8. Generating Keying Material Upon successful conclusion of an EAP-TTLS negotiation, 128 octets of keying material are generated and exported for use in securing the data connection between client and access point. The first 64 octets of the keying material constitute the MSK, the second 64 octets constitute the EMSK. The keying material is generated using the TLS PRF function [RFC4346], with inputs consisting of the TLS master secret, the ASCII-encoded constant string "ttls keying material", the TLS client random, and the TLS server random. The constant string is not null- terminated. Keying Material = PRF-128(SecurityParameters.master_secret, "ttls keying material", SecurityParameters.client_random + SecurityParameters.server_random) MSK = Keying Material [0..63] EMSK = Keying Material [64..127]
Note that the order of client_random and server_random for EAP-TTLS is reversed from that of the TLS protocol [RFC4346]. This ordering follows the key derivation method of EAP-TLS [RFC5216]. Altering the order of randoms avoids namespace collisions between constant strings defined for EAP-TTLS and those defined for the TLS protocol. The TTLS server distributes this keying material to the access point via the AAA carrier protocol. When RADIUS is the AAA carrier protocol, the MPPE-Recv-Key and MPPE-Send-Key attributes [RFC2548] may be used to distribute the first 32 octets and second 32 octets of the MSK, respectively. 9. EAP-TTLS Protocol 9.1. Packet Format The EAP-TTLS packet format is shown below. The fields are transmitted left to right. 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Code | Identifier | Length | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Type | Flags | Message Length +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ Message Length | Data... +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ Code 1 for request, 2 for response. Identifier The Identifier field is one octet and aids in matching responses with requests. The Identifier field MUST be changed for each request packet and MUST be echoed in each response packet. Length The Length field is two octets and indicates the number of octets in the entire EAP packet, from the Code field through the Data field. Type 21 (EAP-TTLS)
Flags 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+ | L | M | S | R | R | V | +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+ L = Length included M = More fragments S = Start R = Reserved V = Version (000 for EAP-TTLSv0) The L bit is set to indicate the presence of the four-octet TLS Message Length field. The M bit indicates that more fragments are to come. The S bit indicates a Start message. The V field is set to the version of EAP-TTLS, and is set to 000 for EAP-TTLSv0. Message Length The Message Length field is four octets, and is present only if the L bit is set. This field provides the total length of the raw data message sequence prior to fragmentation. Data For all packets other than a Start packet, the Data field consists of the raw TLS message sequence or fragment thereof. For a Start packet, the Data field may optionally contain an AVP sequence. 9.2. EAP-TTLS Start Packet The S bit MUST be set on the first packet sent by the server to initiate the EAP-TTLS protocol. It MUST NOT be set on any other packet. This packet MAY contain additional information in the form of AVPs, which may provide useful hints to the client; for example, the server identity may be useful to the client to allow it to pick the correct TLS session ID for session resumption. Each AVP must begin on a four-octet boundary relative to the first AVP in the sequence. If an AVP is not a multiple of four octets, it must be padded with zeros to the next four-octet boundary. 9.2.1. Version Negotiation The version of EAP-TTLS is negotiated in the first exchange between server and client. The server sets the highest version number of EAP-TTLS that it supports in the V field of its Start message (in the case of EAP-TTLSv0, this is 0). In its first EAP message in response, the client sets the V field to the highest version number
that it supports that is no higher than the version number offered by the server. If the client version is not acceptable to the server, it sends an EAP-Failure to terminate the EAP session. Otherwise, the version sent by the client is the version of EAP-TTLS that MUST be used, and both server and client MUST set the V field to that version number in all subsequent EAP messages. 9.2.2. Fragmentation Each EAP-TTLS message contains a single leg of a half-duplex conversation. The EAP carrier protocol (e.g., PPP, EAPOL, RADIUS) may impose constraints on the length of an EAP message. Therefore it may be necessary to fragment an EAP-TTLS message across multiple EAP messages. Each fragment except for the last MUST have the M bit set, to indicate that more data is to follow; the final fragment MUST NOT have the M bit set. If there are multiple fragments, the first fragment MUST have the L bit set and include the length of the entire raw message prior to fragmentation. Fragments other than the first MUST NOT have the L bit set. Unfragmented messages MAY have the L bit set and include the length of the message (though this information is redundant). Upon receipt of a packet with the M bit set, the receiver MUST transmit an Acknowledgement packet. The receiver is responsible for reassembly of fragmented packets. 9.2.3. Acknowledgement Packets An Acknowledgement packet is an EAP-TTLS packet with no additional data beyond the Flags octet, and with the L, M, and S bits of the Flags octet set to 0. (Note, however, that the V field MUST still be set to the appropriate version number.) An Acknowledgement packet is sent for the following purposes: - A Fragment Acknowledgement is sent in response to an EAP packet with the M bit set. - When the final EAP packet of the EAP-TTLS negotiation is sent by the TTLS server, the client must respond with an Acknowledgement packet, to allow the TTLS server to proceed with the EAP protocol upon completion of EAP-TTLS (typically by sending or causing to be sent a final EAP-Success or EAP-Failure to the client).
10. Encapsulation of AVPs within the TLS Record Layer Subsequent to the TLS handshake, information may be tunneled between client and TTLS server through the use of attribute-value pairs (AVPs) encrypted within the TLS record layer. The AVP format chosen for EAP-TTLS is compatible with the Diameter AVP format. This does not represent a requirement that Diameter be supported by any of the devices or servers participating in an EAP- TTLS negotiation. Use of this format is merely a convenience. Diameter is a superset of RADIUS and includes the RADIUS attribute namespace by definition, though it does not limit the size of an AVP as does RADIUS; RADIUS, in turn, is a widely deployed AAA protocol and attribute definitions exist for all commonly used password authentication protocols, including EAP. Thus, Diameter is not considered normative except as specified in this document. Specifically, the representation of the Data field of an AVP in EAP-TTLS is identical to that of Diameter. Use of the RADIUS/Diameter namespace allows a TTLS server to easily translate between AVPs it uses to communicate to clients and the protocol requirements of AAA servers that are widely deployed. Plus, it provides a well-understood mechanism to allow vendors to extend that namespace for their particular requirements. It is expected that the AVP Codes used in EAP-TTLS will carry roughly the same meaning in EAP-TTLS as they do in Diameter and, by extension, RADIUS. However, although EAP-TTLS uses the same AVP Codes and syntax as Diameter, the semantics may differ, and most Diameter AVPs do not have any well-defined semantics in EAP-TTLS. A separate "EAP-TTLS AVP Usage" registry lists the AVPs that can be used within EAP-TTLS and their semantics in this context (see Section 16 for details). A TTLS server copying AVPs between an EAP-TTLS exchange and a Diameter or RADIUS exchange with a backend MUST NOT make assumptions about AVPs whose usage in either EAP-TTLS or the backend protocol it does not understand. Therefore, a TTLS server MUST NOT copy an AVP between an EAP-TTLS exchange and a Diameter or RADIUS exchange unless the semantics of the AVP are understood and defined in both contexts. 10.1. AVP Format The format of an AVP is shown below. All items are in network, or big-endian, order; that is, they have the most significant octet first.
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | AVP Code | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ |V M r r r r r r| AVP Length | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Vendor-ID (opt) | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Data ... +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ AVP Code The AVP Code is four octets and, combined with the Vendor-ID field if present, identifies the attribute uniquely. The first 256 AVP numbers represent attributes defined in RADIUS [RFC2865]. AVP numbers 256 and above are defined in Diameter [RFC3588]. AVP Flags The AVP Flags field is one octet and provides the receiver with information necessary to interpret the AVP. The 'V' (Vendor-Specific) bit indicates whether the optional Vendor-ID field is present. When set to 1, the Vendor-ID field is present and the AVP Code is interpreted according to the namespace defined by the vendor indicated in the Vendor-ID field. The 'M' (Mandatory) bit indicates whether support of the AVP is required. If this bit is set to 0, this indicates that the AVP may be safely ignored if the receiving party does not understand or support it. If set to 1, this indicates that the receiving party MUST fail the negotiation if it does not understand the AVP; for a TTLS server, this would imply returning EAP-Failure, for a client, this would imply abandoning the negotiation. The 'r' (reserved) bits are unused and MUST be set to 0 by the sender and MUST be ignored by the receiver. AVP Length The AVP Length field is three octets and indicates the length of this AVP including the AVP Code, AVP Length, AVP Flags, Vendor-ID (if present), and Data.
Vendor-ID The Vendor-ID field is present if the V bit is set in the AVP Flags field. It is four octets and contains the vendor's IANA- assigned "SMI Network Management Private Enterprise Codes" [RFC3232] value. Vendors defining their own AVPs must maintain a consistent namespace for use of those AVPs within RADIUS, Diameter, and EAP-TTLS. A Vendor-ID value of zero is equivalent to absence of the Vendor- ID field altogether. Note that the M bit provides a means for extending the functionality of EAP-TTLS while preserving backward compatibility when desired. By setting the M bit of the appropriate AVP(s) to 0 or 1, the party initiating the function indicates that support of the function by the other party is either optional or required. 10.2. AVP Sequences Data encapsulated within the TLS record layer must consist entirely of a sequence of zero or more AVPs. Each AVP must begin on a four- octet boundary relative to the first AVP in the sequence. If an AVP is not a multiple of four octets, it must be padded with zeros to the next four-octet boundary. Note that the AVP Length does not include the padding. 10.3. Guidelines for Maximum Compatibility with AAA Servers For maximum compatibility with AAA servers, the following guidelines for AVP usage are suggested: - Non-vendor-specific AVPs intended for use with AAA servers should be selected from the set of attributes defined for RADIUS; that is, attributes with codes less than 256. This provides compatibility with both RADIUS and Diameter. - Vendor-specific AVPs intended for use with AAA servers should be defined in terms of RADIUS. Vendor-specific RADIUS attributes translate to Diameter (and, hence, to EAP-TTLS) automatically; the reverse is not true. RADIUS vendor-specific attributes use RADIUS attribute 26 and include Vendor-ID, vendor-specific attribute code, and length; see [RFC2865] for details.
11. Tunneled Authentication EAP-TTLS permits user authentication information to be tunneled within the TLS record layer between client and TTLS server, ensuring the security of the authentication information against active and passive attack between the client and TTLS server. The TTLS server decrypts and forwards this information to the AAA/H over the AAA carrier protocol. Any type of password or other authentication may be tunneled. Also, multiple tunneled authentications may be performed. Normally, tunneled authentication is used when the client has not been issued a certificate, and the TLS handshake provides only one-way authentication of the TTLS server to the client; however, in certain cases it may be desired to perform certificate authentication of the client during the TLS handshake as well as tunneled user authentication afterwards. 11.1. Implicit Challenge Certain authentication protocols that use a challenge/response mechanism rely on challenge material that is not generated by the authentication server, and therefore the material requires special handling. In CHAP, MS-CHAP, and MS-CHAP-V2, for example, the access point issues a challenge to the client, the client then hashes the challenge with the password and forwards the response to the access point. The access point then forwards both challenge and response to a AAA server. But because the AAA server did not itself generate the challenge, such protocols are susceptible to replay attack. If the client were able to create both challenge and response, anyone able to observe a CHAP or MS-CHAP exchange could pose as that user, even using EAP-TTLS. To make these protocols secure under EAP-TTLS, it is necessary to provide a mechanism to produce a challenge that the client cannot control or predict. This is accomplished using the same technique described above for generating data connection keying material. When a challenge-based authentication mechanism is used, both client and TTLS server use the pseudo-random function to generate as many octets as are required for the challenge, using the constant string "ttls challenge", based on the master secret and random values established during the handshake:
EAP-TTLS_challenge = PRF-nn(SecurityParameters.master_secret, "ttls challenge", SecurityParameters.client_random + SecurityParameters.server_random); The number of octets to be generated (nn) depends on the authentication method, and is indicated below for each authentication method requiring implicit challenge generation. 11.2. Tunneled Authentication Protocols This section describes the methods for tunneling specific authentication protocols within EAP-TTLS. For the purpose of explication, it is assumed that the TTLS server and AAA/H use RADIUS as a AAA carrier protocol between them. However, this is not a requirement, and any AAA protocol capable of carrying the required information may be used. The client determines which authentication protocol will be used via the initial AVPs it sends to the server, as described in the following sections. Note that certain of the authentication protocols described below utilize vendor-specific AVPs originally defined for RADIUS. RADIUS and Diameter differ in the encoding of vendor-specific AVPs: RADIUS uses the vendor-specific attribute (code 26), while Diameter uses setting of the V bit to indicate the presence of Vendor-ID. The RADIUS form of the vendor-specific attribute is always convertible to a Diameter AVP with V bit set. All vendor-specific AVPs described below MUST be encoded using the preferred Diameter V bit mechanism; that is, the AVP Code of 26 MUST NOT be used to encode vendor- specific AVPs within EAP-TTLS. 11.2.1. EAP When EAP is the tunneled authentication protocol, each tunneled EAP packet between the client and TTLS server is encapsulated in an EAP- Message AVP, prior to tunneling via the TLS record layer. Note that because Diameter AVPs are not limited to 253 octets of data, as are RADIUS attributes, the RADIUS mechanism of concatenating multiple EAP-Message attributes to represent a longer-than-253-octet EAP packet is not appropriate in EAP-TTLS. Thus, a tunneled EAP packet within a single EAP-TTLS message MUST be contained in a single EAP-Message AVP.
The client initiates EAP by tunneling EAP-Response/Identity to the TTLS server. Depending on the requirements specified for the inner method, the client MAY now place the actual username in this packet; the privacy of the user's identity is now guaranteed by the TLS encryption. This username is typically a Network Access Identifier (NAI) [RFC4282]; that is, it is typically in the following format: username@realm The @realm portion is optional, and is used to allow the TTLS server to forward the EAP packet to the appropriate AAA/H. Note that the client has two opportunities to specify realms. The first, in the initial, untunneled EAP-Response/Identity packet prior to starting EAP-TTLS, indicates the realm of the TTLS server. The second, occurring as part of the EAP exchange within the EAP-TTLS tunnel, indicates the realm of the client's home network. Thus, the access point need only know how to route to the realm of the TTLS server; the TTLS server is assumed to know how to route to the client's home realm. This serial routing architecture is anticipated to be useful in roaming environments, allowing access points or AAA proxies behind access points to be configured only with a small number of realms. (Refer to Section 7.3 for additional information distinguishing the untunneled and tunneled versions of the EAP- Response/Identity packets.) Note that TTLS processing of the initial identity exchange is different from plain EAP. The state machine of TTLS is different. However, it is expected that the server side is capable of dealing with client initiation, because even normal EAP protocol runs are client-initiated over AAA. On the client side, there are various implementation techniques to deal with the differences. Even a TTLS-unaware EAP protocol run could be used, if TTLS makes it appear as if an EAP-Request/Identity message was actually received. This is similar to what authenticators do when operating between a client and a AAA server. Upon receipt of the tunneled EAP-Response/Identity, the TTLS server forwards it to the AAA/H in a RADIUS Access-Request. The AAA/H may immediately respond with an Access-Reject; in which case, the TTLS server completes the negotiation by sending an EAP- Failure to the access point. This could occur if the AAA/H does not recognize the user's identity, or if it does not support EAP. If the AAA/H does recognize the user's identity and does support EAP, it responds with an Access-Challenge containing an EAP-Request, with the Type and Type-Data fields set according to the EAP protocol with
which the AAA/H wishes to authenticate the client; for example MD5- Challenge, One-Time Password (OTP), or Generic Token Card. The EAP authentication between client and AAA/H proceeds normally, as described in [RFC3748], with the TTLS server acting as a passthrough device. Each EAP-Request sent by the AAA/H in an Access-Challenge is tunneled by the TTLS server to the client, and each EAP-Response tunneled by the client is decrypted and forwarded by the TTLS server to the AAA/H in an Access-Request. This process continues until the AAA/H issues an Access-Accept or Access-Reject. Note that EAP-TTLS does not impose special rules on EAP Notification packets; such packets MAY be used within a tunneled EAP exchange according to the rules specified in [RFC3748]. EAP-TTLS provides a reliable transport for the tunneled EAP exchange. However, [RFC3748] assumes an unreliable transport for EAP messages (see Section 3.1), and provides for silent discard of any EAP packet that violates the protocol or fails a method-specific integrity check, on the assumption that such a packet is likely a counterfeit sent by an attacker. But since the tunnel provides a reliable transport for the inner EAP authentication, errors that would result in silent discard according to [RFC3748] presumably represent implementation errors when they occur within the tunnel, and SHOULD be treated as such in preference to being silently discarded. Indeed, silently discarding an EAP message within the tunnel effectively puts a halt to the progress of the exchange, and will result in long timeouts in cases that ought to result in immediate failures. 11.2.2. CHAP The CHAP algorithm is described in [RFC1661]; RADIUS attribute formats are described in [RFC2865]. Both client and TTLS server generate 17 octets of challenge material, using the constant string "ttls challenge" as described above. These octets are used as follows: CHAP-Challenge [16 octets] CHAP Identifier [1 octet] The client initiates CHAP by tunneling User-Name, CHAP-Challenge, and CHAP-Password AVPs to the TTLS server. The CHAP-Challenge value is taken from the challenge material. The CHAP-Password consists of
CHAP Identifier, taken from the challenge material; and CHAP response, computed according to the CHAP algorithm. Upon receipt of these AVPs from the client, the TTLS server must verify that the value of the CHAP-Challenge AVP and the value of the CHAP Identifier in the CHAP-Password AVP are equal to the values generated as challenge material. If either item does not match exactly, the TTLS server must reject the client. Otherwise, it forwards the AVPs to the AAA/H in an Access-Request. The AAA/H will respond with an Access-Accept or Access-Reject. 11.2.3. MS-CHAP The MS-CHAP algorithm is described in [RFC2433]; RADIUS attribute formats are described in [RFC2548]. Both client and TTLS server generate 9 octets of challenge material, using the constant string "ttls challenge" as described above. These octets are used as follows: MS-CHAP-Challenge [8 octets] Ident [1 octet] The client initiates MS-CHAP by tunneling User-Name, MS-CHAP- Challenge and MS-CHAP-Response AVPs to the TTLS server. The MS- CHAP-Challenge value is taken from the challenge material. The MS- CHAP-Response consists of Ident, taken from the challenge material; Flags, set according the client preferences; and LM-Response and NT- Response, computed according to the MS-CHAP algorithm. Upon receipt of these AVPs from the client, the TTLS server MUST verify that the value of the MS-CHAP-Challenge AVP and the value of the Ident in the client's MS-CHAP-Response AVP are equal to the values generated as challenge material. If either item does not match exactly, the TTLS server MUST reject the client. Otherwise, it forwards the AVPs to the AAA/H in an Access-Request. The AAA/H will respond with an Access-Accept or Access-Reject. 11.2.4. MS-CHAP-V2 The MS-CHAP-V2 algorithm is described in [RFC2759]; RADIUS attribute formats are described in [RFC2548]. Both client and TTLS server generate 17 octets of challenge material, using the constant string "ttls challenge" as described above. These octets are used as follows:
MS-CHAP-Challenge [16 octets] Ident [1 octet] The client initiates MS-CHAP-V2 by tunneling User-Name, MS-CHAP- Challenge, and MS-CHAP2-Response AVPs to the TTLS server. The MS- CHAP-Challenge value is taken from the challenge material. The MS- CHAP2-Response consists of Ident, taken from the challenge material; Flags, set to 0; Peer-Challenge, set to a random value; and Response, computed according to the MS-CHAP-V2 algorithm. Upon receipt of these AVPs from the client, the TTLS server MUST verify that the value of the MS-CHAP-Challenge AVP and the value of the Ident in the client's MS-CHAP2-Response AVP are equal to the values generated as challenge material. If either item does not match exactly, the TTLS server MUST reject the client. Otherwise, it forwards the AVPs to the AAA/H in an Access-Request. If the authentication is successful, the AAA/H will respond with an Access-Accept containing the MS-CHAP2-Success attribute. This attribute contains a 42-octet string that authenticates the AAA/H to the client based on the Peer-Challenge. The TTLS server tunnels this AVP to the client. Note that the authentication is not yet complete; the client must still accept the authentication response of the AAA/H. Upon receipt of the MS-CHAP2-Success AVP, the client is able to authenticate the AAA/H. If the authentication succeeds, the client sends an EAP-TTLS packet to the TTLS server containing no data (that is, with a zero-length Data field). Upon receipt of the empty EAP- TTLS packet from the client, the TTLS server considers the MS-CHAP- V2 authentication to have succeeded. If the authentication fails, the AAA/H will respond with an Access- Challenge containing the MS-CHAP-Error attribute. This attribute contains a new Ident and a string with additional information such as the error reason and whether a retry is allowed. The TTLS server tunnels this AVP to the client. If the error reason is an expired password and a retry is allowed, the client may proceed to change the user's password. If the error reason is not an expired password or if the client does not wish to change the user's password, it simply abandons the EAP-TTLS negotiation. If the client does wish to change the password, it tunnels MS-CHAP- NT-Enc-PW, MS-CHAP2-CPW, and MS-CHAP-Challenge AVPs to the TTLS server. The MS-CHAP2-CPW AVP is derived from the new Ident and Challenge received in the MS-CHAP-Error AVP. The MS-CHAP-Challenge AVP simply echoes the new Challenge.
Upon receipt of these AVPs from the client, the TTLS server MUST verify that the value of the MS-CHAP-Challenge AVP and the value of the Ident in the client's MS-CHAP2-CPW AVP match the values it sent in the MS-CHAP-Error AVP. If either item does not match exactly, the TTLS server MUST reject the client. Otherwise, it forwards the AVPs to the AAA/H in an Access-Request. If the authentication is successful, the AAA/H will respond with an Access-Accept containing the MS-CHAP2-Success attribute. At this point, the negotiation proceeds as described above; the TTLS server tunnels the MS-CHAP2-Success to the client, and the client authenticates the AAA/H based on this AVP. Then, the client either abandons the negotiation on failure or sends an EAP-TTLS packet to the TTLS server containing no data (that is, with a zero-length Data field), causing the TTLS server to consider the MS-CHAP-V2 authentication to have succeeded. Note that additional AVPs associated with MS-CHAP-V2 may be sent by the AAA/H; for example, MS-CHAP-Domain. The TTLS server MUST tunnel such authentication-related attributes along with the MS-CHAP2- Success. 11.2.5. PAP The client initiates PAP by tunneling User-Name and User-Password AVPs to the TTLS server. Normally, in RADIUS, User-Password is padded with nulls to a multiple of 16 octets, then encrypted using a shared secret and other packet information. An EAP-TTLS client, however, does not RADIUS-encrypt the password since no such RADIUS variables are available; this is not a security weakness since the password will be encrypted via TLS anyway. The client SHOULD, however, null-pad the password to a multiple of 16 octets, to obfuscate its length. Upon receipt of these AVPs from the client, the TTLS server forwards them to the AAA/H in a RADIUS Access-Request. (Note that in the Access-Request, the TTLS server must encrypt the User-Password attribute using the shared secret between the TTLS server and AAA/H.) The AAA/H may immediately respond with an Access-Accept or Access- Reject. The TTLS server then completes the negotiation by sending an EAP-Success or EAP-Failure to the access point using the AAA carrier protocol.
The AAA/H may also respond with an Access-Challenge. The TTLS server then tunnels the AVPs from the AAA/H's challenge to the client. Upon receipt of these AVPs, the client tunnels User-Name and User- Password again, with User-Password containing new information in response to the challenge. This process continues until the AAA/H issues an Access-Accept or Access-Reject. At least one of the AVPs tunneled to the client upon challenge MUST be Reply-Message. Normally, this is sent by the AAA/H as part of the challenge. However, if the AAA/H has not sent a Reply-Message, the TTLS server MUST issue one, with null value. This allows the client to determine that a challenge response is required. Note that if the AAA/H includes a Reply-Message as part of an Access-Accept or Access-Reject, the TTLS server does not tunnel this AVP to the client. Rather, this AVP and all other AVPs sent by the AAA/H as part of Access-Accept or Access-Reject are sent to the access point via the AAA carrier protocol. 11.3. Performing Multiple Authentications In some cases, it is desirable to perform multiple user authentications. For example, a AAA/H may want first to authenticate the user by password, then by token card. The AAA/H may perform any number of additional user authentications using EAP, simply by issuing a EAP-Request with a new EAP type once the previous authentication completes. Note that each new EAP method is subject to negotiation; that is, the client may respond to the EAP request for a new EAP type with an EAP-Nak, as described in [RFC3748]. For example, a AAA/H wishing to perform an MD5-Challenge followed by Generic Token Card would first issue an EAP-Request/MD5-Challenge and receive a response. If the response is satisfactory, it would then issue an EAP-Request/Generic Token Card and receive a response. If that response were also satisfactory, it would accept the user. The entire inner EAP exchange comprising multiple authentications is considered a single EAP sequence, in that each subsequent request MUST contain distinct a EAP Identifier from the previous request, even as one authentication completes and another begins. The peer identity indicated in the original EAP-Response/Identity that initiated the EAP sequence is intended to apply to each of the sequential authentications. In the absence of an application profile standard specifying otherwise, additional EAP-Identity exchanges SHOULD NOT occur.
The conditions for overall success or failure when multiple authentications are used are a matter of policy on client and server; thus, either party may require that all inner authentications succeed, or that at least one inner authentication succeed, as a condition for success of the overall authentication. Each EAP method is intended to run to completion. Should the TTLS server abandon a method and start a new one, client behavior is not defined in this document and is a matter of client policy. Note that it is not always feasible to use the same EAP method twice in a row, since it may not be possible to determine when the first authentication completes and the new authentication begins if the EAP type does not change. Certain EAP methods, such as EAP-TLS, use a Start bit to distinguish the first request, thus allowing each new authentication using that type to be distinguished from the previous. Other methods, such as EAP-MS-CHAP-V2, terminate in a well-defined manner, allowing a second authentication of the same type to commence unambiguously. While use of the same EAP method for multiple authentications is relatively unlikely, implementers should be aware of the issues and avoid cases that would result in ambiguity. Multiple authentications using non-EAP methods or a mixture of EAP and non-EAP methods is not defined in this document, nor is it known whether such an approach has been implemented. 11.4. Mandatory Tunneled Authentication Support To ensure interoperability, in the absence of an application profile standard specifying otherwise, an implementation compliant with this specification MUST implement EAP as a tunneled authentication method and MUST implement MD5-Challenge as an EAP type. However, such an implementation MAY allow the use of EAP, any EAP type, or any other tunneled authentication method to be enabled or disabled by administrative action on either client or TTLS server. In addition, in the absence of an application profile standard specifying otherwise, an implementation compliant with this specification MUST allow an administrator to configure the use of tunneled authentication without the M (Mandatory) bit set on any AVP. 11.5. Additional Suggested Tunneled Authentication Support The following information is provided as non-normative guidance based on the experience of the authors and reviewers of this specification with existing implementations of EAP-TTLSv0.
The following authentication methods are commonly used, and servers wishing for broad interoperability across multiple media should consider implementing them: - PAP (both for password and token authentication) - MS-CHAP-V2 - EAP-MS-CHAP-V2 - EAP-GTC 12. Keying Framework In compliance with [RFC5247], Session-Id, Peer-Id, and Server-Id are here defined. 12.1. Session-Id The Session-Id uniquely identifies an authentication exchange between the client and TTLS server. It is defined as follows: Session-Id = 0x15 || client.random || server.random 12.2. Peer-Id The Peer-Id represents the identity to be used for access control and accounting purposes. When the client presents a certificate as part of the TLS handshake, the Peer-Id is determined based on information in the certificate, as specified in Section 5.2 of [RFC5216]. Otherwise, the Peer-Id is null. 12.3. Server-Id The Server-Id identifies the TTLS server. When the TTLS server presents a certificate as part of the TLS handshake, the Server-Id is determined based on information in the certificate, as specified in Section 5.2 of [RFC5216]. Otherwise, the Server-Id is null. 13. AVP Summary The following table lists each AVP defined in this document, whether the AVP may appear in a packet from server to client ("Request") and/or in a packet from client to server ("Response"), and whether the AVP MUST be implemented ("MI").
Name Request Response MI --------------------------------------------------- User-Name X User-Password X CHAP-Password X Reply-Message X CHAP-Challenge X EAP-Message X X X MS-CHAP-Response X MS-CHAP-Error X MS-CHAP-NT-Enc-PW X MS-CHAP-Domain X MS-CHAP-Challenge X MS-CHAP2-Response X MS-CHAP2-Success X MS-CHAP2-CPW X