Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) J. Parello Request for Comments: 7326 B. Claise Category: Informational Cisco Systems, Inc. ISSN: 2070-1721 B. Schoening Independent Consultant J. Quittek NEC Europe Ltd. September 2014 Energy Management Framework
AbstractThis document defines a framework for Energy Management (EMAN) for devices and device components within, or connected to, communication networks. The framework presents a physical reference model and information model. The information model consists of an Energy Management Domain as a set of Energy Objects. Each Energy Object can be attributed with identity, classification, and context. Energy Objects can be monitored and controlled with respect to power, Power State, energy, demand, Power Attributes, and battery. Additionally, the framework models relationships and capabilities between Energy Objects. Status of This Memo This document is not an Internet Standards Track specification; it is published for informational purposes. This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). It represents the consensus of the IETF community. It has received public review and has been approved for publication by the Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG). Not all documents approved by the IESG are a candidate for any level of Internet Standard; see Section 2 of RFC 5741. Information about the current status of this document, any errata, and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7326.
Copyright Notice Copyright (c) 2014 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the document authors. All rights reserved. This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal Provisions Relating to IETF Documents (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of publication of this document. Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as described in the Simplified BSD License. 1. Introduction ....................................................3 2. Terminology .....................................................4 3. Target Devices ..................................................9 4. Physical Reference Model .......................................10 5. Areas Not Covered by the Framework .............................11 6. Energy Management Abstraction ..................................12 6.1. Conceptual Model ..........................................12 6.2. Energy Object (Class) .....................................13 6.3. Energy Object Attributes ..................................15 6.4. Measurements ..............................................18 6.5. Control ...................................................19 6.6. Relationships .............................................25 7. Energy Management Information Model ............................29 8. Modeling Relationships between Devices .........................33 8.1. Power Source Relationship .................................33 8.2. Metering Relationship .....................................37 8.3. Aggregation Relationship ..................................38 9. Relationship to Other Standards ................................39 10. Security Considerations .......................................39 10.1. Security Considerations for SNMP .........................40 11. IANA Considerations ...........................................41 11.1. IANA Registration of New Power State Sets ................41 11.2. Updating the Registration of Existing Power State Sets ...42 12. References ....................................................43 12.1. Normative References .....................................43 12.2. Informative References ...................................44 13. Acknowledgments ...............................................45 Appendix A. Information Model Listing .............................46
X.700]. Not covered by this traditional management model is Energy Management, which is rapidly becoming a critical area of concern worldwide, as seen in [ISO50001]. This document defines an Energy Management framework for devices within, or connected to, communication networks, per the Energy Management requirements specified in [RFC6988]. The devices, or the components of these devices (such as line cards, fans, and disks), can then be monitored and controlled. Monitoring includes measuring power, energy, demand, and attributes of power. Energy Control can be performed by setting a device's or component's state. The devices monitored by this framework can be either of the following: o consumers of energy (such as routers and computer systems) and components of such devices (such as line cards, fans, and disks) o producers of energy (like an uninterruptible power supply or renewable energy system) and their associated components (such as battery cells, inverters, or photovoltaic panels) This framework further describes how to identify, classify, and provide context for such devices. While context information is not specific to Energy Management, some context attributes are specified in the framework, addressing the following use cases: o How important is a device in terms of its business impact? o How should devices be grouped for reporting and searching? o How should a device role be described? Guidelines for using context for Energy Management are described. The framework introduces the concept of a Power Interface that is analogous to a network interface. A Power Interface is defined as an interconnection among devices where energy can be provided, received, or both. The most basic example of Energy Management is a single device reporting information about itself. In many cases, however, energy is not measured by the device itself but is measured upstream in the power distribution tree. For example, a Power Distribution Unit (PDU) may measure the energy it supplies to attached devices and
report this to an Energy Management System. Therefore, devices often have relationships to other devices or components in the power network. An Energy Management System (EnMS) generally requires an understanding of the power topology (who provides power to whom), the Metering topology (who meters whom), and the potential Aggregation (who aggregates values of others). The relationships build on the Power Interface concept. The different relationships among devices and components, as specified in this document, include power source, Metering, and Aggregation Relationships. The framework does not cover non-electrical equipment, nor does it cover energy procurement and manufacturing. RFC2119]. In this document, these words will appear with the above interpretation only when in ALL CAPS. Lowercase uses of these words are not to be interpreted as carrying the significance of RFC 2119 key words. In this section, some terms have a NOTE that is not part of the definition itself but accounts for differences between terminologies of different standards organizations or further clarifies the definition. The terms are listed in an order that aids in reading where terms may build off a previous term, as opposed to an alphabetical ordering. Some terms that are common in electrical engineering or that describe common physical items use a lowercase notation. Energy Management Energy Management is a set of functions for measuring, modeling, planning, and optimizing networks to ensure that the network and network-attached devices use energy efficiently and appropriately for the nature of the application and the cost constraints of the organization. Reference: Adapted from [TMN].
NOTES: 1. "Energy Management" refers to the activities, methods, procedures, and tools that pertain to measuring, modeling, planning, controlling, and optimizing the use of energy in networked systems [NMF]. 2. Energy Management is a management domain that is congruent to any of the FCAPS areas of management in the ISO/OSI Network Management Model [TMN]. Energy Management for communication networks and attached devices is a subset or part of an organization's greater Energy Management Policies. Energy Management System (EnMS) An Energy Management System is a combination of hardware and software used to administer a network, with the primary purpose of Energy Management. NOTES: 1. An Energy Management System according to [ISO50001] (ISO-EnMS) is a set of systems or procedures upon which organizations can develop and implement an energy policy, set targets and action plans, and take into account legal requirements related to energy use. An ISO-EnMS allows organizations to improve energy performance and demonstrate conformity to requirements, standards, and/or legal requirements. 2. Example ISO-EnMS: Company A defines a set of policies and procedures indicating that there should exist multiple computerized systems that will poll energy measurements from their meters and pricing / source data from their local utility. Company A specifies that their CFO (Chief Financial Officer) should collect information and summarize it quarterly to be sent to an accounting firm to produce carbon accounting reporting as required by their local government. 3. For the purposes of EMAN, the definition herein is the preferred meaning of an EnMS. The definition from [ISO50001] can be referred to as an ISO Energy Management System (ISO-EnMS). Energy Monitoring Energy Monitoring is a part of Energy Management that deals with collecting or reading information from devices to aid in Energy Management.
Energy Control Energy Control is a part of Energy Management that deals with directing influence over devices. electrical equipment This is a general term that includes materials, fittings, devices, appliances, fixtures, apparatus, machines, etc., that are used as a part of, or in connection with, an electric installation. Reference: [IEEE100]. non-electrical equipment (mechanical equipment) This is a general term that includes materials, fittings, devices, appliances, fixtures, apparatus, machines, etc., that are used as a part of, or in connection with, non-electrical power installations. Reference: Adapted from [IEEE100]. device A device is a piece of electrical or non-electrical equipment. Reference: Adapted from [IEEE100]. component A component is a part of electrical or non-electrical equipment (device). Reference: Adapted from [TMN]. power inlet A power inlet (or simply "inlet") is an interface at which a device or component receives energy from another device or component. power outlet A power outlet (or simply "outlet") is an interface at which a device or component provides energy to another device or component. energy Energy is that which does work or is capable of doing work. As used by electric utilities, it is generally a reference to electrical energy and is measured in kilowatt-hours (kWh). Reference: [IEEE100].
NOTE: 1. Energy is the capacity of a system to produce external activity or perform work [ISO50001]. power Power is the time rate at which energy is emitted, transferred, or received; power is usually expressed in watts (joules per second). Reference: [IEEE100]. demand Demand is the average value of power or a related quantity over a specified interval of time. Note: Demand is expressed in kilowatts, kilovolt-amperes, kilovars, or other suitable units. Reference: [IEEE100]. NOTE: 1. While IEEE100 defines demand in kilo measurements, for EMAN we use watts with any suitable metric prefix. provide energy A device (or component) "provides" energy to another device if there is an energy flow from this device to the other one. receive energy A device (or component) "receives" energy from another device if there is an energy flow from the other device to this one. meter (energy meter) A meter is a device intended to measure electrical energy by integrating power with respect to time. Reference: Adapted from [IEC60050]. battery A battery is one or more cells (consisting of an assembly of electrodes, electrolyte, container, terminals, and (usually) separators) that are a source and/or store of electric energy. Reference: Adapted from [IEC60050]. Power Interface A Power Interface is a power inlet, outlet, or both.
Nameplate Power The Nameplate Power is the nominal power of a device as specified by the device manufacturer. Power Attributes Power Attributes are measurements of the electrical current, voltage, phase, and frequencies at a given point in an electrical power system. Reference: Adapted from [IEC60050]. NOTE: 1. Power Attributes are not intended to provide any bounds or recommended range for the value. They are simply the reading of the value associated with the attribute in question. Power Quality "Power Quality" refers to characteristics of the electrical current, voltage, phase, and frequencies at a given point in an electric power system, evaluated against a set of reference technical parameters. These parameters might, in some cases, relate to the compatibility between electricity supplied in an electric power system and the loads connected to that electric power system. Reference: [IEC60050]. NOTE: 1. Electrical characteristics representing Power Quality information are typically required by customer facility Energy Management Systems. Electrical characteristics are not intended to satisfy the detailed requirements of Power Quality monitoring. Standards typically also give ranges of allowed values; the information attributes are the raw measurements, not the "yes/no" determination by the various standards. Reference: [ASHRAE-201].
Power State A Power State is a condition or mode of a device (or component) that broadly characterizes its capabilities, power, and responsiveness to input. Reference: Adapted from [IEEE1621]. Power State Set A Power State Set is a collection of Power States that comprises a named or logical control grouping.
o Electrical meters o Sensor controllers with subtended sensors Target devices include devices that communicate via the Internet Protocol (IP) as well as devices using other means for communication. The latter are managed through gateways or proxies that can communicate using IP.
Single Power Supply with Multiple Devices: +---------------------------------------+ | Energy Management System | +---------------------------------------+ ^ ^ ^ ^ monitoring | | control monitoring | | control v v v v +--------+ +------------------+ | power |########| device 1 | | source | # +------------------+-+ +--------+ #######| device 2 | # +------------------+-+ #######| device 3 | +------------------+ Multiple Power Supplies with Single Device: +----------------------------------------------+ | Energy Management System | +----------------------------------------------+ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ mon. | | ctrl. mon. | | ctrl. mon. | | ctrl. v v v v v v +----------+ +----------+ +----------+ | power |######| device |######| power | | source 1 | | | | source 2 | +----------+ +----------+ +----------+
Energy Procurement and Manufacturing While an EnMS may be a central point for corporate reporting, cost computation, environmental impact analysis, and regulatory compliance reporting, Energy Management in this framework excludes energy procurement and the environmental impact of energy use. As such, the framework does not include: o Cost in currency or environmental units of manufacturing a device o Embedded carbon or environmental equivalences of a device o Cost in currency or environmental impact to dismantle or recycle a device o Supply chain analysis of energy sources for device deployment o Conversion of the usage or production of energy to units expressed from the source of that energy (such as the greenhouse gas emissions associated with the transfer of energy from a diesel source)
For modeling the devices and components, this section describes three classes denoted by a "(Class)" suffix: a Device (Class), a Component (Class), and a Power Interface (Class). These classes are sub-types of an abstract Energy Object (Class). Summary of Notation for Modeling Physical Equipment Physical Modeling (Metadata) Model Instance --------------------------------------------------------- equipment Energy Object (Class) Energy Object device Device (Class) Device component Component (Class) Component inlet/outlet Power Interface (Class) Power Interface This section then describes the attributes of an Energy Object (Class) for identification, classification, context, control, power, and energy. Since the interconnections between devices and components for Energy Management may have no relation to the interconnections for Network Management, the Energy Object (Classes) contain a separate Relationships (Class) as an attribute to model these types of interconnections. The next sections describe each of the classes and categories of attributes in the information model. Not all of the attributes are mandatory for implementations. Specifications describing implementations of the information model in this framework need to be explicit about which are mandatory and which are optional to implement. The formal definitions of the classes and attributes are specified in Section 7.
The Energy Object (Class) is an abstract class that contains the base attributes to represent a piece of equipment for Energy Management. There are three types of Energy Object (Class): Device (Class), Component (Class), and Power Interface (Class).
RFC4122] is used to uniquely and persistently identify an Energy Object. Every Energy Object has an optional unique human-readable printable name. Possible naming conventions are textual DNS name, Media Access Control (MAC) address of the device, interface ifName, or a text string uniquely identifying the Energy Object. As an example, in the case of IP phones, the Energy Object name can be the device's DNS name. Additionally, an alternate key is provided to allow an Energy Object to be optionally linked with models in different systems.
Although EnMS and administrators can establish their own ranking, the following example is a broad recommendation for commercial deployments [CISCO-EW]: 90 to 100 Emergency response 80 to 90 Executive or business-critical 70 to 79 General or average 60 to 69 Staff or support 40 to 59 Public or guest 1 to 39 Decorative or hospitality IPENERGY]. Example types of devices: Router, Switch, Light, Phone, WorkStation, Server, Display, Kiosk, HVAC.
Example Services by Line of Business: Line of Business Service ------------------------------------------------------ Education Student, Faculty, Administration, Athletic Finance Trader, Teller, Fulfillment Manufacturing Assembly, Control, Shipping Retail Advertising, Cashier Support Helpdesk, Management Medical Patient, Administration, Billing Role as a two-word string: "Faculty Desktop", "Teller Phone", "Shipping HVAC", "Advertising Display", "Helpdesk Kiosk", "Administration Switch". The specifics of how this tag is represented are left to the MIB module or other object definition documents to be based on this framework.
IEC61850] definition of unit multiplier for the SI (System International) units of measure. Measured values are represented in SI units obtained by BaseValue * (10 ^ Scale). For example, if current power usage of an Energy Object is 17, it could be 17 W, 17 mW, 17 kW, or 17 MW, depending on the value of the scaling factor. 17 W implies that BaseValue = 17 and Scale = 0, whereas 17 mW implies that BaseValue = 17 and ScaleFactor = -3.
An Energy Object (Class) indicates how the power measurement was obtained with a caliber and accuracy attribute that indicates: o Whether the measurements were made at the device itself or at a remote source. o Description of the method that was used to measure the power and whether this method can distinguish actual or estimated values. o Accuracy for actual measured values. IEC61850-7-2] standard for describing AC measurements.
the three Power States defined in IEEE1621 [IEEE1621]: on, off, and sleep. The Distributed Management Task Force (DMTF) standards organization [DMTF], Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI) specification [ACPI], and Printer Working Group (PWG) all define larger numbers of Power States. The semantics of a Power State are specified by: a) The functionality provided by an Energy Object in this state. b) A limitation of the power that an Energy Object uses in this state. c) A combination of a) and b). The semantics of a Power State should be clearly defined. Limitation (curtailment) of the power used by an Energy Object in a state may be specified by: o An absolute power value. o A percentage value of power relative to the Energy Object's Nameplate Power. o An indication of power relative to another Power State. For example, specify that power in state A is less than in state B. o For supporting Power State management, an Energy Object provides statistics on Power States, including the time an Energy Object spent in a certain Power State and the number of times an Energy Object entered a Power State. When requesting an Energy Object to enter a Power State, an indication of the Power State's name or number can be used. Optionally, an absolute or percentage of Nameplate Power can be provided to allow the Energy Object to transition to a nearest or equivalent Power State. When an Energy Object is set to a particular Power State, the represented device or component may be busy. The Energy Object should set the desired Power State and then update the actual Power State when the device or component changes. There are then two Power State (Class) control attributes: actual and requested. The following sections describe well-known Power States for devices and components that should be modeled in the information model.
IEEE1621] DMTF (512) - [DMTF] EMAN (768) - [RFC7326] The respective specific states related to each Power State Set are specified in the following sections. The guidelines for the modification of Power State Sets are specified in the IANA Considerations section. IEEE1621] consists of three rudimentary states: on, off, or sleep. In IEEE1621, devices are limited to the three basic Power States -- on (2), sleep (1), and off (0). Any additional Power States are variants of one of the basic states, rather than a fourth state [IEEE1621]. DMTF] standards organization has defined a power profile standard based on the CIM (Common Information Model), which consists of 15 Power States. The DMTF standard is targeted for hosts and computers. Details of the semantics of each Power State within the DMTF Power State Set can be obtained from the DMTF Power State Management Profile specification [DMTF].
The DMTF power profile extends ACPI Power States. The following table provides a mapping between DMTF and ACPI Power State Sets: DMTF ACPI ------------------------------------------------ Reserved (0) Reserved (1) ON (2) G0/S0 Sleep-Light (3) G1/S1 G1/S2 Sleep-Deep (4) G1/S3 Power Cycle (Off-Soft) (5) G2/S5 Off-Hard (6) G3 Hibernate (Off-Soft) (7) G1/S4 Off-Soft (8) G2/S5 Power Cycle (Off-Hard) (9) G3 Master Bus Reset (10) G2/S5 Diagnostic Interrupt (11) G2/S5 Off-Soft Graceful (12) G2/S5 Off-Hard Graceful (13) G3 MasterBus Reset Graceful (14) G2/S5 Power Cycle Off-Soft Graceful (15) G2/S5 Power Cycle Off-Hard Graceful (16) G3 IEEE1621] plus the addition of the Power States defined in [ACPI] and [DMTF]. Therefore, in addition to the non-operational states as defined in [ACPI] and [DMTF] standards, several intermediate operational states have been defined. Physical devices and components are expected to support the EMAN Power State Set or to be modeled via an Energy Object the supports these states. An Energy Object may implement fewer or more Power States than a particular EMAN Power State Set specifies. In that case, the Energy Object implementation can determine its own mapping to the predefined EMAN Power States within the EMAN Power State Set. There are twelve EMAN Power States that expand on [IEEE1621]. The expanded list of Power States is derived from [CISCO-EW] and is divided into six operational states and six non-operational states.
The lowest non-operational state is 0, and the highest is 5. Each non-operational state corresponds to an [ACPI] Global and System state between G3 (hard-off) and G1 (sleeping). Each operational state represents a performance state and may be mapped to [ACPI] states P0 (maximum performance power) through P5 (minimum performance and minimum power). In each of the non-operational states (from mechoff(0) to ready(5)), the Power State preceding it is expected to have a lower Power value and a longer delay in returning to an operational state: mechoff(0): An off state where no Energy Object features are available. The Energy Object is unavailable. No energy is being consumed, and the power connector can be removed. softoff(1): Similar to mechoff(0), but some components remain powered or receive trace power so that the Energy Object can be awakened from its off state. In softoff(1), no context is saved, and the device typically requires a complete boot when awakened. hibernate(2): No Energy Object features are available. The Energy Object may be awakened without requiring a complete boot, but the time for availability is longer than sleep(3). An example for state hibernate(2) is a save-to-disk state where DRAM context is not maintained. Typically, energy consumption is zero or close to zero. sleep(3): No Energy Object features are available, except for out-of-band management, such as wake-up mechanisms. The time for availability is longer than standby(4). An example for state sleep(3) is a save-to-RAM state, where DRAM context is maintained. Typically, energy consumption is close to zero. standby(4): No Energy Object features are available, except for out-of-band management, such as wake-up mechanisms. This mode is analogous to cold-standby. The time for availability is longer than ready(5). For example, processor context may not be maintained. Typically, energy consumption is close to zero. ready(5): No Energy Object features are available, except for out-of-band management, such as wake-up mechanisms. This mode is analogous to hot-standby. The Energy Object can be quickly transitioned into an operational state. For example, processors are not executing, but processor context is maintained.
lowMinus(6): Indicates that some Energy Object features may not be available and the Energy Object has taken measures or selected options to use less energy than low(7). low(7): Indicates that some Energy Object features may not be available and the Energy Object has taken measures or selected options to use less energy than mediumMinus(8). mediumMinus(8): Indicates that all Energy Object features are available but the Energy Object has taken measures or selected options to use less energy than medium(9). medium(9): Indicates that all Energy Object features are available but the Energy Object has taken measures or selected options to use less energy than highMinus(10). highMinus(10): Indicates that all Energy Object features are available and the Energy Object has taken measures or selected options to use less energy than high(11). high(11): Indicates that all Energy Object features are available and the Energy Object may use the maximum energy as indicated by the Nameplate Power.
Operational states: IEEE1621 DMTF ACPI EMAN ---------------------------------------------------- on on G0/S0/P5 lowMinus(6) on on G0/S0/P4 low(7) on on G0/S0/P3 mediumMinus(8) on on G0/S0/P2 medium(9) on on G0/S0/P1 highMinus(10) on on G0/S0/P0 high(11) CHEN]. The types of relationships are Power Source, Metering, and Aggregations. o A Power Source Relationship is a relationship where one Energy Object provides power to one or more Energy Objects. The Power Source Relationship gives a view of the physical wiring topology -- for example, a data center server receiving power from two specific Power Interfaces from two different PDUs. Note: A Power Source Relationship may or may not change as the direction of power changes between two Energy Objects. The relationship may remain to indicate that the change of power direction was unintended or an error condition. o A Metering Relationship is a relationship where one Energy Object measures power, energy, demand, or Power Attributes of one or more other Energy Objects. The Metering Relationship gives the view of the Metering topology. Physical meters can be placed anywhere in a power distribution tree. For example, utility meters monitor and report accumulated power consumption of the entire building. Logically, the Metering topology overlaps with the wiring topology, as meters are connected to the wiring topology. A typical example is meters that clamp onto the existing wiring.
o An Aggregation Relationship is a relationship where one Energy Object aggregates Energy Management information of one or more other Energy Objects. The Aggregation Relationship gives a model of devices that may aggregate (sum, average, etc.) values for other devices. The Aggregation Relationship is slightly different compared to the other relationships, as this refers more to a management function. In some situations, it is not possible to discover the Energy Object Relationships, and an EnMS or administrator must set them. Given that relationships can be assigned manually, the following sections describe guidelines for use.
o The next known Power Interface in the wiring topology would be the next device implementing the framework. In some cases, the domain of devices under management may include some devices that do not implement the framework. In these cases, the Power Source Relationship can be established with the next device in the topology that implements the framework and logically shows the Power Source of the device. o Transitive Power Source Relationships SHOULD NOT be established. For example, if Energy Object A has a Power Source Relationship "Poweredby" with Energy Object B, and if Energy Object B has a Power Source Relationship "Poweredby" with Energy Object C, then Energy Object A SHOULD NOT have a Power Source Relationship "Poweredby" with Energy Object C.