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RFC 6794

A Framework for Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) Session Policies

Pages: 36
Proposed Standard

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Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)                           V. Hilt
Request for Comments: 6794                      Bell Labs/Alcatel-Lucent
Category: Standards Track                                   G. Camarillo
ISSN: 2070-1721                                                 Ericsson
                                                            J. Rosenberg
                                                             jdrosen.net
                                                           December 2012


   A Framework for Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) Session Policies

Abstract

Proxy servers play a central role as an intermediary in the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) as they define and impact policies on call routing, rendezvous, and other call features. This document specifies a framework for SIP session policies that provides a standard mechanism by which a proxy can define or influence policies on sessions, such as the codecs or media types to be used. It defines a model, an overall architecture and new protocol mechanisms for session policies. Status of This Memo This is an Internet Standards Track document. This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). It represents the consensus of the IETF community. It has received public review and has been approved for publication by the Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG). Further information on Internet Standards is available in Section 2 of RFC 5741. Information about the current status of this document, any errata, and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6794. Copyright Notice Copyright (c) 2012 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the document authors. All rights reserved. This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal Provisions Relating to IETF Documents (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of publication of this document. Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must
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   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

1. Introduction ....................................................3 2. Terminology .....................................................5 3. Session-Independent Policies ....................................5 3.1. Architecture and Overview ..................................5 3.2. Policy Subscription ........................................6 3.2.1. User Agent Client (UAC) Behavior ....................6 3.2.2. User Agent Server (UAS) Behavior ....................8 4. Session-Specific Policies .......................................8 4.1. Architecture ...............................................8 4.2. Overview ...................................................9 4.3. Examples ..................................................11 4.3.1. Offer in Request ...................................11 4.3.2. Offer in Response ..................................13 4.4. UA/Policy Server Rendezvous ...............................15 4.4.1. UAC Behavior .......................................15 4.4.2. Proxy Behavior .....................................17 4.4.3. UAS Behavior .......................................20 4.4.4. Caching the Local Policy Server URI ................21 4.4.5. Header Field Definition and Syntax .................22 4.5. Policy Channel ............................................23 4.5.1. Creation and Management ............................24 4.5.2. Contacting the Policy Server .......................25 4.5.3. Using Session Policies .............................26 5. Security Considerations ........................................27 6. IANA Considerations ............................................29 6.1. Registration of the "Policy-ID" Header Field ..............29 6.2. Registration of the "Policy-Contact" Header Field .........29 6.3. Registration of the "non-cacheable" Policy-Contact Header Field Parameter ....................................29 6.4. Registration of the "policy" SIP Option Tag ...............29 7. References .....................................................30 7.1. Normative References ......................................30 7.2. Informative References ....................................31 Appendix A. Acknowledgements ......................................32 Appendix B. Session-Specific Policies - Call Flows ................32 B.1. Offer in Invite ...........................................32 B.2. Offer in Response .........................................34 B.3. Multiple Policy Servers for the UAS .......................35
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1. Introduction

The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) [RFC3261] is a signaling protocol for creating, modifying and terminating multimedia sessions. A central element in SIP is the proxy server. Proxy servers are intermediaries that are responsible for request routing, rendezvous, authentication and authorization, mobility, and other signaling services. However, proxies are divorced from the actual sessions -- audio, video, and session-mode messaging -- that SIP establishes. Details of the sessions are carried in the payload of SIP messages, and are usually described with the Session Description Protocol (SDP) [RFC4566]. Experience has shown that there is a need for SIP intermediaries to impact aspects of a session. For example, SIP can be used in a wireless network, which has limited resources for media traffic. During periods of high activity, the wireless network provider could want to restrict the amount of bandwidth available to each user. With session policies, an intermediary in the wireless network can inform the user agent (UA) about the bandwidth it has available. This information enables the user agent to make an informed decision about the number of streams, the media types, and the codecs it can successfully use in a session. Similarly, a network provider can have a service level agreement with a user that defines the set of media types the user can use. With session policies, the network can convey the current set of policies to user agents, enabling them to set up sessions without inadvertently violating any of the network policies. In another example, a SIP user agent is using a network that is connected to the public Internet through a firewall or a network border device. The network provider would like to tell the user agent that it needs to send its media streams to a specific IP address and port on the firewall or border device to reach the public Internet. Knowing this policy enables the user agent to set up sessions across the firewall or the network border. In contrast to other methods for inserting a media intermediary, the use of session policies does not require the inspection or modification of SIP message bodies. Domains often have the need to enforce the session policies they have in place. For example, a domain might have a policy that disallows the use of video and can have an enforcement mechanism that drops all packets containing a video encoding. Unfortunately, these enforcement mechanisms usually do not inform the user about the policies they are enforcing. Instead, they silently keep the user from doing anything against them. This can lead to a malfunctioning of devices that is incomprehensible to the user. With session
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   policies, the user knows about the current network policies and can
   set up policy-compliant sessions or simply connect to a domain with
   less stringent policies.  Thus, session policies provide an important
   combination of consent coupled with enforcement.  That is, the user
   becomes aware of the policy and needs to act on it, but the provider
   still retains the right to enforce the policy.

   Two types of session policies exist: session-specific policies and
   session-independent policies.  Session-specific policies are policies
   that are created for one particular session, based on the session
   description of that session.  They enable a network intermediary to
   examine the session description a UA is proposing and to return a
   policy specifically for that session description.  For example, an
   intermediary could open pinholes in a firewall/NAT for each media
   stream in the proposed session description.  It can then return a
   policy for the session description that replaces the IP addresses and
   ports of the UA with the ones opened in the firewall/NAT that are
   reachable from the exterior.  Session-specific policies provide
   information about a specific session to a domain, which can be used
   to implement policies for opening pinholes on a firewall/NAT.  Since
   session-specific policies are tailored to a session, they only apply
   to the session for which they are created.  Session-specific policies
   are created on a session-by-session basis at the time the session is
   established.

   Session-independent policies, on the other hand, are policies that
   are created independent of a session and generally apply to all SIP
   sessions set up by a user agent.  A session-independent policy can,
   for example, be used to inform user agents about an existing
   bandwidth limit or media type restrictions.  Since these policies are
   not based on a specific session description, they can be created
   independent of an attempt to set up a session and only need to be
   conveyed to the user agent when it initializes (e.g., at the time the
   device is powered on) and when policies are changed.

   This specification defines a framework for SIP session policies.  It
   specifies a model, the overall architecture and new protocol
   mechanisms that are needed for session-independent and session-
   specific policies.  Since session-specific and session-independent
   policies have different requirements, this specification defines two
   different mechanisms to deliver them to user agents.  These
   mechanisms are independent of each other, and, depending on whether
   one or both types of session policies are needed, it is possible to
   use the session-specific or the session-independent mechanism or both
   to deliver policies to user agents.
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   It is RECOMMENDED that UAs and intermediaries use the mechanisms
   defined in this specification for signaling session policies to
   endpoints.  To ensure backwards compatibility with UAs that do not
   support this specification, intermediaries may choose to resort to
   existing mechanisms such as rejecting sessions that are not policy
   compliant with a 488 response as a fallback solution if a UA does not
   indicate support for session policies.  UAs that do not support
   session policies will receive the same user experience as they would
   today.  As these techniques are known to have many drawbacks, it is
   RECOMMENDED that UAs and intermediaries use explicit signaling of
   policies using the mechanisms defined in this specification.

2. Terminology

The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

3. Session-Independent Policies

Session-independent policies are policies that are created independent of a session and generally apply to all sessions a user agent is setting up. They typically remain stable for a longer period of time and apply to any session set up while they are valid. However, it is possible for session-independent policies to change over time. For example, a policy that defines a bandwidth limit for a user can change during the day, defining a lower limit during peak hours and allow more bandwidth off-peak. The policy server informs a UA when session-independent policies change.

3.1. Architecture and Overview

+-------------+ /------| policy | +----+ / | server 1 | | |---/ +-------------+ | UA | ... | |---\ +-------------+ +----+ \ | policy | \------| server n | +-------------+ Figure 1 A SIP UA can receive session-independent policies from one or more policy servers. In a typical configuration, a UA receives session- independent policies from a policy server in the local network domain
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   (i.e., the domain from which the UA receives IP service) and possibly
   the SIP service provider domain (i.e., the domain at which the UA
   registers).  The local network can have policies that support the
   access network infrastructure.  For example, in a wireless network
   where bandwidth is scarce, a provider can restrict the bandwidth
   available to an individual user.  The SIP service provider can have
   policies that are needed to support services or policies that reflect
   the service level agreement with the user.  Thus, in most cases, a UA
   will receive session-independent policies from one or two policy
   servers.

   Setting up session-independent policies involves the following steps:

   1.  A user agent discovers session-independent policy servers in the
       local network and SIP service provider domain.

   2.  A user agent requests session-independent policies from the
       discovered policy servers.  A user agent typically requests these
       policies when it starts up or connects to a new network domain.

   3.  The policy server selects the policies that apply to this user
       agent.  The policy server can have general policies that apply to
       all users or maintain separate policies for each individual user.
       The selected policies are returned to the user agent.

   4.  The policy server can update the policies, for example, when
       network conditions change.

3.2. Policy Subscription

3.2.1. User Agent Client (UAC) Behavior

A UA that supports session-independent policies compliant to this specification MUST attempt to retrieve session-independent policies from the local network and the SIP service provider domain, unless the UA knows (e.g., through configuration) that a domain does not provide session-independent policies (in which case the UA SHOULD NOT retrieve session-independent policies from this specific domain). A UA that supports session-independent policies compliant to this specification MUST support the retrieval of session-independent policies from the local network and the SIP service provider domain using the "ua-profile" event package defined in "A Framework for Session Initiation Protocol User Agent Profile Delivery" [RFC6080]. The UA MAY support other methods of retrieving session-independent policies from the local network and the SIP service provider domains.
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   The "ua-profile" event package [RFC6080] provides a mechanism to
   subscribe to session-independent policies.  A UA subscribes to the
   policy server in the local network domain using the procedures
   defined for the "local-network" profile-type.  The UA uses the
   procedures defined for the "user" profile type to subscribe to the
   policy server in the SIP service provider domain.

   A UA (re-)subscribes to session-independent policies when the
   following events occur:

   o  The UA registers a new address-of-record (AoR) or removes an AoR
      from the set of AoRs it has registered.  In these cases, the UA
      MUST establish subscriptions for each new AoR using the "user" and
      the "local-network" profile-types.  The UA MUST terminate all
      subscriptions for AoRs it has removed.

   o  The UA changes the domain to which it is connected.  The UA MUST
      terminate all existing subscriptions for the "local-network"
      profile-type.  The UA MUST then create a new subscription for each
      AoR it maintains using the "local-network" profile-type.  This
      way, the UA stops receiving policies from the previous local
      domain and starts to receive the policies of the new local domain.
      The UA does not need to change the subscriptions for "user"
      profiles.

   If a UA is unable to establish a subscription, the UA SHOULD NOT
   attempt to retry this subscription, unless one of the above events
   occurs again.  This is to limit the number of SUBSCRIBE requests sent
   within domains that do not support session-independent policies.
   However, a UA SHOULD retry the subscription with a longer time
   interval (e.g., once every 24 hours).  This enables UAs to detect new
   policies that are deployed in a network that previously did not have
   policies.

   A UA that supports session-independent policies compliant to this
   specification MUST support the User Agent Profile Data Set for Media
   Policy [RFC6796].  To indicate that the UA wants to receive session-
   independent policies, the UA includes the MIME type "application/
   media-policy-dataset+xml" in the Accept header field of a SUBSCRIBE
   request.

   A UA MUST apply the session-independent policies it has received and
   use these policies in the session descriptions it creates.  If the UA
   decides not to use the received policies, then the UA MUST NOT set up
   a session unless it changes the domain that provided these policies.
   A UA MAY try to connect to another local network and/or SIP service
   provider domain with a different set of policies.
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   If a UA receives both session-independent and session-specific
   policies, the UA MUST apply the session-independent policies to the
   session description before the session description is sent to the
   session-specific policy server (see Section 4).  Thus, session-
   independent policies are always applied before session-specific
   policies are retrieved.

3.2.2. User Agent Server (UAS) Behavior

A policy server MAY send a notification to the UA every time the session-independent policies covered by the subscription change. The definition of what causes a policy to change is at the discretion of the administrator. A change in the policy can be triggered, for example, by a change in the network status, by the change in the time of day or by an update of the service level agreement with the customer.

4. Session-Specific Policies

Session-specific policies are policies that are created specifically for one particular session of a UA. Thus, session-specific policies will typically be different for different sessions. The session- specific policies for a session can change during the course of the session. For example, a user can run out of credit during a session, which will cause the network to disallow the transmission all media streams from this point on.

4.1. Architecture

domain 1 +-----------+ /------| proxy |----... +----+ / +-----------+ | |---/ +-----------+ | | | policy | | UA |============| server | | | +-----------+ | |**** +-----------+ +----+ * | policy | *******|enforcement|****... +-----------+ --- SIP Signaling === Policy Channel *** Media Figure 2
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   The following entities are needed for session-specific policies (see
   Figure 2): a user agent (UA), a proxy, a policy server, and possibly
   a policy enforcement entity.

   The role of the proxy is to provide a rendezvous mechanism for UAs
   and policy servers.  It ensures that each UA has the URI [RFC3986] of
   the policy server in its domain and knows from where to retrieve
   policies.  The proxy conveys the policy server URI to UAs in case
   they have not yet received it (e.g., in a previous call or through
   configuration).  The proxy does not deliver the actual policies to
   UAs.

   The policy server is a separate logical entity that can be physically
   co-located with the proxy.  The role of the policy server is to
   deliver session policies to UAs.  The policy server receives session
   information from the UA, uses this information to determine the
   policies that apply to the session, and returns these policies to the
   UA.  The mechanism for generating policies (i.e., making policy
   decisions) is outside of the scope of this specification.  A policy
   server can, for example, query an external entity to get policies or
   it can directly incorporate a policy decision point and generate
   policies locally.

   A UA receives the URI of a policy server from a proxy.  It uses this
   URI to contact the policy server.  It provides information about the
   current session to the policy server and receives session policies in
   response.  The UA can also receive policy updates from the policy
   server during the course of a session.

   A network can have a policy enforcement infrastructure in place.
   However, this specification does not make any assumptions about the
   enforcement of session policies and the mechanisms defined here are
   orthogonal to a policy enforcement infrastructure.

   In principle, each domain that is traversed by SIP signaling messages
   can define session-specific policies for a session.  Each domain
   needs to run a policy server and a proxy that is able to rendezvous a
   UA with the policy server (as shown in Figure 2).  However, it is
   expected that session-specific policies will often only be provided
   by the local domain of the user agent.

4.2. Overview

The protocol defined in this specification clearly separates SIP signaling and the exchange of policies. SIP signaling is only used to rendezvous the UA with the policy server. From this point on, UA and policy server communicate directly with each other over a separate policy channel. This is opposed to a piggyback model, where
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   the exchange of policy information between endpoint and a policy
   server in the network is piggybacked onto the SIP signaling messages
   that are exchanged between endpoints.

   The main advantage of using a separate policy channel is that it
   decouples signaling between endpoints from the policy exchange
   between an endpoint and a policy server.  This decoupling has a
   number of desirable properties.  It enables the use of separate
   encryption mechanisms on the signaling path, to secure the
   communication between endpoints, and on the policy channel, to secure
   the communication between endpoint and policy server.  Policies can
   be submitted directly from the policy server to the endpoint.  They
   do not travel along the signaling path, which can potentially cross
   many domains.  Endpoints set up a separate policy channel to each
   policy server and can disclose the information requested by the
   specific policy server (e.g., offer or offer/answer).  Finally,
   policy servers do not need to rely on a SIP signaling message flowing
   by to send policies or policy updates to an endpoint.  A policy
   server can use the policy channel at any time to update session
   policies as needed.  A disadvantage of the separate channel model is
   that it requires additional messages for the exchange of policy
   information.

   Following this model, signaling for session-specific policies
   involves the following two fundamental tasks:

   1.  UA/policy server rendezvous: a UA setting up a session needs to
       be able to discover the policy servers that are relevant to this
       session.

   2.  Policy channel: once the UA has discovered the relevant policy
       servers for a session, it needs to connect to these servers,
       disclose session information, and retrieve the policies that
       apply to this session.

   The communication between UA and policy server on the policy channel
   involves the following steps:

   1.  A user agent submits information about the session it is trying
       to establish to the policy server and asks whether a session
       using these parameters is permissible.

   2.  The policy server generates a policy decision for this session
       and returns the decision to the user agent.  Possible policy
       decisions are (1) to deny the session, (2) to propose changes to
       the session parameters with which the session would be
       acceptable, or (3) to accept the session as it was proposed.
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   3.  The policy server can update the policy decision at a later time.
       A policy decision update can, for example, propose additional
       changes to the session (e.g., change the available bandwidth) or
       deny a previously accepted session (i.e., disallow the
       continuation of a session).

   In many cases, the mechanism for session-specific policies will be
   used to disclose session information and return session policies.
   However, some scenarios only involve the disclosure of session
   information to a network intermediary.  If an intermediary does not
   intend to return a policy, it can simply accept the session as it was
   proposed.  Similarly, some session-specific policies only apply to
   the offer (and therefore only require the disclosure of the offer)
   whereas others apply to offer and answer.  Both types of policies are
   supported by session-specific policy mechanism.

4.3. Examples

This section provides two examples to illustrate the overall operation of session-specific policies. The call flows depict the rendezvous mechanism between UA and policy server and indicate the points at which the UA exchanges policy information with the policy server. The example is based on the following scenario: there are two domains (domain A and domain B), which both have session-specific policies for the UAs in their domain. Neither domain provides policies to the UAs outside of their own domain. The two domains have a proxy (Proxy A and Proxy B) and a policy server (PS A and PS B). The policies in both domains involve the session description offer and answer.

4.3.1. Offer in Request

The first call flow shown in Figure 3 depicts an INVITE transaction with the offer in the request. It is assumed that this is the first INVITE request the UAC creates in this domain and that it therefore does not have previous knowledge about the policy server URIs in this domain. (1) UA A sends an INVITE request to Proxy A. Proxy A knows that policies apply to this session and (2) returns a 488 (Not Acceptable Here) response to UA A. Proxy A includes the URI of PS A in the 488 (Not Acceptable Here) response. This step is needed since the UAC has no prior knowledge about the URI of PS A. (3) UA A uses the URI to contact PS A, discloses the session description offer to PS A, and (4) receives policies for the offer. (5) UA A reformulates the INVITE request under consideration of the received policies and includes a Policy-ID header field to indicate that it has already contacted PS
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   A.  Proxy A does not reject the INVITE request this time and removes
   the Policy-ID header field when forwarding the INVITE request.  Proxy
   B adds a Policy-Contact header field containing the URI of PS B. (6)
   UA B uses this URI to contact PS B and disclose the offer and the
   answer it is about to send. (7) UA B receives policies from PS B and
   applies them to the offer and answer, respectively. (8) UA B returns
   the updated answer in the 200 (OK) response. (9) UA A contacts PS A
   again with the current offer and answer and (10) retrieves the
   policies for both from PS A.

    UA A           Proxy A           Proxy B             UA B
     |                 |                |                 |
     | INVITE offer    |                |                 |
     |---------------->|                |                 | (1)
     | 488             |                |                 |
     | + Policy-Contact|                |                 |
     |<----------------|                |                 | (2)
     | ACK             |                |                 |
     |---------------->|                |                 |
     |                 | PS A           |                 |
     |                    |             |                 |
     | PolicyChannel      |             |                 |
     | + InfoOffer        |             |                 |
     |------------------->|             |                 | (3)
     | PolicyChannel      |             |                 |
     | + PolicyOffer      |             |                 |
     |<-------------------|             |                 | (4)
     |                    |             |                 |
     |                 |                |                 |
     | INVITE offer'   | INVITE offer'  | INVITE offer'   |
     | + Policy-ID     |                | + Policy-Contact|
     |---------------->|--------------->|---------------->| (5)
     |                 |                |                 |
     |                 |           PS B |                 |
     |                 |             |                    |
     |                 |             | PolicyChannel      |
     |                 |             | + InfoOffer'       |
     |                 |             | + InfoAnswer       |
     |                 |             |<-------------------| (6)
     |                 |             | PolicyChannel      |
     |                 |             | + PolicyOffer      |
     |                 |             | + PolicyAnswer     |
     |                 |             |------------------->| (7)
     |                 |             |                    |
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     |                 |                |                 |
     | OK answer'      | OK answer'     | OK answer'      |
     |<----------------|<---------------|<----------------| (8)
     | ACK                                                |
     |--------------------------------------------------->|
     |                 |                |                 |
     |                    |             |                 |
     | PolicyChannel      |             |                 |
     | + InfoOffer'       |             |                 |
     | + InfoAnswer'      |             |                 |
     |------------------->|             |                 | (9)
     | PolicyChannel      |             |                 |
     | + PolicyOffer      |             |                 |
     | + PolicyAnswer     |             |                 |
     |<-------------------|             |                 | (10)
     |                    |             |                 |

                                 Figure 3

4.3.2. Offer in Response

The call flow shown in Figure 4 depicts an INVITE transaction with the offer in the response. (1) UA A sends an INVITE request without an offer to Proxy A and (2) Proxy A returns a 488 (Not Acceptable Here) response containing the URI of PS A. (3),(4) UA A uses this policy server URI to set up the policy channel. At this time, UA A does not disclose a session description since it does not have the offer yet. (5) UA A re-sends the INVITE request and includes a Policy-ID header field to indicate that it has contacted PS A. Proxy A does not reject the INVITE request this time and removes the Policy-ID header field when forwarding the INVITE request. Proxy B adds a Policy-Contact header field containing the URI of PS B. (6) UA B uses this URI to discloses the offer to PS B. (7) UA B receives policies from PS B and applies them to the offer. (8) UA B returns the updated offer the 200 (OK) response. (9),(10) UA A contacts PS and discloses the offer and the answer it is about to send. An important difference to the flow in the previous example is that UA A performs steps (9) and (10) before returning the answer in step (11). This enables UA A to return the final answer in the ACK request, which includes all applicable policies. However, it requires that PS A immediately returns a policy to avoid a delay in the transmission of the ACK request. (12),(13) UA B again sends the current offer and answer to PS B and applies the policies it receives to both before using them.
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    UA A           Proxy A            Proxy B            UA B
     |                 |                |                 |
     | INVITE          |                |                 |
     |---------------->|                |                 | (1)
     | 488             |                |                 |
     | + Policy-Contact|                |                 |
     |<----------------|                |                 | (2)
     | ACK             |                |                 |
     |---------------->|                |                 |
     |                 | PS A           |                 |
     |                    |             |                 |
     | PolicyChannel      |             |                 |
     |------------------->|             |                 | (3)
     | PolicyChannel      |             |                 |
     |<-------------------|             |                 | (4)
     |                    |             |                 |
     |                 |                |                 |
     | INVITE          | INVITE         | INVITE          |
     | + Policy-ID     |                | + Policy-Contact|
     |---------------->|--------------->|---------------->| (5)
     |                 |                |                 |
     |                 |           PS B |                 |
     |                 |             |                    |
     |                 |             | PolicyChannel      |
     |                 |             | + InfoOffer        |
     |                 |             |<-------------------| (6)
     |                 |             | PolicyChannel      |
     |                 |             | + PolicyOffer      |
     |                 |             |------------------->| (7)
     |                 |             |                    |
     |                 |                |                 |
     | OK offer'       | OK offer'      | OK offer'       |
     |<----------------|<---------------|<----------------| (8)
     |                 |                |                 |
     |                    |             |                 |
     | PolicyChannel      |             |                 |
     | + InfoOffer'       |             |                 |
     | + InfoAnswer       |             |                 |
     |------------------->|             |                 | (9)
     | PolicyChannel      |             |                 |
     | + PolicyOffer      |             |                 |
     | + PolicyAnswer     |             |                 |
     |<-------------------|             |                 | (10)
     |                    |             |                 |
     | ACK answer'                                        |
     |--------------------------------------------------->| (11)
     |                 |                |                 |
     |                 |             |                    |
Top   ToC   RFC6794 - Page 15
     |                 |             | PolicyChannel      |
     |                 |             | + InfoOffer'       |
     |                 |             | + InfoAnswer'      |
     |                 |             |<-------------------| (12)
     |                 |             | PolicyChannel      |
     |                 |             | + PolicyOffer      |
     |                 |             | + PolicyAnswer     |
     |                 |             |------------------->| (13)
     |                 |             |                    |

                                 Figure 4

4.4. UA/Policy Server Rendezvous

The first step in setting up session-specific policies is to rendezvous the UAs with the relevant policy servers. This is achieved by providing the URIs of all policy servers relevant for a session to the UAs.

4.4.1. UAC Behavior

A UAC compliant to this specification MUST include a Supported header field with the option tag "policy" into all requests that can initiate an offer/answer exchange [RFC3264] (e.g., INVITE, UPDATE [RFC3311], and PRACK [RFC3262] requests). The UAC MUST include the "policy" option tag into these requests even if the particular request does not contain an offer or answer (e.g., an INVITE request without an offer). A UAC MAY include the "policy" option tag into all requests. A UAC can receive a 488 (Not Acceptable Here) response that contains a Policy-Contact header field. The Policy-Contact header field is a new header field defined in this specification. It contains one (or multiple alternative) URI(s) for a policy server. A 488 (Not Acceptable Here) response with this header field is generated by a proxy to convey a URI of the local policy server to the UAC. After receiving a 488 (Not Acceptable Here) response with a Policy-Contact header field, a UAC compliant to this specification needs to decide if it wants to continue with the session now knowing that there is a policy server. If the UAC decides to continue, the UAC MUST use one of the policy server URIs to contact the policy server using the mechanism defined in Section 4.5. The Policy-Contact header can contain multiple URIs each with a different URI scheme and containing an "alt-uri" parameter with identical values. These URIs represent alternative policy channel mechanisms for obtaining the same policy. The UAC chooses one of the alternative URIs to use to obtain the policy. The UAC MAY take as a
Top   ToC   RFC6794 - Page 16
   hint the order of the alternative URIs as indicating a preference as
   to which URI to use.  The topmost URI in the list might be more
   preferred by the domain of the proxy for use to obtain the policy.

   After receiving policies from the policy server, the UAC decides
   whether or not it wants to accept these policies.  If the UAC accepts
   these policies, the UAC MUST apply them to the current request and
   re-send the updated request.  If no changes are required by policies
   or no policies have been received, the request can be re-sent without
   any policy-induced changes.  If the UAC decides that the list of
   policy servers or the received session policies are unacceptable,
   then the UAC MUST NOT re-send the request.

   To protect the integrity of the policy server URI in a Policy-Contact
   header field, the UAC SHOULD use a secured transport protocol such as
   Transport Layer Security (TLS) [RFC5246] between UAC and proxy.

   The UAC MUST insert a Policy-ID header field into requests for which
   it has contacted a policy server and accepted the policies received.
   The Policy-ID header field is a new header field that is defined in
   this specification.  The UA MUST create a Policy-ID header field
   value for each policy server it has contacted during the preparation
   of the request.  A Policy-ID header field value contains two pieces
   of information: the policy server URI and an optional token.  The
   policy server URI is the URI the UA has used to contact the policy
   server.  The token is an opaque string the UAC can receive from the
   policy server.  A token can, for example, be contained in the policy
   document [RFC6796].  If the UAC has received a token from the policy
   server, the UAC MUST include the token in the Policy-ID header field.
   The format of the Policy-ID header field is defined in Section 4.4.5.

   The main purpose of the Policy-ID header field is to enable a proxy
   to determine if the UAC already knows a URI of the local policy
   server.  If the policy server URI is not yet known to the UAC, the
   proxy can convey this URI to the UAC by rejecting the request with a
   488 (Not Acceptable Here) response.

   In some cases, a request can traverse multiple domains with a
   session-policy server.  Each of these domains can return a 488 (Not
   Acceptable Here) response containing a policy server URI.  A UAC
   contacts a policy server after receiving a 488 (Not Acceptable Here)
   response from a domain and before re-sending the request.  This
   creates an implicit order between the policy servers in multiple
   domains.  That is, a UAC contacts the first policy server, re-sends
   the modified request, contacts the second policy server, re-sends the
   modified request, and so on.  This way, session policies are always
Top   ToC   RFC6794 - Page 17
   applied to a request in the order in which the request traverses
   through the domains.  The UAC MUST NOT change this implicit order
   among policy servers.

   A UAC frequently needs to contact the policy server in the local
   domain before setting up a session.  To avoid the retransmission of
   the local policy server URI in a 488 (Not Acceptable Here) response
   for each new request, a UA SHOULD maintain a cache that contains the
   URI of the policy server in the local domain (see Section 4.4.4).
   The UAC SHOULD use the cached policy server URI to contact the local
   policy server before sending a request that initiates the offer/
   answer exchange for a new session (e.g., an INVITE request).  The UAC
   SHOULD NOT cache a policy server URI that is in a different domain
   than the UAC, even if it is the first policy server URI returned.
   The first policy server URI returned can be from another domain if
   the local domain does not have a policy server.  Note that UACs
   perform exact domain comparisons.  That is, foo.example.com and
   example.com are not considered equivalent.

   UAs can renegotiate the session description during a session by
   initiating a subsequent offer/answer exchange, e.g., in an INVITE,
   UPDATE, or PRACK request.  When creating such a mid-dialog request, a
   UA SHOULD contact all policy servers to which it has established a
   policy channel during the initial offer/answer exchange (see
   Section 4.5) before sending the request.  This avoids the
   retransmission of all policy server URIs in 488 (Not Acceptable Here)
   responses for mid-dialog requests.

4.4.2. Proxy Behavior

A proxy provides rendezvous functionalities for UAs and policy server. This is achieved by conveying the URI of a policy server to the UAC or the UAS (or both) when processing INVITE, UPDATE, or PRACK requests (or any other request that can initiate an offer/answer exchange). If an offer/answer exchange initiating request contains a Supported header field with the option tag "policy", the proxy MAY reject the request with a 488 (Not Acceptable Here) response to provide the local policy server URI to the UAC. Before rejecting a request, the proxy MUST verify that the request does not contain a Policy-ID header field with the local policy server URI as a value. If the request does not contain such a header field or a local policy server URI is not present in this header field, then the proxy MAY reject the request with a 488 (Not Acceptable Here) response. The proxy MUST insert a Policy-Contact header field in the 488 (Not Acceptable Here) response that contains one (or multiple) URI(s) of its
Top   ToC   RFC6794 - Page 18
   associated policy server.  The proxy MAY add the header field
   parameter "non-cacheable" to prevent the UAC from caching this policy
   server URI (see Section 4.4.4).

   More than one URI for the policy server using different URI schemes
   MAY be provided by the proxy as alternative URIs to contact the
   policy.  If a proxy includes multiple URIs for the same policy, the
   proxy MUST include an "alt-uri" parameter for all policy server URIs
   that are alternatives for obtaining the same policy.  The "alt-uri"
   parameter MUST contain either the domain name of the domain for which
   all the alternative policy server URIs relate to or a Fully Qualified
   Domain Name (FQDN) (e.g., the hostname of a policy server).  All URIs
   that are alternatives for the same policy MUST have the same value
   for the "alt-uri" parameter.  The value used for the "alt-uri"
   parameter MUST be such that the same value will not be included with
   other policy server URIs that a UA needs to contact by any other
   proxy within the same domain or another domain.  A method to create a
   new unique "alt-uri" parameter value is to examine the value of
   existing "alt-uri" parameters and to make sure that the new value
   differs.  A proxy MAY hint to a UA at a preference as to which URI to
   use by including the more preferred URI higher in the list than the
   other alternative URIs.  URIs with the same "alt-uri" parameter MUST
   use different URI schemes.  A SIP or SIPS URI MUST be included even
   if other URI schemes are defined and used in the future.

   If a local policy server URI is present in a Policy-ID header field
   value of a request, then the proxy MUST NOT reject the request as
   described above (it can still reject the request for other reasons).
   The proxy SHOULD remove the Policy-ID header field value of its
   associated policy server from the Policy-ID header field before
   forwarding the request.  Not removing the Policy-ID header field
   value will not cause harm; however, the value is not relevant to any
   other proxy on the path and only increases message size.  It also
   would disclose the policy server URI to subsequent proxies.

   The Policy-ID header field serves two main purposes: first and most
   important, it enables the proxy to determine if a UAC already knows
   the URI of the local policy server.  The second purpose of the
   Policy-ID header field is to enable a domain to route all requests
   that belong to the same session (i.e., the initial request and
   requests a UA retransmits after contacting the policy server) to the
   same proxy and policy server.  This is important if a domain has
   multiple proxy/policy server combinations (e.g., in a proxy/policy
   server farm that receives requests through a load balancer), which
   create per-session state in the network.  An example for such a
   scenario is a policy server that is associated with a session border
   device.  The policy server configures the session border device after
   receiving a session description from the UAC via the policy channel.
Top   ToC   RFC6794 - Page 19
   Retransmitted requests for such a session need to be routed to the
   same proxy/policy server as the initial request since this proxy/
   policy server combination has configured the associated border device
   for the session.

   Routing all requests that belong to the same session to the same
   proxy can be achieved by using the Policy-ID header field token.  It
   requires that the policy server return a token to the UAC that
   uniquely identifies the specific proxy/policy server combination.
   The UAC includes this token in the Policy-ID header field, and it can
   be used (together with the policy server URI) by the proxies in this
   domain to route the request along the desired path.  The format of
   this token does not require standardization.  The only requirement is
   that the token provide sufficient information for proxies to route
   the message inside a domain to the desired proxy/policy server.  The
   token can, for example, be a numeric identifier or an IP address.

      Note: it has been proposed to use the Policy-ID header field to
      provide a hint for a proxy that the UAC has actually contacted the
      policy server.  This usage also requires the policy server to
      return a token to the UA.  In addition, the policy server needs to
      share valid tokens with the proxy.  After receiving a request with
      a Policy-ID header field, the proxy can determine if the token in
      the Policy-ID header field is valid.  If it is valid, the proxy
      knows that the UA has contacted the policy server for this
      session.  However, this token does not provide any proof that the
      UA has actually used the policies it has received from the policy
      server.  A malicious UA can simply contact the policy server,
      discard all policies it receives, and still use the token in the
      Policy-ID header field.

   The proxy MAY insert a Policy-Contact header field into INVITE,
   UPDATE, or PRACK requests (or any other request that can initiate an
   offer/answer exchange) in order to convey the policy server URI to
   the UAS.  If the request already contains a Policy-Contact header
   field, the proxy MUST insert the URI after all existing values at the
   end of the list.  A proxy MUST NOT change the order of existing
   Policy-Contact header field values.

   A proxy MUST use the Record-Route mechanism [RFC3261] if its
   associated policy server has session policies that apply to mid-
   dialog requests.  The Record-Route header field enables a proxy to
   stay in the signaling path and resubmit the policy server URIs to UAs
   during mid-dialog requests that initiate an offer/answer exchange.
   Resubmitting the policy server URI to UAs ensures that UAs keep
   contacting the policy server for mid-dialog requests.
Top   ToC   RFC6794 - Page 20
   A proxy can find out if the UAS supports this extension by examining
   the Supported header field of responses.  The proxy knows that the
   UAS supports this extension if the Supported header field of a
   response contains the option tag "policy".  A proxy can use this
   information to determine if the UAS has understood the Policy-Contact
   header field it has inserted into the request.

   To protect the integrity of the policy server URI in a Policy-Contact
   header field, the proxy SHOULD use a secured transport protocol such
   as TLS [RFC5246] between proxy and UAs.

4.4.3. UAS Behavior

A UAS can receive an INVITE, UPDATE, or PRACK request (or another request that can initiate offer/answer exchanges) that contains a Policy-Contact header field with a list of policy server URIs. A UAS that receives such a request needs to decide if it wants to accept the session knowing that there are policy servers involved. If the Policy-Contact header contains multiple URIs, each with a different URI scheme and containing an "alt-uri" parameter with identical values, these URI schemes represent alternative policy channel mechanisms for obtaining the same policy. If the UAS accepts the session, the UAS MUST contact one URI out of each group of URIs with identical "alt-uri" parameter values to obtain the policy. The UAS MAY take as a hint the order of the alternative URIs as indicating a preference as to which URI to use. The topmost URI in the list might be more preferred by the domain of the proxy for use to obtain the policy. The UAS MUST contact all policy server URIs in a Policy- Contact header field that are not part of a group of alternative URIs and MUST contact one URI in each group of alternative URIs. The UAS MUST contact these policy server URIs in the order in which they were contained in the Policy-Contact header field, starting with the topmost value (i.e., the value that was inserted first). If a UAS decides that it does not want to accept a session because there are policy servers involved or because one of the session policies received from a policy server is not acceptable, the UAS MUST reject the request with a 488 (Not Acceptable Here) response. The UAS MAY accept a request and continue with setting up a session if it cannot set up a policy channel to the policy server, for example, because the policy server is unreachable or returns an error condition that cannot be resolved by the UAS (i.e., error conditions other than, for example, a 401 (Unauthorized) response). This is to avoid that the failure of a policy server prevents a UA from communicating. Since this session might not be policy compliant without the policy subscription, it can be blocked by policy enforcement mechanisms if they are in place.
Top   ToC   RFC6794 - Page 21
   A UAS can receive a token from a policy server via the policy
   channel.  Since the UAS does not create a Policy-ID header field, it
   can simply ignore this token.

   A UAS compliant to this specification MUST include a Supported header
   field with the option tag "policy" into responses to requests that
   can initiate an offer/answer exchange.  The UAS MAY include this
   option tag in all responses.  This way, a proxy that has inserted the
   Policy-Contact header field can know that the header field was
   understood by the UAS.

4.4.4. Caching the Local Policy Server URI

A UAC frequently needs to contact the policy server in the local domain before setting up a session. To avoid the retransmission of the local policy server URI for each session, a UA SHOULD maintain a cache that contains the URI of the local policy server. A UA can receive this URI in a Policy-Contact header field of a request or a 488 (Not Acceptable Here) response. The UA can also receive the local policy server URI through configuration, for example, via the configuration framework [RFC6080]. If a UA has received a local policy server URI through configuration and receives another local policy server URI in a Policy-Contact header field, the UA SHOULD overwrite the configured URI with the most recent one received in a Policy-Contact header field. A policy server URI received in a Policy-Contact header field expires if it has not been refreshed before it reaches the maximum cached URI validity. The default maximum cached URI validity is 24 hours. Domains can prevent a UA from caching the local policy server URI. This is useful, for example, if the policy server does not need to be involved in all sessions or the policy server URI changes from session to session. A proxy can mark the URI of such a policy server as "non-cacheable". A UA MUST NOT cache a non-cacheable policy server URI. The UA SHOULD remove the current URI from the cache when receiving a local policy server URI that is marked as "non- cacheable". This is to avoid the use of policy server URIs that are outdated. The UA SHOULD NOT cache policy server URIs it has received from proxies outside of the local domain. These policy servers need not be relevant for subsequent sessions, which can go to a different destination, traversing different domains. The UA MUST NOT cache tokens it has received from a policy server. A token is only valid for one request.
Top   ToC   RFC6794 - Page 22

4.4.5. Header Field Definition and Syntax

4.4.5.1. Policy-ID Header Field
The Policy-ID header field is inserted by the UAC into INVITE, UPDATE, or PRACK requests (or any other request that can be used to initiate an offer/answer exchange). The Policy-ID header field identifies all policy servers the UAC has contacted for this request. The value of a Policy-ID header field consists of a policy server URI and an optional token parameter. The token parameter contains a token the UA might have received from the policy server. The syntax of the Policy-ID header field is described below in ABNF, according to [RFC5234], as an extension to the ABNF for SIP in [RFC3261]: Policy-ID = "Policy-ID" HCOLON policyURI *(COMMA policyURI) policyURI = ( SIP-URI / SIPS-URI / absoluteURI ) [ SEMI token-param ] *( SEMI generic-param ) token-param = "token=" token
4.4.5.2. Policy-Contact Header Field
The Policy-Contact header field can be inserted by a proxy into a 488 (Not Acceptable Here) response to INVITE, UPDATE, or PRACK requests (or other requests that initiate an offer/answer exchange). The value of a Policy-Contact header field consists of a policy server URI and an optional "non-cacheable" header field parameter. The policy server URI identifies the policy server that needs to be contacted by a UAC. The "non-cacheable" header field parameter indicates that the policy server URI is not intended to be cached by the UAC. The Policy-Contact header field can also be inserted by a proxy into INVITE, UPDATE, and PRACK requests (or other requests that can be used to initiate an offer/answer exchange). It contains an ordered list of policy server URIs that need to be contacted by the UAS. The topmost value of this list identifies the policy server that is contacted first. New header field values are inserted at the end. With this, the Policy-Contact header field effectively forms a fist- in-first-out queue. The syntax of the Policy-Contact header field is described below in ABNF, according to [RFC5234], as an extension to the ABNF for SIP in [RFC3261]:
Top   ToC   RFC6794 - Page 23
   Policy-Contact         = "Policy-Contact" HCOLON policyContact-info
                            *(COMMA policyContact-info)

   policyContact-info     = LAQUOT policyContact-uri RAQUOT
                            *( SEMI policyContact-param )

   policyContact-uri      = ( SIP-URI / SIPS-URI / absoluteURI )

   policyContact-param    = ( "non-cacheable" / policyContact-alt-uri
                            / generic-param )

   policyContact-alt-uri  = "alt-uri" EQUAL hostname

   Tables 1 and 2 are extensions of Tables 2 and 3 in [RFC3261].  The
   column "INF" is for the INFO method [RFC6086], "PRA" is for the PRACK
   method [RFC3262], "UPD" is for the UPDATE method [RFC3311], "SUB" is
   for the SUBSCRIBE method [RFC6665], "NOT" is for the NOTIFY method
   [RFC6665], "MSG" is for the MESSAGE method [RFC3428], "REF" is for
   the REFER method [RFC3515], and "PUB" is for the PUBLISH method
   [RFC3903].

     Header field          where   proxy ACK BYE CAN INV OPT REG UPD
     _______________________________________________________________
     Policy-ID               R       rd   -   -   -   c   -   -   c
     Policy-Contact          R       a    -   -   -   c   -   -   c
     Policy-Contact         488      a    -   -   -   c   -   -   c
           Table 1: Policy-ID and Policy-Contact Header Fields


     Header field          where   proxy PRA PUB SUB NOT INF MSG REF
     _______________________________________________________________
     Policy-ID               R       rd   c   -   -   -   -   -   -
     Policy-Contact          R       a    c   -   -   -   -   -   -
     Policy-Contact         488      a    c   -   -   -   -   -   -
           Table 2: Policy-ID and Policy-Contact Header Fields

4.5. Policy Channel

The main task of the policy channel is to enable a UA to submit information about the session it is trying to establish (i.e., the offer and the answer) to a policy server and to receive the resulting session-specific policies and possible updates to these policies in response. The Event Package for Session-Specific Policies [RFC6795] defines a SUBSCRIBE/NOTIFY-based [RFC6665] policy channel mechanism. A UA compliant to this specification MUST support the Event Package for Session-Specific Policies [RFC6795]. The UA MUST use this event
Top   ToC   RFC6794 - Page 24
   package to contact a policy server if the policy server URI is a
   SIP-URI or SIPS-URI.  A UA MAY support other policy channel
   mechanisms.

4.5.1. Creation and Management

A UA discovers the list of policy servers relevant for a session during the initial offer/answer exchange (see Section 4.4). A UA compliant to this specification MUST set up a policy channel to each of the discovered policy servers. If the UA does not want to set up a policy channel to one of the policy servers provided, the UA MUST cancel or reject a pending INVITE transaction for the session or terminate the session if it is already in progress. A UA MUST maintain the policy channel to each discovered policy server during the lifetime of a session, unless the policy channel is closed by the policy server or the UA discovers that the policy server is no longer relevant for the session as described below. A UAC can receive a 488 (Not Acceptable Here) response with a Policy- Contact header field containing a new policy server URI in response to a mid-dialog request. This indicates that the set of policy servers relevant for the current session has changed. If this occurs, the UAC MUST retry sending the request as if it were the first request in a dialog (i.e., without applying any policies except the policies from the local policy server). This way, the UAC will rediscover the list of policy servers for the current session. This is necessary since the UAC has no other way of knowing when to contact the newly discovered policy server relative to the existing policy servers and if any of the existing policy servers do not need to be contacted any more. The UAC MUST set up a policy channel to each new policy server. The UAC SHOULD close policy channels to policy server that are not listed any more. If the policy channel to these servers is not closed, the UAC can receive policies that do not apply to the session any more. The UAC MUST contact policy servers in the order in which they were discovered in the most recent request. If a UAS receives a mid-dialog request with a Policy-Contact header field containing a list of policy server URIs that is different from the list of policy servers to which the UAS has currently established a policy channel, then the UAS MUST set up a policy channel to all new policy servers and contact them. The UAS SHOULD close policy channels to servers that are not listed any more. If the policy channel to these servers is not closed, the UAS can receive policies that do not apply to the session any more. The UAS MUST use policy servers in the order in which they were contained in the most recent Policy-Contact header field.
Top   ToC   RFC6794 - Page 25
   A UA MUST inform the policy server when a session is terminated
   (e.g., when the UA has either sent or received a BYE) via the policy
   channel, unless a policy server indicates via the policy channel that
   it does not need to be contacted at the end of the session.  This
   enables a policy server to free all resources it has allocated for
   this session.

4.5.2. Contacting the Policy Server

A UA MUST contact all policy servers to which it has established a policy channel before sending or after receiving a mid-dialog request. The UA MUST contact the policy servers in the order in which they were discovered most recently. A UA that receives a SIP message containing an offer or answer SHOULD completely process the message (e.g., according to [RFC3261]) before contacting the policy server. The SIP processing of the message includes, for example, updating dialog state and timers as well as creating ACK or PRACK requests as necessary. This ensures that contacting a policy server does not interfere with SIP message processing and timing (e.g., by inadvertently causing timers to expire). This implies, for example, that a UAC that has received a response to an INVITE request would normally finish the processing of the response including transmitting the ACK request before it contacts the policy server. An important exception to this rule is discussed in the next paragraph. In some cases, a UA needs to use the offer/answer it has received in a SIP message to create an ACK or PRACK request for this message; i.e., it needs to use the offer/answer before finishing the SIP machinery for this message. For example, a UAC that has received an offer in the response to an INVITE request needs to apply policies to the offer and the answer before it can send the answer in an ACK request. In these cases, a UA SHOULD contact the policy server even if this is during the processing of a SIP message. This implies that a UA, which has received an offer in the response of an INVITE request, would normally contact the policy server and apply session policies before sending the answer in the ACK request. Note: this assumes that the policy server can always respond immediately to a policy request and does not require manual intervention to create a policy. This will be the case for most policy servers. If, however, a policy server cannot respond with a policy right away, it can return a policy that temporarily denies the session and update this policy as the actual policy decision becomes available. A delay in the response from the
Top   ToC   RFC6794 - Page 26
      policy server to the UA would delay the transmission of the ACK
      request and could trigger retransmissions of the INVITE response
      (also see the recommendations for Flow I in [RFC3725]).

   The case of multiple policy servers providing policies to the same UA
   requires additional considerations.  A policy returned by one policy
   server can contain information that needs to be shared with the other
   policy servers.  For example, two policy servers can have the policy
   to insert a media intermediary by modifying the IP addresses and
   ports of media streams.  In order for media streams to pass through
   both intermediaries, each intermediary needs to know the IP address
   and port on which the other media intermediary is expecting the
   stream to arrive.  If media streams are flowing in both directions,
   this means that each intermediary needs to know IP addresses and
   ports of the other intermediary.

   UACs usually contact a policy server twice during an offer/answer
   exchange (unless a policy server indicates that it only needs to be
   contacted once).  Therefore, the case of multiple policy servers
   providing policies to a single UAC does not require additional steps
   in most cases.  However, a UAS usually contacts each policy server
   only once (see Figure 4).  If a session policy returned by one of the
   policy servers requires that information be shared between multiple
   servers and the UAS receives policies from more than one policy
   server, then the UAS MUST contact all policy servers a second time
   after contacting all servers the first time.  Whether or not a second
   round is required is determined by the type of information returned
   by the policy server.  A data format for session policies (e.g.,
   [RFC6796]) needs to explicitly state if a second round is needed for
   a particular data element.  If a UA receives such an element, it
   knows that is expected to contact policy servers a second time.  If
   such a data element is modified during a mid-call offer/answer
   exchange and multiple policy servers are providing policies to a UA,
   then all UAs MUST contact policy servers in a first and second round.
   An example call flow is shown in Appendix B.3.

   A UA that supports session-specific policies compliant to this
   specification MUST support the User Agent Profile Data Set for Media
   Policy [RFC6796] as data format for session policies.

4.5.3. Using Session Policies

A UA MUST disclose the session description(s) for the current session to policy servers through the policy channel. The UA MUST apply session policies it receives to the offer and, if one is received, to the answer before using the offer/answer. If these policies are unacceptable, the UA MUST NOT continue with the session. This means that the UA MUST cancel or reject a pending INVITE transaction for
Top   ToC   RFC6794 - Page 27
   the session or terminate the session if it is already in progress.
   If the UA receives an unacceptable policy in an INVITE response, the
   UA MUST complete the INVITE transaction and then terminate the
   session.

   When a UA receives a notification about a change in the current
   policies, the UA MUST apply the updated policies to the current
   session or the UA MUST terminate the session.  If the policy update
   causes a change in the session description of a session, then the UA
   needs to renegotiate the modified session description with its peer
   UA, for example, using a re-INVITE or UPDATE request.  For example,
   if a policy update disallows the use of video and video is part of
   the current session description, then the UA will need to create an
   new session description offer without video.  After receiving this
   offer, the peer UA knows that video can't be used any more and
   responds with the corresponding answer.

5. Security Considerations

Policy enforcement mechanisms can prevent a UA from communicating with another UA if the UAs are not aware of the policies that are enforced. Policy enforcement mechanisms without policy signaling can therefore create a denial-of-service condition for UAs. This specification provides a mechanism for intermediaries to signal the policies that are enforced to UAs. It enables UAs to establish sessions that are conform and pass through policy enforcement. Session policies can significantly change the behavior of a UA and can be used by an attacker to compromise a UA. For example, session policies can be used to prevent a UA from successfully establishing a session (e.g., by setting the available bandwidth to zero). Such a policy can be submitted to the UA during a session, which causes the UA to terminate the session. A UA transmits session information to a policy server for session- specific policies. This session information can contain sensitive data the user does not want an eavesdropper or an unauthorized policy server to see. Vice versa, session policies can contain sensitive information about the network or service level agreements the service provider does not want to disclose to an eavesdropper or an unauthorized UA. It is important to secure the communication between the proxy and the UA (for session-specific policies) as well as the UA and the policy server. The following four discrete attributes need to be protected: 1. integrity of the policy server URI (for session-specific policies),
Top   ToC   RFC6794 - Page 28
   2.  authentication of the policy server and, if needed, the user
       agent,

   3.  confidentiality of the messages exchanged between the user agent
       and the policy server and

   4.  ensuring that private information is not exchanged between the
       two parties, even over a confidentiality-assured and
       authenticated session.

   To protect the integrity of the policy server URI, a UA SHOULD use a
   secured transport protocol such as TLS [RFC5246] between proxies and
   the UA.  Protecting the integrity of the policy server URI is
   important since an attacker could intercept SIP messages between the
   UA and the proxy and remove the policy header fields needed for
   session-specific policies.  This would impede the rendezvous between
   UA and policy server and, since the UA would not contact the policy
   server, can prevent a UA from setting up a session.

   Instead of removing a policy server URI, an attacker can also modify
   the policy server URI and point the UA to a compromised policy
   server.  It is RECOMMENDED that a UA authenticate policy servers to
   prevent such an attack from being effective.

   It is RECOMMENDED that the UA only accept session-independent
   policies from trustworthy policy servers as these policies affect all
   sessions of a UA.  A list of trustworthy session-independent policy
   servers can be provided to the UA through configuration.  As SIP
   messages can be affected by any proxy on a path and session-specific
   policies only apply to a single session, a UA MAY choose to accept
   session-specific policies from other policy servers as well.

   Policy servers SHOULD authenticate UAs to protect the information
   that is contained in a session policy.  However, a policy server can
   also frequently encounter UAs it cannot authenticate.  In these
   cases, the policy server MAY provide a generic policy that does not
   reveal sensitive information to these UAs.

   It is RECOMMENDED that administrators use SIPS URIs as policy server
   URIs so that subscriptions to session policies are transmitted over
   TLS.

   The above security attributes are important to protect the
   communication between the UA and policy server.  This document does
   not define the protocol used for the communication between UA and
   policy server and merely refers to other specifications for this
   purpose.  The security considerations of these specifications need to
   address the above security aspects.
Top   ToC   RFC6794 - Page 29

6. IANA Considerations

6.1. Registration of the "Policy-ID" Header Field

Name of Header Field: Policy-ID Short form: none Normative description: Section 4.4.5 of this document

6.2. Registration of the "Policy-Contact" Header Field

Name of Header Field: Policy-Contact Short form: none Normative description: Section 4.4.5 of this document

6.3. Registration of the "non-cacheable" Policy-Contact Header Field Parameter

Registry Name: Header Field Parameters and Parameter Values Reference: [RFC3968] Registry: Header Field Parameter Name Predefined Reference Values _____________________________________________________________________ Policy-Contact non-cacheable Yes this document

6.4. Registration of the "policy" SIP Option Tag

This specification registers a new SIP option tag, as per the guidelines in Section 27.1 of [RFC3261]. This document defines the SIP option tag "policy". The following row has been added to the "Option Tags" section of the SIP Parameter Registry:
Top   ToC   RFC6794 - Page 30
   +------------+------------------------------------------+-----------+
   | Name       | Description                              | Reference |
   +------------+------------------------------------------+-----------+
   | policy     | This option tag is used to indicate that | this      |
   |            | a UA can process policy server URIs for  | document  |
   |            | and subscribe to session-specific        |           |
   |            | policies.                                |           |
   +------------+------------------------------------------+-----------+

      Name of option: policy

      Description: Support for the Policy-Contact and Policy-ID header
      fields.

      SIP header fields defined: Policy-Contact, Policy-ID

      Normative description: This document

7. References

7.1. Normative References

[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997. [RFC3261] Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., Camarillo, G., Johnston, A., Peterson, J., Sparks, R., Handley, M., and E. Schooler, "SIP: Session Initiation Protocol", RFC 3261, June 2002. [RFC3262] Rosenberg, J. and H. Schulzrinne, "Reliability of Provisional Responses in Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)", RFC 3262, June 2002. [RFC3264] Rosenberg, J. and H. Schulzrinne, "An Offer/Answer Model with Session Description Protocol (SDP)", RFC 3264, June 2002. [RFC3311] Rosenberg, J., "The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) UPDATE Method", RFC 3311, October 2002. [RFC3968] Camarillo, G., "The Internet Assigned Number Authority (IANA) Header Field Parameter Registry for the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)", BCP 98, RFC 3968, December 2004. [RFC5234] Crocker, D. and P. Overell, "Augmented BNF for Syntax Specifications: ABNF", STD 68, RFC 5234, January 2008.
Top   ToC   RFC6794 - Page 31
   [RFC6080]  Petrie, D. and S. Channabasappa, "A Framework for Session
              Initiation Protocol User Agent Profile Delivery",
              RFC 6080, March 2011.

   [RFC6665]  Roach, A., "SIP-Specific Event Notification", RFC 6665,
              July 2012.

   [RFC6795]  Hilt, V. and G. Camarillo, "A Session Initiation Protocol
              (SIP) Event Package for Session-Specific Policies",
              RFC 6795, December 2012.

   [RFC6796]  Hilt, V., Camarillo, G., Rosenberg, J., and D. Worley, "A
              User Agent Profile Data Set for Media Policy", RFC 6796,
              December 2012.

7.2. Informative References

[RFC3428] Campbell, B., Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., Huitema, C., and D. Gurle, "Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) Extension for Instant Messaging", RFC 3428, December 2002. [RFC3515] Sparks, R., "The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) Refer Method", RFC 3515, April 2003. [RFC3725] Rosenberg, J., Peterson, J., Schulzrinne, H., and G. Camarillo, "Best Current Practices for Third Party Call Control (3pcc) in the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)", BCP 85, RFC 3725, April 2004. [RFC3903] Niemi, A., "Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) Extension for Event State Publication", RFC 3903, October 2004. [RFC3986] Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., and L. Masinter, "Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax", STD 66, RFC 3986, January 2005. [RFC4566] Handley, M., Jacobson, V., and C. Perkins, "SDP: Session Description Protocol", RFC 4566, July 2006. [RFC5246] Dierks, T. and E. Rescorla, "The Transport Layer Security (TLS) Protocol Version 1.2", RFC 5246, August 2008. [RFC6086] Holmberg, C., Burger, E., and H. Kaplan, "Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) INFO Method and Package Framework", RFC 6086, January 2011.
Top   ToC   RFC6794 - Page 32

Appendix A. Acknowledgements

Many thanks to Allison Mankin, Andrew Allen, Cullen Jennings and Vijay Gurbani for their contributions to this document. Many thanks to Roni Even, Bob Penfield, Mary Barnes, Shida Schubert, Keith Drage, Lisa Dusseault, Tim Polk and Pasi Eronen for their reviews and suggestions.

Appendix B. Session-Specific Policies - Call Flows

The following call flows illustrate the overall operation of session- specific policies including the policy channel protocol as defined in "A Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) Event Package for Session- Specific Policies" [RFC6795]. The following abbreviations are used: o: offer o': offer modified by a policy po: offer policy a: answer a': answer modified by a policy pa: answer policy ps uri: policy server URI (in Policy-Contact header field) ps id: policy server id (in Policy-ID header field)

B.1. Offer in Invite

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   UA A       P A      PS A      PS B       P B      UA B
     |         |         |         |         |         |
     |(1) INV <o>        |         |         |         |
     |-------->|         |         |         |         |
     |(2) 488 <ps uri>   |         |         |         |
     |<--------|         |         |         |         |
     |(3) ACK  |         |         |         |         |
     |-------->|         |         |         |         |
     |(4) SUBSCRIBE <o>  |         |         |         |
     |------------------>|         |         |         |
     |(5) 200 OK         |         |         |         |
     |<------------------|         |         |         |
     |(6) NOTIFY <po>    |         |         |         |
     |<------------------|         |         |         |
     |(7) 200 OK         |         |         |         |
     |------------------>|         |         |         |
     |(8) INV <ps id, o'>|         |         |         |
     |-------->|         |         |         |         |
     |         |(9) INV <o'>       |         |         |
     |         |---------------------------->|         |
     |         |         |         |         |(10) INV <o', ps uri>
     |         |         |         |         |-------->|
     |         |         |         |(11) SUBSCRIBE <o', a>
     |         |         |         |<------------------|
     |         |         |         |(12) 200 OK        |
     |         |         |         |------------------>|
     |         |         |         |(13) NOTIFY <po, pa>
     |         |         |         |------------------>|
     |         |         |         |(14) 200 OK        |
     |         |         |         |<------------------|
     |         |         |         |         |(15) 200 OK <a'>
     |         |         |         |         |<--------|
     |         |(16) 200 OK <a'>   |         |         |
     |         |<----------------------------|         |
     |(17) 200 OK <a'>   |         |         |         |
     |<--------|         |         |         |         |
     |(18) ACK |         |         |         |         |
     |------------------------------------------------>|
     |(19) SUBSCRIBE <o', a'>      |         |         |
     |------------------>|         |         |         |
     |(20) 200 OK        |         |         |         |
     |<------------------|         |         |         |
     |(21) NOTIFY <po, pa>         |         |         |
     |<------------------|         |         |         |
     |(22) 200 OK        |         |         |         |
     |------------------>|         |         |         |
     |         |         |         |         |         |
     |         |         |         |         |         |
Top   ToC   RFC6794 - Page 34

B.2. Offer in Response

UA A P A PS A PS B P B UA B | | | | | | |(1) INV | | | | | |-------->| | | | | |(2) 488 <ps uri> | | | | |<--------| | | | | |(3) ACK | | | | | |-------->| | | | | |(4) SUBSCRIBE | | | | |------------------>| | | | |(5) 200 OK | | | | |<------------------| | | | |(6) NOTIFY | | | | |<------------------| | | | |(7) 200 OK | | | | |------------------>| | | | |(8) INV <ps id> | | | | |-------->| | | | | | |(9) INV | | | | | |---------------------------->| | | | | | |(10) INV <ps uri> | | | | |-------->| | | | |(11) SUBSCRIBE <o> | | | | |<------------------| | | | |(12) 200 OK | | | | |------------------>| | | | |(13) NOTIFY <po> | | | | |------------------>| | | | |(14) 200 OK | | | | |<------------------| | | | | |(15) 200 OK <o'> | | | | |<--------| | |(16) 200 OK <o'> | | | | |<----------------------------| | |(17) 200 OK <o'> | | | | |<--------| | | | | |(18) SUBSCRIBE <o', a> | | | |------------------>| | | | |(19) 200 OK | | | | |<------------------| | | | |(20) NOTIFY <po, pa> | | | |<------------------| | | | |(21) 200 OK | | | | |------------------>| | | | |(22) ACK <a'> | | | | |------------------------------------------------>|
Top   ToC   RFC6794 - Page 35
     |         |         |         |(23) SUBSCRIBE <o', a'>
     |         |         |         |<------------------|
     |         |         |         |(24) 200 OK        |
     |         |         |         |------------------>|
     |         |         |         |(25) NOTIFY <po, pa>
     |         |         |         |------------------>|
     |         |         |         |(26) 200 OK        |
     |         |         |         |<------------------|
     |         |         |         |         |         |
     |         |         |         |         |         |

B.3. Multiple Policy Servers for the UAS

UA A P A PS A PS B P B UA B | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |(1) INV <o> | | | | |-------->| | | | | | |(2) INV <o, uri PSA> | | | |---------------------------->| | | | | | |(3) INV <o, uri PSA, uri PSB> | | | | |-------->| | | |(4) SUBSCRIBE <o, a> | | | |<----------------------------| | | |(5) 200 OK | | | | |---------------------------->| | | |(6) NOTIFY <po, pa>| | | | |---------------------------->| | | |(7) 200 OK | | | | |<----------------------------| | | | |(8) SUBSCRIBE <o', a'> | | | |<------------------| | | | |(9) 200 OK | | | | |------------------>| | | | |(10) NOTIFY <po, pa> | | | |------------------>| | | | |(11) 200 OK | | | | |<------------------| | | |(12) SUBSCRIBE <o", a"> | | | |<----------------------------| | | |(13) 200 OK | | | | |---------------------------->| | | |(14) NOTIFY <po, pa> | | | |---------------------------->| | | |(15) 200 OK | | | | |<----------------------------| | | | |(16) SUBSCRIBE <o", a">
Top   ToC   RFC6794 - Page 36
  |         |         |         |<------------------|
  |         |         |         |(17) 200 OK        |
  |         |         |         |------------------>|
  |         |         |         |(18) NOTIFY <po, pa>
  |         |         |         |------------------>|
  |         |         |         |(19) 200 OK        |
  |         |         |         |<------------------|
  |         |         |         |         |(20) 200 OK <a">
  |         |         |         |         |<--------|
  |         |(21) 200 OK <a">   |         |         |
  |         |<----------------------------|         |
  |(22) 200 OK <a">   |         |         |         |
  |<--------|         |         |         |         |
  |(23) ACK |         |         |         |         |
  |------------------------------------------------>|
  |         |         |         |         |         |
  |         |         |         |         |         |

Authors' Addresses

Volker Hilt Bell Labs/Alcatel-Lucent Lorenzstrasse 10 70435 Stuttgart Germany EMail: volker.hilt@bell-labs.com Gonzalo Camarillo Ericsson Hirsalantie 11 Jorvas 02420 Finland EMail: Gonzalo.Camarillo@ericsson.com Jonathan Rosenberg jdrosen.net Monmouth, NJ USA EMail: jdrosen@jdrosen.net