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RFC 5322

Internet Message Format

Pages: 57
Draft Standard
Errata
Obsoletes:  2822
Updates:  4021
Updated by:  6854
Part 2 of 3 – Pages 10 to 38
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Top   ToC   RFC5322 - Page 10   prevText

3. Syntax

3.1. Introduction

The syntax as given in this section defines the legal syntax of Internet messages. Messages that are conformant to this specification MUST conform to the syntax in this section. If there are options in this section where one option SHOULD be generated, that is indicated either in the prose or in a comment next to the syntax. For the defined expressions, a short description of the syntax and use is given, followed by the syntax in ABNF, followed by a semantic analysis. The following primitive tokens that are used but otherwise unspecified are taken from the "Core Rules" of [RFC5234], Appendix B.1: CR, LF, CRLF, HTAB, SP, WSP, DQUOTE, DIGIT, ALPHA, and VCHAR. In some of the definitions, there will be non-terminals whose names start with "obs-". These "obs-" elements refer to tokens defined in the obsolete syntax in section 4. In all cases, these productions are to be ignored for the purposes of generating legal Internet messages and MUST NOT be used as part of such a message. However, when interpreting messages, these tokens MUST be honored as part of the legal syntax. In this sense, section 3 defines a grammar for the generation of messages, with "obs-" elements that are to be ignored, while section 4 adds grammar for the interpretation of messages.

3.2. Lexical Tokens

The following rules are used to define an underlying lexical analyzer, which feeds tokens to the higher-level parsers. This section defines the tokens used in structured header field bodies. Note: Readers of this specification need to pay special attention to how these lexical tokens are used in both the lower-level and higher-level syntax later in the document. Particularly, the white space tokens and the comment tokens defined in section 3.2.2 get used in the lower-level tokens defined here, and those lower- level tokens are in turn used as parts of the higher-level tokens defined later. Therefore, white space and comments may be allowed in the higher-level tokens even though they may not explicitly appear in a particular definition.

3.2.1. Quoted characters

Some characters are reserved for special interpretation, such as delimiting lexical tokens. To permit use of these characters as uninterpreted data, a quoting mechanism is provided.
Top   ToC   RFC5322 - Page 11
   quoted-pair     =   ("\" (VCHAR / WSP)) / obs-qp

   Where any quoted-pair appears, it is to be interpreted as the
   character alone.  That is to say, the "\" character that appears as
   part of a quoted-pair is semantically "invisible".

      Note: The "\" character may appear in a message where it is not
      part of a quoted-pair.  A "\" character that does not appear in a
      quoted-pair is not semantically invisible.  The only places in
      this specification where quoted-pair currently appears are
      ccontent, qcontent, and in obs-dtext in section 4.

3.2.2. Folding White Space and Comments

White space characters, including white space used in folding (described in section 2.2.3), may appear between many elements in header field bodies. Also, strings of characters that are treated as comments may be included in structured field bodies as characters enclosed in parentheses. The following defines the folding white space (FWS) and comment constructs. Strings of characters enclosed in parentheses are considered comments so long as they do not appear within a "quoted-string", as defined in section 3.2.4. Comments may nest. There are several places in this specification where comments and FWS may be freely inserted. To accommodate that syntax, an additional token for "CFWS" is defined for places where comments and/or FWS can occur. However, where CFWS occurs in this specification, it MUST NOT be inserted in such a way that any line of a folded header field is made up entirely of WSP characters and nothing else. FWS = ([*WSP CRLF] 1*WSP) / obs-FWS ; Folding white space ctext = %d33-39 / ; Printable US-ASCII %d42-91 / ; characters not including %d93-126 / ; "(", ")", or "\" obs-ctext ccontent = ctext / quoted-pair / comment comment = "(" *([FWS] ccontent) [FWS] ")" CFWS = (1*([FWS] comment) [FWS]) / FWS
Top   ToC   RFC5322 - Page 12
   Throughout this specification, where FWS (the folding white space
   token) appears, it indicates a place where folding, as discussed in
   section 2.2.3, may take place.  Wherever folding appears in a message
   (that is, a header field body containing a CRLF followed by any WSP),
   unfolding (removal of the CRLF) is performed before any further
   semantic analysis is performed on that header field according to this
   specification.  That is to say, any CRLF that appears in FWS is
   semantically "invisible".

   A comment is normally used in a structured field body to provide some
   human-readable informational text.  Since a comment is allowed to
   contain FWS, folding is permitted within the comment.  Also note that
   since quoted-pair is allowed in a comment, the parentheses and
   backslash characters may appear in a comment, so long as they appear
   as a quoted-pair.  Semantically, the enclosing parentheses are not
   part of the comment; the comment is what is contained between the two
   parentheses.  As stated earlier, the "\" in any quoted-pair and the
   CRLF in any FWS that appears within the comment are semantically
   "invisible" and therefore not part of the comment either.

   Runs of FWS, comment, or CFWS that occur between lexical tokens in a
   structured header field are semantically interpreted as a single
   space character.

3.2.3. Atom

Several productions in structured header field bodies are simply strings of certain basic characters. Such productions are called atoms. Some of the structured header field bodies also allow the period character (".", ASCII value 46) within runs of atext. An additional "dot-atom" token is defined for those purposes. Note: The "specials" token does not appear anywhere else in this specification. It is simply the visible (i.e., non-control, non- white space) characters that do not appear in atext. It is provided only because it is useful for implementers who use tools that lexically analyze messages. Each of the characters in specials can be used to indicate a tokenization point in lexical analysis.
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   atext           =   ALPHA / DIGIT /    ; Printable US-ASCII
                       "!" / "#" /        ;  characters not including
                       "$" / "%" /        ;  specials.  Used for atoms.
                       "&" / "'" /
                       "*" / "+" /
                       "-" / "/" /
                       "=" / "?" /
                       "^" / "_" /
                       "`" / "{" /
                       "|" / "}" /
                       "~"

   atom            =   [CFWS] 1*atext [CFWS]

   dot-atom-text   =   1*atext *("." 1*atext)

   dot-atom        =   [CFWS] dot-atom-text [CFWS]

   specials        =   "(" / ")" /        ; Special characters that do
                       "<" / ">" /        ;  not appear in atext
                       "[" / "]" /
                       ":" / ";" /
                       "@" / "\" /
                       "," / "." /
                       DQUOTE

   Both atom and dot-atom are interpreted as a single unit, comprising
   the string of characters that make it up.  Semantically, the optional
   comments and FWS surrounding the rest of the characters are not part
   of the atom; the atom is only the run of atext characters in an atom,
   or the atext and "." characters in a dot-atom.

3.2.4. Quoted Strings

Strings of characters that include characters other than those allowed in atoms can be represented in a quoted string format, where the characters are surrounded by quote (DQUOTE, ASCII value 34) characters.
Top   ToC   RFC5322 - Page 14
   qtext           =   %d33 /             ; Printable US-ASCII
                       %d35-91 /          ;  characters not including
                       %d93-126 /         ;  "\" or the quote character
                       obs-qtext

   qcontent        =   qtext / quoted-pair

   quoted-string   =   [CFWS]
                       DQUOTE *([FWS] qcontent) [FWS] DQUOTE
                       [CFWS]

   A quoted-string is treated as a unit.  That is, quoted-string is
   identical to atom, semantically.  Since a quoted-string is allowed to
   contain FWS, folding is permitted.  Also note that since quoted-pair
   is allowed in a quoted-string, the quote and backslash characters may
   appear in a quoted-string so long as they appear as a quoted-pair.

   Semantically, neither the optional CFWS outside of the quote
   characters nor the quote characters themselves are part of the
   quoted-string; the quoted-string is what is contained between the two
   quote characters.  As stated earlier, the "\" in any quoted-pair and
   the CRLF in any FWS/CFWS that appears within the quoted-string are
   semantically "invisible" and therefore not part of the quoted-string
   either.

3.2.5. Miscellaneous Tokens

Three additional tokens are defined: word and phrase for combinations of atoms and/or quoted-strings, and unstructured for use in unstructured header fields and in some places within structured header fields. word = atom / quoted-string phrase = 1*word / obs-phrase unstructured = (*([FWS] VCHAR) *WSP) / obs-unstruct

3.3. Date and Time Specification

Date and time values occur in several header fields. This section specifies the syntax for a full date and time specification. Though folding white space is permitted throughout the date-time specification, it is RECOMMENDED that a single space be used in each place that FWS appears (whether it is required or optional); some older implementations will not interpret longer sequences of folding white space correctly.
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   date-time       =   [ day-of-week "," ] date time [CFWS]

   day-of-week     =   ([FWS] day-name) / obs-day-of-week

   day-name        =   "Mon" / "Tue" / "Wed" / "Thu" /
                       "Fri" / "Sat" / "Sun"

   date            =   day month year

   day             =   ([FWS] 1*2DIGIT FWS) / obs-day

   month           =   "Jan" / "Feb" / "Mar" / "Apr" /
                       "May" / "Jun" / "Jul" / "Aug" /
                       "Sep" / "Oct" / "Nov" / "Dec"

   year            =   (FWS 4*DIGIT FWS) / obs-year

   time            =   time-of-day zone

   time-of-day     =   hour ":" minute [ ":" second ]

   hour            =   2DIGIT / obs-hour

   minute          =   2DIGIT / obs-minute

   second          =   2DIGIT / obs-second

   zone            =   (FWS ( "+" / "-" ) 4DIGIT) / obs-zone

   The day is the numeric day of the month.  The year is any numeric
   year 1900 or later.

   The time-of-day specifies the number of hours, minutes, and
   optionally seconds since midnight of the date indicated.

   The date and time-of-day SHOULD express local time.

   The zone specifies the offset from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC,
   formerly referred to as "Greenwich Mean Time") that the date and
   time-of-day represent.  The "+" or "-" indicates whether the time-of-
   day is ahead of (i.e., east of) or behind (i.e., west of) Universal
   Time.  The first two digits indicate the number of hours difference
   from Universal Time, and the last two digits indicate the number of
   additional minutes difference from Universal Time.  (Hence, +hhmm
   means +(hh * 60 + mm) minutes, and -hhmm means -(hh * 60 + mm)
   minutes).  The form "+0000" SHOULD be used to indicate a time zone at
   Universal Time.  Though "-0000" also indicates Universal Time, it is
Top   ToC   RFC5322 - Page 16
   used to indicate that the time was generated on a system that may be
   in a local time zone other than Universal Time and that the date-time
   contains no information about the local time zone.

   A date-time specification MUST be semantically valid.  That is, the
   day-of-week (if included) MUST be the day implied by the date, the
   numeric day-of-month MUST be between 1 and the number of days allowed
   for the specified month (in the specified year), the time-of-day MUST
   be in the range 00:00:00 through 23:59:60 (the number of seconds
   allowing for a leap second; see [RFC1305]), and the last two digits
   of the zone MUST be within the range 00 through 59.

3.4. Address Specification

Addresses occur in several message header fields to indicate senders and recipients of messages. An address may either be an individual mailbox, or a group of mailboxes. address = mailbox / group mailbox = name-addr / addr-spec name-addr = [display-name] angle-addr angle-addr = [CFWS] "<" addr-spec ">" [CFWS] / obs-angle-addr group = display-name ":" [group-list] ";" [CFWS] display-name = phrase mailbox-list = (mailbox *("," mailbox)) / obs-mbox-list address-list = (address *("," address)) / obs-addr-list group-list = mailbox-list / CFWS / obs-group-list A mailbox receives mail. It is a conceptual entity that does not necessarily pertain to file storage. For example, some sites may choose to print mail on a printer and deliver the output to the addressee's desk. Normally, a mailbox is composed of two parts: (1) an optional display name that indicates the name of the recipient (which can be a person or a system) that could be displayed to the user of a mail application, and (2) an addr-spec address enclosed in angle brackets
Top   ToC   RFC5322 - Page 17
   ("<" and ">").  There is an alternate simple form of a mailbox where
   the addr-spec address appears alone, without the recipient's name or
   the angle brackets.  The Internet addr-spec address is described in
   section 3.4.1.

      Note: Some legacy implementations used the simple form where the
      addr-spec appears without the angle brackets, but included the
      name of the recipient in parentheses as a comment following the
      addr-spec.  Since the meaning of the information in a comment is
      unspecified, implementations SHOULD use the full name-addr form of
      the mailbox, instead of the legacy form, to specify the display
      name associated with a mailbox.  Also, because some legacy
      implementations interpret the comment, comments generally SHOULD
      NOT be used in address fields to avoid confusing such
      implementations.

   When it is desirable to treat several mailboxes as a single unit
   (i.e., in a distribution list), the group construct can be used.  The
   group construct allows the sender to indicate a named group of
   recipients.  This is done by giving a display name for the group,
   followed by a colon, followed by a comma-separated list of any number
   of mailboxes (including zero and one), and ending with a semicolon.
   Because the list of mailboxes can be empty, using the group construct
   is also a simple way to communicate to recipients that the message
   was sent to one or more named sets of recipients, without actually
   providing the individual mailbox address for any of those recipients.

3.4.1. Addr-Spec Specification

An addr-spec is a specific Internet identifier that contains a locally interpreted string followed by the at-sign character ("@", ASCII value 64) followed by an Internet domain. The locally interpreted string is either a quoted-string or a dot-atom. If the string can be represented as a dot-atom (that is, it contains no characters other than atext characters or "." surrounded by atext characters), then the dot-atom form SHOULD be used and the quoted- string form SHOULD NOT be used. Comments and folding white space SHOULD NOT be used around the "@" in the addr-spec. Note: A liberal syntax for the domain portion of addr-spec is given here. However, the domain portion contains addressing information specified by and used in other protocols (e.g., [RFC1034], [RFC1035], [RFC1123], [RFC5321]). It is therefore incumbent upon implementations to conform to the syntax of addresses for the context in which they are used.
Top   ToC   RFC5322 - Page 18
   addr-spec       =   local-part "@" domain

   local-part      =   dot-atom / quoted-string / obs-local-part

   domain          =   dot-atom / domain-literal / obs-domain

   domain-literal  =   [CFWS] "[" *([FWS] dtext) [FWS] "]" [CFWS]

   dtext           =   %d33-90 /          ; Printable US-ASCII
                       %d94-126 /         ;  characters not including
                       obs-dtext          ;  "[", "]", or "\"

   The domain portion identifies the point to which the mail is
   delivered.  In the dot-atom form, this is interpreted as an Internet
   domain name (either a host name or a mail exchanger name) as
   described in [RFC1034], [RFC1035], and [RFC1123].  In the domain-
   literal form, the domain is interpreted as the literal Internet
   address of the particular host.  In both cases, how addressing is
   used and how messages are transported to a particular host is covered
   in separate documents, such as [RFC5321].  These mechanisms are
   outside of the scope of this document.

   The local-part portion is a domain-dependent string.  In addresses,
   it is simply interpreted on the particular host as a name of a
   particular mailbox.

3.5. Overall Message Syntax

A message consists of header fields, optionally followed by a message body. Lines in a message MUST be a maximum of 998 characters excluding the CRLF, but it is RECOMMENDED that lines be limited to 78 characters excluding the CRLF. (See section 2.1.1 for explanation.) In a message body, though all of the characters listed in the text rule MAY be used, the use of US-ASCII control characters (values 1 through 8, 11, 12, and 14 through 31) is discouraged since their interpretation by receivers for display is not guaranteed. message = (fields / obs-fields) [CRLF body] body = (*(*998text CRLF) *998text) / obs-body text = %d1-9 / ; Characters excluding CR %d11 / ; and LF %d12 / %d14-127
Top   ToC   RFC5322 - Page 19
   The header fields carry most of the semantic information and are
   defined in section 3.6.  The body is simply a series of lines of text
   that are uninterpreted for the purposes of this specification.

3.6. Field Definitions

The header fields of a message are defined here. All header fields have the same general syntactic structure: a field name, followed by a colon, followed by the field body. The specific syntax for each header field is defined in the subsequent sections. Note: In the ABNF syntax for each field in subsequent sections, each field name is followed by the required colon. However, for brevity, sometimes the colon is not referred to in the textual description of the syntax. It is, nonetheless, required. It is important to note that the header fields are not guaranteed to be in a particular order. They may appear in any order, and they have been known to be reordered occasionally when transported over the Internet. However, for the purposes of this specification, header fields SHOULD NOT be reordered when a message is transported or transformed. More importantly, the trace header fields and resent header fields MUST NOT be reordered, and SHOULD be kept in blocks prepended to the message. See sections 3.6.6 and 3.6.7 for more information. The only required header fields are the origination date field and the originator address field(s). All other header fields are syntactically optional. More information is contained in the table following this definition.
Top   ToC   RFC5322 - Page 20
   fields          =   *(trace
                         *optional-field /
                         *(resent-date /
                          resent-from /
                          resent-sender /
                          resent-to /
                          resent-cc /
                          resent-bcc /
                          resent-msg-id))
                       *(orig-date /
                       from /
                       sender /
                       reply-to /
                       to /
                       cc /
                       bcc /
                       message-id /
                       in-reply-to /
                       references /
                       subject /
                       comments /
                       keywords /
                       optional-field)

   The following table indicates limits on the number of times each
   field may occur in the header section of a message as well as any
   special limitations on the use of those fields.  An asterisk ("*")
   next to a value in the minimum or maximum column indicates that a
   special restriction appears in the Notes column.
Top   ToC   RFC5322 - Page 21
   +----------------+--------+------------+----------------------------+
   | Field          | Min    | Max number | Notes                      |
   |                | number |            |                            |
   +----------------+--------+------------+----------------------------+
   | trace          | 0      | unlimited  | Block prepended - see      |
   |                |        |            | 3.6.7                      |
   | resent-date    | 0*     | unlimited* | One per block, required if |
   |                |        |            | other resent fields are    |
   |                |        |            | present - see 3.6.6        |
   | resent-from    | 0      | unlimited* | One per block - see 3.6.6  |
   | resent-sender  | 0*     | unlimited* | One per block, MUST occur  |
   |                |        |            | with multi-address         |
   |                |        |            | resent-from - see 3.6.6    |
   | resent-to      | 0      | unlimited* | One per block - see 3.6.6  |
   | resent-cc      | 0      | unlimited* | One per block - see 3.6.6  |
   | resent-bcc     | 0      | unlimited* | One per block - see 3.6.6  |
   | resent-msg-id  | 0      | unlimited* | One per block - see 3.6.6  |
   | orig-date      | 1      | 1          |                            |
   | from           | 1      | 1          | See sender and 3.6.2       |
   | sender         | 0*     | 1          | MUST occur with            |
   |                |        |            | multi-address from - see   |
   |                |        |            | 3.6.2                      |
   | reply-to       | 0      | 1          |                            |
   | to             | 0      | 1          |                            |
   | cc             | 0      | 1          |                            |
   | bcc            | 0      | 1          |                            |
   | message-id     | 0*     | 1          | SHOULD be present - see    |
   |                |        |            | 3.6.4                      |
   | in-reply-to    | 0*     | 1          | SHOULD occur in some       |
   |                |        |            | replies - see 3.6.4        |
   | references     | 0*     | 1          | SHOULD occur in some       |
   |                |        |            | replies - see 3.6.4        |
   | subject        | 0      | 1          |                            |
   | comments       | 0      | unlimited  |                            |
   | keywords       | 0      | unlimited  |                            |
   | optional-field | 0      | unlimited  |                            |
   +----------------+--------+------------+----------------------------+

   The exact interpretation of each field is described in subsequent
   sections.
Top   ToC   RFC5322 - Page 22

3.6.1. The Origination Date Field

The origination date field consists of the field name "Date" followed by a date-time specification. orig-date = "Date:" date-time CRLF The origination date specifies the date and time at which the creator of the message indicated that the message was complete and ready to enter the mail delivery system. For instance, this might be the time that a user pushes the "send" or "submit" button in an application program. In any case, it is specifically not intended to convey the time that the message is actually transported, but rather the time at which the human or other creator of the message has put the message into its final form, ready for transport. (For example, a portable computer user who is not connected to a network might queue a message for delivery. The origination date is intended to contain the date and time that the user queued the message, not the time when the user connected to the network to send the message.)

3.6.2. Originator Fields

The originator fields of a message consist of the from field, the sender field (when applicable), and optionally the reply-to field. The from field consists of the field name "From" and a comma- separated list of one or more mailbox specifications. If the from field contains more than one mailbox specification in the mailbox- list, then the sender field, containing the field name "Sender" and a single mailbox specification, MUST appear in the message. In either case, an optional reply-to field MAY also be included, which contains the field name "Reply-To" and a comma-separated list of one or more addresses. from = "From:" mailbox-list CRLF sender = "Sender:" mailbox CRLF reply-to = "Reply-To:" address-list CRLF The originator fields indicate the mailbox(es) of the source of the message. The "From:" field specifies the author(s) of the message, that is, the mailbox(es) of the person(s) or system(s) responsible for the writing of the message. The "Sender:" field specifies the mailbox of the agent responsible for the actual transmission of the message. For example, if a secretary were to send a message for another person, the mailbox of the secretary would appear in the "Sender:" field and the mailbox of the actual author would appear in the "From:" field. If the originator of the message can be indicated
Top   ToC   RFC5322 - Page 23
   by a single mailbox and the author and transmitter are identical, the
   "Sender:" field SHOULD NOT be used.  Otherwise, both fields SHOULD
   appear.

      Note: The transmitter information is always present.  The absence
      of the "Sender:" field is sometimes mistakenly taken to mean that
      the agent responsible for transmission of the message has not been
      specified.  This absence merely means that the transmitter is
      identical to the author and is therefore not redundantly placed
      into the "Sender:" field.

   The originator fields also provide the information required when
   replying to a message.  When the "Reply-To:" field is present, it
   indicates the address(es) to which the author of the message suggests
   that replies be sent.  In the absence of the "Reply-To:" field,
   replies SHOULD by default be sent to the mailbox(es) specified in the
   "From:" field unless otherwise specified by the person composing the
   reply.

   In all cases, the "From:" field SHOULD NOT contain any mailbox that
   does not belong to the author(s) of the message.  See also section
   3.6.3 for more information on forming the destination addresses for a
   reply.

3.6.3. Destination Address Fields

The destination fields of a message consist of three possible fields, each of the same form: the field name, which is either "To", "Cc", or "Bcc", followed by a comma-separated list of one or more addresses (either mailbox or group syntax). to = "To:" address-list CRLF cc = "Cc:" address-list CRLF bcc = "Bcc:" [address-list / CFWS] CRLF The destination fields specify the recipients of the message. Each destination field may have one or more addresses, and the addresses indicate the intended recipients of the message. The only difference between the three fields is how each is used. The "To:" field contains the address(es) of the primary recipient(s) of the message.
Top   ToC   RFC5322 - Page 24
   The "Cc:" field (where the "Cc" means "Carbon Copy" in the sense of
   making a copy on a typewriter using carbon paper) contains the
   addresses of others who are to receive the message, though the
   content of the message may not be directed at them.

   The "Bcc:" field (where the "Bcc" means "Blind Carbon Copy") contains
   addresses of recipients of the message whose addresses are not to be
   revealed to other recipients of the message.  There are three ways in
   which the "Bcc:" field is used.  In the first case, when a message
   containing a "Bcc:" field is prepared to be sent, the "Bcc:" line is
   removed even though all of the recipients (including those specified
   in the "Bcc:" field) are sent a copy of the message.  In the second
   case, recipients specified in the "To:" and "Cc:" lines each are sent
   a copy of the message with the "Bcc:" line removed as above, but the
   recipients on the "Bcc:" line get a separate copy of the message
   containing a "Bcc:" line.  (When there are multiple recipient
   addresses in the "Bcc:" field, some implementations actually send a
   separate copy of the message to each recipient with a "Bcc:"
   containing only the address of that particular recipient.)  Finally,
   since a "Bcc:" field may contain no addresses, a "Bcc:" field can be
   sent without any addresses indicating to the recipients that blind
   copies were sent to someone.  Which method to use with "Bcc:" fields
   is implementation dependent, but refer to the "Security
   Considerations" section of this document for a discussion of each.

   When a message is a reply to another message, the mailboxes of the
   authors of the original message (the mailboxes in the "From:" field)
   or mailboxes specified in the "Reply-To:" field (if it exists) MAY
   appear in the "To:" field of the reply since these would normally be
   the primary recipients of the reply.  If a reply is sent to a message
   that has destination fields, it is often desirable to send a copy of
   the reply to all of the recipients of the message, in addition to the
   author.  When such a reply is formed, addresses in the "To:" and
   "Cc:" fields of the original message MAY appear in the "Cc:" field of
   the reply, since these are normally secondary recipients of the
   reply.  If a "Bcc:" field is present in the original message,
   addresses in that field MAY appear in the "Bcc:" field of the reply,
   but they SHOULD NOT appear in the "To:" or "Cc:" fields.

      Note: Some mail applications have automatic reply commands that
      include the destination addresses of the original message in the
      destination addresses of the reply.  How those reply commands
      behave is implementation dependent and is beyond the scope of this
      document.  In particular, whether or not to include the original
      destination addresses when the original message had a "Reply-To:"
      field is not addressed here.
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3.6.4. Identification Fields

Though listed as optional in the table in section 3.6, every message SHOULD have a "Message-ID:" field. Furthermore, reply messages SHOULD have "In-Reply-To:" and "References:" fields as appropriate and as described below. The "Message-ID:" field contains a single unique message identifier. The "References:" and "In-Reply-To:" fields each contain one or more unique message identifiers, optionally separated by CFWS. The message identifier (msg-id) syntax is a limited version of the addr-spec construct enclosed in the angle bracket characters, "<" and ">". Unlike addr-spec, this syntax only permits the dot-atom-text form on the left-hand side of the "@" and does not have internal CFWS anywhere in the message identifier. Note: As with addr-spec, a liberal syntax is given for the right- hand side of the "@" in a msg-id. However, later in this section, the use of a domain for the right-hand side of the "@" is RECOMMENDED. Again, the syntax of domain constructs is specified by and used in other protocols (e.g., [RFC1034], [RFC1035], [RFC1123], [RFC5321]). It is therefore incumbent upon implementations to conform to the syntax of addresses for the context in which they are used. message-id = "Message-ID:" msg-id CRLF in-reply-to = "In-Reply-To:" 1*msg-id CRLF references = "References:" 1*msg-id CRLF msg-id = [CFWS] "<" id-left "@" id-right ">" [CFWS] id-left = dot-atom-text / obs-id-left id-right = dot-atom-text / no-fold-literal / obs-id-right no-fold-literal = "[" *dtext "]" The "Message-ID:" field provides a unique message identifier that refers to a particular version of a particular message. The uniqueness of the message identifier is guaranteed by the host that generates it (see below). This message identifier is intended to be machine readable and not necessarily meaningful to humans. A message identifier pertains to exactly one version of a particular message; subsequent revisions to the message each receive new message identifiers.
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      Note: There are many instances when messages are "changed", but
      those changes do not constitute a new instantiation of that
      message, and therefore the message would not get a new message
      identifier.  For example, when messages are introduced into the
      transport system, they are often prepended with additional header
      fields such as trace fields (described in section 3.6.7) and
      resent fields (described in section 3.6.6).  The addition of such
      header fields does not change the identity of the message and
      therefore the original "Message-ID:" field is retained.  In all
      cases, it is the meaning that the sender of the message wishes to
      convey (i.e., whether this is the same message or a different
      message) that determines whether or not the "Message-ID:" field
      changes, not any particular syntactic difference that appears (or
      does not appear) in the message.

   The "In-Reply-To:" and "References:" fields are used when creating a
   reply to a message.  They hold the message identifier of the original
   message and the message identifiers of other messages (for example,
   in the case of a reply to a message that was itself a reply).  The
   "In-Reply-To:" field may be used to identify the message (or
   messages) to which the new message is a reply, while the
   "References:" field may be used to identify a "thread" of
   conversation.

   When creating a reply to a message, the "In-Reply-To:" and
   "References:" fields of the resultant message are constructed as
   follows:

   The "In-Reply-To:" field will contain the contents of the
   "Message-ID:" field of the message to which this one is a reply (the
   "parent message").  If there is more than one parent message, then
   the "In-Reply-To:" field will contain the contents of all of the
   parents' "Message-ID:" fields.  If there is no "Message-ID:" field in
   any of the parent messages, then the new message will have no "In-
   Reply-To:" field.

   The "References:" field will contain the contents of the parent's
   "References:" field (if any) followed by the contents of the parent's
   "Message-ID:" field (if any).  If the parent message does not contain
   a "References:" field but does have an "In-Reply-To:" field
   containing a single message identifier, then the "References:" field
   will contain the contents of the parent's "In-Reply-To:" field
   followed by the contents of the parent's "Message-ID:" field (if
   any).  If the parent has none of the "References:", "In-Reply-To:",
   or "Message-ID:" fields, then the new message will have no
   "References:" field.
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      Note: Some implementations parse the "References:" field to
      display the "thread of the discussion".  These implementations
      assume that each new message is a reply to a single parent and
      hence that they can walk backwards through the "References:" field
      to find the parent of each message listed there.  Therefore,
      trying to form a "References:" field for a reply that has multiple
      parents is discouraged; how to do so is not defined in this
      document.

   The message identifier (msg-id) itself MUST be a globally unique
   identifier for a message.  The generator of the message identifier
   MUST guarantee that the msg-id is unique.  There are several
   algorithms that can be used to accomplish this.  Since the msg-id has
   a similar syntax to addr-spec (identical except that quoted strings,
   comments, and folding white space are not allowed), a good method is
   to put the domain name (or a domain literal IP address) of the host
   on which the message identifier was created on the right-hand side of
   the "@" (since domain names and IP addresses are normally unique),
   and put a combination of the current absolute date and time along
   with some other currently unique (perhaps sequential) identifier
   available on the system (for example, a process id number) on the
   left-hand side.  Though other algorithms will work, it is RECOMMENDED
   that the right-hand side contain some domain identifier (either of
   the host itself or otherwise) such that the generator of the message
   identifier can guarantee the uniqueness of the left-hand side within
   the scope of that domain.

   Semantically, the angle bracket characters are not part of the
   msg-id; the msg-id is what is contained between the two angle bracket
   characters.

3.6.5. Informational Fields

The informational fields are all optional. The "Subject:" and "Comments:" fields are unstructured fields as defined in section 2.2.1, and therefore may contain text or folding white space. The "Keywords:" field contains a comma-separated list of one or more words or quoted-strings. subject = "Subject:" unstructured CRLF comments = "Comments:" unstructured CRLF keywords = "Keywords:" phrase *("," phrase) CRLF These three fields are intended to have only human-readable content with information about the message. The "Subject:" field is the most common and contains a short string identifying the topic of the
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   message.  When used in a reply, the field body MAY start with the
   string "Re: " (an abbreviation of the Latin "in re", meaning "in the
   matter of") followed by the contents of the "Subject:" field body of
   the original message.  If this is done, only one instance of the
   literal string "Re: " ought to be used since use of other strings or
   more than one instance can lead to undesirable consequences.  The
   "Comments:" field contains any additional comments on the text of the
   body of the message.  The "Keywords:" field contains a comma-
   separated list of important words and phrases that might be useful
   for the recipient.

3.6.6. Resent Fields

Resent fields SHOULD be added to any message that is reintroduced by a user into the transport system. A separate set of resent fields SHOULD be added each time this is done. All of the resent fields corresponding to a particular resending of the message SHOULD be grouped together. Each new set of resent fields is prepended to the message; that is, the most recent set of resent fields appears earlier in the message. No other fields in the message are changed when resent fields are added. Each of the resent fields corresponds to a particular field elsewhere in the syntax. For instance, the "Resent-Date:" field corresponds to the "Date:" field and the "Resent-To:" field corresponds to the "To:" field. In each case, the syntax for the field body is identical to the syntax given previously for the corresponding field. When resent fields are used, the "Resent-From:" and "Resent-Date:" fields MUST be sent. The "Resent-Message-ID:" field SHOULD be sent. "Resent-Sender:" SHOULD NOT be used if "Resent-Sender:" would be identical to "Resent-From:". resent-date = "Resent-Date:" date-time CRLF resent-from = "Resent-From:" mailbox-list CRLF resent-sender = "Resent-Sender:" mailbox CRLF resent-to = "Resent-To:" address-list CRLF resent-cc = "Resent-Cc:" address-list CRLF resent-bcc = "Resent-Bcc:" [address-list / CFWS] CRLF resent-msg-id = "Resent-Message-ID:" msg-id CRLF
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   Resent fields are used to identify a message as having been
   reintroduced into the transport system by a user.  The purpose of
   using resent fields is to have the message appear to the final
   recipient as if it were sent directly by the original sender, with
   all of the original fields remaining the same.  Each set of resent
   fields correspond to a particular resending event.  That is, if a
   message is resent multiple times, each set of resent fields gives
   identifying information for each individual time.  Resent fields are
   strictly informational.  They MUST NOT be used in the normal
   processing of replies or other such automatic actions on messages.

      Note: Reintroducing a message into the transport system and using
      resent fields is a different operation from "forwarding".
      "Forwarding" has two meanings: One sense of forwarding is that a
      mail reading program can be told by a user to forward a copy of a
      message to another person, making the forwarded message the body
      of the new message.  A forwarded message in this sense does not
      appear to have come from the original sender, but is an entirely
      new message from the forwarder of the message.  Forwarding may
      also mean that a mail transport program gets a message and
      forwards it on to a different destination for final delivery.
      Resent header fields are not intended for use with either type of
      forwarding.

   The resent originator fields indicate the mailbox of the person(s) or
   system(s) that resent the message.  As with the regular originator
   fields, there are two forms: a simple "Resent-From:" form, which
   contains the mailbox of the individual doing the resending, and the
   more complex form, when one individual (identified in the "Resent-
   Sender:" field) resends a message on behalf of one or more others
   (identified in the "Resent-From:" field).

      Note: When replying to a resent message, replies behave just as
      they would with any other message, using the original "From:",
      "Reply-To:", "Message-ID:", and other fields.  The resent fields
      are only informational and MUST NOT be used in the normal
      processing of replies.

   The "Resent-Date:" indicates the date and time at which the resent
   message is dispatched by the resender of the message.  Like the
   "Date:" field, it is not the date and time that the message was
   actually transported.

   The "Resent-To:", "Resent-Cc:", and "Resent-Bcc:" fields function
   identically to the "To:", "Cc:", and "Bcc:" fields, respectively,
   except that they indicate the recipients of the resent message, not
   the recipients of the original message.
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   The "Resent-Message-ID:" field provides a unique identifier for the
   resent message.

3.6.7. Trace Fields

The trace fields are a group of header fields consisting of an optional "Return-Path:" field, and one or more "Received:" fields. The "Return-Path:" header field contains a pair of angle brackets that enclose an optional addr-spec. The "Received:" field contains a (possibly empty) list of tokens followed by a semicolon and a date- time specification. Each token must be a word, angle-addr, addr- spec, or a domain. Further restrictions are applied to the syntax of the trace fields by specifications that provide for their use, such as [RFC5321]. trace = [return] 1*received return = "Return-Path:" path CRLF path = angle-addr / ([CFWS] "<" [CFWS] ">" [CFWS]) received = "Received:" *received-token ";" date-time CRLF received-token = word / angle-addr / addr-spec / domain A full discussion of the Internet mail use of trace fields is contained in [RFC5321]. For the purposes of this specification, the trace fields are strictly informational, and any formal interpretation of them is outside of the scope of this document.

3.6.8. Optional Fields

Fields may appear in messages that are otherwise unspecified in this document. They MUST conform to the syntax of an optional-field. This is a field name, made up of the printable US-ASCII characters except SP and colon, followed by a colon, followed by any text that conforms to the unstructured syntax. The field names of any optional field MUST NOT be identical to any field name specified elsewhere in this document.
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   optional-field  =   field-name ":" unstructured CRLF

   field-name      =   1*ftext

   ftext           =   %d33-57 /          ; Printable US-ASCII
                       %d59-126           ;  characters not including
                                          ;  ":".

   For the purposes of this specification, any optional field is
   uninterpreted.

4. Obsolete Syntax

Earlier versions of this specification allowed for different (usually more liberal) syntax than is allowed in this version. Also, there have been syntactic elements used in messages on the Internet whose interpretations have never been documented. Though these syntactic forms MUST NOT be generated according to the grammar in section 3, they MUST be accepted and parsed by a conformant receiver. This section documents many of these syntactic elements. Taking the grammar in section 3 and adding the definitions presented in this section will result in the grammar to use for the interpretation of messages. Note: This section identifies syntactic forms that any implementation MUST reasonably interpret. However, there are certainly Internet messages that do not conform to even the additional syntax given in this section. The fact that a particular form does not appear in any section of this document is not justification for computer programs to crash or for malformed data to be irretrievably lost by any implementation. It is up to the implementation to deal with messages robustly. One important difference between the obsolete (interpreting) and the current (generating) syntax is that in structured header field bodies (i.e., between the colon and the CRLF of any structured header field), white space characters, including folding white space, and comments could be freely inserted between any syntactic tokens. This allowed many complex forms that have proven difficult for some implementations to parse. Another key difference between the obsolete and the current syntax is that the rule in section 3.2.2 regarding lines composed entirely of white space in comments and folding white space does not apply. See the discussion of folding white space in section 4.2 below. Finally, certain characters that were formerly allowed in messages appear in this section. The NUL character (ASCII value 0) was once
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   allowed, but is no longer for compatibility reasons.  Similarly, US-
   ASCII control characters other than CR, LF, SP, and HTAB (ASCII
   values 1 through 8, 11, 12, 14 through 31, and 127) were allowed to
   appear in header field bodies.  CR and LF were allowed to appear in
   messages other than as CRLF; this use is also shown here.

   Other differences in syntax and semantics are noted in the following
   sections.

4.1. Miscellaneous Obsolete Tokens

These syntactic elements are used elsewhere in the obsolete syntax or in the main syntax. Bare CR, bare LF, and NUL are added to obs-qp, obs-body, and obs-unstruct. US-ASCII control characters are added to obs-qp, obs-unstruct, obs-ctext, and obs-qtext. The period character is added to obs-phrase. The obs-phrase-list provides for a (potentially empty) comma-separated list of phrases that may include "null" elements. That is, there could be two or more commas in such a list with nothing in between them, or commas at the beginning or end of the list. Note: The "period" (or "full stop") character (".") in obs-phrase is not a form that was allowed in earlier versions of this or any other specification. Period (nor any other character from specials) was not allowed in phrase because it introduced a parsing difficulty distinguishing between phrases and portions of an addr-spec (see section 4.4). It appears here because the period character is currently used in many messages in the display-name portion of addresses, especially for initials in names, and therefore must be interpreted properly. obs-NO-WS-CTL = %d1-8 / ; US-ASCII control %d11 / ; characters that do not %d12 / ; include the carriage %d14-31 / ; return, line feed, and %d127 ; white space characters obs-ctext = obs-NO-WS-CTL obs-qtext = obs-NO-WS-CTL obs-utext = %d0 / obs-NO-WS-CTL / VCHAR obs-qp = "\" (%d0 / obs-NO-WS-CTL / LF / CR) obs-body = *((*LF *CR *((%d0 / text) *LF *CR)) / CRLF) obs-unstruct = *((*LF *CR *(obs-utext *LF *CR)) / FWS)
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   obs-phrase      =   word *(word / "." / CFWS)

   obs-phrase-list =   [phrase / CFWS] *("," [phrase / CFWS])

   Bare CR and bare LF appear in messages with two different meanings.
   In many cases, bare CR or bare LF are used improperly instead of CRLF
   to indicate line separators.  In other cases, bare CR and bare LF are
   used simply as US-ASCII control characters with their traditional
   ASCII meanings.

4.2. Obsolete Folding White Space

In the obsolete syntax, any amount of folding white space MAY be inserted where the obs-FWS rule is allowed. This creates the possibility of having two consecutive "folds" in a line, and therefore the possibility that a line which makes up a folded header field could be composed entirely of white space. obs-FWS = 1*WSP *(CRLF 1*WSP)

4.3. Obsolete Date and Time

The syntax for the obsolete date format allows a 2 digit year in the date field and allows for a list of alphabetic time zone specifiers that were used in earlier versions of this specification. It also permits comments and folding white space between many of the tokens. obs-day-of-week = [CFWS] day-name [CFWS] obs-day = [CFWS] 1*2DIGIT [CFWS] obs-year = [CFWS] 2*DIGIT [CFWS] obs-hour = [CFWS] 2DIGIT [CFWS] obs-minute = [CFWS] 2DIGIT [CFWS] obs-second = [CFWS] 2DIGIT [CFWS] obs-zone = "UT" / "GMT" / ; Universal Time ; North American UT ; offsets "EST" / "EDT" / ; Eastern: - 5/ - 4 "CST" / "CDT" / ; Central: - 6/ - 5 "MST" / "MDT" / ; Mountain: - 7/ - 6 "PST" / "PDT" / ; Pacific: - 8/ - 7 ;
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                       %d65-73 /          ; Military zones - "A"
                       %d75-90 /          ; through "I" and "K"
                       %d97-105 /         ; through "Z", both
                       %d107-122          ; upper and lower case

   Where a two or three digit year occurs in a date, the year is to be
   interpreted as follows: If a two digit year is encountered whose
   value is between 00 and 49, the year is interpreted by adding 2000,
   ending up with a value between 2000 and 2049.  If a two digit year is
   encountered with a value between 50 and 99, or any three digit year
   is encountered, the year is interpreted by adding 1900.

   In the obsolete time zone, "UT" and "GMT" are indications of
   "Universal Time" and "Greenwich Mean Time", respectively, and are
   both semantically identical to "+0000".

   The remaining three character zones are the US time zones.  The first
   letter, "E", "C", "M", or "P" stands for "Eastern", "Central",
   "Mountain", and "Pacific".  The second letter is either "S" for
   "Standard" time, or "D" for "Daylight Savings" (or summer) time.
   Their interpretations are as follows:

      EDT is semantically equivalent to -0400
      EST is semantically equivalent to -0500
      CDT is semantically equivalent to -0500
      CST is semantically equivalent to -0600
      MDT is semantically equivalent to -0600
      MST is semantically equivalent to -0700
      PDT is semantically equivalent to -0700
      PST is semantically equivalent to -0800

   The 1 character military time zones were defined in a non-standard
   way in [RFC0822] and are therefore unpredictable in their meaning.
   The original definitions of the military zones "A" through "I" are
   equivalent to "+0100" through "+0900", respectively; "K", "L", and
   "M" are equivalent to "+1000", "+1100", and "+1200", respectively;
   "N" through "Y" are equivalent to "-0100" through "-1200".
   respectively; and "Z" is equivalent to "+0000".  However, because of
   the error in [RFC0822], they SHOULD all be considered equivalent to
   "-0000" unless there is out-of-band information confirming their
   meaning.

   Other multi-character (usually between 3 and 5) alphabetic time zones
   have been used in Internet messages.  Any such time zone whose
   meaning is not known SHOULD be considered equivalent to "-0000"
   unless there is out-of-band information confirming their meaning.
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4.4. Obsolete Addressing

There are four primary differences in addressing. First, mailbox addresses were allowed to have a route portion before the addr-spec when enclosed in "<" and ">". The route is simply a comma-separated list of domain names, each preceded by "@", and the list terminated by a colon. Second, CFWS were allowed between the period-separated elements of local-part and domain (i.e., dot-atom was not used). In addition, local-part is allowed to contain quoted-string in addition to just atom. Third, mailbox-list and address-list were allowed to have "null" members. That is, there could be two or more commas in such a list with nothing in between them, or commas at the beginning or end of the list. Finally, US-ASCII control characters and quoted- pairs were allowed in domain literals and are added here. obs-angle-addr = [CFWS] "<" obs-route addr-spec ">" [CFWS] obs-route = obs-domain-list ":" obs-domain-list = *(CFWS / ",") "@" domain *("," [CFWS] ["@" domain]) obs-mbox-list = *([CFWS] ",") mailbox *("," [mailbox / CFWS]) obs-addr-list = *([CFWS] ",") address *("," [address / CFWS]) obs-group-list = 1*([CFWS] ",") [CFWS] obs-local-part = word *("." word) obs-domain = atom *("." atom) obs-dtext = obs-NO-WS-CTL / quoted-pair When interpreting addresses, the route portion SHOULD be ignored.

4.5. Obsolete Header Fields

Syntactically, the primary difference in the obsolete field syntax is that it allows multiple occurrences of any of the fields and they may occur in any order. Also, any amount of white space is allowed before the ":" at the end of the field name.
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   obs-fields      =   *(obs-return /
                       obs-received /
                       obs-orig-date /
                       obs-from /
                       obs-sender /
                       obs-reply-to /
                       obs-to /
                       obs-cc /
                       obs-bcc /
                       obs-message-id /
                       obs-in-reply-to /
                       obs-references /
                       obs-subject /
                       obs-comments /
                       obs-keywords /
                       obs-resent-date /
                       obs-resent-from /
                       obs-resent-send /
                       obs-resent-rply /
                       obs-resent-to /
                       obs-resent-cc /
                       obs-resent-bcc /
                       obs-resent-mid /
                       obs-optional)

   Except for destination address fields (described in section 4.5.3),
   the interpretation of multiple occurrences of fields is unspecified.
   Also, the interpretation of trace fields and resent fields that do
   not occur in blocks prepended to the message is unspecified as well.
   Unless otherwise noted in the following sections, interpretation of
   other fields is identical to the interpretation of their non-obsolete
   counterparts in section 3.

4.5.1. Obsolete Origination Date Field

obs-orig-date = "Date" *WSP ":" date-time CRLF

4.5.2. Obsolete Originator Fields

obs-from = "From" *WSP ":" mailbox-list CRLF obs-sender = "Sender" *WSP ":" mailbox CRLF obs-reply-to = "Reply-To" *WSP ":" address-list CRLF
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4.5.3. Obsolete Destination Address Fields

obs-to = "To" *WSP ":" address-list CRLF obs-cc = "Cc" *WSP ":" address-list CRLF obs-bcc = "Bcc" *WSP ":" (address-list / (*([CFWS] ",") [CFWS])) CRLF When multiple occurrences of destination address fields occur in a message, they SHOULD be treated as if the address list in the first occurrence of the field is combined with the address lists of the subsequent occurrences by adding a comma and concatenating.

4.5.4. Obsolete Identification Fields

The obsolete "In-Reply-To:" and "References:" fields differ from the current syntax in that they allow phrase (words or quoted strings) to appear. The obsolete forms of the left and right sides of msg-id allow interspersed CFWS, making them syntactically identical to local-part and domain, respectively. obs-message-id = "Message-ID" *WSP ":" msg-id CRLF obs-in-reply-to = "In-Reply-To" *WSP ":" *(phrase / msg-id) CRLF obs-references = "References" *WSP ":" *(phrase / msg-id) CRLF obs-id-left = local-part obs-id-right = domain For purposes of interpretation, the phrases in the "In-Reply-To:" and "References:" fields are ignored. Semantically, none of the optional CFWS in the local-part and the domain is part of the obs-id-left and obs-id-right, respectively.

4.5.5. Obsolete Informational Fields

obs-subject = "Subject" *WSP ":" unstructured CRLF obs-comments = "Comments" *WSP ":" unstructured CRLF obs-keywords = "Keywords" *WSP ":" obs-phrase-list CRLF
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4.5.6. Obsolete Resent Fields

The obsolete syntax adds a "Resent-Reply-To:" field, which consists of the field name, the optional comments and folding white space, the colon, and a comma separated list of addresses. obs-resent-from = "Resent-From" *WSP ":" mailbox-list CRLF obs-resent-send = "Resent-Sender" *WSP ":" mailbox CRLF obs-resent-date = "Resent-Date" *WSP ":" date-time CRLF obs-resent-to = "Resent-To" *WSP ":" address-list CRLF obs-resent-cc = "Resent-Cc" *WSP ":" address-list CRLF obs-resent-bcc = "Resent-Bcc" *WSP ":" (address-list / (*([CFWS] ",") [CFWS])) CRLF obs-resent-mid = "Resent-Message-ID" *WSP ":" msg-id CRLF obs-resent-rply = "Resent-Reply-To" *WSP ":" address-list CRLF As with other resent fields, the "Resent-Reply-To:" field is to be treated as trace information only.

4.5.7. Obsolete Trace Fields

The obs-return and obs-received are again given here as template definitions, just as return and received are in section 3. Their full syntax is given in [RFC5321]. obs-return = "Return-Path" *WSP ":" path CRLF obs-received = "Received" *WSP ":" *received-token CRLF

4.5.8. Obsolete optional fields

obs-optional = field-name *WSP ":" unstructured CRLF


(page 38 continued on part 3)

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