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RFC 7133

Information Elements for Data Link Layer Traffic Measurement

Pages: 41
Proposed Standard

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Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)                        S. Kashima
Request for Comments: 7133                                           NTT
Category: Standards Track                              A. Kobayashi, Ed.
ISSN: 2070-1721                                                 NTT East
                                                               P. Aitken
                                                     Cisco Systems, Inc.
                                                                May 2014


      Information Elements for Data Link Layer Traffic Measurement

Abstract

This document describes Information Elements related to the data link layer. They are used by the IP Flow Information Export (IPFIX) protocol for encoding measured data link layer traffic information. Status of This Memo This is an Internet Standards Track document. This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). It represents the consensus of the IETF community. It has received public review and has been approved for publication by the Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG). Further information on Internet Standards is available in Section 2 of RFC 5741. Information about the current status of this document, any errata, and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7133. Copyright Notice Copyright (c) 2014 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the document authors. All rights reserved. This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal Provisions Relating to IETF Documents (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of publication of this document. Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as described in the Simplified BSD License.
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Table of Contents

1. Introduction ....................................................4 1.1. Conventions Used in This Document ..........................4 2. Extended Ethernet Technology ....................................4 2.1. Wide-Area Ethernet Technology Summary ......................4 2.2. Virtual Ethernet Technology Summary ........................5 3. Modification and Addition of Information Elements Related to Data Link Layer ......................................6 3.1. Existing Information Elements ..............................7 3.1.1. dataLinkFrameSize ...................................8 3.1.2. dataLinkFrameSection ................................9 3.1.3. layer2OctetDeltaCount ...............................9 3.1.4. layer2OctetTotalCount ..............................10 3.1.5. layer2FrameDeltaCount ..............................10 3.1.6. layer2FrameTotalCount ..............................11 3.2. New Information Elements ..................................11 3.2.1. dataLinkFrameType ..................................12 3.2.2. sectionOffset ......................................12 3.2.3. sectionExportedOctets ..............................13 3.2.4. dot1qServiceInstanceTag ............................13 3.2.5. dot1qServiceInstanceId .............................14 3.2.6. dot1qServiceInstancePriority .......................14 3.2.7. dot1qCustomerSourceMacAddress ......................15 3.2.8. dot1qCustomerDestinationMacAddress .................15 3.2.9. postL2OctetDeltaCount ..............................16 3.2.10. postMCastL2OctetDeltaCount ........................16 3.2.11. postL2OctetTotalCount .............................17 3.2.12. postMCastL2OctetTotalCount ........................17 3.2.13. minimumL2TotalLength ..............................18 3.2.14. maximumL2TotalLength ..............................18 3.2.15. droppedL2OctetDeltaCount ..........................19 3.2.16. droppedL2OctetTotalCount ..........................19 3.2.17. ignoredL2OctetTotalCount ..........................20 3.2.18. notSentL2OctetTotalCount ..........................20 3.2.19. layer2OctetDeltaSumOfSquares ......................21 3.2.20. layer2OctetTotalSumOfSquares ......................21 4. Modification of Existing Information Elements Related to Packet Section ..............................................22 4.1. ipHeaderPacketSection .....................................22 4.2. ipPayloadPacketSection ....................................23 4.3. mplsLabelStackSection .....................................24 4.4. mplsPayloadPacketSection ..................................25 5. Modification of Existing Information Elements Related to VLAN Tag ....................................................26 5.1. dot1qVlanId ...............................................26 5.2. dot1qPriority .............................................27 5.3. dot1qCustomerVlanId .......................................27
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      5.4. dot1qCustomerPriority .....................................27
   6. The Relationship between Ethernet Header Fields and
      Information Elements ...........................................28
   7. Security Considerations ........................................29
   8. IANA Considerations ............................................29
   9. Acknowledgments ................................................30
   10. References ....................................................30
      10.1. Normative References .....................................30
      10.2. Informative References ...................................31
   Appendix A.  Frame Formats ........................................32
   Appendix B.  Template Format Example ..............................40
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1. Introduction

Ethernet [IEEE802.1D] and VLAN (Virtual LAN) technologies had been used only in Local Area Networks. Recently, they have been used in Wide Area Networks, e.g., Layer 2 VPN (L2 VPN) services. Accordingly, carrier networks using VLAN technologies have been enhanced to Provider Bridged Networks and Provider Backbone Bridged Networks [IEEE802.1Q]. In addition, Ethernet in data centers has also been enhanced for server virtualization and input/output (I/O) consolidation. While these innovations provide flexibility, scalability, and mobility to an existing network architecture, they increase the complexity of traffic measurement due to the existence of various Ethernet header formats. To cope with this, a more sophisticated method of traffic measurement is required. IPFIX and Packet Sampling (PSAMP) help to resolve these problems. However, the PSAMP Information Model [RFC5477] and the IPFIX Information Model [RFC7011] don't yet contain enough Information Elements related to the data link layer, e.g., Ethernet header forms. This document describes existing and new Information Elements related to data link layers that enable a more sophisticated traffic measurement method. Note that this document does not update [RFC5477] or [RFC7011] because IANA's IPFIX registry [IANA-IPFIX] is the ultimate Information Element reference, per Section 1 of [RFC7012].

1.1. Conventions Used in This Document

The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].

2. Extended Ethernet Technology

2.1. Wide-Area Ethernet Technology Summary

Provider Bridge and Provider Backbone Bridge [IEEE802.1Q], which are standards for Wide-Area Ethernet, are described below. o In Provider Bridge [IEEE802.1Q], there are two VLAN IDs: Service VLAN Identifier (S-VID) and Customer VLAN Identifier (C-VID). S-VID is assigned to an Ethernet frame by a service provider, while C-VID is independently assigned to an Ethernet frame by a customer. Frame switching in a service provider network is based on only S-VID.
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   o  In Provider Backbone Bridge [IEEE802.1Q], new Ethernet fields,
      such as Backbone VLAN Identifier (B-VID) and Backbone Service
      Instance Identifier (I-SID), are introduced to overcome the
      limitations on the VLAN identifier space and to isolate the
      service provider and customer identifier spaces.  Frame switching
      is based on a 12-bit B-VID, and customer identification is based
      on a 24-bit I-SID.  A flexible network design has become possible
      because network management is separated from customer management.
      Other Ethernet fields that indicate quality of service (QoS) class
      are Backbone VLAN Priority Code Point (B-PCP), Backbone VLAN Drop
      Eligible Indicator (B-DEI), Backbone Service Instance Priority
      Code Point (I-PCP), and Backbone Service Instance Drop Eligible
      Indicator (I-DEI).

   The Provider Backbone Bridge technologies have enhanced a Wide-Area
   Ethernet service from a flat network to a hierarchical network
   consisting of a Provider Bridged Network and Provider Backbone
   Bridged Network.

   Frame formats used in Wide-Area Ethernet are shown in Appendix A.

2.2. Virtual Ethernet Technology Summary

There have been several challenges in the existing virtual switches environment in a data center. One is the lack of network management visibility: limited features on virtual switches make it difficult to monitor traffic among virtual machines (VMs). Another is the lack of management scalability and flexibility: increasing the number of VMs for multi-tenant architecture causes an increase in the number of virtual switches and in the number of the traffic control policies, which reach the limitations of network management scalability and flexibility. In this situation, the IEEE 802.1 working group is standardizing virtual bridging technologies such as Edge Virtual Bridging (EVB), including two kinds of Edge Relays: Virtual Edge Bridge (VEB) and Virtual Edge Port Aggregator (VEPA) [IEEE802.1Qbg]. The VEB is a bridge that provides bridging among multiple VMs and the external bridging environment. The VEPA is a bridge-like device on a host that forwards all internal traffic to the adjacent EVB bridge and then distributes any traffic received from the adjacent EVB bridge to VMs. The VEPA makes all the VM-to-VM traffic visible to the EVB bridge so that the traffic can be monitored and so that the EVB bridge can apply filtering to the traffic. To improve flexibility, a virtual link between a host system and EVB bridge is standardized as S-channel. S-channel allows a bridge to treat the traffic in the virtual link as if it comes in on a separate
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   port.  For example, in the host, an S-channel may be attached to a
   VEB or a VEPA or directly to an internal port in order to apply each
   port-based filtering rule to the traffic.  S-channel over the link
   between a host and its adjacent bridge uses Service VLAN Tag (S-TAG)
   [IEEE802.1Q].  When S-channel is in use, frames on the link carry an
   S-TAG to identify the S-channel.

   On the other hand, Bridge Port Extension emulates single Extended
   Bridge from multiple physical switches and virtual switches, and it
   also simplifies network management.  Also, it solves the lack of
   network management visibility by forwarding all traffic into a
   central Controlling Bridge using E-channel.  E-channel over the link
   between a Bridge Port Extender and a Controlling Bridge uses E-TAG
   defined in [IEEE802.1BR].

   Traffic monitoring over S-channel and E-channel is required in order
   to get visibility of VM-to-VM traffic and visibility of each
   channel's traffic on a virtual link.

   Frame formats with E-TAG used in E-channel and S-TAG used in
   S-channel are shown in Appendix A.  Though these frames carry special
   tags while on the link, those tags identify a virtual port (or for
   multicast in the downstream direction, a set of virtual ports) to
   which they are destined.  These tag values only have local meaning,
   and the Flow would be reported as sent and arriving on the
   corresponding virtual ports.  Therefore, IPFIX does not need to
   monitor data based on these tags.

3. Modification and Addition of Information Elements Related to Data Link Layer

The Information Elements listed in the upper section of Table 1 are necessary for enabling IPFIX and PSAMP traffic measurement for the data link layer, which is not limited to Ethernet because the method can be applied to other data link protocols as well. Information Elements in the middle section of Table 1 are necessary for enabling the IPFIX and PSAMP traffic measurement for [IEEE802.1Q]. Information Elements in the lower section of Table 1 are octet counter or packet length for layer 2, and they are necessary for enabling IPFIX and PSAMP traffic measurement for the data link layer.
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               +-----+------------------------------------+
               | ID  | Name                               |
               +-----+------------------------------------+
               | 312 | dataLinkFrameSize                  |
               | 315 | dataLinkFrameSection               |
               | 408 | dataLinkFrameType                  |
               | 409 | sectionOffset                      |
               | 410 | sectionExportedOctets              |
               +-----+------------------------------------+
               | 411 | dot1qServiceInstanceTag            |
               | 412 | dot1qServiceInstanceId             |
               | 413 | dot1qServiceInstancePriority       |
               | 414 | dot1qCustomerSourceMacAddress      |
               | 415 | dot1qCustomerDestinationMacAddress |
               +-----+------------------------------------+
               | 352 | layer2OctetDeltaCount              |
               | 353 | layer2OctetTotalCount              |
               | 417 | postL2OctetDeltaCount              |
               | 418 | postMCastL2OctetDeltaCount         |
               | 420 | postL2OctetTotalCount              |
               | 421 | postMCastL2OctetTotalCount         |
               | 422 | minimumL2TotalLength               |
               | 423 | maximumL2TotalLength               |
               | 424 | droppedL2OctetDeltaCount           |
               | 425 | droppedL2OctetTotalCount           |
               | 426 | ignoredL2OctetTotalCount           |
               | 427 | notSentL2OctetTotalCount           |
               | 428 | layer2OctetDeltaSumOfSquares       |
               | 429 | layer2OctetTotalSumOfSquares       |
               | 430 | layer2FrameDeltaCount              |
               | 431 | layer2FrameTotalCount              |
               +-----+------------------------------------+

         Table 1: Information Elements Related to Data Link Layer

3.1. Existing Information Elements

Some existing Information Elements are required for data link layer export. Their details are reproduced here from IANA's IPFIX registry [IANA-IPFIX]. Additions per this document appear between *. Section 3.1.1 introduces the missing Data Type Semantics for the dataLinkFrameSize Information Element, which is held to be an interoperable change per #4 in Section 5.2 of [RFC7013].
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   Section 3.1.2 extends the definition of the dataLinkFrameSection
   Information Element with reference to the new sectionOffset
   Information Element, which is also an interoperable change per #4 in
   Section 5.2 of [RFC7013].

   The layer2OctetDeltaCount Information Element reports the number of
   layer 2 octets since the previous report in incoming packets for this
   Flow, while the layer2OctetTotalCount Information Element reports the
   total number of layer 2 octets in incoming packets for this Flow.
   The layer2FrameDeltaCount Information Element reports the number of
   incoming layer 2 frames since the previous report for this Flow,
   while layer2FrameTotalCount Information Element reports the total
   number of incoming layer 2 frames for this Flow.  All of these
   Information Elements are unchanged from the existing IANA
   [IANA-IPFIX] definitions, and are reproduced in Section 3.1.3 through
   Section 3.1.6 below for completeness.

   Therefore, these changes do not introduce any backward-compatibility
   issues.

   Per Section 5.2 of [RFC7013], for each of these changes, [RFC7133]
   has been appended to the requester in IANA's IPFIX registry
   [IANA-IPFIX], the Information Element's revision number has been
   incremented by one, and the Information Element's revision date
   column has been updated.

3.1.1. dataLinkFrameSize

Description: This Information Element specifies the length of the selected data link frame. The data link layer is defined in [ISO/IEC.7498-1:1994]. Abstract Data Type: unsigned16 *Data Type Semantics: quantity* ElementId: 312 References: [ISO/IEC.7498-1:1994] Status: current
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3.1.2. dataLinkFrameSection

Description: This Information Element carries n octets from the data link frame of a selected frame, starting sectionOffset octets into the frame. *However, if no sectionOffset field corresponding to this Information Element is present, then a sectionOffset of zero applies, and the octets MUST be from the start of the data link frame.* The sectionExportedOctets expresses how much data was observed, while the remainder is padding. When the sectionExportedOctets field corresponding to this Information Element exists, this Information Element MAY have a fixed length and MAY be padded, or it MAY have a variable length. When the sectionExportedOctets field corresponding to this Information Element does not exist, this Information Element SHOULD have a variable length and MUST NOT be padded. In this case, the size of the exported section may be constrained due to limitations in the IPFIX protocol. Further Information Elements, i.e., dataLinkFrameType and dataLinkFrameSize, are needed to specify the data link type and the size of the data link frame of this Information Element. A set of these Information Elements MAY be contained in a structured data type, as expressed in [RFC6313]. Or a set of these Information Elements MAY be contained in one Flow Record as shown in Appendix B of [RFC7133]. The data link layer is defined in [ISO/IEC.7498-1:1994]. Abstract Data Type: octetArray ElementId: 315 References: [RFC6313] [RFC7133] [ISO/IEC.7498-1:1994] Status: current

3.1.3. layer2OctetDeltaCount

The layer2OctetDeltaCount Information Element is unchanged from the existing IANA [IANA-IPFIX] definition and is reproduced here for reference only.
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   Description

      The number of layer 2 octets since the previous report (if any) in
      incoming packets for this Flow at the Observation Point.  The
      number of octets includes layer 2 header(s) and layer 2 payload.

   Abstract Data Type: unsigned64

   Data Type Semantics: deltaCounter

   Units: octets

   ElementId: 352

   Status: current

3.1.4. layer2OctetTotalCount

The layer2OctetTotalCount Information Element is unchanged from the existing IANA [IANA-IPFIX] definition and is reproduced here for reference only. Description: The total number of layer 2 octets in incoming packets for this Flow at the Observation Point since the Metering Process (re-)initialization for this Observation Point. The number of octets includes layer 2 header(s) and layer 2 payload. Abstract Data Type: unsigned64 Data Type Semantics: totalCounter Units: octets ElementId: 353 Status: current

3.1.5. layer2FrameDeltaCount

The layer2FrameDeltaCount Information Element is unchanged from the existing IANA [IANA-IPFIX] definition and is reproduced here for reference only.
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   Description:

      The number of incoming layer 2 frames since the previous report
      (if any) for this Flow at the Observation Point.

   Abstract Data Type: unsigned64

   Data Type Semantics: deltaCounter

   Units: frames

   ElementId: 430

   Status: current

3.1.6. layer2FrameTotalCount

The layer2FrameTotalCount Information Element is unchanged from the existing IANA [IANA-IPFIX] definition and is reproduced here for reference only. Description: The total number of incoming layer 2 frames for this Flow at the Observation Point since the Metering Process (re-)initialization for this Observation Point. Abstract Data Type: unsigned64 Data Type Semantics: totalCounter Units: frames ElementId: 431 Status: current

3.2. New Information Elements

The following new Information Elements have been added for data link layer monitoring. In IANA's IPFIX registry [IANA-IPFIX], the Requester has been set to [RFC7133], the Information Element's Revision has been set to zero, and the Information Element's Date set to the date upon which the new Information Elements have been added to the registry. All other
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   columns that are not explicitly mentioned below (e.g., Units, Range,
   References) are not applicable and are to be left blank since the
   registry does not explicitly record "not applicable".

3.2.1. dataLinkFrameType

Description: This Information Element specifies the type of the selected data link frame. The following data link types are defined here: - 0x01 IEEE802.3 ETHERNET [IEEE802.3] - 0x02 IEEE802.11 MAC Frame format [IEEE802.11] Further values may be assigned by IANA. Note that the assigned values are bits so that multiple observations can be OR'd together. The data link layer is defined in [ISO/IEC.7498-1:1994]. Abstract Data Type: unsigned16 Data Type Semantics: flags ElementId: 408 References: [IEEE802.3] [IEEE802.11] [ISO/IEC.7498-1:1994] Status: current

3.2.2. sectionOffset

Description: This Information Element specifies the offset of the packet section (e.g., dataLinkFrameSection, ipHeaderPacketSection, ipPayloadPacketSection, mplsLabelStackSection, and mplsPayloadPacketSection). If this Information Element is omitted, it defaults to zero (i.e., no offset). If multiple sectionOffset Information Elements are specified within a single Template, then they apply to the packet section Information Elements in order: the first sectionOffset applies to the first packet section, the second to the second, and so on. Note that the "closest" sectionOffset and packet section
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      Information Elements within a given Template are not necessarily
      related.  If there are fewer sectionOffset Information Elements
      than packet section Information Elements, then subsequent packet
      section Information Elements have no offset, i.e., a sectionOffset
      of zero applies to those packet section Information Elements.  If
      there are more sectionOffset Information Elements than the number
      of packet section Information Elements, then the additional
      sectionOffset Information Elements are meaningless.

   Abstract Data Type: unsigned16

   Data Type Semantics: quantity

   ElementId: 409

   Status: current

3.2.3. sectionExportedOctets

Description: This Information Element specifies the observed length of the packet section (e.g., dataLinkFrameSection, ipHeaderPacketSection, ipPayloadPacketSection, mplsLabelStackSection, and mplsPayloadPacketSection) when padding is used. The packet section may be of a fixed size larger than the sectionExportedOctets. In this case, octets in the packet section beyond the sectionExportedOctets MUST follow the [RFC7011] rules for padding (i.e., be composed of zero (0) valued octets). Abstract Data Type: unsigned16 Data Type Semantics: quantity ElementId: 410 References: [RFC7011] Status: current

3.2.4. dot1qServiceInstanceTag

Description: This Information Element, which is 16 octets long, represents the Backbone Service Instance Tag (I-TAG) Tag Control Information (TCI) field of an Ethernet frame as described in [IEEE802.1Q]. It
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      encodes the Backbone Service Instance Priority Code Point (I-PCP),
      Backbone Service Instance Drop Eligible Indicator (I-DEI), Use
      Customer Addresses (UCAs), Backbone Service Instance Identifier
      (I-SID), Encapsulated Customer Destination Address (C-DA),
      Encapsulated Customer Source Address (C-SA), and reserved fields.
      The structure and semantics within the Tag Control Information
      field are defined in [IEEE802.1Q].

   Abstract Data Type: octetArray

   Data Type Semantics: default

   ElementId: 411

   References: [IEEE802.1Q]

   Status: current

3.2.5. dot1qServiceInstanceId

Description: The value of the 24-bit Backbone Service Instance Identifier (I-SID) portion of the Backbone Service Instance Tag (I-TAG) Tag Control Information (TCI) field of an Ethernet frame as described in [IEEE802.1Q]. Abstract Data Type: unsigned32 Data Type Semantics: identifier ElementId: 412 References: [IEEE802.1Q] Status: current Range: The valid range is 0 - 16777215 (i.e., 24 bits).

3.2.6. dot1qServiceInstancePriority

Description: The value of the 3-bit Backbone Service Instance Priority Code Point (I-PCP) portion of the Backbone Service Instance Tag (I-TAG) Tag Control Information (TCI) field of an Ethernet frame as described in [IEEE802.1Q].
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   Abstract Data Type: unsigned8

   Data Type Semantics: identifier

   ElementId: 413

   References: [IEEE802.1Q]

   Status: current

   Range: The valid range is 0-7.

3.2.7. dot1qCustomerSourceMacAddress

Description: The value of the Encapsulated Customer Source Address (C-SA) portion of the Backbone Service Instance Tag (I-TAG) Tag Control Information (TCI) field of an Ethernet frame as described in [IEEE802.1Q]. Abstract Data Type: macAddress Data Type Semantics: default ElementId: 414 References: [IEEE802.1Q] Status: current

3.2.8. dot1qCustomerDestinationMacAddress

Description: The value of the Encapsulated Customer Destination Address (C-DA) portion of the Backbone Service Instance Tag (I-TAG) Tag Control Information (TCI) field of an Ethernet frame as described in [IEEE802.1Q]. Abstract Data Type: macAddress Data Type Semantics: default ElementId: 415
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   References: [IEEE802.1Q]

   Status: current

3.2.9. postL2OctetDeltaCount

Description: The definition of this Information Element is identical to the definition of the layer2OctetDeltaCount Information Element, except that it reports a potentially modified value caused by a middlebox function after the packet passed the Observation Point. This Information Element is the layer 2 version of postOctetDeltaCount (ElementId #23). Abstract Data Type: unsigned64 Data Type Semantics: deltaCounter ElementId: 417 References: [RFC5477] Status: current Units: octets

3.2.10. postMCastL2OctetDeltaCount

Description: The number of layer 2 octets since the previous report (if any) in outgoing multicast packets sent for packets of this Flow by a multicast daemon within the Observation Domain. This property cannot necessarily be observed at the Observation Point but may be retrieved by other means. The number of octets includes layer 2 header(s) and layer 2 payload. This Information Element is the layer 2 version of postMCastOctetDeltaCount (ElementId #20). Abstract Data Type: unsigned64 Data Type Semantics: deltaCounter ElementId: 418
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   References: [RFC5477]

   Status: current

   Units: octets

3.2.11. postL2OctetTotalCount

Description: The definition of this Information Element is identical to the definition of the layer2OctetTotalCount Information Element, except that it reports a potentially modified value caused by a middlebox function after the packet passed the Observation Point. This Information Element is the layer 2 version of postOctetTotalCount (ElementId #171). Abstract Data Type: unsigned64 Data Type Semantics: totalCounter ElementId: 420 References: [RFC5477] Status: current Units: octets

3.2.12. postMCastL2OctetTotalCount

Description: The total number of layer 2 octets in outgoing multicast packets sent for packets of this Flow by a multicast daemon in the Observation Domain since the Metering Process (re-)initialization. This property cannot necessarily be observed at the Observation Point but may be retrieved by other means. The number of octets includes layer 2 header(s) and layer 2 payload. This Information Element is the layer 2 version of postMCastOctetTotalCount (ElementId #175). Abstract Data Type: unsigned64 Data Type Semantics: totalCounter
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   ElementId: 421

   References: [RFC5477]

   Status: current

   Units: octets

3.2.13. minimumL2TotalLength

Description: Layer 2 length of the smallest packet observed for this Flow. The packet length includes the length of the layer 2 header(s) and the length of the layer 2 payload. This Information Element is the layer 2 version of minimumIpTotalLength (ElementId #25). Abstract Data Type: unsigned64 ElementId: 422 References: [RFC5477] Status: current Units: octets

3.2.14. maximumL2TotalLength

Description: Layer 2 length of the largest packet observed for this Flow. The packet length includes the length of the layer 2 header(s) and the length of the layer 2 payload. This Information Element is the layer 2 version of maximumIpTotalLength (ElementId #26). Abstract Data Type: unsigned64 ElementId: 423 References: [RFC5477]
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   Status: current

   Units: octets

3.2.15. droppedL2OctetDeltaCount

Description: The number of layer 2 octets since the previous report (if any) in packets of this Flow dropped by packet treatment. The number of octets includes layer 2 header(s) and layer 2 payload. This Information Element is the layer 2 version of droppedOctetDeltaCount (ElementId #132). Abstract Data Type: unsigned64 Data Type Semantics: deltaCounter ElementId: 424 References: [RFC5477] Status: current Units: octets

3.2.16. droppedL2OctetTotalCount

Description: The total number of octets in observed layer 2 packets (including the layer 2 header) that were dropped by packet treatment since the (re-)initialization of the Metering Process. This Information Element is the layer 2 version of droppedOctetTotalCount (ElementId #134). Abstract Data Type: unsigned64 Data Type Semantics: totalCounter ElementId: 425 References: [RFC5477]
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   Status: current

   Units: octets

3.2.17. ignoredL2OctetTotalCount

Description: The total number of octets in observed layer 2 packets (including the layer 2 header) that the Metering Process did not process since the (re-)initialization of the Metering Process. This Information Element is the layer 2 version of ignoredOctetTotalCount (ElementId #165). Abstract Data Type: unsigned64 Data Type Semantics: totalCounter ElementId: 426 References: [RFC5477] Status: current Units: octets

3.2.18. notSentL2OctetTotalCount

Description: The total number of octets in observed layer 2 packets (including the layer 2 header) that the Metering Process did not process since the (re-)initialization of the Metering Process. This Information Element is the layer 2 version of notSentOctetTotalCount (ElementId #168). Abstract Data Type: unsigned64 Data Type Semantics: totalCounter ElementId: 427 References: [RFC5477]
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   Status: current

   Units: octets

3.2.19. layer2OctetDeltaSumOfSquares

Description: The sum of the squared numbers of layer 2 octets per incoming packet since the previous report (if any) for this Flow at the Observation Point. The number of octets includes layer 2 header(s) and layer 2 payload. This Information Element is the layer 2 version of octetDeltaSumOfSquares (ElementId #198). Abstract Data Type: unsigned64 Data Type Semantics: deltaCounter ElementId: 428 References: [RFC5477] Status: current Units: octets

3.2.20. layer2OctetTotalSumOfSquares

Description: The total sum of the squared numbers of layer 2 octets in incoming packets for this Flow at the Observation Point since the Metering Process (re-)initialization for this Observation Point. The number of octets includes layer 2 header(s) and layer 2 payload. This Information Element is the layer 2 version of octetTotalSumOfSquares (ElementId #199). Abstract Data Type: unsigned64 Data Type Semantics: totalCounter ElementId: 429 References: [RFC5477]
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   Status: current

   Units: octets

4. Modification of Existing Information Elements Related to Packet Section

The new Information Elements related to packet section (i.e., sectionOffset and sectionExportedOctets) can be applied to not only dataLinkFrameSection but also to all kinds of packet section (i.e., ipHeaderPacketSection, ipPayloadPacketSection, mplsLabelStackSection, and mplsPayloadPacketSection defined in [RFC5477]). Therefore, existing Information Elements Descriptions should be modified as follows.

4.1. ipHeaderPacketSection

This Information Element is defined in [RFC5477]. The description has been updated from [RFC5477]. Description: This Information Element carries a series of n octets from the IP header of a sampled packet, starting sectionOffset octets into the IP header. However, if no sectionOffset field corresponding to this Information Element is present, then a sectionOffset of zero applies, and the octets MUST be from the start of the IP header. With sufficient length, this element also reports octets from the IP payload. However, full packet capture of arbitrary packet streams is explicitly out of scope per the Security Considerations sections of [RFC5477] and [RFC2804]. The sectionExportedOctets expresses how much data was exported, while the remainder is padding. When the sectionExportedOctets field corresponding to this Information Element exists, this Information Element MAY have a fixed length and MAY be padded, or it MAY have a variable length. When the sectionExportedOctets field corresponding to this Information Element does not exist, this Information Element SHOULD have a variable length and MUST NOT be padded. In this case, the size of the exported section may be constrained due to limitations in the IPFIX protocol.
Top   ToC   RFC7133 - Page 23
   Abstract Data Type: octetArray

   ElementId: 313

   References: [RFC2804] [RFC5477]

   Status: current

4.2. ipPayloadPacketSection

This Information Element is defined in [RFC5477]. The description is updated from [RFC5477]. Description: This Information Element carries a series of n octets from the IP payload of a sampled packet, starting sectionOffset octets into the IP payload. However, if no sectionOffset field corresponding to this Information Element is present, then a sectionOffset of zero applies, and the octets MUST be from the start of the IP payload. The IPv4 payload is that part of the packet that follows the IPv4 header and any options, which [RFC0791] refers to as "data" or "data octets". For example, see the examples in [RFC0791], Appendix A. The IPv6 payload is the rest of the packet following the 40-octet IPv6 header. Note that any extension headers present are considered part of the payload. See [RFC2460] for the IPv6 specification. The sectionExportedOctets expresses how much data was observed, while the remainder is padding. When the sectionExportedOctets field corresponding to this Information Element exists, this Information Element MAY have a fixed length and MAY be padded, or it MAY have a variable length. When the sectionExportedOctets field corresponding to this Information Element does not exist, this Information Element SHOULD have a variable length and MUST NOT be padded. In this case, the size of the exported section may be constrained due to limitations in the IPFIX protocol.
Top   ToC   RFC7133 - Page 24
   Abstract Data Type: octetArray

   ElementId: 314

   References: [RFC0791] [RFC2460]

   Status: current

4.3. mplsLabelStackSection

This Information Element is defined in [RFC5477]. The description is updated from [RFC5477]. Description: This Information Element carries a series of n octets from the MPLS label stack of a sampled packet, starting sectionOffset octets into the MPLS label stack. However, if no sectionOffset field corresponding to this Information Element is present, then a sectionOffset of zero applies, and the octets MUST be from the head of the MPLS label stack. With sufficient length, this element also reports octets from the MPLS payload. However, full packet capture of arbitrary packet streams is explicitly out of scope per the Security Considerations sections of [RFC5477] and [RFC2804]. See [RFC3031] for the specification of MPLS packets. See [RFC3032] for the specification of the MPLS label stack. The sectionExportedOctets expresses how much data was observed, while the remainder is padding. When the sectionExportedOctets field corresponding to this Information Element exists, this Information Element MAY have a fixed length and MAY be padded, or it MAY have a variable length. When the sectionExportedOctets field corresponding to this Information Element does not exist, this Information Element SHOULD have a variable length and MUST NOT be padded. In this case, the size of the exported section may be constrained due to limitations in the IPFIX protocol.
Top   ToC   RFC7133 - Page 25
   Abstract Data Type: octetArray

   ElementId: 316

   References: [RFC2804] [RFC3031] [RFC3032] [RFC5477]

   Status: current

4.4. mplsPayloadPacketSection

This Information Element is defined in [RFC5477]. The description is updated from [RFC5477]. Description: The mplsPayloadPacketSection carries a series of n octets from the MPLS payload of a sampled packet, starting sectionOffset octets into the MPLS payload, as it is data that follows immediately after the MPLS label stack. However, if no sectionOffset field corresponding to this Information Element is present, then a sectionOffset of zero applies, and the octets MUST be from the start of the MPLS payload. See [RFC3031] for the specification of MPLS packets. See [RFC3032] for the specification of the MPLS label stack. The sectionExportedOctets expresses how much data was observed, while the remainder is padding. When the sectionExportedOctets field corresponding to this Information Element exists, this Information Element MAY have a fixed length and MAY be padded, or it MAY have a variable length. When the sectionExportedOctets field corresponding to this Information Element does not exist, this Information Element SHOULD have a variable length and MUST NOT be padded. In this case, the size of the exported section may be constrained due to limitations in the IPFIX protocol. Abstract Data Type: octetArray ElementId: 317
Top   ToC   RFC7133 - Page 26
   References: [RFC3031] [RFC3032]

   Status: current

5. Modification of Existing Information Elements Related to VLAN Tag

The traffic measurement using IPFIX and PSAMP for a Provider Backbone Bridged Network requires the Information Elements related to Backbone Service Instance Tag (I-TAG) and Backbone VLAN Tag (B-TAG). The set of Information Elements related to I-TAG is added in Section 3, because I-TAG structure and semantics are different from that of Service VLAN Tag (S-TAG) and Customer VLAN Tag (C-TAG). The set of Information Elements related to B-TAG reuses the existing Information Elements, because B-TAG structure and semantics are identical to that of C-TAG and S-TAG. This section modifies existing descriptions and references related to C-TAG and S-TAG as follows.

5.1. dot1qVlanId

Description: The value of the 12-bit VLAN Identifier portion of the Tag Control Information field of an Ethernet frame. The structure and semantics within the Tag Control Information field are defined in [IEEE802.1Q]. In Provider Bridged Networks, it represents the Service VLAN identifier in the Service VLAN Tag (S-TAG) Tag Control Information (TCI) field or the Customer VLAN identifier in the Customer VLAN Tag (C-TAG) Tag Control Information (TCI) field as described in [IEEE802.1Q]. In Provider Backbone Bridged Networks, it represents the Backbone VLAN identifier in the Backbone VLAN Tag (B-TAG) Tag Control Information (TCI) field as described in [IEEE802.1Q]. In a virtual link between a host system and EVB bridge, it represents the Service VLAN identifier indicating S-channel as described in [IEEE802.1Qbg]. In the case of a multi-tagged frame, it represents the outer tag's VLAN identifier, except for I-TAG. Abstract Data Type: unsigned16 Data Type Semantics: identifier ElementId: 243 Status: current References: [IEEE802.1Q] [IEEE802.1Qbg]
Top   ToC   RFC7133 - Page 27

5.2. dot1qPriority

Description: The value of the 3-bit User Priority portion of the Tag Control Information field of an Ethernet frame. The structure and semantics within the Tag Control Information field are defined in [IEEE802.1Q]. In the case of a multi-tagged frame, it represents the 3-bit Priority Code Point (PCP) portion of the outer tag's Tag Control Information (TCI) field as described in [IEEE802.1Q], except for I-TAG. Abstract Data Type: unsigned8 Data Type Semantics: identifier ElementId: 244 Status: current References: [IEEE802.1Q]

5.3. dot1qCustomerVlanId

Description: The value represents the Customer VLAN identifier in the Customer VLAN Tag (C-TAG) Tag Control Information (TCI) field as described in [IEEE802.1Q]. Abstract Data Type: unsigned16 Data Type Semantics: identifier ElementId: 245 Status: current References: [IEEE802.1Q]

5.4. dot1qCustomerPriority

Description: The value represents the 3-bit Priority Code Point (PCP) portion of the Customer VLAN Tag (C-TAG) Tag Control Information (TCI) field as described in [IEEE802.1Q].
Top   ToC   RFC7133 - Page 28
   Abstract Data Type: unsigned8

   Data Type Semantics: identifier

   ElementId: 246

   Status: current

   References: [IEEE802.1Q]

6. The Relationship between Ethernet Header Fields and Information Elements

The following figures show a summary of various Ethernet header fields and the Informational Elements that would be used to represent each of the fields. <-- 6 --> <-- 6 --> <-- 4 --> <---- 2 ----> +---------+---------+---------+-------------+ | | | | | | C-DA | C-SA | C-TAG | Length/Type | | a | b | c | d | +---------+---------+---------+-------------+ a.(Information Element) destinationMacAddress (80) b.(Information Element) sourceMacAddress (56) c.(Information Elements) dot1qVlanId (243), dot1qPriority (244) d.(Information Element) ethernetType (256) Figure 1: Customer-Tagged Frame Header Fields <-- 6 --> <-- 6 --> <-- 4 --> <-- 4 --> <---- 2 ----> +---------+---------+---------+---------+-------------+ | | | | | | | C-DA | C-SA | S-TAG | C-TAG | Length/Type | | a | b | c | d | e | +---------+---------+---------+---------+-------------+ a.(Information Element) destinationMacAddress (80) b.(Information Element) sourceMacAddress (56) c.(Information Elements) dot1qVlanId (243), dot1qPriority (244) d.(Information Elements) dot1qCustomerVlanId (245), dot1qCustomerPriority (246) e.(Information Element) ethernetType (256) Figure 2: Service-Tagged Frame Header Fields
Top   ToC   RFC7133 - Page 29
    <-- 6 --> <-- 6 --> <-- 4 --> <--- 16 ---> <-- 4 --> <---- 2 ---->
   +---------+---------+---------+------------+---------+-------------+
   |         |         |         |            |         |             |
   |  B-DA   |  B-SA   |  B-TAG  |   I-TAG    |  C-TAG  | Length/Type |
   |    a    |    b    |    c    |     d      |    e    |      f      |
   +---------+---------+---------+------------+---------+-------------+

   a.(Information Element)  destinationMacAddress (80)
   b.(Information Element)  sourceMacAddress (56)
   c.(Information Elements) dot1qVlanId (243), dot1qPriority (244)
   d.(Information Elements) dot1qServiceInstanceTag (411), or
                            a set of dot1qServiceInstanceId (412),
                            dot1qServiceInstancePriority (413),
                            dot1qCustomerSourceMacAddress (414)
                            dot1qCustomerDestinationMacAddress (415),
   e.(Information Elements) dot1qCustomerVlanId (245),
                            dot1qCustomerPriority (246)
   f.(Information Element)  ethernetType (256)

            Figure 3: Backbone-VLAN-Tagged Frame Header Fields

7. Security Considerations

Reporting more granular data may increase the risk of DoS attacks against a Collector. Protection against DoS attacks is discussed in Section 11.4 of [RFC7011]. The recommendations in this document do not otherwise introduce any additional security issues beyond those already mentioned in [RFC7011] and [RFC5477].

8. IANA Considerations

Existing IPFIX Information Elements [IANA-IPFIX] have been modified as indicated in Sections 3.1, 4, and 5. Per Section 5.2 of [RFC7013], for each of these changes, [RFC7133] has been appended to the Requester in IANA's IPFIX registry [IANA-IPFIX], the Information Element's Revision number has been incremented by one, and the Information Element's revision Date column has been updated. New IPFIX Information Elements [IANA-IPFIX] have been allocated as shown in Section 3.2.
Top   ToC   RFC7133 - Page 30

9. Acknowledgments

Thanks to Brian Trammell and the IPFIX working group participants who contributed to mailing-list discussions throughout the development of this document. Special thanks to Pat Thaler for her help with the IEEE 802 aspects of this work.

10. References

10.1. Normative References

[IEEE802.11] IEEE, "IEEE Standard for Information technology. Telecommunications and information exchange between systems Local and metropolitan area networks. Specific requirements Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications", IEEE Std 802.11-2012, March 2012. [IEEE802.1BR] IEEE, "IEEE Standard for Local and metropolitan area networks: Virtual Bridged Local Area Networks: Bridge Port Extension", IEEE Std 802.1BR-2012, July 2012. [IEEE802.1Q] IEEE, "IEEE Standard for Local and metropolitan area networks: Media Access Control (MAC) Bridges and Virtual Bridged Local Area Networks", IEEE Std 802.1Q-2011, August 2011. [IEEE802.1Qbg] IEEE, "IEEE Standard for Local and metropolitan area networks: Media Access Control (MAC) Bridges and Virtual Bridged Local Area Networks: Amendment 21: Edge Virtual Bridging", IEEE Std 802.1Qbg-2012, July 2012. [IEEE802.3] IEEE, "IEEE Standard for Ethernet", IEEE Std 802.3-2012, December 2012. [RFC0791] Postel, J., "Internet Protocol", STD 5, RFC 791, September 1981. [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997. [RFC2460] Deering, S. and R. Hinden, "Internet Protocol, Version 6 (IPv6) Specification", RFC 2460, December 1998. [RFC3031] Rosen, E., Viswanathan, A., and R. Callon, "Multiprotocol Label Switching Architecture", RFC 3031, January 2001.
Top   ToC   RFC7133 - Page 31
   [RFC3032]      Rosen, E., Tappan, D., Fedorkow, G., Rekhter, Y.,
                  Farinacci, D., Li, T., and A. Conta, "MPLS Label Stack
                  Encoding", RFC 3032, January 2001.

   [RFC5477]      Dietz, T., Claise, B., Aitken, P., Dressler, F., and
                  G.  Carle, "Information Model for Packet Sampling
                  Exports", RFC 5477, March 2009.

   [RFC6313]      Claise, B., Dhandapani, G., Aitken, P., and S. Yates,
                  "Export of Structured Data in IP Flow Information
                  Export (IPFIX)", RFC 6313, July 2011.

   [RFC7011]      Claise, B., Trammell, B., and P. Aitken,
                  "Specification of the IP Flow Information Export
                  (IPFIX) Protocol for the Exchange of Flow
                  Information", STD 77, RFC 7011, September 2013.

10.2. Informative References

[IANA-IPFIX] IANA, "IP Flow Information Export (IPFIX) Entities", <http://www.iana.org/assignments/ipfix>. [IEEE802.1D] IEEE, "IEEE Standard for Local and metropolitan area networks: Media Access Control (MAC) Bridges", IEEE Std 802.1D-2004, June 2004. [ISO/IEC.7498-1:1994] International Organization for Standardization, "Information technology -- Open Systems Interconnection -- Basic Reference Model: The Basic Mode", ISO Standard 7498-1:1994, June 1996. [RFC2804] IAB and IESG, "IETF Policy on Wiretapping", RFC 2804, May 2000. [RFC7012] Claise, B. and B. Trammell, "Information Model for IP Flow Information Export (IPFIX)", RFC 7012, September 2013. [RFC7013] Trammell, B. and B. Claise, "Guidelines for Authors and Reviewers of IP Flow Information Export (IPFIX) Information Elements", BCP 184, RFC 7013, September 2013.
Top   ToC   RFC7133 - Page 32

Appendix A. Frame Formats

0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | C-DA | + +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | | | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ + | C-SA | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Length/Type | | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ + | | ~ Customer Data ~ ~ ~ | | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ Figure A-1: Untagged Frame Format 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | C-DA | + +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | | | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ + | C-SA | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | C-TAG TPID=0x8100 |C-PCP|C| C-VID | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Length/Type | | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ + | | ~ Customer Data ~ ~ ~ | | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ Figure A-2: C-TAG Tagging Frame Format
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   0                   1                   2                   3
   0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                              C-DA                             |
   +                               +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                               |                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                               +
   |                              C-SA                             |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |        S-TAG TPID=0x88a8      |S-PCP|D|         S-VID         |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |          Length/Type          |                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                               +
   |                                                               |
   ~                         Customer Data                         ~
   ~                                                               ~
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

    Figure A-3: S-TAG Tagging Frame Format in Provider Bridged Networks


   0                   1                   2                   3
   0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                              C-DA                             |
   +                               +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                               |                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                               +
   |                              C-SA                             |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |        S-TAG TPID=0x88a8      |S-PCP|D|         S-VID         |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |        C-TAG TPID=0x8100      |C-PCP|C|         C-VID         |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |          Length/Type          |                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                               +
   |                                                               |
   ~                         Customer Data                         ~
   ~                                                               ~
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Figure A-4: S-TAG and C-TAG Tagging Frame Format in Provider Bridged
                                 Networks
Top   ToC   RFC7133 - Page 34
   0                   1                   2                   3
   0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                              B-DA                             |
   +                               +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                               |                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                               +
   |                              B-SA                             |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |        B-TAG TPID=0x88a8      |B-PCP|D|         B-VID         |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |        I-TAG TPID=0x88e7      |I-PCP|D|U| Res |     I-SID     |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |             I-SID             |                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                               +
   |                              C-DA                             |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                              C-SA                             |
   +                               +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                               |          Length/Type          |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                                                               |
   ~                         Customer Data                         ~
   ~                                                               ~
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Figure A-5: B-TAG and I-TAG Tagging Frame Format in Provider Backbone
                             Bridged Networks
Top   ToC   RFC7133 - Page 35
   0                   1                   2                   3
   0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                              B-DA                             |
   +                               +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                               |                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                               +
   |                              B-SA                             |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |        B-TAG TPID=0x88a8      |B-PCP|D|         B-VID         |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |        I-TAG TPID=0x88e7      |I-PCP|D|U| Res |     I-SID     |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |             I-SID             |                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                               +
   |                              C-DA                             |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                              C-SA                             |
   +                               +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                               |        C-TAG TCI=0x8100       |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |C-PCP|C|         C-VID         |          Length/Type          |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                                                               |
   ~                         Customer Data                         ~
   ~                                                               ~
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Figure A-6: B-TAG, I-TAG, and C-TAG Tagging Frame Format in Provider
                         Backbone Bridged Networks
Top   ToC   RFC7133 - Page 36
   0                   1                   2                   3
   0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                              C-DA                             |
   +                               +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                               |                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                               +
   |                              C-SA                             |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |        S-TAG TPID=0x88a8      |S-PCP|D|         S-VID         |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |          Length/Type          |                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                               +
   |                                                               |
   ~                         Customer Data                         ~
   ~                                                               ~
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

    Figure A-7: S-TAG Tagging Frame Format for S-channel over the Link
              between an End Station and Its Adjacent Bridge

   Note: The frame format in Figure A-7 is identical to the format in
   Figure A-3.
Top   ToC   RFC7133 - Page 37
   0                   1                   2                   3
   0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                              C-DA                             |
   +                               +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                               |                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                               +
   |                              C-SA                             |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |        S-TAG TPID=0x88a8      |S-PCP|D|         S-VID         |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |        C-TAG TPID=0x8100      |C-PCP|C|         C-VID         |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |          Length/Type          |                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                               +
   |                                                               |
   ~                         Customer Data                         ~
   ~                                                               ~
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      Figure A-8: S-TAG and C-TAG Tagging Frame Format over the Link
              between an End Station and Its Adjacent Bridge

   Note: The frame format in Figure A-8 is identical to the format in
   Figure A-4.
Top   ToC   RFC7133 - Page 38
   0                   1                   2                   3
   0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                              C-DA                             |
   +                               +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                               |                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                               +
   |                              C-SA                             |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |        E-TAG TPID=0x893F      |E-PCP|D|   Ingress_E-CID_base  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |Res|GRP|      E-CID_base       |Ingre_E-CID_ext|    E-CID_ext  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |          Length/Type          |                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                               +
   |                                                               |
   ~                         Customer Data                         ~
   ~                                                               ~
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      Figure A-9: E-TAG Tagging Frame Format over the Link between a
               Controlling Bridge and a Bridge Port Extender
Top   ToC   RFC7133 - Page 39
   0                   1                   2                   3
   0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                              C-DA                             |
   +                               +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                               |                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                               +
   |                              C-SA                             |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |        E-TAG TPID=0x893F      |E-PCP|D|   Ingress_E-CID_base  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |Res|GRP|      E-CID_base       |Ingre_E-CID_ext|    E-CID_ext  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |        C-TAG TPID=0x8100      |C-PCP|C|         C-VID         |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |          Length/Type          |                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                               +
   |                                                               |
   ~                         Customer Data                         ~
   ~                                                               ~
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      Figure A-10: E-TAG and C-TAG Tagging Frame Format over the Link
          between a Controlling Bridge and a Bridge Port Extender
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Appendix B. Template Format Example

0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Set ID (2) | Length | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Template ID (256) | Field Count (8) | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | ingressInterface (10) | Field Length (4) | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | egressInterface (14) | Field Length (4) | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | observationTimeSeconds (322) | Field Length (8) | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | dataLinkFrameSize (312) | Field Length (2) | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | dataLinkFrameSection (315) | Field Length (65535) | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | dataLinkFrameType (408) | Field Length (2) | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | sectionOffset (409) | Field Length (2) | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | sectionExportedOctets (410) | Field Length (2) | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ Figure B-1: Template Format Example
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Authors' Addresses

Shingo Kashima Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation 1-5-1 Otemachi Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8116 Japan Phone: +81 3 6838 5267 EMail: kashima@nttv6.net Atsushi Kobayashi Nippon Telegraph and Telephone East Corporation 3-19-2 Nishi-shinjuku Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 163-8019 Japan Phone: +81 3 5359 4351 EMail: akoba@nttv6.net Paul Aitken Cisco Systems, Inc. 96 Commercial Quay Commercial Street, Edinburgh EH6 6LX United Kingdom Phone: +44 131 561 3616 EMail: paitken@cisco.com