow be attached to the NS records.
For example, suppose the ARPA zone delegates authority at
MIT.ARPA, and states that the name server is on AI.MIT.ARPA. If a
resolver gets the NS record but not the A type record for
AI.MIT.ARPA, it might try to ask the MIT name server for the
address of AI.MIT.ARPA.
The solution is to allow type A records that are outside of the
zone of authority to be copied with the zone. While these records
won't be found in a search for the A type record itself, they can
be protected by the zone refreshing system, and will be passed
back whenever the name server passes back a referral to the
corresponding NS record. If a query is received for the A record,
the name server will pass back a referral to the name server with
the A record in the additional section, rather than answer
The only exception to the use of master files is a small amount of
data stored in boot files. Boot file data is used by name servers
to provide enough resource records to allow zones to be imported
from foreign servers (e.g. the address of the server), and to
establish the name and address of root servers. Boot file records
establish the initial contents of the cache tree, and hence can be
overridden by later loads of authoritative data.
The data in a master file first becomes available to users of the
domain name system when it is loaded by the corresponding name
server. By definition, data from a master file is authoritative.
Other name servers which wish to be authoritative for a particular
zone do so by transferring a copy of the zone from the name server
which holds the master copy using a virtual circuit. These copies
include parameters which specify the conditions under which the
data in the copy is authoritative. In the most common case, the
conditions specify a refresh interval and policies to be followed
when the refresh operation cannot be performed.
A name server may acquire multiple zones from different name
servers and master files, but the name server must maintain each
zone separately from others and from non-authoritative data.
When the refresh interval for a particular zone copy expires, the
name server holding the copy must consult the name server that
holds the master copy. If the data in the zone has not changed,
the master name server instructs the copy name server to reset the
refresh interval. If the data has changed, the master passes a
new copy of the zone and its associated conditions to the copy
name server. Following either of these transactions, the copy
name server begins a new refresh interval.
Copy name servers must also deal with error conditions under which
they are unable to communicate with the name server that holds the
master copy of a particular zone. The policies that a copy name
server uses are determined by other parameters in the conditions
distributed with every copy. The conditions include a retry
interval and a maximum holding time. When a copy name server is
unable to establish communications with a master or is unable to
complete the refresh transaction, it must retry the refresh
operation at the rate specified by the retry interval. This retry
interval will usually be substantially shorter than the refresh
interval. Retries continue until the maximum holding time is
reached. At that time the copy name server must assume that its
copy of the data for the zone in question is no longer
Queries must be processed while maintenance operations are in
progress because a zone transfer can take a long time. However,
to avoid problems caused by access to partial databases, the
maintenance operations create new copies of data rather than
directly modifying the old copies. When the new copy is complete,
the maintenance process locks out queries for a short time using
the main lock, and switches pointers to replace the old data with
the new. After the pointers are swapped, the maintenance process
unlocks the main lock and reclaims the storage used by the old
Name server data structures and top level logic
The name server must multiplex its attention between multiple
activities. For example, a name server should be able to answer
queries while it is also performing refresh activities for a
particular zone. While it is possible to design a name server
that devotes a separate process to each query and refresh activity
in progress, the model described in this memo is based on the
assumption that there is a single process performing all
maintenance operations, and one or more processes devoted to
handling queries. The model also assumes the existence of shared
memory for several control structures, the domain database, locks,
The model name server uses the following files and shared data
1. A configuration file that describes the master and boot
files which the name server should load and the zones that
the name server should attempt to load from foreign name
servers. This file establishes the initial contents of the
2. Domain data files that contain master and boot data to be
3. A status table that is derived from the configuration file.
Each entry in this table describes a source of data. Each
entry has a zone number. The zone number is zero for
non-authoritative sources; authoritative sources are
assigned separate non-zero numbers.
4. The shared database that holds the domain data. This
database is assumed to be organized in some sort of tree
structure paralleling the domain name space, with a list of
resource records attached to each node and leaf in the tree.
The elements of the resource record list need not contain
the exact data present in the corresponding output format,
but must contain data sufficient to create the output
format; for example, these records need not contain the
domain name that is associated with the resource because
that name can be derived from the tree structure. Each
resource record also internal data that the name server uses
to organize its data.
5. Inversion data structures that allow the name server to
process inverse queries and completion queries. Although
many structures could be used, the implementation described
in this memo supposes that there is one array for every
inversion that the name server can handle. Each array
contains a list of pointers to resource records such that
the order of the inverted quantities is sorted.
6. The main and cache queue locks
7. The cache queue
The maintenance process begins by loading the status table from
the configuration file. It then periodically checks each entry,
to see if its refresh interval has elapsed. If not, it goes on to
the next entry. If so, it performs different operations depending
on the entry:
If the entry is for zone 0, or the cache tree, the maintenance
process checks to see if additions or deletions are required.
Additions are acquired from the cache queue using the cache
queue lock. Deletions are detected using TTL checks. If any
changes are required, the maintenance process recalculates
inversion data structures and then alters the cache tree under
the protection of the main lock. Whenever the maintenance
process modifies the cache tree, it resets the refresh interval
to the minimum of the contained TTLs and the desired time
interval for cache additions.
If the entry is not zone 0, and the entry refers to a local
file, the maintenance process checks to see if the file has
been modified since its last load. If so the file is reloaded
using the procedures specified under "Name server file
loading". The refresh interval is reset to that specified in
the SOA record if the file is a master file.
If the entry is for a remote master file, the maintenance
process checks for a new version using the procedure described
in "Names server remote zone transfer".
Name server file loading
Master files are kept in text form for ease of editing by system
maintainers. These files are not exchanged by name servers; name
servers use the standard message format when transferring zones.
Organizations that want to have a domain, but do not want to run a
name server, can use these files to supply a domain definition to
another organization that will run a name server for them. For
example, if organization X wants a domain but not a name server,
it can find another organization, Y, that has a name server and is
willing to provide service for X. Organization X defines domain X
via the master file format and ships a copy of the master file to
organization Y via mail, FTP, or some other method. A system
administrator at Y configures Y's name server to read in X's file
and hence support the X domain. X can maintain the master file
using a text editor and send new versions to Y for installation.
These files have a simple line-oriented format, with one RR per
line. Fields are separated by any combination of blanks and tab
characters. Tabs are treated the same as spaces; in the following
discussion the term "blank" means either a tab or a blank. A line
can be either blank (and ignored), a RR, or a $INCLUDE line.
If a RR line starts with a domain name, that domain name is used
to specify the location in the domain space for the record, i.e.
the owner. If a RR line starts with a blank, it is loaded into
the location specified by the most recent location specifier.
The location specifiers are assumed to be relative to some origin
that is provided by the user of a file unless the location
specifier contains the root label. This provides a convenient
shorthand notation, and can also be used to prevent errors in
master files from propagating into other zones. This feature is
particularly useful for master files imported from other sites.
An include line begins with $INCLUDE, starting at the first line
position, and is followed by a local file name and an optional
offset modifier. The filename follows the appropriate local
conventions. The offset is one or more labels that are added to
the offset in use for the file that contained the $INCLUDE. If
the offset is omitted, the included file is loaded using the
offset of the file that contained the $INCLUDE command. For
example, a file being loaded at offset ARPA might contain the
$INCLUDE <subsys>isi.data ISI
The first line would be interpreted to direct loading of the file
<subsys>isi.data at offset ISI.ARPA. The second line would be
interpreted as a request to load data at offset ARPA.
Note that $INCLUDE commands do not cause data to be loaded into a
different zone or tree; they are simply ways to allow data for a
given zone to be organized in separate files. For example,
mailbox data might be kept separately from host data using this
Resource records are entered as a sequence of fields corresponding
to the owner name, TTL, CLASS, TYPE and RDATA components. (Note
that this order is different from the order used in examples and
the order used in the actual RRs; the given order allows easier
parsing and defaulting.)
The owner name is derived from the location specifier.
The TTL field is optional, and is expressed as a decimal
number. If omitted TTL defaults to zero.
The CLASS field is also optional; if omitted the CLASS defaults
to the most recent value of the CLASS field in a previous RR.
The RDATA fields depend on the CLASS and TYPE of the RR. In
general, the fields that make up RDATA are expressed as decimal
numbers or as domain names. Some exceptions exist, and are
documented in the RDATA definitions in Appendicies 2 and 3 of
Because CLASS and TYPE fields don't contain any common
identifiers, and because CLASS and TYPE fields are never decimal
numbers, the parse is always unique.
Because these files are text files several special encodings are
necessary to allow arbitrary data to be loaded. In particular:
. A free standing dot is used to refer to the current domain
@ A free standing @ is used to denote the current origin.
.. Two free standing dots represent the null domain name of
\X where X is any character other than a digit (0-9), is used
to quote that character so that its special meaning does
not apply. For example, "\." can be used to place a dot
character in a label.
\DDD where each D is a digit is the octet corresponding to the
decimal number described by DDD. The resulting octet is
assumed to be text and is not checked for special meaning.
( ) Parentheses are used to group data that crosses a line
boundary. In effect, line terminations are not recognized
; Semicolon is used to start a comment; the remainder of the
line is ignored.
Name server file loading example
A name server for F.ISI.ARPA , serving as an authority for the
ARPA and ISI.ARPA domains, might use a boot file and two master
files. The boot file initializes some non-authoritative data, and
would be loaded without an origin:
.. 9999999 IN NS B.ISI.ARPA
9999999 CS NS UDEL.CSNET
B.ISI.ARPA 9999999 IN A 10.3.0.52
UDEL.CSNET 9999999 CS A 302-555-0000
This file loads non-authoritative data which provides the
identities and addresses of root name servers. The first line
contains a NS RR which is loaded at the root; the second line
starts with a blank, and is loaded at the most recent location
specifier, in this case the root; the third and fourth lines load
RRs at B.ISI.ARPA and UDEL.CSNET, respectively. The timeouts are
set to high values (9999999) to prevent this data from being
discarded due to timeout.
The first master file loads authoritative data for the ARPA
domain. This file is designed to be loaded with an origin of
ARPA, which allows the location specifiers to omit the trailing
@ IN SOA F.ISI.ARPA Action.E.ISI.ARPA (
20 ; SERIAL
3600 ; REFRESH
600 ; RETRY
60) ; MINIMUM
NS F.ISI.ARPA ; F.ISI.ARPA is a name server for ARPA
NS A.ISI.ARPA ; A.ISI.ARPA is a name server for ARPA
MIT NS AI.MIT.ARPA; delegation to MIT name server
ISI NS F.ISI.ARPA ; delegation to ISI name server
UDEL MD UDEL.ARPA
NBS MD NBS.ARPA
DTI MD DTI.ARPA
AI.MIT A 10.2.0.6
F.ISI A 10.2.0.52
The first group of lines contains the SOA record and its
parameters, and identifies name servers for this zone and for
delegated zones. The Action.E.ISI.ARPA field is a mailbox
specification for the responsible person for the zone, and is the
domain name encoding of the mail destination Action@E.ISI.ARPA.
The second group specifies data for domain names within this zone.
The last group has forward references for name server address
resolution for AI.MIT.ARPA and F.ISI.ARPA. This data is not
technically within the zone, and will only be used for additional
record resolution for NS records used in referrals. However, this
data is protected by the zone timeouts in the SOA, so it will
persist as long as the NS references persist.
The second master file defines the ISI.ARPA environment, and is
loaded with an origin of ISI.ARPA:
@ IN SOA F.ISI.ARPA Action\.ISI.E.ISI.ARPA (
20 ; SERIAL
7200 ; REFRESH
600 ; RETRY
60) ; MINIMUM
NS F.ISI.ARPA ; F.ISI.ARPA is a name server
A A 10.1.0.32
B A 10.3.0.52
F A 10.2.0.52
Where the file <SUBSYS>ISI-MAILBOXES.TXT is:
MOE MB F.ISI.ARPA
LARRY MB A.ISI.ARPA
CURLEY MB B.ISI.ARPA
STOOGES MB B.ISI.ARPA
Note the use of the \ character in the SOA RR to specify the
responsible person mailbox "Action.ISI@E.ISI.ARPA".
Name server remote zone transfer
When a name server needs to make an initial copy of a zone or test
to see if a existing zone copy should be refreshed, it begins by
attempting to open a virtual circuit to the foreign name server.
If this open attempt fails, and this was an initial load attempt,
it schedules a retry and exits. If this was a refresh operation,
the name server tests the status table to see if the maximum
holding time derived from the SOA EXPIRE field has elapsed. If
not, the name server schedules a retry. If the maximum holding
time has expired, the name server invalidates the zone in the
status table, and scans all resource records tagged with this zone
number. For each record it decrements TTL fields by the length of
time since the data was last refreshed. If the new TTL value is
negative, the record is deleted. If the TTL value is still
positive, it moves the RR to the cache tree and schedules a retry.
If the open attempt succeeds, the name server sends a query to the
foreign name server in which QTYPE=SOA, QCLASS is set according to
the status table information from the configuration file, and
QNAME is set to the domain name of the zone of interest.
The foreign name server will return either a SOA record indicating
that it has the zone or an error. If an error is detected, the
virtual circuit is closed, and the failure is treated in the same
way as if the open attempt failed.
If the SOA record is returned and this was a refresh, rather than
an initial load of the zone, the name server compares the SERIAL