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RFC 9244

Distributed Denial-of-Service Open Threat Signaling (DOTS) Telemetry

Pages: ~108
IETF/sec/dots/draft-ietf-dots-telemetry-25
Proposed Standard

Top   ToC   RFCv3-9244
M. Boucadair, Ed.
Orange
T. Reddy.K, Ed.
Akamai
E. Doron
Radware Ltd.
M. Chen
CMCC
J. Shallow
June 2022

Distributed Denial-of-Service Open Threat Signaling (DOTS) Telemetry

Abstract

This document aims to enrich the Distributed Denial-of-Service Open Threat Signaling (DOTS) signal channel protocol with various telemetry attributes, allowing for optimal Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDoS) attack mitigation. It specifies the normal traffic baseline and attack traffic telemetry attributes a DOTS client can convey to its DOTS server in the mitigation request, the mitigation status telemetry attributes a DOTS server can communicate to a DOTS client, and the mitigation efficacy telemetry attributes a DOTS client can communicate to a DOTS server. The telemetry attributes can assist the mitigator in choosing the DDoS mitigation techniques and performing optimal DDoS attack mitigation.
This document specifies two YANG modules: one for representing DOTS telemetry message types and one for sharing the attack mapping details over the DOTS data channel.

Status of This Memo

This is an Internet Standards Track document.
This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). It represents the consensus of the IETF community. It has received public review and has been approved for publication by the Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG). Further information on Internet Standards is available in Section 2 of RFC 7841.
Information about the current status of this document, any errata, and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc9244.

Copyright Notice

Copyright (c) 2022 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the document authors. All rights reserved.
This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal Provisions Relating to IETF Documents (https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of publication of this document. Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must include Revised BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as described in the Revised BSD License.
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Table of Contents

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1.  Introduction

IT organizations and service providers are facing Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDoS) attacks that fall into two broad categories:
  1. Network-layer and transport-layer attacks target the victim's infrastructure. These attacks are not necessarily aimed at taking down the actual delivered services; rather, these attacks prevent various network elements (routers, switches, firewalls, transit links, and so on) from serving legitimate users' traffic. The main method of such attacks is to send a large volume of traffic (e.g., high-pps (packets per second) traffic) toward the victim's infrastructure. Typically, attack volumes may vary from a few hundred Mbps to hundreds of Gbps or even Tbps. Attacks are commonly carried out leveraging botnets and attack reflectors for amplification attacks (Section 3.1 of RFC 4732) such as NTP (Network Time Protocol), DNS (Domain Name System), SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol), or SSDP (Simple Service Discovery Protocol).
  2. Application-layer attacks target various applications. Typical examples include attacks against HTTP/HTTPS, DNS, SIP (Session Initiation Protocol), or SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol). However, all applications with their port numbers open at network edges can be attractive attack targets. Application-layer attacks are considered more complex and harder to categorize and are therefore harder to detect and mitigate efficiently.
To compound the problem, attackers also leverage multi-vectored attacks. These attacks are assembled from dynamic network-layer and application-layer attack vectors and other tactics. As such, multiple attack vectors formed by multiple attack types and volumes are launched simultaneously toward a victim. Multi-vector attacks are harder to detect and defend against. Multiple and simultaneous mitigation techniques are needed to defeat such attack campaigns. It is also common for attackers to change attack vectors right after a successful mitigation, burdening their opponents with changing their defense methods.
The conclusion derived from the aforementioned attack scenarios is that modern attack detection and mitigation are most certainly complicated and highly convoluted tasks. They demand a comprehensive knowledge of the attack attributes and the normal behavior of the targeted systems (including normal traffic patterns), as well as the attacker's ongoing and past actions. Even more challenging, retrieving all the analytics needed for detecting these attacks is not simple with the industry's current reporting capabilities.
The Distributed Denial-of-Service Open Threat Signaling (DOTS) signal channel protocol [RFC 9132] is used to carry information about a network resource or a network (or a part thereof) that is under a DDoS attack. Such information is sent by a DOTS client to one or multiple DOTS servers so that appropriate mitigation actions are undertaken on traffic deemed suspicious. Various use cases are discussed in [RFC 8903].
DOTS clients can be integrated within a DDoS attack detector or within network and security elements that have been actively engaged with ongoing attacks. The DOTS client mitigation environment determines that it is no longer possible or practical for it to handle these attacks itself. This can be due to a lack of resources or security capabilities, as derived from the complexities and intensity of these attacks. In this circumstance, the DOTS client has invaluable knowledge about the actual attacks that need to be handled by its DOTS server(s). By enabling the DOTS client to share this comprehensive knowledge of an ongoing attack under specific circumstances, the DOTS server can drastically increase its ability to accomplish successful mitigation. While the attack is being handled by the mitigation resources associated with the DOTS server, the DOTS server has knowledge about the ongoing attack mitigation. The DOTS server can share this information with the DOTS client so that the client can better assess and evaluate the actual mitigation realized.
DOTS clients can send mitigation hints derived from attack details to DOTS servers, with the full understanding that a DOTS server may ignore mitigation hints, as described in [RFC 8612] (Gen-004). Mitigation hints will be transmitted across the DOTS signal channel, as the data channel may not be functional during an attack. How a DOTS server handles normal and attack traffic attributes, and mitigation hints, is implementation specific.
Both DOTS clients and servers can benefit from this information by presenting various information details in relevant management, reporting, and portal systems.
This document defines DOTS telemetry attributes that can be conveyed by DOTS clients to DOTS servers, and vice versa. The DOTS telemetry attributes are not mandatory attributes of the DOTS signal channel protocol [RFC 9132]. When no limitation policy is provided to a DOTS agent, it can signal available telemetry attributes to its peers in order to optimize the overall mitigation service provisioned using DOTS. The aforementioned policy can be, for example, agreed upon during a service subscription (which is out of scope for this document) to identify a subset of DOTS clients among those deployed in a DOTS client domain that are allowed to send or receive telemetry data.
Section 11.2 of this document specifies a YANG module that augments the DOTS data channel [RFC 8783] with information related to attack details. Sharing such details during 'idle' time is meant to optimize the data exchanged over the DOTS signal channel.
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2.  Terminology

The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in BCP 14 [RFC 2119] [RFC 8174] when, and only when, they appear in all capitals, as shown here.
The reader should be familiar with the terms defined in [RFC 8612].
"DOTS telemetry" is defined as the collection of attributes that are used to characterize the normal traffic baseline, attacks and their mitigation measures, and any related information that may help in enforcing countermeasures. "DOTS telemetry" is an optional set of attributes that can be signaled in the DOTS signal channel protocol.
The Telemetry Setup Identifier (tsid) is an identifier that is generated by DOTS clients to uniquely identify DOTS telemetry setup configuration data. See Section 7.1.2 for more details.
The Telemetry Identifier (tmid) is an identifier that is generated by DOTS clients to uniquely identify DOTS telemetry data that is communicated prior to or during a mitigation. See Section 8.2 for more details.
"Overlapped" lower numeric 'tsid' (or 'tmid') refers to the lower 'tsid' (or 'tmid') value of two overlapping telemetry requests.
The term "pipe" represents the maximum level of traffic that the DOTS client domain can receive. Whether a "pipe" is mapped to one or a group of network interfaces is deployment specific. For example, each interconnection link may be considered as a specific pipe if the DOTS server is hosted by each upstream provider, while the aggregate of all links to connect to upstream network providers can be considered by a DOTS client domain as a single pipe when communicating with a DOTS server not hosted by these upstream providers.
This document uses IANA-assigned Enterprise Numbers. These numbers are also known as "Private Enterprise Numbers" and "SMI (Structure of Management Information) Network Management Private Enterprise Codes" [Private-Enterprise-Numbers].
The meanings of the symbols in YANG tree diagrams are defined in [RFC 8340] and [RFC 8791].
Consistent with the convention set in Section 2 of RFC 8783, the examples in Section 8.1.6 use "/restconf" as the discovered RESTCONF API root path. Within these examples, some protocol header lines are split into multiple lines for display purposes only. When a line ends with a backslash ("\") as the last character, the line is wrapped for display purposes. It is considered to be joined to the next line by deleting the backslash, the following line break, and the leading whitespace of the next line.
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3.  DOTS Telemetry: Overview and Purpose

Timely and effective signaling of up-to-date DDoS telemetry to all elements involved in the mitigation process is essential and improves the overall DDoS mitigation service's effectiveness. Bidirectional feedback between DOTS agents is required for increased awareness by each party of the attack and mitigation efforts, supporting a superior and highly efficient attack mitigation service.

3.1.  Need for More Visibility

When signaling a mitigation request, it is most certainly beneficial for DOTS clients to signal to DOTS servers any knowledge regarding ongoing attacks. This can happen in cases where DOTS clients are asking DOTS servers for support in defending against attacks that they have already detected and/or (partially) mitigated.
If attacks are already detected and categorized within a DOTS client domain, the DOTS server, and its associated mitigation services, can proactively benefit from this information and optimize the overall service delivery. It is important to note that DOTS client domains' and DOTS server domains' detection and mitigation approaches can be different and can potentially result in different results and attack classifications. The DDoS mitigation service treats the ongoing attack details received from DOTS clients as hints and cannot completely rely on or trust the attack details conveyed by DOTS clients.
In addition to the DOTS server directly using telemetry data as operational hints, the DOTS server's security operation team also benefits from telemetry data. A basic requirement of security operation teams is to be aware of and get visibility into the attacks they need to handle. This holds especially for the case of ongoing attacks, where DOTS telemetry provides data about the current attack status. Even if some mitigation can be automated, operational teams can use the DOTS telemetry information to be prepared for attack mitigation and to assign the correct resources (e.g., operation staff, networking resources, mitigation resources) for the specific service. Similarly, security operations personnel at the DOTS client side ask for feedback about their requests for protection. Therefore, it is valuable for DOTS servers to share DOTS telemetry with DOTS clients.
Mutual sharing of information is thus crucial for "closing the mitigation loop" between DOTS clients and servers. For the server-side team, it is important to confirm that the same attacks that the DOTS server's mitigation resources are seeing are those for which a DOTS client is requesting mitigation. For the DOTS client-side team, it is important to realize that the DOTS clients receive the required service -- for example, understanding that "I asked for mitigation of two attacks, and my DOTS server detects and mitigates only one of them." Cases of inconsistency in attack classification between DOTS clients and servers can be highlighted, and maybe handled, using the DOTS telemetry attributes.
In addition, management and orchestration systems, at both the DOTS client and server sides, can use DOTS telemetry as feedback to automate various control and management activities derived from signaled telemetry information.
If the DOTS server's mitigation resources have the capabilities to facilitate the DOTS telemetry, the DOTS server adapts its protection strategy and activates the required countermeasures immediately (automation enabled) for the sake of optimized attack mitigation decisions and actions. Discussion regarding the interface from the DOTS server to the mitigator to signal the telemetry data is out of scope for this document.

3.2.  Enhanced Detection

DOTS telemetry can also be used as input for determining what values to use for the tuning parameters available on the mitigation resources. During the last few years, DDoS attack detection technologies have evolved from threshold-based detection (that is, cases when all or specific parts of traffic cross a predefined threshold for a certain period of time is considered as an attack) to an "anomaly detection" approach. For the latter, it is required to maintain rigorous learning of "normal" behavior, and an "anomaly" (or an attack) is identified and categorized based on the knowledge about the normal behavior and a deviation from this normal behavior. Statistical and artificial intelligence algorithms (e.g., machine learning) are used such that the actual traffic thresholds are automatically calculated by learning the protected entity's normal traffic behavior during 'idle' time (i.e., no mitigation is active). The normal traffic characterization learned is referred to as the "normal traffic baseline". An attack is detected when the victim's actual traffic is deviating from this normal baseline pattern.
In addition, subsequent activities toward mitigating an attack are much more challenging. The ability to distinguish legitimate traffic from attacker traffic on a per-packet basis is complex. For example, a packet may look "legitimate" and no attack signature can be identified. The anomaly can be identified only after detailed statistical analysis. DDoS attack mitigators use the normal baseline during the mitigation of an attack to identify and categorize the expected appearance of a specific traffic pattern. Particularly, the mitigators use the normal baseline to recognize the "level of normality" that needs to be achieved during the various mitigation processes.
Normal baseline calculation is performed based on continuous learning of the normal behavior of the protected entities. The minimum learning period varies from hours to days and even weeks, depending on the protected applications' behavior. The baseline cannot be learned during active attacks because attack conditions do not characterize the protected entities' normal behavior.
If the DOTS client has calculated the normal baseline of its protected entities, signaling such information to the DOTS server along with the attack traffic levels provides value. The DOTS server benefits from this telemetry by tuning its mitigation resources with the DOTS client's normal baseline. The DOTS server's mitigators use the baseline to familiarize themselves with the attack victim's normal behavior and target the baseline as the level of normality they need to achieve. Fed with this information, the overall mitigation performance is expected to be improved in terms of time to mitigate, accuracy, and false-negative and false-positive rates.
Mitigation of attacks without having certain knowledge of normal traffic can be inaccurate at best. This is especially true for recursive signaling (see Section 3.2.3 of RFC 8811). Given that DOTS clients can be integrated in a highly diverse set of scenarios and use cases, this emphasizes the need for knowledge of the behavior of each DOTS client domain -- especially given that common global thresholds for attack detection can almost never be realized. Each DOTS client domain can have its own levels of traffic and normal behavior. Without facilitating normal baseline signaling, it may be very difficult for DOTS servers in some cases to detect and mitigate the attacks accurately:
  • It is important to emphasize that it is practically impossible for the DOTS server's mitigators to calculate the normal baseline in cases where they do not have any knowledge of the traffic beforehand.
Of course, this information can be provided using out-of-band mechanisms or manual configuration, at the risk of unmaintained information becoming inaccurate as the network evolves and "normal" patterns change. The use of a dynamic and collaborative means between the DOTS client and server to identify and share key parameters for the sake of efficient DDoS protection is valuable.

3.3.  Efficient Mitigation

During a high-volume attack, DOTS client pipes can be totally saturated. DOTS clients ask their DOTS servers to handle the attack upstream so that DOTS client pipes return to a reasonable load level (normal pattern, ideally). At this point, it is essential to ensure that the mitigator does not overwhelm the DOTS client pipes by sending back large volumes of "clean traffic", or what it believes is "clean". This can happen when the mitigator has not managed to detect and mitigate all the attacks launched toward the DOTS client domain.
In this case, it can be valuable to DOTS clients to signal to DOTS servers the total pipe capacity, which is the level of traffic the DOTS client domain can absorb from its upstream network. This is usually the circuit size, which includes all the packet overheads. Dynamic updates of the condition of pipes between DOTS agents while they are under a DDoS attack are essential (e.g., where multiple DOTS clients share the same physical connectivity pipes). The DOTS server should activate other mechanisms to ensure that it does not allow the DOTS client domain's pipes to be saturated unintentionally. The rate-limit action defined in [RFC 8783] is a reasonable candidate to achieve this objective; the DOTS client can indicate the type(s) of traffic (such as ICMP, UDP, TCP port number 80) it prefers to limit. The rate-limit action can be controlled via the signal channel [RFC 9133] even when the pipe is overwhelmed.
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4.  Design Overview

4.1.  Overview of Telemetry Operations

The DOTS protocol suite is divided into two logical channels: the signal channel [RFC 9132] and data channel [RFC 8783]. This division is due to the vastly different requirements placed upon the traffic they carry. The DOTS signal channel must remain available and usable even in the face of attack traffic that might, for example, saturate one direction of the links involved, rendering acknowledgment-based mechanisms unreliable and strongly incentivizing messages to be small enough to be contained in a single IP packet (Section 2.2 of RFC 8612). In contrast, the DOTS data channel is available for high-bandwidth data transfer before or after an attack, using more conventional transport protocol techniques (Section 2.3 of RFC 8612). It is generally preferable to perform advance configuration over the DOTS data channel, including configuring aliases for static or nearly static data sets such as sets of network addresses/prefixes that might be subject to related attacks. This design helps to optimize the use of the DOTS signal channel for the small messages that are important to deliver during an attack. As a reminder, the DOTS signal channel and data channel both require secure communication channels (Section 11 of RFC 9132 and Section 10 of RFC 8783).
Telemetry information has aspects that correspond to both operational modes (i.e., signal channel and data channel): there is certainly a need to convey updated information about ongoing attack traffic and targets during an attack, so as to convey detailed information about mitigation status and inform updates to mitigation strategy in the face of adaptive attacks. However, it is also useful to provide mitigation services with a picture of normal or "baseline" traffic toward potential targets to aid in detecting when incoming traffic deviates from normal into being an attack. Also, one might populate a "database" of classifications of known types of attacks so that a short attack identifier can be used during an attack period to describe an observed attack. This specification does make provision for use of the DOTS data channel for the latter function (Section 8.1.6) but otherwise retains most telemetry functionality in the DOTS signal channel.
Note that it is a functional requirement to convey information about ongoing attack traffic during an attack, and information about baseline traffic uses an essentially identical data structure that is naturally defined to sit next to the description of attack traffic. The related telemetry setup information used to parameterize actual traffic data is also sent over the signal channel, out of expediency.
This document specifies an extension to the DOTS signal channel protocol. Considerations about how to establish, maintain, and make use of the DOTS signal channel are specified in [RFC 9132].
Once the DOTS signal channel is established, DOTS clients that support the DOTS telemetry extension proceed with the telemetry setup configuration (e.g., measurement interval, telemetry notification interval, pipe capacity, normal traffic baseline) as detailed in Section 7. DOTS agents can then include DOTS telemetry attributes using the DOTS signal channel (Section 8.1). A DOTS client can use separate messages to share with its DOTS server(s) a set of telemetry data bound to an ongoing mitigation (Section 8.2). Also, a DOTS client that is interested in receiving telemetry notifications related to some of its resources follows the procedure defined in Section 8.3. A DOTS client that receives such notifications can then decide to send a mitigation request if an attack cannot be mitigated locally within the DOTS client domain.
Aggregate DOTS telemetry data can also be included in efficacy update (Section 9.1) or mitigation update (Section 9.2) messages.

4.2.  Block-Wise Transfers

DOTS clients can use a block-wise transfer [RFC 7959] with the recommendation detailed in Section 4.4.2 of RFC 9132 to control the size of a response when the data to be returned does not fit within a single datagram.
DOTS clients can also use the Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) Block1 Option in a PUT request (Section 2.5 of RFC 7959) to initiate large transfers, but these Block1 transfers are likely to fail if the inbound "pipe" is running full because the transfer requires a message from the server for each block, which would likely be lost in the incoming flood. Consideration needs to be made to try to fit this PUT into a single transfer or to separate out the PUT into several discrete PUTs where each of them fits into a single packet.
Q-Block1 and Q-Block2 Options that are similar to the CoAP Block1 and Block2 Options, but enable robust transmissions of big blocks of data with less packet interchanges using NON messages, are defined in [RFC 9177]. DOTS implementations can consider the use of Q-Block1 and Q-Block2 Options [DOTS-Robust-Blocks].

4.3.  DOTS Multihoming Considerations

Considerations for multihomed DOTS clients to select which DOTS server to contact and which IP prefixes to include in a telemetry message to a given peer DOTS server are discussed in [DOTS-Multihoming]. For example, if each upstream network exposes a DOTS server and the DOTS client maintains DOTS channels with all of them, only the information related to prefixes assigned by an upstream network to the DOTS client domain will be signaled via the DOTS channel established with the DOTS server of that upstream network.
Considerations related to whether (and how) a DOTS client gleans some telemetry information (e.g., attack details) it receives from a first DOTS server and shares it with a second DOTS server are implementation and deployment specific.

4.4.  YANG Considerations

Telemetry messages exchanged between DOTS agents are serialized using Concise Binary Object Representation (CBOR) [RFC 8949]. CBOR-encoded payloads are used to carry signal-channel-specific payload messages that convey request parameters and response information such as errors.
This document specifies a YANG module [RFC 7950] for representing DOTS telemetry message types (Section 11.1). All parameters in the payload of the DOTS signal channel are mapped to CBOR types as specified in Section 12. As a reminder, Section 3 of RFC 9132 defines the rules for mapping YANG-modeled data to CBOR.
The DOTS telemetry module (Section 11.1) is not intended to be used via the Network Configuration Protocol (NETCONF) / RESTCONF for DOTS server management purposes. It serves only to provide a data model and encoding following [RFC 8791]. Server deviations (Section 5.6.3 of RFC 7950) are strongly discouraged, as the peer DOTS agent does not have the means to retrieve the list of deviations and thus interoperability issues are likely to be encountered.
The DOTS telemetry module (Section 11.1) uses "enumerations" rather than "identities" to define units, samples, and intervals because otherwise the namespace identifier "ietf-dots-telemetry" must be included when a telemetry attribute is included (e.g., in a mitigation efficacy update). The use of "identities" is thus suboptimal from the standpoint of message compactness, as message compactness is one of the key requirements for DOTS signal channel messages.
The DOTS telemetry module (Section 11.1) includes some lists for which no "key" statement is included. This behavior is compliant with [RFC 8791]. The reason for not including these keys is that they are not included in the message body of DOTS requests; such keys are included as mandatory Uri-Paths in requests (Sections [7] and [8]). Otherwise, whenever a "key" statement is used in the module, the same definition as the definition provided in Section 7.8.2 of RFC 7950 is assumed.
Some parameters (e.g., low-percentile values) may be associated with different YANG types (e.g., decimal64 and yang:gauge64). To easily distinguish the types of these parameters while using meaningful names, the following suffixes are used:
Suffix YANG Type Example
-g yang:gauge64 low-percentile-g
-c container connection-c
-ps per second connection-ps
Table 1: Suffixes and YANG Types
The full tree diagram of the DOTS telemetry module can be generated using the "pyang" tool [PYANG]. That tree is not included here because it is too long (Section 3.3 of RFC 8340). Instead, subtrees are provided for the reader's convenience.
In order to optimize the data exchanged over the DOTS signal channel, this document specifies a second YANG module ("ietf-dots-mapping"; see Section 11.2) that augments the DOTS data channel [RFC 8783]. This augmentation can be used during 'idle' time to share the attack mapping details (Section 8.1.5). DOTS clients can use tools, e.g., the YANG Library [RFC 8525], to retrieve the list of features and deviations supported by the DOTS server over the data channel.
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5.  Generic Considerations

5.1.  DOTS Client Identification

Following the rules in Section 4.4.1 of RFC 9132, a unique identifier is generated by a DOTS client to prevent request collisions ('cuid').
As a reminder, Section 4.4.1.3 of RFC 9132 forbids 'cuid' to be returned in a response message body.

5.2.  DOTS Gateways

DOTS gateways may be located between DOTS clients and servers. The considerations elaborated in Section 4.4.1 of RFC 9132 must be followed. In particular, the 'cdid' attribute is used to unambiguously identify a DOTS client domain.
As a reminder, Section 4.4.1.3 of RFC 9132 forbids 'cdid' (if present) to be returned in a response message body.

5.3.  Uri-Path Parameters and Empty Values

Uri-Path parameters and attributes with empty values MUST NOT be present in a request. The presence of such an empty value renders the entire containing message invalid.

5.4.  Controlling Configuration Data

The DOTS server follows the same considerations discussed in Section 4.5.3 of RFC 9132 for managing DOTS telemetry configuration freshness and notifications.
Likewise, a DOTS client may control the selection of configuration and non-configuration data nodes when sending a GET request by means of the 'c' (content) Uri-Query option and following the procedure specified in Section 4.4.2 of RFC 9132. These considerations are not reiterated in the following sections.

5.5.  Message Validation

The authoritative references for validating telemetry messages exchanged over the DOTS signal channel are Sections [7], [8], and [9] together with the mapping table provided in Section 12. The structure of telemetry message bodies is represented as a YANG data structure (Section 11.1).

5.6.  A Note about Examples

Examples are provided for illustration purposes. This document does not aim to provide a comprehensive list of message examples.
JSON encoding of YANG-modeled data is used to illustrate the various telemetry operations. To ease readability, parameter names and their JSON types are thus used in the examples rather than their CBOR key values and CBOR types following the mappings in Section 12. These conventions are inherited from [RFC 9132].
The examples use Enterprise Number 32473, which is defined for documentation use; see [RFC 5612].
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6.  Telemetry Operation Paths

As discussed in Section 4.2 of RFC 9132, each DOTS operation is indicated by a path suffix that indicates the intended operation. The operation path is appended to the path prefix to form the URI used with a CoAP request to perform the desired DOTS operation. The following telemetry path suffixes are defined (Table 2):
Operation Operation Path Details
Telemetry Setup /tm-setup Section 7
Telemetry /tm Section 8
Table 2: DOTS Telemetry Operations
Consequently, the "ietf-dots-telemetry" YANG module defined in Section 11.1 defines a data structure to represent new DOTS message types called 'telemetry-setup' and 'telemetry'. The tree structure is shown in Figure 1. More details are provided in Sections [7] and [8] about the exact structure of 'telemetry-setup' and 'telemetry' message types.
  structure dots-telemetry:
    +-- (telemetry-message-type)?
       +--:(telemetry-setup)
       |  ...
       |  +-- telemetry* []
       |     ...
       |     +-- (setup-type)?
       |        +--:(telemetry-config)
       |        |  ...
       |        +--:(pipe)
       |        |  ...
       |        +--:(baseline)
       |           ...
       +--:(telemetry)
          ...
DOTS implementations MUST support the Observe Option [RFC 7641] for 'tm' (Section 8).
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7.  DOTS Telemetry Setup Configuration

In reference to Figure 1, a DOTS telemetry setup message MUST include only telemetry-related configuration parameters (Section 7.1), information about DOTS client domain pipe capacity (Section 7.2), or information about the telemetry traffic baseline (Section 7.3). As such, requests that include a mix of telemetry configuration, pipe capacity, and traffic baseline information MUST be rejected by DOTS servers with a 4.00 (Bad Request) Response Code.
A DOTS client can reset all installed DOTS telemetry setup configuration data following the considerations detailed in Section 7.4.
A DOTS server may detect conflicts when processing requests related to DOTS client domain pipe capacity or telemetry traffic baseline information with requests from other DOTS clients of the same DOTS client domain. More details are included in Section 7.5.
Telemetry setup configuration is bound to a DOTS client domain. DOTS servers MUST NOT expect DOTS clients to send regular requests to refresh the telemetry setup configuration. Any available telemetry setup configuration is valid until the DOTS server ceases to service a DOTS client domain. DOTS servers MUST NOT reset 'tsid' because a session failed with a DOTS client. DOTS clients update their telemetry setup configuration upon change of a parameter that may impact attack mitigation.
DOTS telemetry setup configuration request and response messages are marked as Confirmable messages (Section 2.1 of RFC 7252).

7.1.  Telemetry Configuration

DOTS telemetry uses several percentile values to provide a picture of a traffic distribution overall, as opposed to just a single snapshot of observed traffic at a single point in time. Modeling raw traffic flow data as a distribution and describing that distribution entails choosing a measurement period that the distribution will describe, and a number of sampling intervals, or "buckets", within that measurement period. Traffic within each bucket is treated as a single event (i.e., averaged), and then the distribution of buckets is used to describe the distribution of traffic over the measurement period. A distribution can be characterized by statistical measures (e.g., mean, median, and standard deviation) and also by reporting the value of the distribution at various percentile levels of the data set in question (e.g., "quartiles" that correspond to 25th, 50th, and 75th percentiles). More details about percentile values and their computation are found in Section 11.3 of RFC 2330.
DOTS telemetry uses up to three percentile values, plus the overall peak, to characterize traffic distributions. Which percentile thresholds are used for these "low-percentile", "mid-percentile", and "high-percentile" values is configurable. Default values are defined in Section 7.1.2.
A DOTS client can negotiate with its server(s) a set of telemetry configuration parameters to be used for telemetry. Such parameters include:
  • Percentile-related measurement parameters. In particular, 'measurement-interval' defines the period during which percentiles are computed, while 'measurement-sample' defines the time distribution for measuring values that are used to compute percentiles.
  • Measurement units.
  • Acceptable percentile values.
  • Telemetry notification interval.
  • Acceptable server-originated telemetry.

7.1.1.  Retrieving the Current DOTS Telemetry Configuration

A GET request is used to obtain acceptable and current telemetry configuration parameters on the DOTS server. This request may include a 'cdid' Uri-Path when the request is relayed by a DOTS gateway. An example of such a GET request (without a gateway) is depicted in Figure 2.
Header: GET (Code=0.01)
Uri-Path: ".well-known"
Uri-Path: "dots"
Uri-Path: "tm-setup"
Uri-Path: "cuid=dz6pHjaADkaFTbjr0JGBpw"
Upon receipt of such a request, and assuming that no error is encountered when processing the request, the DOTS server replies with a 2.05 (Content) response that conveys the telemetry parameters that are acceptable to the DOTS server, any pipe information (Section 7.2), and the current baseline information (Section 7.3) maintained by the DOTS server for this DOTS client. The tree structure of the response message body is provided in Figure 3.
DOTS servers that support the capability of sending telemetry information to DOTS clients prior to or during a mitigation (Section 9.2) set 'server-originated-telemetry' under 'max-config-values' to 'true' ('false' is used otherwise). If 'server-originated-telemetry' is not present in a response, this is equivalent to receiving a response with 'server-originated-telemetry' set to 'false'.
  structure dots-telemetry:
    +-- (telemetry-message-type)?
       +--:(telemetry-setup)
       |  +-- (direction)?
       |  |  +--:(server-to-client-only)
       |  |     +-- max-config-values
       |  |     |  +-- measurement-interval?          interval
       |  |     |  +-- measurement-sample?            sample
       |  |     |  +-- low-percentile?                percentile
       |  |     |  +-- mid-percentile?                percentile
       |  |     |  +-- high-percentile?               percentile
       |  |     |  +-- server-originated-telemetry?   boolean
       |  |     |  +-- telemetry-notify-interval?     uint16
       |  |     +-- min-config-values
       |  |     |  +-- measurement-interval?        interval
       |  |     |  +-- measurement-sample?          sample
       |  |     |  +-- low-percentile?              percentile
       |  |     |  +-- mid-percentile?              percentile
       |  |     |  +-- high-percentile?             percentile
       |  |     |  +-- telemetry-notify-interval?   uint16
       |  |     +-- supported-unit-classes
       |  |     |  +-- unit-config* [unit]
       |  |     |     +-- unit           unit-class
       |  |     |     +-- unit-status    boolean
       |  |     +-- supported-query-type*  query-type
       |  +-- telemetry* []
       |     +-- (direction)?
       |     |  +--:(server-to-client-only)
       |     |     +-- tsid?                  uint32
       |     +-- (setup-type)?
       |        +--:(telemetry-config)
       |        |  +-- current-config
       |        |     +-- measurement-interval?          interval
       |        |     +-- measurement-sample?            sample
       |        |     +-- low-percentile?                percentile
       |        |     +-- mid-percentile?                percentile
       |        |     +-- high-percentile?               percentile
       |        |     +-- unit-config* [unit]
       |        |     |  +-- unit           unit-class
       |        |     |  +-- unit-status    boolean
       |        |     +-- server-originated-telemetry?   boolean
       |        |     +-- telemetry-notify-interval?     uint16
       |        +--:(pipe)
       |        |  ...
       |        +--:(baseline)
       |           ...
       +--:(telemetry)
          ...
When both 'min-config-values' and 'max-config-values' attributes are present, the values carried in 'max-config-values' attributes MUST be greater than or equal to their counterparts in 'min-config-values' attributes.

7.1.2.  Conveying the DOTS Telemetry Configuration

A PUT request is used to convey the configuration parameters for the telemetry data (e.g., low-, mid-, or high-percentile values). For example, a DOTS client may contact its DOTS server to change the default percentile values used as the baseline for telemetry data. Figure 3 lists the attributes that can be set by a DOTS client in such a PUT request. An example of a DOTS client that modifies all percentile reference values is shown in Figure 4.
Header: PUT (Code=0.03)
Uri-Path: ".well-known"
Uri-Path: "dots"
Uri-Path: "tm-setup"
Uri-Path: "cuid=dz6pHjaADkaFTbjr0JGBpw"
Uri-Path: "tsid=123"
Content-Format: "application/dots+cbor"

{
  "ietf-dots-telemetry:telemetry-setup": {
    "telemetry": [
      {
        "current-config": {
          "low-percentile": "5.00",
          "mid-percentile": "65.00",
          "high-percentile": "95.00"
        }
      }
    ]
  }
}
'cuid' is a mandatory Uri-Path parameter for PUT requests.
The following additional Uri-Path parameter is defined:
tsid:
The Telemetry Setup Identifier is an identifier for the DOTS telemetry setup configuration data represented as an integer. This identifier MUST be generated by DOTS clients. 'tsid' values MUST increase monotonically whenever new configuration parameters (not just for changed values) need to be conveyed by the DOTS client.
The procedure specified in Section 4.4.1 of RFC 9132 for 'mid' rollover MUST also be followed for 'tsid' rollover.
This is a mandatory attribute. 'tsid' MUST appear after 'cuid' in the Uri-Path options.
'cuid' and 'tsid' MUST NOT appear in the PUT request message body.
At least one configurable attribute MUST be present in the PUT request.
A PUT request with a higher numeric 'tsid' value overrides the DOTS telemetry configuration data installed by a PUT request with a lower numeric 'tsid' value. To avoid maintaining a long list of 'tsid' requests for requests carrying telemetry configuration data from a DOTS client, the lower numeric 'tsid' MUST be automatically deleted and no longer be available at the DOTS server.
The DOTS server indicates the result of processing the PUT request using the following Response Codes:
  • If the request is missing a mandatory attribute, does not include 'cuid' or 'tsid' Uri-Path parameters, or contains one or more invalid or unknown parameters, a 4.00 (Bad Request) Response Code MUST be returned in the response.
  • If the DOTS server does not find the 'tsid' parameter value conveyed in the PUT request in its configuration data and if the DOTS server has accepted the configuration parameters, then a 2.01 (Created) Response Code MUST be returned in the response.
  • If the DOTS server finds the 'tsid' parameter value conveyed in the PUT request in its configuration data and if the DOTS server has accepted the updated configuration parameters, a 2.04 (Changed) Response Code MUST be returned in the response.
  • If any of the enclosed configurable attribute values are not acceptable to the DOTS server (Section 7.1.1), a 4.22 (Unprocessable Entity) Response Code MUST be returned in the response. The DOTS client may retry and send the PUT request with updated attribute values acceptable to the DOTS server.
By default, low-percentile (10th percentile), mid-percentile (50th percentile), high-percentile (90th percentile), and peak (100th percentile) values are used to represent telemetry data. Nevertheless, a DOTS client can disable some percentile types (low, mid, high). In particular, setting 'low-percentile' to "0.00" indicates that the DOTS client is not interested in receiving low-percentiles. Likewise, setting 'mid-percentile' (or 'high-percentile') to the same value as 'low-percentile' (or 'mid-percentile') indicates that the DOTS client is not interested in receiving mid-percentiles (or high-percentiles). For example, a DOTS client can send the request depicted in Figure 5 to inform the server that it is interested in receiving only high-percentiles. This assumes that the client will only use that percentile type when sharing telemetry data with the server.
Header: PUT (Code=0.03)
Uri-Path: ".well-known"
Uri-Path: "dots"
Uri-Path: "tm-setup"
Uri-Path: "cuid=dz6pHjaADkaFTbjr0JGBpw"
Uri-Path: "tsid=124"
Content-Format: "application/dots+cbor"

{
  "ietf-dots-telemetry:telemetry-setup": {
    "telemetry": [
      {
        "current-config": {
          "low-percentile": "0.00",
          "mid-percentile": "0.00",
          "high-percentile": "95.00"
        }
      }
    ]
  }
}
DOTS clients can also configure the unit class(es) to be used for traffic-related telemetry data among the following supported unit classes: packets per second, bits per second, and bytes per second. Supplying both bits per second and bytes per second unit classes is allowed for a given set of telemetry data. However, receipt of conflicting values is treated as invalid parameters and rejected with a 4.00 (Bad Request) Response Code.
DOTS clients that are interested in receiving pre-or-ongoing- mitigation telemetry ('pre-or-ongoing-mitigation') information from a DOTS server (Section 9.2) MUST set 'server-originated-telemetry' to 'true'. If 'server-originated-telemetry' is not present in a PUT request, this is equivalent to receiving a request with 'server-originated-telemetry' set to 'false'. An example of a request to enable pre-or-ongoing-mitigation telemetry from DOTS servers is shown in Figure 6.
Header: PUT (Code=0.03)
Uri-Path: ".well-known"
Uri-Path: "dots"
Uri-Path: "tm-setup"
Uri-Path: "cuid=dz6pHjaADkaFTbjr0JGBpw"
Uri-Path: "tsid=125"
Content-Format: "application/dots+cbor"

{
  "ietf-dots-telemetry:telemetry-setup": {
    "telemetry": [
      {
        "current-config": {
          "server-originated-telemetry": true
        }
      }
    ]
  }
}

7.1.3.  Retrieving the Installed DOTS Telemetry Configuration

A DOTS client may issue a GET message with a 'tsid' Uri-Path parameter to retrieve the current DOTS telemetry configuration. An example of such a request is depicted in Figure 7.
Header: GET (Code=0.01)
Uri-Path: ".well-known"
Uri-Path: "dots"
Uri-Path: "tm-setup"
Uri-Path: "cuid=dz6pHjaADkaFTbjr0JGBpw"
Uri-Path: "tsid=123"
If the DOTS server does not find the 'tsid' Uri-Path value conveyed in the GET request in its configuration data for the requesting DOTS client, it MUST respond with a 4.04 (Not Found) error Response Code.

7.1.4.  Deleting the DOTS Telemetry Configuration

A DELETE request is used to delete the installed DOTS telemetry configuration data (Figure 8). 'cuid' and 'tsid' are mandatory Uri-Path parameters for such DELETE requests.
Header: DELETE (Code=0.04)
Uri-Path: ".well-known"
Uri-Path: "dots"
Uri-Path: "tm-setup"
Uri-Path: "cuid=dz6pHjaADkaFTbjr0JGBpw"
Uri-Path: "tsid=123"
The DOTS server resets the DOTS telemetry configuration back to the default values and acknowledges a DOTS client's request to remove the DOTS telemetry configuration using a 2.02 (Deleted) Response Code. A 2.02 (Deleted) Response Code is returned even if the 'tsid' parameter value conveyed in the DELETE request does not exist in its configuration data before the request.
Section 7.4 discusses the procedure to reset all DOTS telemetry setup configuration data.

7.2.  Total Pipe Capacity

A DOTS client can communicate to the DOTS server(s) its DOTS client domain pipe information. The tree structure of the pipe information is shown in Figure 9.
  structure dots-telemetry:
    +-- (telemetry-message-type)?
       +--:(telemetry-setup)
       |  ...
       |  +-- telemetry* []
       |     +-- (direction)?
       |     |  +--:(server-to-client-only)
       |     |     +-- tsid?                  uint32
       |     +-- (setup-type)?
       |        +--:(telemetry-config)
       |        |  ...
       |        +--:(pipe)
       |        |  +-- total-pipe-capacity* [link-id unit]
       |        |     +-- link-id     nt:link-id
       |        |     +-- capacity    uint64
       |        |     +-- unit        unit
       |        +--:(baseline)
       |           ...
       +--:(telemetry)
          ...
A DOTS client domain pipe is defined as a list of limits on (incoming) traffic volume ('total-pipe-capacity') that can be forwarded over ingress interconnection links of a DOTS client domain. Each of these links is identified with a 'link-id' [RFC 8345].
The unit used by a DOTS client when conveying pipe information is captured in the 'unit' attribute. The DOTS client MUST auto-scale so that the appropriate unit is used. That is, for a given unit class, the DOTS client uses the largest unit that gives a value greater than one. As such, only one unit per unit class is allowed.

7.2.1.  Conveying DOTS Client Domain Pipe Capacity

Considerations similar to those specified in Section 7.1.2 are followed, with one exception:
  • The relative order of two PUT requests carrying DOTS client domain pipe attributes from a DOTS client is determined by comparing their respective 'tsid' values. If these two requests have overlapping 'link-id' and 'unit' settings, the PUT request with a higher numeric 'tsid' value will override the request with a lower numeric 'tsid' value. The overlapped lower numeric 'tsid' MUST be automatically deleted and no longer be available.
DOTS clients SHOULD minimize the number of active 'tsid's used for pipe information. In order to avoid maintaining a long list of 'tsid's for pipe information, it is RECOMMENDED that DOTS clients include in any request to update information related to a given link the information regarding other links (already communicated using a lower 'tsid' value). By doing so, this update request will override these existing requests and hence optimize the number of 'tsid' requests per DOTS client.
As an example of configuring pipe information, a DOTS client managing a single-homed domain (Figure 10) can send a PUT request (shown in Figure 11) to communicate the capacity of "link1" used to connect to its ISP.
                      ,--,--,--.             ,--,--,--.
                   ,-'          `-.       ,-'          `-.
                  (  DOTS Client   )=====(     ISP#A      )
                   `-.  Domain  ,-' link1 `-.          ,-'
                      `--'--'--'             `--'--'--'
Header: PUT (Code=0.03)
Uri-Path: ".well-known"
Uri-Path: "dots"
Uri-Path: "tm-setup"
Uri-Path: "cuid=dz6pHjaADkaFTbjr0JGBpw"
Uri-Path: "tsid=126"
Content-Format: "application/dots+cbor"

{
  "ietf-dots-telemetry:telemetry-setup": {
    "telemetry": [
      {
        "total-pipe-capacity": [
          {
            "link-id": "link1",
            "capacity": "500",
            "unit": "megabit-ps"
          }
        ]
      }
    ]
  }
}
DOTS clients may be instructed to signal a link aggregate instead of individual links. For example, a DOTS client that manages a DOTS client domain having two interconnection links with an upstream ISP (Figure 12) can send a PUT request (shown in Figure 13) to communicate the aggregate link capacity with its ISP. Signaling individual or aggregate link capacity is deployment specific.
                      ,--,--,--.             ,--,--,--.
                   ,-'          `-.===== ,-'          `-.
                  (  DOTS Client   )    (     ISP#C      )
                   `-.  Domain  ,-'====== `-.          ,-'
                      `--'--'--'             `--'--'--'
Header: PUT (Code=0.03)
Uri-Path: ".well-known"
Uri-Path: "dots"
Uri-Path: "tm-setup"
Uri-Path: "cuid=hmcpH87lmPGsSTjkhXCbin"
Uri-Path: "tsid=896"
Content-Format: "application/dots+cbor"

{
  "ietf-dots-telemetry:telemetry-setup": {
    "telemetry": [
      {
        "total-pipe-capacity": [
          {
            "link-id": "aggregate",
            "capacity": "700",
            "unit": "megabit-ps"
          }
        ]
      }
    ]
  }
}
Now consider that the DOTS client domain was upgraded to connect to an additional ISP (e.g., ISP#B in Figure 14); the DOTS client can inform a DOTS server that is not hosted with ISP#A and ISP#B domains about this update by sending the PUT request depicted in Figure 15. This request also includes information related to "link1" even if that link is not upgraded. Upon receipt of this request, the DOTS server removes the request with 'tsid=126' and updates its configuration base to maintain two links (link1 and link2).
                     ,--,--,--.     
                   ,-'          `-. 
                  (     ISP#B      )
                   `-.          ,-' 
                      `--'--'--'    
                          ||
                          || link2                          
                     ,--,--,--.             ,--,--,--.
                   ,-'          `-.       ,-'          `-.
                  (  DOTS Client   )=====(     ISP#A      )
                   `-.  Domain  ,-' link1 `-.          ,-'
                      `--'--'--'             `--'--'--'
Header: PUT (Code=0.03)
Uri-Path: ".well-known"
Uri-Path: "dots"
Uri-Path: "tm-setup"
Uri-Path: "cuid=dz6pHjaADkaFTbjr0JGBpw"
Uri-Path: "tsid=127"
Content-Format: "application/dots+cbor"

{
  "ietf-dots-telemetry:telemetry-setup": {
    "telemetry": [
      {
        "total-pipe-capacity": [
          {
            "link-id": "link1",
            "capacity": "500",
            "unit": "megabit-ps"
          },
          {
            "link-id": "link2",
            "capacity": "500",
            "unit": "megabit-ps"
          }
        ]
      }
    ]
  }
}
A DOTS client can delete a link by sending a PUT request with the 'capacity' attribute set to "0" if other links are still active for the same DOTS client domain. For example, if a DOTS client domain re-homes (that is, it changes its ISP), the DOTS client can inform its DOTS server about this update (e.g., from the network configuration in Figure 10 to the network configuration shown in Figure 16) by sending the PUT request depicted in Figure 17. Upon receipt of this request, and assuming that no error is encountered when processing the request, the DOTS server removes "link1" from its configuration bases for this DOTS client domain. Note that if the DOTS server receives a PUT request with a 'capacity' attribute set to "0" for all included links, it MUST reject the request with a 4.00 (Bad Request) Response Code. Instead, the DOTS client can use a DELETE request to delete all links (Section 7.2.3).
                     ,--,--,--.     
                   ,-'          `-. 
                  (     ISP#B      )
                   `-.          ,-' 
                      `--'--'--'    
                          ||
                          || link2                          
                     ,--,--,--.     
                   ,-'          `-. 
                  (  DOTS Client   )
                   `-.  Domain  ,-' 
                      `--'--'--'
Header: PUT (Code=0.03)
Uri-Path: ".well-known"
Uri-Path: "dots"
Uri-Path: "tm-setup"
Uri-Path: "cuid=dz6pHjaADkaFTbjr0JGBpw"
Uri-Path: "tsid=128"
Content-Format: "application/dots+cbor"

{
  "ietf-dots-telemetry:telemetry-setup": {
    "telemetry": [
      {
        "total-pipe-capacity": [
          {
            "link-id": "link1",
            "capacity": "0",
            "unit": "megabit-ps"
          },
          {
            "link-id": "link2",
            "capacity": "500",
            "unit": "megabit-ps"
          }
        ]
      }
    ]
  }
}

7.2.2.  Retrieving Installed DOTS Client Domain Pipe Capacity

A GET request with a 'tsid' Uri-Path parameter is used to retrieve the specific information related to an installed DOTS client domain pipe. The same procedure as that defined in Section 7.1.3 is followed.
To retrieve all pipe information bound to a DOTS client, the DOTS client proceeds as specified in Section 7.1.1.

7.2.3.  Deleting Installed DOTS Client Domain Pipe Capacity

A DELETE request is used to delete the specific information related to an installed DOTS client domain pipe. The same procedure as that defined in Section 7.1.4 is followed.

7.3.  Telemetry Baseline

A DOTS client can communicate to its DOTS server(s) its normal traffic baseline and connection capacity:
Total traffic normal baseline:
Total traffic normal baseline data provides the percentile values representing the total traffic normal baseline. It can be represented for a target using 'total-traffic-normal'.
The traffic normal per-protocol ('total-traffic-normal-per-protocol') baseline is represented for a target and is transport-protocol specific.
The traffic normal per-port-number ('total-traffic-normal-per-port') baseline is represented for each port number bound to a target.
If the DOTS client negotiated percentile values and units (Section 7.1), these negotiated parameters will be used instead of the default parameters. For each unit class used, the DOTS client MUST auto-scale so that the appropriate unit is used.
Total connection capacity:
If the target is susceptible to resource-consuming DDoS attacks, the following optional attributes for the target per transport protocol are useful for detecting resource-consuming DDoS attacks:
  • The maximum number of simultaneous connections that are allowed to the target.
  • The maximum number of simultaneous connections that are allowed to the target per client.
  • The maximum number of simultaneous embryonic connections that are allowed to the target. The term "embryonic connection" refers to a connection whose connection handshake is not finished. Embryonic connections are only possible in connection-oriented transport protocols like TCP or the Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) [RFC 9260].
  • The maximum number of simultaneous embryonic connections that are allowed to the target per client.
  • The maximum number of connections allowed per second to the target.
  • The maximum number of connections allowed per second to the target per client.
  • The maximum number of requests (e.g., HTTP/DNS/SIP requests) allowed per second to the target.
  • The maximum number of requests allowed per second to the target per client.
  • The maximum number of outstanding partial requests allowed to the target. Attacks relying upon partial requests create a connection with a target but do not send a complete request (e.g., an HTTP request).
  • The maximum number of outstanding partial requests allowed to the target per client.
The aggregate per transport protocol is captured in 'total-connection-capacity', while port-specific capabilities are represented using 'total-connection-capacity-per-port'.
Note that a target resource is identified using the attributes 'target-prefix', 'target-port-range', 'target-protocol', 'target- fqdn', 'target-uri', or 'alias-name' as defined in Section 4.4.1.1 of RFC 9132.
The tree structure of the normal traffic baseline is shown in Figure 18.
  structure dots-telemetry:
    +-- (telemetry-message-type)?
       +--:(telemetry-setup)
       |  ...
       |  +-- telemetry* []
       |     +-- (direction)?
       |     |  +--:(server-to-client-only)
       |     |     +-- tsid?                  uint32
       |     +-- (setup-type)?
       |        +--:(telemetry-config)
       |        |  ...
       |        +--:(pipe)
       |        |  ...
       |        +--:(baseline)
       |           +-- baseline* [id]
       |              +-- id                     uint32
       |              +-- target-prefix*
       |              |       inet:ip-prefix
       |              +-- target-port-range* [lower-port]
       |              |  +-- lower-port    inet:port-number
       |              |  +-- upper-port?   inet:port-number
       |              +-- target-protocol*                      uint8
       |              +-- target-fqdn*
       |              |       inet:domain-name
       |              +-- target-uri*
       |              |       inet:uri
       |              +-- alias-name*
       |              |       string
       |              +-- total-traffic-normal* [unit]
       |              |  +-- unit                 unit
       |              |  +-- low-percentile-g?    yang:gauge64
       |              |  +-- mid-percentile-g?    yang:gauge64
       |              |  +-- high-percentile-g?   yang:gauge64
       |              |  +-- peak-g?              yang:gauge64
       |              +-- total-traffic-normal-per-protocol*
       |              |       [unit protocol]
       |              |  +-- protocol             uint8
       |              |  +-- unit                 unit
       |              |  +-- low-percentile-g?    yang:gauge64
       |              |  +-- mid-percentile-g?    yang:gauge64
       |              |  +-- high-percentile-g?   yang:gauge64
       |              |  +-- peak-g?              yang:gauge64
       |              +-- total-traffic-normal-per-port* [unit port]
       |              |  +-- port                 inet:port-number
       |              |  +-- unit                 unit
       |              |  +-- low-percentile-g?    yang:gauge64
       |              |  +-- mid-percentile-g?    yang:gauge64
       |              |  +-- high-percentile-g?   yang:gauge64
       |              |  +-- peak-g?              yang:gauge64
       |              +-- total-connection-capacity* [protocol]
       |              |  +-- protocol                     uint8
       |              |  +-- connection?                  uint64
       |              |  +-- connection-client?           uint64
       |              |  +-- embryonic?                   uint64
       |              |  +-- embryonic-client?            uint64
       |              |  +-- connection-ps?               uint64
       |              |  +-- connection-client-ps?        uint64
       |              |  +-- request-ps?                  uint64
       |              |  +-- request-client-ps?           uint64
       |              |  +-- partial-request-max?         uint64
       |              |  +-- partial-request-client-max?  uint64
       |              +-- total-connection-capacity-per-port*
       |                      [protocol port]
       |                 +-- port
       |                 |       inet:port-number
       |                 +-- protocol                     uint8
       |                 +-- connection?                  uint64
       |                 +-- connection-client?           uint64
       |                 +-- embryonic?                   uint64
       |                 +-- embryonic-client?            uint64
       |                 +-- connection-ps?               uint64
       |                 +-- connection-client-ps?        uint64
       |                 +-- request-ps?                  uint64
       |                 +-- request-client-ps?           uint64
       |                 +-- partial-request-max?         uint64
       |                 +-- partial-request-client-max?  uint64
       +--:(telemetry)
          ...
A DOTS client can share one or multiple normal traffic baselines (e.g., aggregate or per-prefix baselines); each is uniquely identified within the DOTS client domain with an identifier ('id'). This identifier can be used to update a baseline entry, delete a specific entry, etc.

7.3.1.  Conveying DOTS Client Domain Baseline Information

Considerations similar to those specified in Section 7.1.2 are followed, with one exception:
  • The relative order of two PUT requests carrying DOTS client domain baseline attributes from a DOTS client is determined by comparing their respective 'tsid' values. If these two requests have overlapping targets, the PUT request with a higher numeric 'tsid' value will override the request with a lower numeric 'tsid' value. The overlapped lower numeric 'tsid' MUST be automatically deleted and no longer be available.
Two PUT requests from a DOTS client have overlapping targets if there is a common IP address, IP prefix, FQDN, URI, or alias name. Also, two PUT requests from a DOTS client have overlapping targets from the perspective of the DOTS server if the addresses associated with the FQDN, URI, or alias are overlapping with each other or with 'target-prefix'.
DOTS clients SHOULD minimize the number of active 'tsid's used for baseline information. In order to avoid maintaining a long list of 'tsid's for baseline information, it is RECOMMENDED that DOTS clients include in any request to update information related to a given target the information regarding other targets (already communicated using a lower 'tsid' value) (assuming that this information fits within one single datagram). This update request will override these existing requests and hence optimize the number of 'tsid' requests per DOTS client.
If no target attribute is included in the request, this is an indication that the baseline information applies for the DOTS client domain as a whole.
An example of a PUT request to convey the baseline information is shown in Figure 19.
Header: PUT (Code=0.03)
Uri-Path: ".well-known"
Uri-Path: "dots"
Uri-Path: "tm-setup"
Uri-Path: "cuid=dz6pHjaADkaFTbjr0JGBpw"
Uri-Path: "tsid=129"
Content-Format: "application/dots+cbor"

{
  "ietf-dots-telemetry:telemetry-setup": {
    "telemetry": [
      {
        "baseline": [
          {
            "id": 1,
            "target-prefix": [
              "2001:db8:6401::1/128",
              "2001:db8:6401::2/128"
            ],
            "total-traffic-normal": [
              {
                "unit": "megabit-ps",
                "peak-g": "60"
              }
            ]
          }
        ]
      }
    ]
  }
}
The DOTS client may share protocol-specific baseline information (e.g., TCP and UDP) as shown in Figure 20.
Header: PUT (Code=0.03)
Uri-Path: ".well-known"
Uri-Path: "dots"
Uri-Path: "tm-setup"
Uri-Path: "cuid=dz6pHjaADkaFTbjr0JGBpw"
Uri-Path: "tsid=130"
Content-Format: "application/dots+cbor"

{
  "ietf-dots-telemetry:telemetry-setup": {
    "telemetry": [
      {
        "baseline": [
          {
            "id": 1,
            "target-prefix": [
              "2001:db8:6401::1/128",
              "2001:db8:6401::2/128"
            ],
            "total-traffic-normal-per-protocol": [
              {
                "unit": "megabit-ps",
                "protocol": 6,
                "peak-g": "50"
              },
              {
                "unit": "megabit-ps",
                "protocol": 17,
                "peak-g": "10"
              }
            ]
          }
        ]
      }
    ]
  }
}
The normal traffic baseline information should be updated to reflect legitimate overloads (e.g., flash crowds) to prevent unnecessary mitigation.

7.3.2.  Retrieving Installed Normal Traffic Baseline Information

A GET request with a 'tsid' Uri-Path parameter is used to retrieve a specific installed DOTS client domain's baseline traffic information. The same procedure as that defined in Section 7.1.3 is followed.
To retrieve all baseline information bound to a DOTS client, the DOTS client proceeds as specified in Section 7.1.1.

7.3.3.  Deleting Installed Normal Traffic Baseline Information

A DELETE request is used to delete the installed DOTS client domain's normal traffic baseline information. The same procedure as that defined in Section 7.1.4 is followed.

7.4.  Resetting the Installed Telemetry Setup

Upon bootstrapping (or reboot or any other event that may alter the DOTS client setup), a DOTS client MAY send a DELETE request to set the telemetry parameters to default values. Such a request does not include any 'tsid' parameters. An example of such a request is depicted in Figure 21.
Header: DELETE (Code=0.04)
Uri-Path: ".well-known"
Uri-Path: "dots"
Uri-Path: "tm-setup"
Uri-Path: "cuid=dz6pHjaADkaFTbjr0JGBpw"

7.5.  Conflict with Other DOTS Clients of the Same Domain

A DOTS server may detect conflicts between requests conveying pipe and baseline information received from DOTS clients of the same DOTS client domain. 'conflict-information' is used to report the conflict to the DOTS client, following guidelines for conflict handling similar to those discussed in Section 4.4.1 of RFC 9132. The conflict cause can be set to one of these values:
1:
Overlapping targets (Section 4.4.1 of RFC 9132).
5:
Overlapping pipe scope (see Section 13).
Top   ToC   RFCv3-9244

8.  DOTS Pre-or-Ongoing-Mitigation Telemetry

There are two broad types of DDoS attacks: bandwidth-consuming attacks and target-resource-consuming attacks. This section outlines the set of DOTS telemetry attributes (Section 8.1) that covers both types of attacks. The objective of these attributes is to allow for the complete knowledge of attacks and the various particulars that can best characterize attacks.
The "ietf-dots-telemetry" YANG module (Section 11.1) defines the data structure of a new message type called 'telemetry'. The tree structure of the 'telemetry' message type is shown in Figure 22.
  structure dots-telemetry:
    +-- (telemetry-message-type)?
       +--:(telemetry-setup)
       |  ...
       |  +-- telemetry* []
       |     +-- (direction)?
       |     |  +--:(server-to-client-only)
       |     |     +-- tsid?                  uint32
       |     +-- (setup-type)?
       |        +--:(telemetry-config)
       |        |  ...
       |        +--:(pipe)
       |        |  ...
       |        +--:(baseline)
       |           ...
       +--:(telemetry)
          +-- pre-or-ongoing-mitigation* []
             +-- (direction)?
             |  +--:(server-to-client-only)
             |     +-- tmid?                      uint32
             +-- target
             |  ...
             +-- total-traffic* [unit]
             |  ...
             +-- total-traffic-protocol* [unit protocol]
             |  ...
             +-- total-traffic-port* [unit port]
             |  ...
             +-- total-attack-traffic* [unit]
             |  ...
             +-- total-attack-traffic-protocol* [unit protocol]
             |  ...
             +-- total-attack-traffic-port* [unit port]
             |  ...
             +-- total-attack-connection-protocol* [protocol]
             |  ...
             +-- total-attack-connection-port* [protocol port]
             |  ...
             +-- attack-detail* [vendor-id attack-id]
                ...
The pre-or-ongoing-mitigation telemetry attributes are indicated by the path suffix '/tm'. '/tm' is appended to the path prefix to form the URI used with a CoAP request to signal the DOTS telemetry. Pre-or-ongoing-mitigation telemetry attributes as specified in Section 8.1 can be signaled between DOTS agents.
Pre-or-ongoing-mitigation telemetry attributes may be sent by a DOTS client or a DOTS server.
DOTS agents SHOULD bind pre-or-ongoing-mitigation telemetry data to mitigation requests associated with the resources under attack. In particular, a telemetry PUT request sent after a mitigation request may include a reference to that mitigation request ('mid-list') as shown in Figure 23. An example illustrating request correlation by means of 'target-prefix' is shown in Figure 24.
Much of the pre-or-ongoing-mitigation telemetry data uses a unit that falls under the unit class that is configured following the procedure described in Section 7.1.2. When generating telemetry data to send to a peer, the DOTS agent MUST auto-scale so that one or more appropriate units are used.
 +-----------+                                         +-----------+
 |DOTS client|                                         |DOTS server|
 +-----------+                                         +-----------+
       |                                                     |
       |==============Mitigation Request (mid)==============>|
       |                                                     |
       |==============Telemetry (mid-list{mid})=============>|
       |                                                     |
 +-----------+                                         +-----------+
 |DOTS client|                                         |DOTS server|
 +-----------+                                         +-----------+
       |                                                     |
       |<===============Telemetry (target-prefix)============|
       |                                                     |
       |========Mitigation Request (target-prefix)==========>|
       |                                                     |
DOTS agents MUST NOT send pre-or-ongoing-mitigation telemetry notifications to the same peer more frequently than once every 'telemetry-notify-interval' (Section 7.1). If a telemetry notification is sent using a block-like transfer mechanism (e.g., [RFC 9177]), this rate-limit policy MUST NOT consider these individual blocks as separate notifications, but as a single notification.
DOTS pre-or-ongoing-mitigation telemetry request and response messages MUST be marked as Non-confirmable messages (Section 2.1 of RFC 7252).

8.1.  Pre-or-Ongoing-Mitigation DOTS Telemetry Attributes

Section 3 discusses the motivation for using the DOTS telemetry attributes. These attributes are specified in the following subsections.

8.1.1.  Target

A target resource (Figure 25) is identified using the attributes 'target-prefix', 'target-port-range', 'target-protocol', 'target-fqdn', 'target-uri', 'alias-name', or a pointer to a mitigation request ('mid-list').
       +--:(telemetry)
          +-- pre-or-ongoing-mitigation* []
             +-- (direction)?
             |  +--:(server-to-client-only)
             |     +-- tmid?                      uint32
             +-- target
             |  +-- target-prefix*       inet:ip-prefix
             |  +-- target-port-range* [lower-port]
             |  |  +-- lower-port    inet:port-number
             |  |  +-- upper-port?   inet:port-number
             |  +-- target-protocol*     uint8
             |  +-- target-fqdn*         inet:domain-name
             |  +-- target-uri*          inet:uri
             |  +-- alias-name*          string
             |  +-- mid-list*            uint32
             +-- total-traffic* [unit]
             |  ...
             +-- total-traffic-protocol* [unit protocol]
             |  ...
             +-- total-traffic-port* [unit port]
             |  ...
             +-- total-attack-traffic* [unit]
             |  ...
             +-- total-attack-traffic-protocol* [unit protocol]
             |  ...
             +-- total-attack-traffic-port* [unit port]
             |  ...
             +-- total-attack-connection-protocol* [protocol]
             |  ...
             +-- total-attack-connection-port* [protocol port]
             |  ...
             +-- attack-detail* [vendor-id attack-id]
                ...
At least one of the attributes 'target-prefix', 'target-fqdn', 'target-uri', 'alias-name', or 'mid-list' MUST be present in the target definition.
If the target is susceptible to bandwidth-consuming attacks, the attributes representing the percentile values of the 'attack-id' attack traffic are included.
If the target is susceptible to resource-consuming DDoS attacks, the attributes defined in Section 8.1.4 are applicable for representing the attack.
At least the 'target' attribute and one other pre-or-ongoing-mitigation attribute MUST be present in the DOTS telemetry message.

8.1.2.  Total Traffic

The 'total-traffic' attribute (Figure 26) conveys the percentile values (including peak and current observed values) of the total observed traffic. More fine-grained information about the total traffic can be conveyed in the 'total-traffic-protocol' and 'total-traffic-port' attributes.
The 'total-traffic-protocol' attribute represents the total traffic for a target and is transport-protocol specific.
The 'total-traffic-port' attribute represents the total traffic for a target per port number.
       +--:(telemetry)
          +-- pre-or-ongoing-mitigation* []
             +-- (direction)?
             |  +--:(server-to-client-only)
             |     +-- tmid?                      uint32
             +-- target
             |  ...
             +-- total-traffic* [unit]
             |  +-- unit                 unit
             |  +-- low-percentile-g?    yang:gauge64
             |  +-- mid-percentile-g?    yang:gauge64
             |  +-- high-percentile-g?   yang:gauge64
             |  +-- peak-g?              yang:gauge64
             |  +-- current-g?           yang:gauge64
             +-- total-traffic-protocol* [unit protocol]
             |  +-- protocol             uint8
             |  +-- unit                 unit
             |  +-- low-percentile-g?    yang:gauge64
             |  +-- mid-percentile-g?    yang:gauge64
             |  +-- high-percentile-g?   yang:gauge64
             |  +-- peak-g?              yang:gauge64
             |  +-- current-g?           yang:gauge64
             +-- total-traffic-port* [unit port]
             |  +-- port                 inet:port-number
             |  +-- unit                 unit
             |  +-- low-percentile-g?    yang:gauge64
             |  +-- mid-percentile-g?    yang:gauge64
             |  +-- high-percentile-g?   yang:gauge64
             |  +-- peak-g?              yang:gauge64
             |  +-- current-g?           yang:gauge64
             +-- total-attack-traffic* [unit]
             |  ...
             +-- total-attack-traffic-protocol* [unit protocol]
             |  ...
             +-- total-attack-traffic-port* [unit port]
             |  ...
             +-- total-attack-connection-protocol* [protocol]
             |  ...
             +-- total-attack-connection-port* [protocol port]
             |  ...
             +-- attack-detail* [vendor-id attack-id]
                ...

8.1.3.  Total Attack Traffic

The 'total-attack-traffic' attribute (Figure 27) conveys the total observed attack traffic. More fine-grained information about the total attack traffic can be conveyed in the 'total-attack-traffic-protocol' and 'total-attack-traffic-port' attributes.
The 'total-attack-traffic-protocol' attribute represents the total attack traffic for a target and is transport-protocol specific.
The 'total-attack-traffic-port' attribute represents the total attack traffic for a target per port number.
       +--:(telemetry)
          +-- pre-or-ongoing-mitigation* []
             +-- (direction)?
             |  +--:(server-to-client-only)
             |     +-- tmid?                      uint32
             +-- target
             |  ...
             +-- total-traffic* [unit]
             |  ...
             +-- total-traffic-protocol* [unit protocol]
             |  ...
             +-- total-traffic-port* [unit port]
             |  ...
             +-- total-attack-traffic* [unit]
             |  +-- unit                 unit
             |  +-- low-percentile-g?    yang:gauge64
             |  +-- mid-percentile-g?    yang:gauge64
             |  +-- high-percentile-g?   yang:gauge64
             |  +-- peak-g?              yang:gauge64
             |  +-- current-g?           yang:gauge64
             +-- total-attack-traffic-protocol* [unit protocol]
             |  +-- protocol             uint8
             |  +-- unit                 unit
             |  +-- low-percentile-g?    yang:gauge64
             |  +-- mid-percentile-g?    yang:gauge64
             |  +-- high-percentile-g?   yang:gauge64
             |  +-- peak-g?              yang:gauge64
             |  +-- current-g?           yang:gauge64
             +-- total-attack-traffic-port* [unit port]
             |  +-- port                 inet:port-number
             |  +-- unit                 unit
             |  +-- low-percentile-g?    yang:gauge64
             |  +-- mid-percentile-g?    yang:gauge64
             |  +-- high-percentile-g?   yang:gauge64
             |  +-- peak-g?              yang:gauge64
             |  +-- current-g?           yang:gauge64
             +-- total-attack-connection-protocol* [protocol]
             |  ...
             +-- total-attack-connection-port* [protocol port]
             |  ...
             +-- attack-detail* [vendor-id attack-id]
                ...

8.1.4.  Total Attack Connections

If the target is susceptible to resource-consuming DDoS attacks, the 'total-attack-connection-protocol' attribute is used to convey the percentile values (including peak and current observed values) of various attributes related to the total attack connections. The following optional sub-attributes for the target per transport protocol are included to represent the attack characteristics:
  • The number of simultaneous attack connections to the target.
  • The number of simultaneous embryonic connections to the target.
  • The number of attack connections per second to the target.
  • The number of attack requests per second to the target.
  • The number of attack partial requests to the target.
The total attack connections per port number are represented using the 'total-attack-connection-port' attribute.
       +--:(telemetry)
          +-- pre-or-ongoing-mitigation* []
             +-- (direction)?
             |  +--:(server-to-client-only)
             |     +-- tmid?                      uint32
             +-- target
             |  ...
             +-- total-traffic* [unit]
             |  ...
             +-- total-traffic-protocol* [unit protocol]
             |  ...
             +-- total-traffic-port* [unit port]
             |  ...
             +-- total-attack-traffic* [unit]
             |  ...
             +-- total-attack-traffic-protocol* [unit protocol]
             |  ...
             +-- total-attack-traffic-port* [unit port]
             |  ...
             +-- total-attack-connection-protocol* [protocol]
             |  +-- protocol              uint8
             |  +-- connection-c
             |  |  +-- low-percentile-g?    yang:gauge64
             |  |  +-- mid-percentile-g?    yang:gauge64
             |  |  +-- high-percentile-g?   yang:gauge64
             |  |  +-- peak-g?              yang:gauge64
             |  |  +-- current-g?           yang:gauge64
             |  +-- embryonic-c
             |  |  +-- low-percentile-g?    yang:gauge64
             |  |  +-- mid-percentile-g?    yang:gauge64
             |  |  +-- high-percentile-g?   yang:gauge64
             |  |  +-- peak-g?              yang:gauge64
             |  |  +-- current-g?           yang:gauge64
             |  +-- connection-ps-c
             |  |  +-- low-percentile-g?    yang:gauge64
             |  |  +-- mid-percentile-g?    yang:gauge64
             |  |  +-- high-percentile-g?   yang:gauge64
             |  |  +-- peak-g?              yang:gauge64
             |  |  +-- current-g?           yang:gauge64
             |  +-- request-ps-c
             |  |  +-- low-percentile-g?    yang:gauge64
             |  |  +-- mid-percentile-g?    yang:gauge64
             |  |  +-- high-percentile-g?   yang:gauge64
             |  |  +-- peak-g?              yang:gauge64
             |  |  +-- current-g?           yang:gauge64
             |  +-- partial-request-c
             |     +-- low-percentile-g?    yang:gauge64
             |     +-- mid-percentile-g?    yang:gauge64
             |     +-- high-percentile-g?   yang:gauge64
             |     +-- peak-g?              yang:gauge64
             |     +-- current-g?           yang:gauge64
             +-- total-attack-connection-port* [protocol port]
             |  +-- protocol              uint8
             |  +-- port                  inet:port-number
             |  +-- connection-c
             |  |  +-- low-percentile-g?    yang:gauge64
             |  |  +-- mid-percentile-g?    yang:gauge64
             |  |  +-- high-percentile-g?   yang:gauge64
             |  |  +-- peak-g?              yang:gauge64
             |  |  +-- current-g?           yang:gauge64
             |  +-- embryonic-c
             |  |  +-- low-percentile-g?    yang:gauge64
             |  |  +-- mid-percentile-g?    yang:gauge64
             |  |  +-- high-percentile-g?   yang:gauge64
             |  |  +-- peak-g?              yang:gauge64
             |  |  +-- current-g?           yang:gauge64
             |  +-- connection-ps-c
             |  |  +-- low-percentile-g?    yang:gauge64
             |  |  +-- mid-percentile-g?    yang:gauge64
             |  |  +-- high-percentile-g?   yang:gauge64
             |  |  +-- peak-g?              yang:gauge64
             |  |  +-- current-g?           yang:gauge64
             |  +-- request-ps-c
             |  |  +-- low-percentile-g?    yang:gauge64
             |  |  +-- mid-percentile-g?    yang:gauge64
             |  |  +-- high-percentile-g?   yang:gauge64
             |  |  +-- peak-g?              yang:gauge64
             |  |  +-- current-g?           yang:gauge64
             |  +-- partial-request-c
             |     +-- low-percentile-g?    yang:gauge64
             |     +-- mid-percentile-g?    yang:gauge64
             |     +-- high-percentile-g?   yang:gauge64
             |     +-- peak-g?              yang:gauge64
             |     +-- current-g?           yang:gauge64
             +-- attack-detail* [vendor-id attack-id]
                ...

8.1.5.  Attack Details

This attribute (depicted in Figure 29) is used to signal a set of details characterizing an attack. The following sub-attributes describing the ongoing attack can be signaled as attack details:
vendor-id:
Vendor ID. This parameter represents a security vendor's enterprise number as registered in the IANA "Private Enterprise Numbers" registry [Private-Enterprise-Numbers].
attack-id:
Unique identifier assigned for the attack by a vendor. This parameter MUST be present, independently of whether 'attack-description' is included or not.
description-lang:
Indicates the language tag that is used for the text that is included in the 'attack-description' attribute. This attribute is encoded following the rules in Section 2.1 of RFC 5646. The default language tag is "en-US".
attack-description:
Textual representation of the attack description. This description is related to the class of attack rather than a specific instance of it. Natural Language Processing techniques (e.g., word embedding) might provide some utility in mapping the attack description to an attack type. Textual representation of an attack solves two problems: it avoids the need to (a) create mapping tables manually between vendors and (b) standardize attack types that keep evolving.
attack-severity:
Attack severity level. This attribute takes one of the values defined in Section 3.12.2 of RFC 7970.
start-time:
The time the attack started. The attack's start time is expressed in seconds relative to 1970-01-01T00:00Z (Section 3.4.2 of RFC 8949). The CBOR encoding is modified so that the leading tag 1 (epoch-based date/time) MUST be omitted.
end-time:
The time the attack ended. The attack's end time is expressed in seconds relative to 1970-01-01T00:00Z (Section 3.4.2 of RFC 8949). The CBOR encoding is modified so that the leading tag 1 (epoch-based date/time) MUST be omitted.
source-count:
A count of sources involved in the attack targeting the victim.
top-talker:
A list of attack sources that are involved in an attack and that are generating an important part of the attack traffic. The top talkers are represented using 'source-prefix'.
'spoofed-status' indicates whether a top talker is a spoofed IP address (e.g., reflection attacks) or not. If no 'spoofed-status' data node is included, this means that the spoofing status is unknown.
If the target is being subjected to a bandwidth-consuming attack, a statistical profile of the attack traffic from each of the top talkers is included ('total-attack-traffic'; see Section 8.1.3).
If the target is being subjected to a resource-consuming DDoS attack, the same attributes as those defined in Section 8.1.4 are applicable for characterizing the attack on a per-talker basis.
       +--:(telemetry)
          +-- pre-or-ongoing-mitigation* []
             +-- (direction)?
             |  +--:(server-to-client-only)
             |     +-- tmid?                      uint32
             +-- target
             |  ...
             +-- total-traffic* [unit]
             |  ...
             +-- total-traffic-protocol* [unit protocol]
             |  ...
             +-- total-traffic-port* [unit port]
             |  ...
             +-- total-attack-traffic* [unit]
             |  ...
             +-- total-attack-traffic-protocol* [unit protocol]
             |  ...
             +-- total-attack-traffic-port* [unit port]
             |  ...
             +-- total-attack-connection-protocol* [protocol]
             |  ...
             +-- total-attack-connection-port* [protocol port]
             |  ...
             +-- attack-detail* [vendor-id attack-id]
                +-- vendor-id             uint32
                +-- attack-id             uint32
                +-- description-lang?     string
                +-- attack-description?   string
                +-- attack-severity?      attack-severity
                +-- start-time?           uint64
                +-- end-time?             uint64
                +-- source-count
                |  +-- low-percentile-g?    yang:gauge64
                |  +-- mid-percentile-g?    yang:gauge64
                |  +-- high-percentile-g?   yang:gauge64
                |  +-- peak-g?              yang:gauge64
                |  +-- current-g?           yang:gauge64
                +-- top-talker
                   +-- talker* [source-prefix]
                      +-- spoofed-status?            boolean
                      +-- source-prefix              inet:ip-prefix
                      +-- source-port-range* [lower-port]
                      |  +-- lower-port    inet:port-number
                      |  +-- upper-port?   inet:port-number
                      +-- source-icmp-type-range* [lower-type]
                      |  +-- lower-type    uint8
                      |  +-- upper-type?   uint8
                      +-- total-attack-traffic* [unit]
                      |  +-- unit                 unit
                      |  +-- low-percentile-g?    yang:gauge64
                      |  +-- mid-percentile-g?    yang:gauge64
                      |  +-- high-percentile-g?   yang:gauge64
                      |  +-- peak-g?              yang:gauge64
                      |  +-- current-g?           yang:gauge64
                      +-- total-attack-connection-protocol*
                              [protocol]
                         +-- protocol              uint8
                         +-- connection-c
                         |  +-- low-percentile-g?    yang:gauge64
                         |  +-- mid-percentile-g?    yang:gauge64
                         |  +-- high-percentile-g?   yang:gauge64
                         |  +-- peak-g?              yang:gauge64
                         |  +-- current-g?           yang:gauge64
                         +-- embryonic-c
                         |  +-- low-percentile-g?    yang:gauge64
                         |  +-- mid-percentile-g?    yang:gauge64
                         |  +-- high-percentile-g?   yang:gauge64
                         |  +-- peak-g?              yang:gauge64
                         |  +-- current-g?           yang:gauge64
                         +-- connection-ps-c
                         |  +-- low-percentile-g?    yang:gauge64
                         |  +-- mid-percentile-g?    yang:gauge64
                         |  +-- high-percentile-g?   yang:gauge64
                         |  +-- peak-g?              yang:gauge64
                         |  +-- current-g?           yang:gauge64
                         +-- request-ps-c
                         |  +-- low-percentile-g?    yang:gauge64
                         |  +-- mid-percentile-g?    yang:gauge64
                         |  +-- high-percentile-g?   yang:gauge64
                         |  +-- peak-g?              yang:gauge64
                         |  +-- current-g?           yang:gauge64
                         +-- partial-request-c
                            +-- low-percentile-g?    yang:gauge64
                            +-- mid-percentile-g?    yang:gauge64
                            +-- high-percentile-g?   yang:gauge64
                            +-- peak-g?              yang:gauge64
                            +-- current-g?           yang:gauge64
In order to optimize the size of telemetry data conveyed over the DOTS signal channel, DOTS agents MAY use the DOTS data channel [RFC 8783] to exchange vendor-specific attack mapping details (that is, {vendor identifier, attack identifier} ==> textual representation of the attack description). As such, DOTS agents do not have to convey an attack description systematically in their telemetry messages over the DOTS signal channel. Refer to Section 8.1.6.

8.1.6.  Vendor Attack Mapping

Multiple mappings for different vendor identifiers may be used; the DOTS agent transmitting telemetry information can elect to use one or more vendor mappings even in the same telemetry message.
DOTS clients and servers may be provided with mappings from different vendors and so have their own different sets of vendor attack mappings. A DOTS agent MUST accept receipt of telemetry data with a vendor identifier that is different than the identifier it uses to transmit telemetry data. Furthermore, it is possible that the DOTS client and DOTS server are provided by the same vendor but the vendor mapping tables are at different revisions. The DOTS client SHOULD transmit telemetry information using any vendor mapping(s) that it provided to the DOTS server (e.g., using a POST as depicted in Figure 30), and the DOTS server SHOULD use any vendor mappings(s) provided to the DOTS client when transmitting telemetry data to the peer DOTS agent.
POST /restconf/data/ietf-dots-data-channel:dots-data\
     /dots-client=dz6pHjaADkaFTbjr0JGBpw HTTP/1.1
Host: example.com
Content-Type: application/yang-data+json

{
  "ietf-dots-mapping:vendor-mapping": {
    "vendor": [
      {
        "vendor-id": 345,
        "vendor-name": "mitigator-c",
        "last-updated": "1629898958",
        "attack-mapping": [
          {
            "attack-id": 1,
            "attack-description": 
               "Include a description of this attack"
          },
          {
            "attack-id": 2,
            "attack-description": 
               "Again, include a description of the attack"
          }
        ]
      }
    ]
  }
}
The "ietf-dots-mapping" YANG module defined in Section 11.2 augments the "ietf-dots-data-channel" module [RFC 8783]. The tree structure of the "ietf-dots-mapping" module is shown in Figure 31.
module: ietf-dots-mapping
  augment /data-channel:dots-data/data-channel:dots-client:
    +--rw vendor-mapping {dots-telemetry}?
       +--rw vendor* [vendor-id]
          +--rw vendor-id         uint32
          +--rw vendor-name?      string
          +--rw description-lang?   string
          +--rw last-updated      uint64
          +--rw attack-mapping* [attack-id]
             +--rw attack-id             uint32
             +--rw attack-description    string
  augment /data-channel:dots-data/data-channel:capabilities:
    +--ro vendor-mapping-enabled?   boolean {dots-telemetry}?
  augment /data-channel:dots-data:
    +--ro vendor-mapping {dots-telemetry}?
       +--ro vendor* [vendor-id]
          +--ro vendor-id         uint32
          +--ro vendor-name?      string
          +--ro description-lang?   string
          +--ro last-updated      uint64
          +--ro attack-mapping* [attack-id]
             +--ro attack-id             uint32
             +--ro attack-description    string
A DOTS client sends a GET request over the DOTS data channel to retrieve the capabilities supported by a DOTS server as per Section 7.1 of RFC 8783. This request is meant to assess whether the capability of sharing vendor attack mapping details is supported by the server (i.e., check the value of 'vendor-mapping-enabled').
If 'vendor-mapping-enabled' is set to 'true', a DOTS client MAY send a GET request to retrieve the DOTS server's vendor attack mapping details. An example of such a GET request is shown in Figure 32.
GET /restconf/data/ietf-dots-data-channel:dots-data\
    /ietf-dots-mapping:vendor-mapping HTTP/1.1
Host: example.com
Accept: application/yang-data+json
A DOTS client can retrieve only the list of vendors supported by the DOTS server. It does so by setting the "depth" parameter (Section 4.8.2 of RFC 8040) to "3" in the GET request as shown in Figure 33. An example of a response body received from the DOTS server as a response to such a request is illustrated in Figure 34.
GET /restconf/data/ietf-dots-data-channel:dots-data\
    /ietf-dots-mapping:vendor-mapping?depth=3 HTTP/1.1
Host: example.com
Accept: application/yang-data+json
{
  "ietf-dots-mapping:vendor-mapping": {
    "vendor": [
      {
        "vendor-id": 32473,
        "vendor-name": "mitigator-s",
        "last-updated": "1629898758",
        "attack-mapping": []
      }
    ]
  }
}
The DOTS client repeats the above procedure regularly (e.g., once a week) to update the DOTS server's vendor attack mapping details.
If the DOTS client concludes that the DOTS server does not have any reference to the specific vendor attack mapping details, the DOTS client uses a POST request to install its vendor attack mapping details. An example of such a POST request is depicted in Figure 30.
The DOTS server indicates the result of processing the POST request using the status-line. A "201 Created" status-line MUST be returned in the response if the DOTS server has accepted the vendor attack mapping details. If the request is missing a mandatory attribute or contains an invalid or unknown parameter, a "400 Bad Request" status-line MUST be returned by the DOTS server in the response. The error-tag is set to "missing-attribute", "invalid-value", or "unknown-element" as a function of the encountered error.
If the request is received via a server-domain DOTS gateway but the DOTS server does not maintain a 'cdid' for this 'cuid' while a 'cdid' is expected to be supplied, the DOTS server MUST reply with a "403 Forbidden" status-line and the error-tag "access-denied". Upon receipt of this message, the DOTS client MUST register (Section 5.1 of RFC 8783).
The DOTS client uses the PUT request to modify its vendor attack mapping details maintained by the DOTS server (e.g., add a new mapping entry, update an existing mapping).
A DOTS client uses a GET request to retrieve its vendor attack mapping details as maintained by the DOTS server (Figure 35).
GET /restconf/data/ietf-dots-data-channel:dots-data\
    /dots-client=dz6pHjaADkaFTbjr0JGBpw\
    /ietf-dots-mapping:vendor-mapping?\
    content=all HTTP/1.1
Host: example.com
Accept: application/yang-data+json
When conveying attack details in DOTS telemetry messages (Sections [8.2], [8.3], and [9]), DOTS agents MUST NOT include the 'attack-description' attribute unless the corresponding attack mapping details were not previously shared with the peer DOTS agent.

8.2.  From DOTS Clients to DOTS Servers

DOTS clients use PUT requests to signal pre-or-ongoing-mitigation telemetry to DOTS servers. An example of such a request is shown in Figure 36.
Header: PUT (Code=0.03)
Uri-Path: ".well-known"
Uri-Path: "dots"
Uri-Path: "tm"
Uri-Path: "cuid=dz6pHjaADkaFTbjr0JGBpw"
Uri-Path: "tmid=123"
Content-Format: "application/dots+cbor"

{
  "ietf-dots-telemetry:telemetry": {
    "pre-or-ongoing-mitigation": [
      {
        "target": {
          "target-prefix": [
            "2001:db8::1/128"
          ]
        },
        "total-attack-traffic-protocol": [
          {
            "protocol": 17,
            "unit": "megabit-ps",
            "mid-percentile-g": "900"
          }
        ],
        "attack-detail": [
          {
            "vendor-id": 32473,
            "attack-id": 77,
            "start-time": "1608336568",
            "attack-severity": "high"
          }
        ]
      }
    ]
  }
}
'cuid' is a mandatory Uri-Path parameter for DOTS PUT requests.
The following additional Uri-Path parameter is defined:
tmid:
The Telemetry Identifier is an identifier for the DOTS pre-or-ongoing-mitigation telemetry data represented as an integer. This identifier MUST be generated by DOTS clients. 'tmid' values MUST increase monotonically whenever a DOTS client needs to convey a new set of pre-or-ongoing-mitigation telemetry data.
The procedure specified in Section 4.4.1 of RFC 9132 for 'mid' rollover MUST be followed for 'tmid' rollover.
This is a mandatory attribute. 'tmid' MUST appear after 'cuid' in the Uri-Path options.
'cuid' and 'tmid' MUST NOT appear in the PUT request message body.
At least the 'target' attribute and another pre-or-ongoing-mitigation attribute (Section 8.1) MUST be present in the PUT request. If only the 'target' attribute is present, this request is handled as per Section 8.3.
The relative order of two PUT requests carrying DOTS pre-or-ongoing-mitigation telemetry from a DOTS client is determined by comparing their respective 'tmid' values. If these two requests have an overlapping 'target', the PUT request with a higher numeric 'tmid' value will override the request with a lower numeric 'tmid' value. The overlapped lower numeric 'tmid' MUST be automatically deleted and no longer be available.
The DOTS server indicates the result of processing a PUT request using CoAP Response Codes. In particular, the 2.04 (Changed) Response Code is returned if the DOTS server has accepted the pre-or-ongoing-mitigation telemetry. The 5.03 (Service Unavailable) Response Code is returned if the DOTS server has erred. The 5.03 Response Code uses the Max-Age Option to indicate the number of seconds after which to retry.
How long a DOTS server maintains a 'tmid' as active or logs the enclosed telemetry information is implementation specific. Note that if a 'tmid' is still active, then logging details are updated by the DOTS server as a function of the updates received from the peer DOTS client.
A DOTS client that lost the state of its active 'tmid's or has to set 'tmid' back to zero (e.g., crash or restart) MUST send a GET request to the DOTS server to retrieve the list of active 'tmid' values. The DOTS client may then delete 'tmid's that should not be active anymore (Figure 37). Sending a DELETE with no 'tmid' indicates that all 'tmid's must be deactivated (Figure 38).
Header: DELETE (Code=0.04)
Uri-Path: ".well-known"
Uri-Path: "dots"
Uri-Path: "tm"
Uri-Path: "cuid=dz6pHjaADkaFTbjr0JGBpw"
Uri-Path: "tmid=123"
Header: DELETE (Code=0.04)
Uri-Path: ".well-known"
Uri-Path: "dots"
Uri-Path: "tm"
Uri-Path: "cuid=dz6pHjaADkaFTbjr0JGBpw"

8.3.  From DOTS Servers to DOTS Clients

The pre-or-ongoing-mitigation data (attack details in particular) can also be signaled from DOTS servers to DOTS clients. For example, a DOTS server co-located with a DDoS detector can collect monitoring information from the target network, identify a DDoS attack using statistical analysis or deep learning techniques, and signal the attack details to the DOTS client.
The DOTS client can use the attack details to decide whether to trigger a DOTS mitigation request or not. Furthermore, the security operations personnel at the DOTS client domain can use the attack details to determine the protection strategy and select the appropriate DOTS server for mitigating the attack.
In order to receive pre-or-ongoing-mitigation telemetry notifications from a DOTS server, a DOTS client MUST send a PUT (followed by a GET) with the target filter. An example of such a PUT request is shown in Figure 39. In order to avoid maintaining a long list of such requests, it is RECOMMENDED that DOTS clients include all targets in the same request (assuming that this information fits within one single datagram). DOTS servers may be instructed to restrict the number of pre-or-ongoing-mitigation requests per DOTS client domain. The pre-or-ongoing-mitigation requests MUST be maintained in an active state by the DOTS server until a DELETE request is received from the same DOTS client to clear this pre-or-ongoing-mitigation telemetry or when the DOTS client is considered inactive (e.g., Section 3.5 of RFC 8783).
The relative order of two PUT requests carrying DOTS pre-or-ongoing-mitigation telemetry from a DOTS client is determined by comparing their respective 'tmid' values. If these two requests have an overlapping 'target', the PUT request with a higher numeric 'tmid' value will override the request with a lower numeric 'tmid' value. The overlapped lower numeric 'tmid' MUST be automatically deleted and no longer be available.
Header: PUT (Code=0.03)
Uri-Path: ".well-known"
Uri-Path: "dots"
Uri-Path: "tm"
Uri-Path: "cuid=dz6pHjaADkaFTbjr0JGBpw"
Uri-Path: "tmid=567"
Content-Format: "application/dots+cbor"

{
  "ietf-dots-telemetry:telemetry": {
    "pre-or-ongoing-mitigation": [
      {
        "target": {
          "target-prefix": [
            "2001:db8::/32"
          ]
        }
      }
    ]
  }
}
DOTS clients of the same domain can ask to receive pre-or-ongoing-mitigation telemetry bound to the same target without being considered to be "overlapping" and in conflict.
Once the PUT request to instantiate request state on the server has succeeded, the DOTS client issues a GET request to receive ongoing telemetry updates. The client uses the Observe Option, set to "0" (register), in the GET request to receive asynchronous notifications carrying pre-or-ongoing-mitigation telemetry data from the DOTS server. The GET request can specify a specific 'tmid' (Figure 40) or omit the 'tmid' (Figure 41) to receive updates on all active requests from that client.
Header: GET (Code=0.01)
Uri-Path: ".well-known"
Uri-Path: "dots"
Uri-Path: "tm"
Uri-Path: "cuid=dz6pHjaADkaFTbjr0JGBpw"
Uri-Path: "tmid=567"
Observe: 0
Header: GET (Code=0.01)
Uri-Path: ".well-known"
Uri-Path: "dots"
Uri-Path: "tm"
Uri-Path: "cuid=dz6pHjaADkaFTbjr0JGBpw"
Observe: 0
The DOTS client can use a filter to request a subset of the asynchronous notifications from the DOTS server by indicating one or more Uri-Query options in its GET request. A Uri-Query option can include the following parameters to restrict the notifications based on the attack target: 'target-prefix', 'target-port', 'target-protocol', 'target-fqdn', 'target-uri', 'alias-name', 'mid', and 'c' (content) (Section 5.4). Furthermore:
  • If more than one Uri-Query option is included in a request, these options are interpreted in the same way as when multiple target attributes are included in a message body (Section 4.4.1 of RFC 9132).
  • If multiple values of a query parameter are to be included in a request, these values MUST be included in the same Uri-Query option and separated by a "," character without any spaces.
  • Range values (i.e., a contiguous inclusive block) can be included for the 'target-port', 'target-protocol', and 'mid' parameters by indicating the two boundary values separated by a "-" character.
  • Wildcard names (i.e., a name with the leftmost label is the "*" character) can be included in 'target-fqdn' or 'target-uri' parameters. DOTS clients MUST NOT include a name in which the "*" character is included in a label other than the leftmost label. "*.example.com" is an example of a valid wildcard name that can be included as a value of the 'target-fqdn' parameter in a Uri-Query option.
DOTS clients may also filter out the asynchronous notifications from the DOTS server by indicating information about a specific attack source. To that aim, a DOTS client may include 'source-prefix', 'source-port', or 'source-icmp-type' in a Uri-Query option. The same considerations (ranges, multiple values) specified for target attributes apply for source attributes. Special care SHOULD be taken when using these filters, as their use may cause some attacks to be hidden from the requesting DOTS client (e.g., if the attack changes its source information).
Requests with invalid query types (e.g., not supported, malformed) received by the DOTS server MUST be rejected with a 4.00 (Bad Request) Response Code.
An example of a request to subscribe to asynchronous telemetry notifications regarding UDP traffic is shown in Figure 42. This filter will be applied for all 'tmid's.
Header: GET (Code=0.01)
Uri-Path: ".well-known"
Uri-Path: "dots"
Uri-Path: "tm"
Uri-Path: "cuid=dz6pHjaADkaFTbjr0JGBpw"
Uri-Query: "target-protocol=17"
Observe: 0
The DOTS server will send asynchronous notifications to the DOTS client when an attack event is detected, following considerations similar to those discussed in Section 4.4.2.1 of RFC 9132. An example of a pre-or-ongoing-mitigation telemetry notification is shown in Figure 43.
{
  "ietf-dots-telemetry:telemetry": {
    "pre-or-ongoing-mitigation": [
      {
        "tmid": 567,
        "target": {
          "target-prefix": [
            "2001:db8::1/128"
          ]
        },
        "target-protocol": [
          17
        ],
        "total-attack-traffic": [
          {
            "unit": "megabit-ps",
            "mid-percentile-g": "900"
          }
        ],
        "attack-detail": [
          {
            "vendor-id": 32473,
            "attack-id": 77,
            "start-time": "1618339785",
            "attack-severity": "high"
          }
        ]
      }
    ]
  }
}
A DOTS server sends the aggregate data for a target using the 'total-attack-traffic' attribute. The aggregate assumes that Uri-Query filters are applied on the target. The DOTS server MAY include more fine-grained data when needed (that is, 'total-attack-traffic-protocol' and 'total-attack-traffic-port'). If a port filter (or protocol filter) is included in a request, 'total-attack-traffic-protocol' (or 'total-attack-traffic-port') conveys the data with the port (or protocol) filter applied.
A DOTS server may aggregate pre-or-ongoing-mitigation data (e.g., 'top-talker') for all targets of a domain or, when justified, send specific information (e.g., 'top-talker') for a specific target.
The DOTS client may log pre-or-ongoing-mitigation telemetry data with an alert sent to an administrator or a network controller. The DOTS client may send a mitigation request if the attack cannot be handled locally.
A DOTS client that is not interested in receiving pre-or-ongoing-mitigation telemetry data for a target sends a DELETE request similar to the DELETE request depicted in Figure 37.
Top   ToC   RFCv3-9244

9.  DOTS Telemetry Mitigation Status Update

9.1.  From DOTS Clients to DOTS Servers: Mitigation Efficacy DOTS Telemetry Attributes

The mitigation efficacy telemetry attributes can be signaled from DOTS clients to DOTS servers as part of the periodic mitigation efficacy updates to the server (Section 4.4.3 of RFC 9132).
Total attack traffic:
The overall attack traffic as observed from the DOTS client's perspective during an active mitigation. See Figure 27.
Attack details:
The overall attack details as observed from the DOTS client's perspective during an active mitigation. See Section 8.1.5.
The "ietf-dots-telemetry" YANG module (Section 11.1) augments the 'mitigation-scope' message type defined in the "ietf-dots-signal-channel" module [RFC 9132] so that these attributes can be signaled by a DOTS client in a mitigation efficacy update (Figure 44).
  augment-structure /dots-signal:dots-signal/dots-signal:message-type
                    /dots-signal:mitigation-scope/dots-signal:scope:
    +-- total-attack-traffic* [unit]
    |  +-- unit                 unit
    |  +-- low-percentile-g?    yang:gauge64
    |  +-- mid-percentile-g?    yang:gauge64
    |  +-- high-percentile-g?   yang:gauge64
    |  +-- peak-g?              yang:gauge64
    |  +-- current-g?           yang:gauge64
    +-- attack-detail* [vendor-id attack-id]
       +-- vendor-id             uint32
       +-- attack-id             uint32
       +-- attack-description?   string
       +-- attack-severity?      attack-severity
       +-- start-time?           uint64
       +-- end-time?             uint64
       +-- source-count
       |  +-- low-percentile-g?    yang:gauge64
       |  +-- mid-percentile-g?    yang:gauge64
       |  +-- high-percentile-g?   yang:gauge64
       |  +-- peak-g?              yang:gauge64
       |  +-- current-g?           yang:gauge64
       +-- top-talker
          +-- talker* [source-prefix]
             +-- spoofed-status?            boolean
             +-- source-prefix              inet:ip-prefix
             +-- source-port-range* [lower-port]
             |  +-- lower-port    inet:port-number
             |  +-- upper-port?   inet:port-number
             +-- source-icmp-type-range* [lower-type]
             |  +-- lower-type    uint8
             |  +-- upper-type?   uint8
             +-- total-attack-traffic* [unit]
             |  +-- unit                 unit
             |  +-- low-percentile-g?    yang:gauge64
             |  +-- mid-percentile-g?    yang:gauge64
             |  +-- high-percentile-g?   yang:gauge64
             |  +-- peak-g?              yang:gauge64
             |  +-- current-g?           yang:gauge64
             +-- total-attack-connection
                +-- connection-c
                |  +-- low-percentile-g?    yang:gauge64
                |  +-- mid-percentile-g?    yang:gauge64
                |  +-- high-percentile-g?   yang:gauge64
                |  +-- peak-g?              yang:gauge64
                |  +-- current-g?           yang:gauge64
                +-- embryonic-c
                |  ...
                +-- connection-ps-c
                |  ...
                +-- request-ps-c
                |  ...
                +-- partial-request-c
                   ...
In order to signal telemetry data in a mitigation efficacy update, it is RECOMMENDED that the DOTS client have already established a DOTS telemetry setup session with the server in 'idle' time. Such a session is primarily meant to assess whether the peer DOTS server supports telemetry extensions and to thus prevent message processing failure (Section 3.1 of RFC 9132).
An example of an efficacy update with telemetry attributes is depicted in Figure 45.
Header: PUT (Code=0.03)
Uri-Path: ".well-known"
Uri-Path: "dots"
Uri-Path: "mitigate"
Uri-Path: "cuid=dz6pHjaADkaFTbjr0JGBpw"
Uri-Path: "mid=123"
If-Match:
Content-Format: "application/dots+cbor"

{
  "ietf-dots-signal-channel:mitigation-scope": {
    "scope": [
      {
        "alias-name": [
          "https1",
          "https2"
        ],
        "attack-status": "under-attack",
        "ietf-dots-telemetry:total-attack-traffic": [
          {
            "unit": "megabit-ps",
            "mid-percentile-g": "900"
          }
        ]
      }
    ]
  }
}

9.2.  From DOTS Servers to DOTS Clients: Mitigation Status DOTS Telemetry Attributes

The mitigation status telemetry attributes can be signaled from the DOTS server to the DOTS client as part of the periodic mitigation status update (Section 4.4.2 of RFC 9132). In particular, DOTS clients can receive asynchronous notifications of the attack details from DOTS servers using the Observe Option defined in [RFC 7641].
In order to make use of this feature, DOTS clients MUST establish a telemetry session with the DOTS server in 'idle' time and MUST set the 'server-originated-telemetry' attribute to 'true'.
DOTS servers MUST NOT include telemetry attributes in mitigation status updates sent to DOTS clients for telemetry sessions in which the 'server-originated-telemetry' attribute is set to 'false'.
As defined in [RFC 8612], the actual mitigation activities can include several countermeasure mechanisms. The DOTS server signals the current operational status of relevant countermeasures. A list of attacks detected by these countermeasures MAY also be included. The same attributes as those defined in Section 8.1.5 are applicable for describing the attacks detected and mitigated at the DOTS server domain.
The "ietf-dots-telemetry" YANG module (Section 11.1) augments the 'mitigation-scope' message type defined in the "ietf-dots-signal-channel" module [RFC 9132] with telemetry data as depicted in Figure 46.
  augment-structure /dots-signal:dots-signal/dots-signal:message-type
                    /dots-signal:mitigation-scope/dots-signal:scope:
    +-- (direction)?
    |  +--:(server-to-client-only)
    |     +-- total-traffic* [unit]
    |     |  +-- unit                 unit
    |     |  +-- low-percentile-g?    yang:gauge64
    |     |  +-- mid-percentile-g?    yang:gauge64
    |     |  +-- high-percentile-g?   yang:gauge64
    |     |  +-- peak-g?              yang:gauge64
    |     |  +-- current-g?           yang:gauge64
    |     +-- total-attack-connection
    |        +-- connection-c
    |        |  +-- low-percentile-g?    yang:gauge64
    |        |  +-- mid-percentile-g?    yang:gauge64
    |        |  +-- high-percentile-g?   yang:gauge64
    |        |  +-- peak-g?              yang:gauge64
    |        |  +-- current-g?           yang:gauge64
    |        +-- embryonic-c
    |        |  ...
    |        +-- connection-ps-c
    |        |  ...
    |        +-- request-ps-c
    |        |  ...
    |        +-- partial-request-c
    |           ...
    +-- total-attack-traffic* [unit]
    |  +-- unit                 unit
    |  +-- low-percentile-g?    yang:gauge64
    |  +-- mid-percentile-g?    yang:gauge64
    |  +-- high-percentile-g?   yang:gauge64
    |  +-- peak-g?              yang:gauge64
    |  +-- current-g?           yang:gauge64
    +-- attack-detail* [vendor-id attack-id]
       +-- vendor-id             uint32
       +-- attack-id             uint32
       +-- attack-description?   string
       +-- attack-severity?      attack-severity
       +-- start-time?           uint64
       +-- end-time?             uint64
       +-- source-count
       |  +-- low-percentile-g?    yang:gauge64
       |  +-- mid-percentile-g?    yang:gauge64
       |  +-- high-percentile-g?   yang:gauge64
       |  +-- peak-g?              yang:gauge64
       |  +-- current-g?           yang:gauge64
       +-- top-talker
          +-- talker* [source-prefix]
             +-- spoofed-status?            boolean
             +-- source-prefix              inet:ip-prefix
             +-- source-port-range* [lower-port]
             |  +-- lower-port    inet:port-number
             |  +-- upper-port?   inet:port-number
             +-- source-icmp-type-range* [lower-type]
             |  +-- lower-type    uint8
             |  +-- upper-type?   uint8
             +-- total-attack-traffic* [unit]
             |  +-- unit                 unit
             |  +-- low-percentile-g?    yang:gauge64
             |  +-- mid-percentile-g?    yang:gauge64
             |  +-- high-percentile-g?   yang:gauge64
             |  +-- peak-g?              yang:gauge64
             |  +-- current-g?           yang:gauge64
             +-- total-attack-connection
                +-- connection-c
                |  +-- low-percentile-g?    yang:gauge64
                |  +-- mid-percentile-g?    yang:gauge64
                |  +-- high-percentile-g?   yang:gauge64
                |  +-- peak-g?              yang:gauge64
                |  +-- current-g?           yang:gauge64
                +-- embryonic-c
                |  ...
                +-- connection-ps-c
                |  ...
                +-- request-ps-c
                |  ...
                +-- partial-request-c
                   ...
Figure 47 shows an example of an asynchronous notification of attack mitigation status from the DOTS server. This notification signals both the mid-percentile value of processed attack traffic and the peak count of unique sources involved in the attack.
{
  "ietf-dots-signal-channel:mitigation-scope": {
    "scope": [
      {
        "mid": 12332,
        "mitigation-start": "1507818434",
        "alias-name": [
          "https1",
          "https2"
        ],
        "lifetime": 1600,
        "status": "attack-successfully-mitigated",
        "bytes-dropped": "134334555",
        "bps-dropped": "43344",
        "pkts-dropped": "333334444",
        "pps-dropped": "432432",
        "ietf-dots-telemetry:total-attack-traffic": [
          {
            "unit": "megabit-ps",
            "mid-percentile-g": "752"
          }
        ],
        "ietf-dots-telemetry:attack-detail": [
          {
            "vendor-id": 32473,
            "attack-id": 77,
            "source-count": {
              "peak-g": "12683"
            }
          }
        ]
      }
    ]
  }
}
DOTS clients can filter out the asynchronous notifications from the DOTS server by indicating one or more Uri-Query options in its GET request. A Uri-Query option can include the following parameters: 'target-prefix', 'target-port', 'target-protocol', 'target-fqdn', 'target-uri', 'alias-name', and 'c' (content) (Section 5.4). The considerations discussed in Section 8.3 MUST be followed to include multiple query values, ranges ('target-port', 'target-protocol'), and wildcard names ('target-fqdn', 'target-uri').
An example of a request to subscribe to asynchronous notifications bound to the "https1" alias is shown in Figure 48.
Header: GET (Code=0.01)
Uri-Path: ".well-known"
Uri-Path: "dots"
Uri-Path: "mitigate"
Uri-Path: "cuid=dz6pHjaADkaFTbjr0JGBpw"
Uri-Path: "mid=12332"
Uri-Query: "target-alias=https1"
Observe: 0
If the target query does not match the target of the enclosed 'mid' as maintained by the DOTS server, the latter MUST respond with a 4.04 (Not Found) error Response Code. The DOTS server MUST NOT add a new Observe entry if this query overlaps with an existing Observe entry. In such a case, the DOTS server replies with a 4.09 (Conflict) Response Code.
Top   ToC   RFCv3-9244

10.  Error Handling

A list of common CoAP errors that are implemented by DOTS servers is provided in Section 9 of RFC 9132. The following additional error cases apply for the telemetry extension:
  • 4.00 (Bad Request) is returned by the DOTS server when the DOTS client has sent a request that violates the DOTS telemetry extension.
  • 4.04 (Not Found) is returned by the DOTS server when the DOTS client is requesting a 'tsid' or 'tmid' that is not valid.
  • 4.00 (Bad Request) is returned by the DOTS server when the DOTS client has sent a request with invalid query types (e.g., not supported, malformed).
  • 4.04 (Not Found) is returned by the DOTS server when the DOTS client has sent a request with a target query that does not match the target of the enclosed 'mid' as maintained by the DOTS server.
As indicated in Section 9 of RFC 9132, an additional plaintext diagnostic payload (Section 5.5.2 of RFC 7252) to help with troubleshooting is returned in the body of the response.
Top   ToC   RFCv3-9244

11.  YANG Modules

11.1.  DOTS Signal Channel Telemetry YANG Module

This module uses types defined in [RFC 6991] and [RFC 8345]. It also reuses a grouping from [RFC 8783].
module ietf-dots-telemetry {
  yang-version 1.1;
  namespace "urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-dots-telemetry";
  prefix dots-telemetry;

  import ietf-dots-signal-channel {
    prefix dots-signal;
    reference
      "RFC 9132: Distributed Denial-of-Service Open Threat
                 Signaling (DOTS) Signal Channel Specification";
  }
  import ietf-dots-data-channel {
    prefix data-channel;
    reference
      "RFC 8783: Distributed Denial-of-Service Open Threat
                 Signaling (DOTS) Data Channel Specification";
  }
  import ietf-yang-types {
    prefix yang;
    reference
      "RFC 6991: Common YANG Data Types, Section 3";
  }
  import ietf-inet-types {
    prefix inet;
    reference
      "RFC 6991: Common YANG Data Types, Section 4";
  }
  import ietf-network-topology {
    prefix nt;
    reference
      "RFC 8345: A YANG Data Model for Network Topologies,
                 Section 6.2";
  }
  import ietf-yang-structure-ext {
    prefix sx;
    reference
      "RFC 8791: YANG Data Structure Extensions";
  }

  organization
    "IETF DDoS Open Threat Signaling (DOTS) Working Group";
  contact
    "WG Web:   <https://datatracker.ietf.org/wg/dots/>
     WG List:  <mailto:dots@ietf.org>

     Author:   Mohamed Boucadair
               <mailto:mohamed.boucadair@orange.com>

     Author:   Konda, Tirumaleswar Reddy.K
               <mailto:kondtir@gmail.com>";
  description
    "This module contains YANG definitions for the signaling
     of DOTS telemetry data exchanged between a DOTS client and
     a DOTS server by means of the DOTS signal channel.

     Copyright (c) 2022 IETF Trust and the persons identified as
     authors of the code.  All rights reserved.

     Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or
     without modification, is permitted pursuant to, and subject to
     the license terms contained in, the Revised BSD License set
     forth in Section 4.c of the IETF Trust's Legal Provisions
     Relating to IETF Documents
     (https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info).

     This version of this YANG module is part of RFC 9244; see the
     RFC itself for full legal notices.";

  revision 2022-06-20 {
    description
      "Initial revision.";
    reference
      "RFC 9244: Distributed Denial-of-Service Open Threat
                 Signaling (DOTS) Telemetry";
  }

  typedef attack-severity {
    type enumeration {
      enum none {
        value 1;
        description
          "No effect on the DOTS client domain.";
      }
      enum low {
        value 2;
        description
          "Minimal effect on the DOTS client domain.";
      }
      enum medium {
        value 3;
        description
          "A subset of DOTS client domain resources is
           out of service.";
      }
      enum high {
        value 4;
        description
          "The DOTS client domain is under extremely severe
           conditions.";
      }
      enum unknown {
        value 5;
        description
          "The impact of the attack is not known.";
      }
    }
    description
      "Enumeration for attack severity.";
    reference
      "RFC 7970: The Incident Object Description Exchange
                 Format Version 2, Section 3.12.2";
  }

  typedef unit-class {
    type enumeration {
      enum packet-ps {
        value 1;
        description
          "Packets per second (pps).";
      }
      enum bit-ps {
        value 2;
        description
          "Bits per second (bps).";
      }
      enum byte-ps {
        value 3;
        description
          "Bytes per second (Bps).";
      }
    }
    description
      "Enumeration to indicate which unit class is used.
       These classes are supported: pps, bps, and Bps.";
  }

  typedef unit {
    type enumeration {
      enum packet-ps {
        value 1;
        description
          "Packets per second (pps).";
      }
      enum bit-ps {
        value 2;
        description
          "Bits per second (bps).";
      }
      enum byte-ps {
        value 3;
        description
          "Bytes per second (Bps).";
      }
      enum kilopacket-ps {
        value 4;
        description
          "Kilo packets per second (kpps).";
      }
      enum kilobit-ps {
        value 5;
        description
          "Kilobits per second (kbps).";
      }
      enum kilobyte-ps {
        value 6;
        description
          "Kilobytes per second (kBps).";
      }
      enum megapacket-ps {
        value 7;
        description
          "Mega packets per second (Mpps).";
      }
      enum megabit-ps {
        value 8;
        description
          "Megabits per second (Mbps).";
      }
      enum megabyte-ps {
        value 9;
        description
          "Megabytes per second (MBps).";
      }
      enum gigapacket-ps {
        value 10;
        description
          "Giga packets per second (Gpps).";
      }
      enum gigabit-ps {
        value 11;
        description
          "Gigabits per second (Gbps).";
      }
      enum gigabyte-ps {
        value 12;
        description
          "Gigabytes per second (GBps).";
      }
      enum terapacket-ps {
        value 13;
        description
          "Tera packets per second (Tpps).";
      }
      enum terabit-ps {
        value 14;
        description
          "Terabits per second (Tbps).";
      }
      enum terabyte-ps {
        value 15;
        description
          "Terabytes per second (TBps).";
      }
      enum petapacket-ps {
        value 16;
        description
          "Peta packets per second (Ppps).";
      }
      enum petabit-ps {
        value 17;
        description
          "Petabits per second (Pbps).";
      }
      enum petabyte-ps {
        value 18;
        description
          "Petabytes per second (PBps).";
      }
      enum exapacket-ps {
        value 19;
        description
          "Exa packets per second (Epps).";
      }
      enum exabit-ps {
        value 20;
        description
          "Exabits per second (Ebps).";
      }
      enum exabyte-ps {
        value 21;
        description
          "Exabytes per second (EBps).";
      }
      enum zettapacket-ps {
        value 22;
        description
          "Zetta packets per second (Zpps).";
      }
      enum zettabit-ps {
        value 23;
        description
          "Zettabits per second (Zbps).";
      }
      enum zettabyte-ps {
        value 24;
        description
          "Zettabytes per second (ZBps).";
      }
    }
    description
      "Enumeration to indicate which unit is used.
       Only one unit per unit class is used owing to
       unit auto-scaling.";
  }

  typedef interval {
    type enumeration {
      enum 5-minutes {
        value 1;
        description
          "5 minutes.";
      }
      enum 10-minutes {
        value 2;
        description
          "10 minutes.";
      }
      enum 30-minutes {
        value 3;
        description
          "30 minutes.";
      }
      enum hour {
        value 4;
        description
          "Hour.";
      }
      enum day {
        value 5;
        description
          "Day.";
      }
      enum week {
        value 6;
        description
          "Week.";
      }
      enum month {
        value 7;
        description
          "Month.";
      }
    }
    description
      "Enumeration to indicate the overall measurement period.";
  }

  typedef sample {
    type enumeration {
      enum second {
        value 1;
        description
          "One-second measurement period.";
      }
      enum 5-seconds {
        value 2;
        description
          "5-second measurement period.";
      }
      enum 30-seconds {
        value 3;
        description
          "30-second measurement period.";
      }
      enum minute {
        value 4;
        description
          "One-minute measurement period.";
      }
      enum 5-minutes {
        value 5;
        description
          "5-minute measurement period.";
      }
      enum 10-minutes {
        value 6;
        description
          "10-minute measurement period.";
      }
      enum 30-minutes {
        value 7;
        description
          "30-minute measurement period.";
      }
      enum hour {
        value 8;
        description
          "One-hour measurement period.";
      }
    }
    description
      "Enumeration to indicate the sampling period.";
  }

  typedef percentile {
    type decimal64 {
      fraction-digits 2;
    }
    description
      "The nth percentile of a set of data is the
       value at which n percent of the data is below it.";
  }

  typedef query-type {
    type enumeration {
      enum target-prefix {
        value 1;
        description
          "Query based on target prefix.";
      }
      enum target-port {
        value 2;
        description
          "Query based on target port number.";
      }
      enum target-protocol {
        value 3;
        description
          "Query based on target protocol.";
      }
      enum target-fqdn {
        value 4;
        description
          "Query based on target FQDN.";
      }
      enum target-uri {
        value 5;
        description
          "Query based on target URI.";
      }
      enum target-alias {
        value 6;
        description
          "Query based on target alias.";
      }
      enum mid {
        value 7;
        description
          "Query based on mitigation identifier (mid).";
      }
      enum source-prefix {
        value 8;
        description
          "Query based on source prefix.";
      }
      enum source-port {
        value 9;
        description
          "Query based on source port number.";
      }
      enum source-icmp-type {
        value 10;
        description
          "Query based on ICMP type.";
      }
      enum content {
        value 11;
        description
          "Query based on the 'c' (content) Uri-Query option,
           which is used to control the selection of configuration
           and non-configuration data nodes.";
        reference
          "RFC 9132: Distributed Denial-of-Service Open Threat
                     Signaling (DOTS) Signal Channel
                     Specification, Section 4.4.2";
      }
    }
    description
      "Enumeration of support for query types that can be used
       in a GET request to filter out data.  Requests with
       invalid query types (e.g., not supported, malformed)
       received by the DOTS server are rejected with
       a 4.00 (Bad Request) Response Code.";
  }

  grouping telemetry-parameters {
    description
      "A grouping that includes a set of parameters that
       are used to prepare the reported telemetry data.

       The grouping indicates a measurement interval,
       a measurement sample period, and
       low-percentile/mid-percentile/high-percentile values.";
    leaf measurement-interval {
      type interval;
      description
        "Defines the period during which percentiles are
         computed.";
    }
    leaf measurement-sample {
      type sample;
      description
        "Defines the time distribution for measuring
         values that are used to compute percentiles.

         The measurement sample value must be less than the
         measurement interval value.";
    }
    leaf low-percentile {
      type percentile;
      default "10.00";
      description
        "Low-percentile.  If set to '0', this means that
         the use of low-percentile values is disabled.";
    }
    leaf mid-percentile {
      type percentile;
      must '. >= ../low-percentile' {
        error-message
          "The mid-percentile must be greater than
           or equal to the low-percentile.";
      }
      default "50.00";
      description
        "Mid-percentile.  If set to the same value as
         'low-percentile', this means that the use of
         mid-percentile values is disabled.";
    }
    leaf high-percentile {
      type percentile;
      must '. >= ../mid-percentile' {
        error-message
          "The high-percentile must be greater than
           or equal to the mid-percentile.";
      }
      default "90.00";
      description
        "High-percentile.  If set to the same value as
         'mid-percentile', this means that the use of
         high-percentile values is disabled.";
    }
  }

  grouping percentile-and-peak {
    description
      "Generic grouping for percentile and peak values.";
    leaf low-percentile-g {
      type yang:gauge64;
      description
        "Low-percentile value.";
    }
    leaf mid-percentile-g {
      type yang:gauge64;
      description
        "Mid-percentile value.";
    }
    leaf high-percentile-g {
      type yang:gauge64;
      description
        "High-percentile value.";
    }
    leaf peak-g {
      type yang:gauge64;
      description
        "Peak value.";
    }
  }

  grouping percentile-peak-and-current {
    description
      "Generic grouping for percentile and peak values.";
    uses percentile-and-peak;
    leaf current-g {
      type yang:gauge64;
      description
        "Current value.";
    }
  }

  grouping unit-config {
    description
      "Generic grouping for unit configuration.";
    list unit-config {
      key "unit";
      description
        "Controls which unit classes are allowed when sharing
         telemetry data.";
      leaf unit {
        type unit-class;
        description
          "Can be 'packet-ps', 'bit-ps', or 'byte-ps'.";
      }
      leaf unit-status {
        type boolean;
        mandatory true;
        description
          "Enable/disable the use of the measurement unit class.";
      }
    }
  }

  grouping traffic-unit {
    description
      "Grouping of traffic as a function of the
       measurement unit.";
    leaf unit {
      type unit;
      description
        "The traffic can be measured using unit classes:
         'packet-ps', 'bit-ps', or 'byte-ps'.  DOTS agents
         auto-scale to the appropriate units (e.g., 'megabit-ps',
         'kilobit-ps').";
    }
    uses percentile-and-peak;
  }

  grouping traffic-unit-all {
    description
      "Grouping of traffic as a function of the measurement unit,
       including current values.";
    uses traffic-unit;
    leaf current-g {
      type yang:gauge64;
      description
        "Current observed value.";
    }
  }

  grouping traffic-unit-protocol {
    description
      "Grouping of traffic of a given transport protocol as
       a function of the measurement unit.";
    leaf protocol {
      type uint8;
      description
        "The transport protocol.
         Values are taken from the IANA 'Protocol Numbers'
         registry:
         <https://www.iana.org/assignments/protocol-numbers/>.

         For example, this parameter contains 6 for TCP,
         17 for UDP, 33 for the Datagram Congestion Control
         Protocol (DCCP), or 132 for the Stream Control
         Transmission Protocol (SCTP).";
    }
    uses traffic-unit;
  }

  grouping traffic-unit-protocol-all {
    description
      "Grouping of traffic of a given transport protocol as
       a function of the measurement unit, including current
       values.";
    uses traffic-unit-protocol;
    leaf current-g {
      type yang:gauge64;
      description
        "Current observed value.";
    }
  }

  grouping traffic-unit-port {
    description
      "Grouping of traffic bound to a port number as
       a function of the measurement unit.";
    leaf port {
      type inet:port-number;
      description
        "Port number used by a transport protocol.";
    }
    uses traffic-unit;
  }

  grouping traffic-unit-port-all {
    description
      "Grouping of traffic bound to a port number as
       a function of the measurement unit, including
       current values.";
    uses traffic-unit-port;
    leaf current-g {
      type yang:gauge64;
      description
        "Current observed value.";
    }
  }

  grouping total-connection-capacity {
    description
      "Total connection capacities for various types of
       connections, as well as overall capacity.  These data nodes
       are useful for detecting resource-consuming DDoS attacks.";
    leaf connection {
      type uint64;
      description
        "The maximum number of simultaneous connections that
         are allowed to the target server.";
    }
    leaf connection-client {
      type uint64;
      description
        "The maximum number of simultaneous connections that
         are allowed to the target server per client.";
    }
    leaf embryonic {
      type uint64;
      description
        "The maximum number of simultaneous embryonic connections
         that are allowed to the target server.  The term
         'embryonic connection' refers to a connection whose
         connection handshake is not finished.  Embryonic
         connections are only possible in connection-oriented
         transport protocols like TCP or SCTP.";
    }
    leaf embryonic-client {
      type uint64;
      description
        "The maximum number of simultaneous embryonic connections
         that are allowed to the target server per client.";
    }
    leaf connection-ps {
      type uint64;
      description
        "The maximum number of new connections allowed per second
         to the target server.";
    }
    leaf connection-client-ps {
      type uint64;
      description
        "The maximum number of new connections allowed per second
         to the target server per client.";
    }
    leaf request-ps {
      type uint64;
      description
        "The maximum number of requests allowed per second
         to the target server.";
    }
    leaf request-client-ps {
      type uint64;
      description
        "The maximum number of requests allowed per second
         to the target server per client.";
    }
    leaf partial-request-max {
      type uint64;
      description
        "The maximum number of outstanding partial requests
         that are allowed to the target server.";
    }
    leaf partial-request-client-max {
      type uint64;
      description
        "The maximum number of outstanding partial requests
         that are allowed to the target server per client.";
    }
  }

  grouping total-connection-capacity-protocol {
    description
      "Total connection capacity per protocol.  These data nodes
       are useful for detecting resource-consuming DDoS attacks.";
    leaf protocol {
      type uint8;
      description
        "The transport protocol.
         Values are taken from the IANA 'Protocol Numbers'
         registry:
         <https://www.iana.org/assignments/protocol-numbers/>.";
    }
    uses total-connection-capacity;
  }

  grouping connection-percentile-and-peak {
    description
      "A set of data nodes that represent the attack
       characteristics.";
    container connection-c {
      uses percentile-and-peak;
      description
        "The number of simultaneous attack connections to
         the target server.";
    }
    container embryonic-c {
      uses percentile-and-peak;
      description
        "The number of simultaneous embryonic connections to
         the target server.";
    }
    container connection-ps-c {
      uses percentile-and-peak;
      description
        "The number of attack connections per second to
         the target server.";
    }
    container request-ps-c {
      uses percentile-and-peak;
      description
        "The number of attack requests per second to
         the target server.";
    }
    container partial-request-c {
      uses percentile-and-peak;
      description
        "The number of attack partial requests to
         the target server.";
    }
  }

  grouping connection-all {
    description
      "Total attack connections, including current values.";
    container connection-c {
      uses percentile-peak-and-current;
      description
        "The number of simultaneous attack connections to
         the target server.";
    }
    container embryonic-c {
      uses percentile-peak-and-current;
      description
        "The number of simultaneous embryonic connections to
         the target server.";
    }
    container connection-ps-c {
      uses percentile-peak-and-current;
      description
        "The number of attack connections per second to
         the target server.";
    }
    container request-ps-c {
      uses percentile-peak-and-current;
      description
        "The number of attack requests per second to
         the target server.";
    }
    container partial-request-c {
      uses percentile-peak-and-current;
      description
        "The number of attack partial requests to
         the target server.";
    }
  }

  grouping connection-protocol {
    description
      "Total attack connections.";
    leaf protocol {
      type uint8;
      description
        "The transport protocol.
         Values are taken from the IANA 'Protocol Numbers'
         registry:
         <https://www.iana.org/assignments/protocol-numbers/>.";
    }
    uses connection-percentile-and-peak;
  }

  grouping connection-port {
    description
      "Total attack connections per port number.";
    leaf protocol {
      type uint8;
      description
        "The transport protocol.
         Values are taken from the IANA 'Protocol Numbers'
         registry:
         <https://www.iana.org/assignments/protocol-numbers/>.";
    }
    leaf port {
      type inet:port-number;
      description
        "Port number.";
    }
    uses connection-percentile-and-peak;
  }

  grouping connection-protocol-all {
    description
      "Total attack connections per protocol, including current
       values.";
    leaf protocol {
      type uint8;
      description
        "The transport protocol.
         Values are taken from the IANA 'Protocol Numbers'
         registry:
         <https://www.iana.org/assignments/protocol-numbers/>.";
    }
    uses connection-all;
  }

  grouping connection-protocol-port-all {
    description
      "Total attack connections per port number, including current
       values.";
    leaf protocol {
      type uint8;
      description
        "The transport protocol.
         Values are taken from the IANA 'Protocol Numbers'
         registry:
         <https://www.iana.org/assignments/protocol-numbers/>.";
    }
    leaf port {
      type inet:port-number;
      description
        "Port number.";
    }
    uses connection-all;
  }

  grouping attack-detail {
    description
      "Various details that describe the ongoing
       attacks that need to be mitigated by the DOTS server.
       The attack details need to cover well-known and common
       attacks (such as a SYN flood) along with new emerging or
       vendor-specific attacks.";
    leaf vendor-id {
      type uint32;
      description
        "The Vendor ID is a security vendor's Private Enterprise
         Number as registered with IANA.";
      reference
        "IANA: Private Enterprise Numbers
         (https://www.iana.org/assignments/enterprise-numbers/)";
    }
    leaf attack-id {
      type uint32;
      description
        "Unique identifier assigned by the vendor for the attack.";
    }
    leaf description-lang {
      type string {
        pattern '((([A-Za-z]{2,3}(-[A-Za-z]{3}(-[A-Za-z]{3})'
              + '{0,2})?)|[A-Za-z]{4}|[A-Za-z]{5,8})(-[A-Za-z]{4})'
              + '?(-([A-Za-z]{2}|[0-9]{3}))?(-([A-Za-z0-9]{5,8}'
              + '|([0-9][A-Za-z0-9]{3})))*(-[0-9A-WYZa-wyz]'
              + '(-([A-Za-z0-9]{2,8}))+)*(-[Xx](-([A-Za-z0-9]'
              + '{1,8}))+)?|[Xx](-([A-Za-z0-9]{1,8}))+|'
              + '(([Ee][Nn]-[Gg][Bb]-[Oo][Ee][Dd]|[Ii]-'
              + '[Aa][Mm][Ii]|[Ii]-[Bb][Nn][Nn]|[Ii]-'
              + '[Dd][Ee][Ff][Aa][Uu][Ll][Tt]|[Ii]-'
              + '[Ee][Nn][Oo][Cc][Hh][Ii][Aa][Nn]'
              + '|[Ii]-[Hh][Aa][Kk]|'
              + '[Ii]-[Kk][Ll][Ii][Nn][Gg][Oo][Nn]|'
              + '[Ii]-[Ll][Uu][Xx]|[Ii]-[Mm][Ii][Nn][Gg][Oo]|'
              + '[Ii]-[Nn][Aa][Vv][Aa][Jj][Oo]|[Ii]-[Pp][Ww][Nn]|'
              + '[Ii]-[Tt][Aa][Oo]|[Ii]-[Tt][Aa][Yy]|'
              + '[Ii]-[Tt][Ss][Uu]|[Ss][Gg][Nn]-[Bb][Ee]-[Ff][Rr]|'
              + '[Ss][Gg][Nn]-[Bb][Ee]-[Nn][Ll]|[Ss][Gg][Nn]-'
              + '[Cc][Hh]-[Dd][Ee])|([Aa][Rr][Tt]-'
              + '[Ll][Oo][Jj][Bb][Aa][Nn]|[Cc][Ee][Ll]-'
              + '[Gg][Aa][Uu][Ll][Ii][Ss][Hh]|'
              + '[Nn][Oo]-[Bb][Oo][Kk]|[Nn][Oo]-'
              + '[Nn][Yy][Nn]|[Zz][Hh]-[Gg][Uu][Oo][Yy][Uu]|'
              + '[Zz][Hh]-[Hh][Aa][Kk][Kk][Aa]|[Zz][Hh]-'
              + '[Mm][Ii][Nn]|[Zz][Hh]-[Mm][Ii][Nn]-'
              + '[Nn][Aa][Nn]|[Zz][Hh]-[Xx][Ii][Aa][Nn][Gg])))';
      }
      default "en-US";
      description
        "Indicates the language tag that is used for
         'attack-description'.";
      reference
        "RFC 5646: Tags for Identifying Languages, Section 2.1";
    }
    leaf attack-description {
      type string;
      description
        "Textual representation of the attack description.
         Natural Language Processing techniques (e.g.,
         word embedding) might provide some utility in mapping
         the attack description to an attack type.";
    }
    leaf attack-severity {
      type attack-severity;
      description
        "Severity level of an attack.  How this level is
         determined is implementation specific.";
    }
    leaf start-time {
      type uint64;
      description
        "The time the attack started.  The start time is
         represented in seconds relative to
         1970-01-01T00:00:00Z.";
    }
    leaf end-time {
      type uint64;
      description
        "The time the attack ended.  The end time is represented
         in seconds relative to 1970-01-01T00:00:00Z.";
    }
    container source-count {
      description
        "Indicates the count of unique sources involved
         in the attack.";
      uses percentile-and-peak;
      leaf current-g {
        type yang:gauge64;
        description
          "Current observed value.";
      }
    }
  }

  grouping talker {
    description
      "Defines generic data related to top talkers.";
    leaf spoofed-status {
      type boolean;
      description
        "When set to 'true', it indicates whether this address
         is spoofed.";
    }
    leaf source-prefix {
      type inet:ip-prefix;
      description
        "IPv4 or IPv6 prefix identifying the attacker(s).";
    }
    list source-port-range {
      key "lower-port";
      description
        "Port range.  When only 'lower-port' is
         present, it represents a single port number.";
      leaf lower-port {
        type inet:port-number;
        description
          "Lower port number of the port range.";
      }
      leaf upper-port {
        type inet:port-number;
        must '. >= ../lower-port' {
          error-message
            "The upper port number must be greater than
             or equal to the lower port number.";
        }
        description
          "Upper port number of the port range.";
      }
    }
    list source-icmp-type-range {
      key "lower-type";
      description
        "ICMP type range.  When only 'lower-type' is
         present, it represents a single ICMP type.";
      leaf lower-type {
        type uint8;
        description
          "Lower ICMP type of the ICMP type range.";
      }
      leaf upper-type {
        type uint8;
        must '. >= ../lower-type' {
          error-message
            "The upper ICMP type must be greater than
             or equal to the lower ICMP type.";
        }
        description
          "Upper type of the ICMP type range.";
      }
    }
    list total-attack-traffic {
      key "unit";
      description
        "Total attack traffic issued from this source.";
      uses traffic-unit-all;
    }
  }

  grouping top-talker-aggregate {
    description
      "An aggregate of top attack sources.  This aggregate is
       typically used when included in a mitigation request.";
    list talker {
      key "source-prefix";
      description
        "Refers to a top talker that is identified by an IPv4
         or IPv6 prefix identifying the attacker(s).";
      uses talker;
      container total-attack-connection {
        description
          "Total attack connections issued from this source.";
        uses connection-all;
      }
    }
  }

  grouping top-talker {
    description
      "Top attack sources with detailed per-protocol
       structure.";
    list talker {
      key "source-prefix";
      description
        "Refers to a top talker that is identified by an IPv4
         or IPv6 prefix identifying the attacker(s).";
      uses talker;
      list total-attack-connection-protocol {
        key "protocol";
        description
          "Total attack connections issued from this source.";
        uses connection-protocol-all;
      }
    }
  }

  grouping baseline {
    description
      "Grouping for the telemetry baseline.";
    uses data-channel:target;
    leaf-list alias-name {
      type string;
      description
        "An alias name that points to an IP resource.
         An IP resource can be a router, a host,
         an Internet of Things (IoT) object, a server, etc.";
    }
    list total-traffic-normal {
      key "unit";
      description
        "Total traffic normal baselines.";
      uses traffic-unit;
    }
    list total-traffic-normal-per-protocol {
      key "unit protocol";
      description
        "Total traffic normal baselines per protocol.";
      uses traffic-unit-protocol;
    }
    list total-traffic-normal-per-port {
      key "unit port";
      description
        "Total traffic normal baselines per port number.";
      uses traffic-unit-port;
    }
    list total-connection-capacity {
      key "protocol";
      description
        "Total connection capacity.";
      uses total-connection-capacity-protocol;
    }
    list total-connection-capacity-per-port {
      key "protocol port";
      description
        "Total connection capacity per port number.";
      leaf port {
        type inet:port-number;
        description
          "The target port number.";
      }
      uses total-connection-capacity-protocol;
    }
  }

  grouping pre-or-ongoing-mitigation {
    description
      "Grouping for the telemetry data.";
    list total-traffic {
      key "unit";
      description
        "Total traffic.";
      uses traffic-unit-all;
    }
    list total-traffic-protocol {
      key "unit protocol";
      description
        "Total traffic per protocol.";
      uses traffic-unit-protocol-all;
    }
    list total-traffic-port {
      key "unit port";
      description
        "Total traffic per port number.";
      uses traffic-unit-port-all;
    }
    list total-attack-traffic {
      key "unit";
      description
        "Total attack traffic.";
      uses traffic-unit-all;
    }
    list total-attack-traffic-protocol {
      key "unit protocol";
      description
        "Total attack traffic per protocol.";
      uses traffic-unit-protocol-all;
    }
    list total-attack-traffic-port {
      key "unit port";
      description
        "Total attack traffic per port number.";
      uses traffic-unit-port-all;
    }
    list total-attack-connection-protocol {
      key "protocol";
      description
        "Total attack connections.";
      uses connection-protocol-all;
    }
    list total-attack-connection-port {
      key "protocol port";
      description
        "Total attack connections per target port number.";
      uses connection-protocol-port-all;
    }
    list attack-detail {
      key "vendor-id attack-id";
      description
        "Provides a set of attack details.";
      uses attack-detail;
      container top-talker {
        description
          "Lists the top attack sources.";
        uses top-talker;
      }
    }
  }

  sx:augment-structure "/dots-signal:dots-signal"
                     + "/dots-signal:message-type"
                     + "/dots-signal:mitigation-scope"
                     + "/dots-signal:scope" {
    description
      "Extends mitigation scope with telemetry update data.";
    choice direction {
      description
        "Indicates the communication direction in which the
         data nodes can be included.";
      case server-to-client-only {
        description
          "These data nodes appear only in a mitigation message
           sent from the server to the client.";
        list total-traffic {
          key "unit";
          description
            "Total traffic.";
          uses traffic-unit-all;
        }
        container total-attack-connection {
          description
            "Total attack connections.";
          uses connection-all;
        }
      }
    }
    list total-attack-traffic {
      key "unit";
      description
        "Total attack traffic.";
      uses traffic-unit-all;
    }
    list attack-detail {
      key "vendor-id attack-id";
      description
        "Attack details.";
      uses attack-detail;
      container top-talker {
        description
          "Top attack sources.";
        uses top-talker-aggregate;
      }
    }
  }
  sx:structure dots-telemetry {
    description
      "Main structure for DOTS telemetry messages.";
    choice telemetry-message-type {
      description
        "Can be 'telemetry-setup' or telemetry data.";
      case telemetry-setup {
        description
          "Indicates that the message is about telemetry setup.";
        choice direction {
          description
            "Indicates the communication direction in which the
             data nodes can be included.";
          case server-to-client-only {
            description
              "These data nodes appear only in a telemetry message
               sent from the server to the client.";
            container max-config-values {
              description
                "Maximum acceptable configuration values.";
              uses telemetry-parameters;
              leaf server-originated-telemetry {
                type boolean;
                default "false";
                description
                  "Indicates whether the DOTS server can be
                   instructed to send pre-or-ongoing-mitigation
                   telemetry.  If set to 'false' or the data node
                   is not present, this is an indication that
                   the server does not support this capability.";
              }
              leaf telemetry-notify-interval {
                type uint16 {
                  range "1 .. 3600";
                }
                units "seconds";
                must '. >= ../../min-config-values'
                   + '/telemetry-notify-interval' {
                  error-message
                    "The value must be greater than or equal
                     to the 'telemetry-notify-interval' value in
                     the 'min-config-values' attribute";
                }
                description
                  "Minimum number of seconds between successive
                   telemetry notifications.";
              }
            }
            container min-config-values {
              description
                "Minimum acceptable configuration values.";
              uses telemetry-parameters;
              leaf telemetry-notify-interval {
                type uint16 {
                  range "1 .. 3600";
                }
                units "seconds";
                description
                  "Minimum number of seconds between successive
                   telemetry notifications.";
              }
            }
            container supported-unit-classes {
              description
                "Supported unit classes and default activation
                 status.";
              uses unit-config;
            }
            leaf-list supported-query-type {
              type query-type;
              description
                "Indicates which query types are supported by
                 the server.  If the server does not announce
                 the query types it supports, the client will
                 be unable to use any of the potential
                 'query-type' values to reduce the returned data
                 content from the server.";
            }
          }
        }
        list telemetry {
          description
            "The telemetry data per DOTS client.  The keys
             of the list are 'cuid' and 'tsid', but these keys are
             not represented here because these keys are conveyed
             as mandatory Uri-Paths in requests.  Omitting keys
             is compliant with RFC 8791.";
          reference
            "RFC 8791: YANG Data Structure Extensions";
          choice direction {
            description
              "Indicates the communication direction in which the
               data nodes can be included.";
            case server-to-client-only {
              description
                "These data nodes appear only in a telemetry
                 message sent from the server to the client.";
              leaf tsid {
                type uint32;
                description
                  "A client-assigned identifier for the DOTS
                   telemetry setup data.";
              }
            }
          }
          choice setup-type {
            description
              "Can be a mitigation configuration, a pipe capacity,
               or a baseline message.";
            case telemetry-config {
              description
                "Used to set telemetry parameters such as setting
                 low-, mid-, and high-percentile values.";
              container current-config {
                description
                  "Current telemetry configuration values.";
                uses telemetry-parameters;
                uses unit-config;
                leaf server-originated-telemetry {
                  type boolean;
                  description
                    "Used by a DOTS client to enable/disable
                     whether it requests pre-or-ongoing-mitigation
                     telemetry from the DOTS server.";
                }
                leaf telemetry-notify-interval {
                  type uint16 {
                    range "1 .. 3600";
                  }
                  units "seconds";
                  description
                    "Minimum number of seconds between successive
                     telemetry notifications.";
                }
              }
            }
            case pipe {
              description
                "Total pipe capacity of a DOTS client domain.";
              list total-pipe-capacity {
                key "link-id unit";
                description
                  "Total pipe capacity of a DOTS client domain.";
                leaf link-id {
                  type nt:link-id;
                  description
                    "Identifier of an interconnection link of
                     the DOTS client domain.";
                }
                leaf capacity {
                  type uint64;
                  mandatory true;
                  description
                    "Pipe capacity.  This attribute is mandatory
                     when 'total-pipe-capacity' is included in a
                     message.";
                }
                leaf unit {
                  type unit;
                  description
                    "The traffic can be measured using unit
                     classes: packets per second (pps), bits per
                     second (bps), and/or bytes per second
                     (Bps).

                     For a given unit class, the DOTS agents
                     auto-scale to the appropriate units (e.g.,
                     'megabit-ps', 'kilobit-ps').";
                }
              }
            }
            case baseline {
              description
                "Traffic baseline information related to a DOTS
                 client domain.";
              list baseline {
                key "id";
                description
                  "Traffic baseline information related to a DOTS
                   client domain.";
                leaf id {
                  type uint32;
                  must '. >= 1';
                  description
                    "An identifier that uniquely identifies a
                     baseline entry communicated by a
                     DOTS client.";
                }
                uses baseline;
              }
            }
          }
        }
      }
      case telemetry {
        description
          "Telemetry information.";
        list pre-or-ongoing-mitigation {
          description
            "Pre-or-ongoing-mitigation telemetry per DOTS client.
             The keys of the list are 'cuid' and 'tmid', but these
             keys are not represented here because these keys are
             conveyed as mandatory Uri-Paths in requests.
             Omitting keys is compliant with RFC 8791.";
          reference
            "RFC 8791: YANG Data Structure Extensions";
          choice direction {
            description
              "Indicates the communication direction in which the
               data nodes can be included.";
            case server-to-client-only {
              description
                "These data nodes appear only in a telemetry
                 message sent from the server to the client.";
              leaf tmid {
                type uint32;
                description
                  "A client-assigned identifier for the DOTS
                   telemetry data.";
              }
            }
          }
          container target {
            description
              "Indicates the target.  At least one of the
               attributes 'target-prefix', 'target-fqdn',
               'target-uri', 'alias-name', or 'mid-list'
               must be present in the target definition.";
            uses data-channel:target;
            leaf-list alias-name {
              type string;
              description
                "An alias name that points to a resource.";
            }
            leaf-list mid-list {
              type uint32;
              description
                "Reference to a list of associated mitigation
                 requests.";
              reference
                "RFC 9132: Distributed Denial-of-Service Open
                           Threat Signaling (DOTS) Signal Channel
                           Specification, Section 4.4.1";
            }
          }
          uses pre-or-ongoing-mitigation;
        }
      }
    }
  }
}

11.2.  Vendor Attack Mapping Details YANG Module

module ietf-dots-mapping {
  yang-version 1.1;
  namespace "urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-dots-mapping";
  prefix dots-mapping;

  import ietf-dots-data-channel {
    prefix data-channel;
    reference
      "RFC 8783: Distributed Denial-of-Service Open Threat
                 Signaling (DOTS) Data Channel Specification";
  }

  organization
    "IETF DDoS Open Threat Signaling (DOTS) Working Group";
  contact
    "WG Web:   <https://datatracker.ietf.org/wg/dots/>
     WG List:  <mailto:dots@ietf.org>

     Author:   Mohamed Boucadair
               <mailto:mohamed.boucadair@orange.com>

     Author:   Jon Shallow
               <mailto:supjps-ietf@jpshallow.com>";
  description
    "This module contains YANG definitions for the sharing
     of DDoS attack mapping details between a DOTS client and
     a DOTS server by means of the DOTS data channel.

     Copyright (c) 2022 IETF Trust and the persons identified as
     authors of the code.  All rights reserved.

     Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or
     without modification, is permitted pursuant to, and subject to
     the license terms contained in, the Revised BSD License set
     forth in Section 4.c of the IETF Trust's Legal Provisions
     Relating to IETF Documents
     (https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info).

     This version of this YANG module is part of RFC 9244; see the
     RFC itself for full legal notices.";

  revision 2022-06-20 {
    description
      "Initial revision.";
    reference
      "RFC 9244: Distributed Denial-of-Service Open Threat
                 Signaling (DOTS) Telemetry";
  }

  feature dots-telemetry {
    description
      "This feature indicates that DOTS telemetry data can be
       shared between DOTS clients and servers.";
  }

  grouping attack-mapping {
    description
      "A set of information used for sharing vendor attack mapping
       information with a peer.";
    list vendor {
      key "vendor-id";
      description
        "Vendor attack mapping information related to the
         client/server.";
      leaf vendor-id {
        type uint32;
        description
          "The Vendor ID is a security vendor's Private Enterprise
           Number as registered with IANA.";
        reference
          "IANA: Private Enterprise Numbers
           (https://www.iana.org/assignments/enterprise-numbers/)";
      }
      leaf vendor-name {
        type string;
        description
          "The name of the vendor (e.g., company A).";
      }
      leaf description-lang {
        type string {
          pattern '((([A-Za-z]{2,3}(-[A-Za-z]{3}(-[A-Za-z]{3})'
                + '{0,2})?)|[A-Za-z]{4}|[A-Za-z]{5,8})(-[A-Za-z]{4})'
                + '?(-([A-Za-z]{2}|[0-9]{3}))?(-([A-Za-z0-9]{5,8}'
                + '|([0-9][A-Za-z0-9]{3})))*(-[0-9A-WYZa-wyz]'
                + '(-([A-Za-z0-9]{2,8}))+)*(-[Xx](-([A-Za-z0-9]'
                + '{1,8}))+)?|[Xx](-([A-Za-z0-9]{1,8}))+|'
                + '(([Ee][Nn]-[Gg][Bb]-[Oo][Ee][Dd]|[Ii]-'
                + '[Aa][Mm][Ii]|[Ii]-[Bb][Nn][Nn]|[Ii]-'
                + '[Dd][Ee][Ff][Aa][Uu][Ll][Tt]|[Ii]-'
                + '[Ee][Nn][Oo][Cc][Hh][Ii][Aa][Nn]'
                + '|[Ii]-[Hh][Aa][Kk]|'
                + '[Ii]-[Kk][Ll][Ii][Nn][Gg][Oo][Nn]|'
                + '[Ii]-[Ll][Uu][Xx]|[Ii]-[Mm][Ii][Nn][Gg][Oo]|'
                + '[Ii]-[Nn][Aa][Vv][Aa][Jj][Oo]|[Ii]-[Pp][Ww][Nn]|'
                + '[Ii]-[Tt][Aa][Oo]|[Ii]-[Tt][Aa][Yy]|'
                + '[Ii]-[Tt][Ss][Uu]|[Ss][Gg][Nn]-[Bb][Ee]-[Ff][Rr]|'
                + '[Ss][Gg][Nn]-[Bb][Ee]-[Nn][Ll]|[Ss][Gg][Nn]-'
                + '[Cc][Hh]-[Dd][Ee])|([Aa][Rr][Tt]-'
                + '[Ll][Oo][Jj][Bb][Aa][Nn]|[Cc][Ee][Ll]-'
                + '[Gg][Aa][Uu][Ll][Ii][Ss][Hh]|'
                + '[Nn][Oo]-[Bb][Oo][Kk]|[Nn][Oo]-'
                + '[Nn][Yy][Nn]|[Zz][Hh]-[Gg][Uu][Oo][Yy][Uu]|'
                + '[Zz][Hh]-[Hh][Aa][Kk][Kk][Aa]|[Zz][Hh]-'
                + '[Mm][Ii][Nn]|[Zz][Hh]-[Mm][Ii][Nn]-'
                + '[Nn][Aa][Nn]|[Zz][Hh]-[Xx][Ii][Aa][Nn][Gg])))';
          }
        default "en-US";
        description
          "Indicates the language tag that is used for
           'attack-description'.";
        reference
          "RFC 5646: Tags for Identifying Languages, Section 2.1";
      }
      leaf last-updated {
        type uint64;
        mandatory true;
        description
          "The time the mapping table was updated.  It is
           represented in seconds relative to
           1970-01-01T00:00:00Z.";
      }
      list attack-mapping {
        key "attack-id";
        description
          "Attack mapping details.";
        leaf attack-id {
          type uint32;
          description
            "Unique identifier assigned by the vendor for the
             attack.";
        }
        leaf attack-description {
          type string;
          mandatory true;
          description
            "Textual representation of the attack description.
             Natural Language Processing techniques (e.g.,
             word embedding) might provide some utility in
             mapping the attack description to an attack type.";
        }
      }
    }
  }

  augment "/data-channel:dots-data/data-channel:dots-client" {
    if-feature "dots-telemetry";
    description
      "Augments the data channel with a vendor attack
       mapping table of the DOTS client.";
    container vendor-mapping {
      description
        "Used by DOTS clients to share their vendor
         attack mapping information with DOTS servers.";
      uses attack-mapping;
    }
  }

  augment "/data-channel:dots-data/data-channel:capabilities" {
    if-feature "dots-telemetry";
    description
      "Augments the DOTS server capabilities with a
       parameter to indicate whether they can share
       attack mapping details.";
    leaf vendor-mapping-enabled {
      type boolean;
      config false;
      description
        "Indicates that the DOTS server supports sharing
         attack vendor mapping details with DOTS clients.";
    }
  }

  augment "/data-channel:dots-data" {
    if-feature "dots-telemetry";
    description
      "Augments the data channel with a vendor attack
       mapping table of the DOTS server.";
    container vendor-mapping {
      config false;
      description
        "Includes the list of vendor attack mapping details
         that will be shared with DOTS clients upon request.";
      uses attack-mapping;
    }
  }
}
Top   ToC   RFCv3-9244

12.  YANG/JSON Mapping Parameters to CBOR

All DOTS telemetry parameters in the payload of the DOTS signal channel MUST be mapped to CBOR types as shown in Table 3:
Parameter Name YANG Type CBOR Key CBOR Major Type & Information JSON Type
tsid uint32 128 0 unsigned Number
telemetry list 129 4 array Array
low-percentile decimal64 130 6 tag 4 [-2, integer] String
mid-percentile decimal64 131 6 tag 4 [-2, integer] String
high-percentile decimal64 132 6 tag 4 [-2, integer] String
unit-config list 133 4 array Array
unit enumeration 134 0 unsigned String
unit-status boolean 135 7 bits 20 False
7 bits 21 True
total-pipe-capacity list 136 4 array Array
link-id string 137 3 text string String
pre-or-ongoing-mitigation list 138 4 array Array
total-traffic-normal list 139 4 array Array
low-percentile-g yang:gauge64 140 0 unsigned String
mid-percentile-g yang:gauge64 141 0 unsigned String
high-percentile-g yang:gauge64 142 0 unsigned String
peak-g yang:gauge64 143 0 unsigned String
total-attack-traffic list 144 4 array Array
total-traffic list 145 4 array Array
total-connection-capacity list 146 4 array Array
connection uint64 147 0 unsigned String
connection-client uint64 148 0 unsigned String
embryonic uint64 149 0 unsigned String
embryonic-client uint64 150 0 unsigned String
connection-ps uint64 151 0 unsigned String
connection-client-ps uint64 152 0 unsigned String
request-ps uint64 153 0 unsigned String
request-client-ps uint64 154 0 unsigned String
partial-request-max uint64 155 0 unsigned String
partial-request-client-max uint64 156 0 unsigned String
total-attack-connection container 157 5 map Object
connection-c container 158 5 map Object
embryonic-c container 159 5 map Object
connection-ps-c container 160 5 map Object
request-ps-c container 161 5 map Object
attack-detail list 162 4 array Array
id uint32 163 0 unsigned Number
attack-id uint32 164 0 unsigned Number
attack-description string 165 3 text string String
attack-severity enumeration 166 0 unsigned String
start-time uint64 167 0 unsigned String
end-time uint64 168 0 unsigned String
source-count container 169 5 map Object
top-talker container 170 5 map Object
spoofed-status boolean 171 7 bits 20 False
7 bits 21 True
partial-request-c container 172 5 map Object
total-attack-connection-protocol list 173 4 array Array
baseline list 174 4 array Array
current-config container 175 5 map Object
max-config-values container 176 5 map Object
min-config-values container 177 5 map Object
supported-unit-classes container 178 5 map Object
server-originated-telemetry boolean 179 7 bits 20 False
7 bits 21 True
telemetry-notify-interval uint16 180 0 unsigned Number
tmid uint32 181 0 unsigned Number
measurement-interval enumeration 182 0 unsigned String
measurement-sample enumeration 183 0 unsigned String
talker list 184 4 array Array
source-prefix inet:ip-prefix 185 3 text string String
mid-list leaf-list 186 4 array Array
uint32 0 unsigned Number
source-port-range list 187 4 array Array
source-icmp-type-range list 188 4 array Array
target container 189 5 map Object
capacity uint64 190 0 unsigned String
protocol uint8 191 0 unsigned Number
total-traffic-normal-per-protocol list 192 4 array Array
total-traffic-normal-per-port list 193 4 array Array
total-connection-capacity-per-port list 194 4 array Array
total-traffic-protocol list 195 4 array Array
total-traffic-port list 196 4 array Array
total-attack-traffic-protocol list 197 4 array Array
total-attack-traffic-port list 198 4 array Array
total-attack-connection-port list 199 4 array Array
port inet:port-number 200 0 unsigned Number
supported-query-type leaf-list 201 4 array Array
0 unsigned String
vendor-id uint32 202 0 unsigned Number
ietf-dots-telemetry:telemetry-setup container 203 5 map Object
ietf-dots-telemetry:total-traffic list 204 4 array Array
ietf-dots-telemetry:total-attack-traffic list 205 4 array Array
ietf-dots-telemetry:total-attack-connection container 206 5 map Object
ietf-dots-telemetry:attack-detail list 207 4 array Array
ietf-dots-telemetry:telemetry container 208 5 map Object
current-g yang:gauge64 209 0 unsigned String
description-lang string 210 3 text string String
lower-type uint8 32771 0 unsigned Number
upper-type uint8 32772 0 unsigned Number
Table 3: YANG/JSON Mapping Parameters to CBOR
Top   ToC   RFCv3-9244

13.  IANA Considerations

13.1.  DOTS Signal Channel CBOR Key Values

This specification registers the following comprehension-optional parameters in the IANA "DOTS Signal Channel CBOR Key Values" registry [Key-Map].
Parameter Name CBOR Key Value CBOR Major Type Change Controller Reference
tsid 128 0 IESG RFC 9244
telemetry 129 4 IESG RFC 9244
low-percentile 130 6tag4 IESG RFC 9244
mid-percentile 131 6tag4 IESG RFC 9244
high-percentile 132 6tag4 IESG RFC 9244
unit-config 133 4 IESG RFC 9244
unit 134 0 IESG RFC 9244
unit-status 135 7 IESG RFC 9244
total-pipe-capacity 136 4 IESG RFC 9244
link-id 137 3 IESG RFC 9244
pre-or-ongoing-mitigation 138 4 IESG RFC 9244
total-traffic-normal 139 4 IESG RFC 9244
low-percentile-g 140 0 IESG RFC 9244
mid-percentile-g 141 0 IESG RFC 9244
high-percentile-g 142 0 IESG RFC 9244
peak-g 143 0 IESG RFC 9244
total-attack-traffic 144 4 IESG RFC 9244
total-traffic 145 4 IESG RFC 9244
total-connection-capacity 146 4 IESG RFC 9244
connection 147 0 IESG RFC 9244
connection-client 148 0 IESG RFC 9244
embryonic 149 0 IESG RFC 9244
embryonic-client 150 0 IESG RFC 9244
connection-ps 151 0 IESG RFC 9244
connection-client-ps 152 0 IESG RFC 9244
request-ps 153 0 IESG RFC 9244
request-client-ps 154 0 IESG RFC 9244
partial-request-max 155 0 IESG RFC 9244
partial-request-client-max 156 0 IESG RFC 9244
total-attack-connection 157 5 IESG RFC 9244
connection-c 158 5 IESG RFC 9244
embryonic-c 159 5 IESG RFC 9244
connection-ps-c 160 5 IESG RFC 9244
request-ps-c 161 5 IESG RFC 9244
attack-detail 162 4 IESG RFC 9244
id 163 0 IESG RFC 9244
attack-id 164 0 IESG RFC 9244
attack-description 165 3 IESG RFC 9244
attack-severity 166 0 IESG RFC 9244
start-time 167 0 IESG RFC 9244
end-time 168 0 IESG RFC 9244
source-count 169 5 IESG RFC 9244
top-talker 170 5 IESG RFC 9244
spoofed-status 171 7 IESG RFC 9244
partial-request-c 172 5 IESG RFC 9244
total-attack-connection-protocol 173 4 IESG RFC 9244
baseline 174 4 IESG RFC 9244
current-config 175 5 IESG RFC 9244
max-config-values 176 5 IESG RFC 9244
min-config-values 177 5 IESG RFC 9244
supported-unit-classes 178 5 IESG RFC 9244
server-originated-telemetry 179 7 IESG RFC 9244
telemetry-notify-interval 180 0 IESG RFC 9244
tmid 181 0 IESG RFC 9244
measurement-interval 182 0 IESG RFC 9244
measurement-sample 183 0 IESG RFC 9244
talker 184 4 IESG RFC 9244
source-prefix 185 3 IESG RFC 9244
mid-list 186 4 IESG RFC 9244
source-port-range 187 4 IESG RFC 9244
source-icmp-type-range 188 4 IESG RFC 9244
target 189 5 IESG RFC 9244
capacity 190 0 IESG RFC 9244
protocol 191 0 IESG RFC 9244
total-traffic-normal-per-protocol 192 4 IESG RFC 9244
total-traffic-normal-per-port 193 4 IESG RFC 9244
total-connection-capacity-per-port 194 4 IESG RFC 9244
total-traffic-protocol 195 4 IESG RFC 9244
total-traffic-port 196 4 IESG RFC 9244
total-attack-traffic-protocol 197 4 IESG RFC 9244
total-attack-traffic-port 198 4 IESG RFC 9244
total-attack-connection-port 199 4 IESG RFC 9244
port 200 0 IESG RFC 9244
supported-query-type 201 4 IESG RFC 9244
vendor-id 202 0 IESG RFC 9244
ietf-dots-telemetry:telemetry-setup 203 5 IESG RFC 9244
ietf-dots-telemetry:total-traffic 204 4 IESG RFC 9244
ietf-dots-telemetry:total-attack-traffic 205 4 IESG RFC 9244
ietf-dots-telemetry:total-attack-connection 206 5 IESG RFC 9244
ietf-dots-telemetry:attack-detail 207 4 IESG RFC 9244
ietf-dots-telemetry:telemetry 208 5 IESG RFC 9244
current-g 209 0 IESG RFC 9244
description-lang 210 3 IESG RFC 9244
Table 4: Registered DOTS Signal Channel CBOR Key Values

13.2.  DOTS Signal Channel Conflict Cause Codes

Per this document, IANA has assigned a new code from the "DOTS Signal Channel Conflict Cause Codes" registry [Cause].
Code Label Description Reference
5 overlapping-pipes Overlapping pipe scope RFC 9244
Table 5: Registered DOTS Signal Channel Conflict Cause Code

13.3.  DOTS Telemetry URIs and YANG Module Registrations

Per this document, IANA has registered the following URIs in the "ns" subregistry within the "IETF XML Registry" [RFC 3688]:
URI:
urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-dots-telemetry
Registrant Contact:
The IESG.
XML:
N/A; the requested URI is an XML namespace.
URI:
urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-dots-mapping
Registrant Contact:
The IESG.
XML:
N/A; the requested URI is an XML namespace.
Per this document, IANA has registered the following YANG modules in the "YANG Module Names" subregistry [RFC 6020] within the "YANG Parameters" registry.
Name:
ietf-dots-telemetry
Namespace:
urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-dots-telemetry
Maintained by IANA:
N
Prefix:
dots-telemetry
Reference:
RFC 9244
Name:
ietf-dots-mapping
Namespace:
urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-dots-mapping
Maintained by IANA:
N
Prefix:
dots-mapping
Reference:
RFC 9244
Top   ToC   RFCv3-9244

14.  Security Considerations

14.1.  DOTS Signal Channel Telemetry

The security considerations for the DOTS signal channel protocol are discussed in Section 11 of RFC 9132. The following discusses the security considerations that are specific to the DOTS signal channel extension defined in this document.
The DOTS telemetry information includes DOTS client network topology, DOTS client domain pipe capacity, normal traffic baseline and connection capacity, and threat and mitigation information. Such information is sensitive; it MUST be protected at rest by the DOTS server domain to prevent data leakage. Note that sharing this sensitive data with a trusted DOTS server does not introduce any new significant considerations other than the need for the aforementioned protection. Such a DOTS server is already trusted to have access to that kind of information by being in the position to observe and mitigate attacks.
DOTS clients are typically considered to be trusted devices by the DOTS client domain. DOTS clients may be co-located on network security services (e.g., firewall devices), and a compromised security service potentially can do a lot more damage to the network than just the DOTS client component. This assumption differs from the often-held view (often referred to as the "zero-trust model") that devices are untrusted. A compromised DOTS client can send fake DOTS telemetry data to a DOTS server to mislead the DOTS server. This attack can be prevented by monitoring and auditing DOTS clients to detect misbehavior and to deter misuse, and by only authorizing the DOTS client to convey DOTS telemetry information for specific target resources (e.g., an application server is authorized to exchange DOTS telemetry for its IP addresses but a DDoS mitigator can exchange DOTS telemetry for any target resource in the network). As a reminder, this is a variation of dealing with compromised DOTS clients as discussed in Section 11 of RFC 9132.
DOTS servers must be capable of defending themselves against DoS attacks from compromised DOTS clients. The following non-comprehensive list of mitigation techniques can be used by a DOTS server to handle misbehaving DOTS clients:
  • The probing rate (defined in Section 4.5 of RFC 9132) can be used to limit the average data rate to the DOTS server.
  • Rate-limiting DOTS telemetry, including packets with new 'tmid' values from the same DOTS client, defends against DoS attacks that would result in varying the 'tmid' to exhaust DOTS server resources. Likewise, the DOTS server can enforce a quota and time limit on the number of active pre-or-ongoing-mitigation telemetry data items (identified by 'tmid') from the DOTS client.
Note also that the telemetry notification interval may be used to rate-limit the pre-or-ongoing-mitigation telemetry notifications received by a DOTS client domain.

14.2.  Vendor Attack Mapping

The security considerations for the DOTS data channel protocol are discussed in Section 10 of RFC 8783. The following discusses the security considerations that are specific to the DOTS data channel extension defined in this document.
All data nodes defined in the YANG module specified in Section 11.2 that can be created, modified, and deleted (i.e., config true, which is the default) are considered sensitive. Write operations to these data nodes without proper protection can have a negative effect on network operations. Appropriate security measures are recommended to prevent illegitimate users from invoking DOTS data channel primitives as discussed in [RFC 8783]. Nevertheless, an attacker who can access a DOTS client is technically capable of undertaking various attacks, such as:
  • Communicating invalid attack mapping details to the server ('/data-channel:dots-data/data-channel:dots-client/dots-telemetry:vendor-mapping'), which will mislead the server when correlating attack details.
Some of the readable data nodes in the YANG module specified in Section 11.2 may be considered sensitive. It is thus important to control read access to these data nodes. These are the data nodes and their sensitivity:
  • '/data-channel:dots-data/data-channel:dots-client/dots-telemetry:vendor-mapping' can be misused to infer the DDoS protection technology deployed in a DOTS client domain.
  • '/data-channel:dots-data/dots-telemetry:vendor-mapping' can be used by a compromised DOTS client to leak the attack detection capabilities of the DOTS server. This is a variation of the compromised DOTS client attacks discussed in Section 14.1.
Top   ToC   RFCv3-9244

15.  References

15.1.  Normative References

[Private-Enterprise-Numbers]
IANA, "Private Enterprise Numbers",
<https://www.iana.org/assignments/enterprise-numbers/>.
[RFC2119]
S. Bradner, "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.
[RFC3688]
M. Mealling, "The IETF XML Registry", BCP 81, RFC 3688, DOI 10.17487/RFC3688, January 2004,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3688>.
[RFC5646]
A. Phillips, and M. Davis, "Tags for Identifying Languages", BCP 47, RFC 5646, DOI 10.17487/RFC5646, September 2009,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5646>.
[RFC6020]
M. Bjorklund, "YANG - A Data Modeling Language for the Network Configuration Protocol (NETCONF)", RFC 6020, DOI 10.17487/RFC6020, October 2010,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6020>.
[RFC6991]
J. Schoenwaelder, "Common YANG Data Types", RFC 6991, DOI 10.17487/RFC6991, July 2013,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6991>.
[RFC7252]
Z. Shelby, K. Hartke, and C. Bormann, "The Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP)", RFC 7252, DOI 10.17487/RFC7252, June 2014,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7252>.
[RFC7641]
K. Hartke, "Observing Resources in the Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP)", RFC 7641, DOI 10.17487/RFC7641, September 2015,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7641>.
[RFC7950]
M. Bjorklund, "The YANG 1.1 Data Modeling Language", RFC 7950, DOI 10.17487/RFC7950, August 2016,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7950>.
[RFC7959]
C. Bormann, and Z. Shelby, "Block-Wise Transfers in the Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP)", RFC 7959, DOI 10.17487/RFC7959, August 2016,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7959>.
[RFC7970]
R. Danyliw, "The Incident Object Description Exchange Format Version 2", RFC 7970, DOI 10.17487/RFC7970, November 2016,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7970>.
[RFC8040]
A. Bierman, M. Bjorklund, and K. Watsen, "RESTCONF Protocol", RFC 8040, DOI 10.17487/RFC8040, January 2017,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8040>.
[RFC8174]
B. Leiba, "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC 2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174, May 2017,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8174>.
[RFC8345]
A. Clemm, J. Medved, R. Varga, N. Bahadur, H. Ananthakrishnan, and X. Liu, "A YANG Data Model for Network Topologies", RFC 8345, DOI 10.17487/RFC8345, March 2018,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8345>.
[RFC8783]
M. Boucadair, and T. Reddy.K, "Distributed Denial-of-Service Open Threat Signaling (DOTS) Data Channel Specification", RFC 8783, DOI 10.17487/RFC8783, May 2020,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8783>.
[RFC8791]
A. Bierman, M. Björklund, and K. Watsen, "YANG Data Structure Extensions", RFC 8791, DOI 10.17487/RFC8791, June 2020,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8791>.
[RFC8949]
C. Bormann, and P. Hoffman, "Concise Binary Object Representation (CBOR)", STD 94, RFC 8949, DOI 10.17487/RFC8949, December 2020,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8949>.
[RFC9132]
M. Boucadair, J. Shallow, and T. Reddy.K, "Distributed Denial-of-Service Open Threat Signaling (DOTS) Signal Channel Specification", RFC 9132, DOI 10.17487/RFC9132, September 2021,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc9132>.

15.2.  Informative References

[Cause]
IANA, "DOTS Signal Channel Conflict Cause Codes",
<https://www.iana.org/assignments/dots/>.
[DOTS-Multihoming]
Huawei Technologies, , , and , "Multi-homing Deployment Considerations for Distributed-Denial-of-Service Open Threat Signaling (DOTS)", Internet-Draft draft-ietf-dots-multihoming-13, April 2022,
<https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/html/draft-ietf-dots-multihoming-13>.
[DOTS-Robust-Blocks]
Orange, , and , "Distributed Denial-of-Service Open Threat Signaling (DOTS) Signal Channel Configuration Attributes for Robust Block Transmission", Internet-Draft draft-ietf-dots-robust-blocks-03, February 2022,
<https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/html/draft-ietf-dots-robust-blocks-03>.
[DOTS-Telemetry-Specs]
E. Doron, T. Reddy, F. Andreasen, L. Xia, and K. Nishizuka, "Distributed Denial-of-Service Open Threat Signaling (DOTS) Telemetry Specifications", Internet-Draft draft-doron-dots-telemetry-00, October 2016,
<https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/html/draft-doron-dots-telemetry-00>.
[Key-Map]
IANA, "DOTS Signal Channel CBOR Key Values",
<https://www.iana.org/assignments/dots/>.
[PYANG]
"pyang", April 2022,
<https://github.com/mbj4668/pyang>.
[RFC2330]
V. Paxson, G. Almes, J. Mahdavi, and M. Mathis, "Framework for IP Performance Metrics", RFC 2330, DOI 10.17487/RFC2330, May 1998,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2330>.
[RFC4732]
IAB, M. Handley, and E. Rescorla, "Internet Denial-of-Service Considerations", RFC 4732, DOI 10.17487/RFC4732, December 2006,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4732>.
[RFC5612]
P. Eronen, and D. Harrington, "Enterprise Number for Documentation Use", RFC 5612, DOI 10.17487/RFC5612, August 2009,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5612>.
[RFC8340]
M. Bjorklund, and L. Berger, "YANG Tree Diagrams", BCP 215, RFC 8340, DOI 10.17487/RFC8340, March 2018,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8340>.
[RFC8525]
A. Bierman, M. Bjorklund, J. Schoenwaelder, K. Watsen, and R. Wilton, "YANG Library", RFC 8525, DOI 10.17487/RFC8525, March 2019,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8525>.
[RFC8612]
A. Mortensen, T. Reddy, and R. Moskowitz, "DDoS Open Threat Signaling (DOTS) Requirements", RFC 8612, DOI 10.17487/RFC8612, May 2019,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8612>.
[RFC8811]
A. Mortensen, T. Reddy.K, F. Andreasen, N. Teague, and R. Compton, "DDoS Open Threat Signaling (DOTS) Architecture", RFC 8811, DOI 10.17487/RFC8811, August 2020,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8811>.
[RFC8903]
R. Dobbins, D. Migault, R. Moskowitz, N. Teague, L. Xia, and K. Nishizuka, "Use Cases for DDoS Open Threat Signaling", RFC 8903, DOI 10.17487/RFC8903, May 2021,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8903>.
[RFC9133]
K. Nishizuka, M. Boucadair, T. Reddy.K, and T. Nagata, "Controlling Filtering Rules Using Distributed Denial-of-Service Open Threat Signaling (DOTS) Signal Channel", RFC 9133, DOI 10.17487/RFC9133, September 2021,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc9133>.
[RFC9177]
M. Boucadair, and J. Shallow, "Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) Block-Wise Transfer Options Supporting Robust Transmission", RFC 9177, DOI 10.17487/RFC9177, March 2022,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc9177>.
[RFC9260]
R. Stewart, M. Tüxen, and K. Nielsen, "Stream Control Transmission Protocol", RFC 9260, DOI 10.17487/RFC9260, June 2022,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc9260>.
Top   ToC   RFCv3-9244

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank Flemming Andreasen, Liang Xia, and Kaname Nishizuka, coauthors of [DOTS-Telemetry-Specs], and everyone who had contributed to that document.
Thanks to Kaname Nishizuka, Yuhei Hayashi, and Tom Petch for comments and review.
Special thanks to Jon Shallow and Kaname Nishizuka for their implementation and interoperability work.
Many thanks to Jan Lindblad for the yangdoctors review, Nagendra Nainar for the opsdir review, James Gruessing for the artart review, Michael Scharf for the tsv-art review, Ted Lemon for the int-dir review, and Robert Sparks for the gen-art review.
Thanks to Benjamin Kaduk for the detailed AD review.
Thanks to Roman Danyliw, Éric Vyncke, Francesca Palombini, Warren Kumari, Erik Kline, Lars Eggert, and Robert Wilton for the IESG review.
Top   ToC   RFCv3-9244

Contributors

The following individuals have contributed to this document:

Li Su

CMCC

Pan Wei

Huawei
Top   ToC   RFCv3-9244

Authors' Addresses

Mohamed Boucadair

Orange
Rennes   35000
France

Tirumaleswar Reddy.K

Akamai
Embassy Golf Link Business Park
Bangalore   Karnataka   560071
India

Ehud Doron

Radware Ltd.
Raoul Wallenberg Street
Tel-Aviv   69710
Israel

Meiling Chen

CMCC
32 Xuanwumen West Street
Beijing   100053
China

Jon Shallow

United Kingdom
Top   ToC