Network Working Group R. Rohit Request for Comments: 4008 Mascon Global Limited Category: Standards Track P. Srisuresh Caymas Systems, Inc. R. Raghunarayan N. Pai Cisco Systems, Inc. C. Wang Bank One Corp March 2005 Definitions of Managed Objects for Network Address Translators (NAT) Status of This Memo This document specifies an Internet standards track protocol for the Internet community, and requests discussion and suggestions for improvements. Please refer to the current edition of the "Internet Official Protocol Standards" (STD 1) for the standardization state and status of this protocol. Distribution of this memo is unlimited. Copyright Notice Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2005).
AbstractThis memo defines a portion of the Management Information Base (MIB) for devices implementing Network Address Translator (NAT) function. This MIB module may be used for configuration as well as monitoring of a device capable of NAT function.
Table of Contents1. Introduction ................................................. 2 2. The Internet-Standard Management Framework ................... 2 3. Terminology .................................................. 3 4. Overview ..................................................... 4 4.1. natInterfaceTable....................................... 4 4.2. natAddrMapTable......................................... 5 4.3. Default Timeouts, Protocol Table, and Other Scalars..... 6 4.4. natAddrBindTable and natAddrPortBindTable............... 6 4.5. natSessionTable......................................... 6 4.6. RFC 3489 NAPT Variations, NAT Session and Bind Tables... 7 4.7. Notifications........................................... 7 4.8. Relation Among Tables................................... 8 4.9. Configuration via the MIB............................... 8 4.10. Relationship to Interface MIB........................... 9 5. Definitions .................................................. 9 6. Acknowledgements ............................................. 59 7. Security Considerations ...................................... 59 8. References ................................................... 60 Authors' Addresses ............................................... 62 Full Copyright Statement.......................................... 64
1. IntroductionThis memo defines a portion of the Management Information Base (MIB) for devices implementing NAT function. This MIB module may be used for configuration and monitoring of a device capable of NAT function. NAT types and their characteristics are defined in[RFC2663]. Traditional NAT function, in particular is defined in [RFC3022]. This MIB does not address the firewall functions and must not be used for configuring or monitoring these. Section 2 provides references to the SNMP management framework, which was used as the basis for the MIB module definition. Section 3 describes the terms used throughout the document. Section 4 provides an overview of the key objects, their inter-relationship, and how the MIB module may be used to configure and monitor a NAT device. Lastly, section 5 has the complete NAT MIB definition. The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].
2. The Internet-Standard Management FrameworkFor a detailed overview of the documents that describe the current Internet-Standard Management Framework, please refer to section 7 of RFC 3410 [RFC3410].
Managed objects are accessed via a virtual information store, termed the Management Information Base or MIB. MIB objects are generally accessed through the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). Objects in the MIB are defined using the mechanisms defined in the Structure of Management Information (SMI). This memo specifies a MIB module that is compliant to the SMIv2, which is described in STD 58, RFC 2578 [RFC2578], STD 58, RFC 2579 [RFC2579] and STD 58, RFC 2580 [RFC2580].
3. TerminologyDefinitions for a majority of the terms used throughout the document may be found in RFC 2663 [RFC2663]. Additional terms that further classify NAPT implementations are defined in RFC 3489 [RFC3489]. Listed below are terms used in this document. Address realm - An address realm is a realm of unique network addresses that are routable within the realm. For example, an enterprise address realm could be constituted of private IP addresses in the ranges specified in RFC 1918 [RFC1918], which are routable within the enterprise, but not across the Internet. A public realm is constituted of globally unique network addresses. Symmetric NAT - Symmetric NAT, as defined in RFC 3489 [RFC3489], is a variation of Network Address Port Translator (NAPT). Symmetric NAT does not use port bind for translation across all sessions originating from the same private host. Instead, it assigns a new public port to each new session, irrespective of whether the new session used the same private end-point as before. Bind or Binding - Several variations of the term 'Bind' (or 'Binding') are used throughout the document. Address Bind (or Address Binding) is a tuple of (Private IP address, Public IP Address) used for translating an IP address end-point in IP packets. Port Bind (or, Port Binding, or Address Port Bind, or Address Port Binding) is a tuple of (transport protocol, Private IP address, Private port, Public IP Address, Public port) used for translating a port end-point tuple of (transport protocol, IP address, port). Bind is used to refer to either Address Bind or Port Bind. Bind Mode identifies whether a bind is Address Bind or Port Bind. NAT Session - A NAT session is an association between a session as seen in the private realm and a session as seen in the public realm, by virtue of NAT translation. If a session in the private realm were to be represented as (PrivateSrcAddr, PrivateDstAddr, TransportProtocol, PrivateSrcPort, PrivateDstPort) and the same session in the public realm were to be represented as (PublicSrcAddr,
PublicDstAddr, TransportProtocol, PublicSrcPort, PublicDstPort), the NAT session will provide the translation glue between the two session representations. NAT sessions in the document are restricted to sessions based on TCP and UDP only. In the future, NAT sessions may be extended to be based on other transport protocols such as SCTP, UDP-lite and DCCP. The terms 'local' and 'private' are used interchangeably throughout the document when referring to private networks, IP addresses, and ports. Likewise, the terms 'global' and 'public' are used interchangeably when referring to public networks, IP addresses, and ports.
4. OverviewNAT MIB is configurable on a per-interface basis and depends in several parts on the IF-MIB [RFC2863]. NAT MIB requires that an interface for which NAT is configured be connected to either a private or a public realm. The realm association of the interface plays an important role in the definition of address maps for the interface. An address map entry identifies the orientation of the session (inbound or outbound to the interface) for which the entry may be used for NAT translation. The address map entry also identifies the end-point of the session that must be subject to translation. An SNMP Textual-Convention 'NatTranslationEntity' is defined to capture this important characteristic that combines session orientation and applicable session endpoint for translation. An address map may consist of static or dynamic entries. NAT creates static binds from a static address map entry. Each static bind has a direct one-to-one relationship with a static address map entry. NAT creates dynamic binds from a dynamic address map entry upon seeing the first packet of a new session. The following subsections define the key objects used in NAT MIB, their inter-relationship, and how to configure a NAT device using the MIB module.
4.1. natInterfaceTablenatInterfaceTable is defined in the MIB module to configure interface specific realm type and the NAT services enabled for the interface. natInterfaceTable is indexed by ifIndex and also includes interface specific NAT statistics.
The first step for an operator in configuring a NAT device is determining the interface over which NAT service is to be configured. When NAT service is operational, translated packets traverse the NAT device by ingressing on a private interface and egressing on a public interface or vice versa. An operator may configure the NAT service on either the public interface or the private interface in the traversal path. As the next step, the operator must identify the NAT service(s) desired for the interface. The operator may configure one or more NAT services on the same interface. The MIB module identifies four types of NAT services: Basic NAT, NAPT, twice NAT and bidirectional NAT. These are NAT varieties as defined in RFC 2663 [RFC2663]. Note that RFC 3489 [RFC3489] further classifies NAPT implementations based on the behavior exhibited by the NAPT devices from different vendors. However, the MIB module does not explicitly distinguish between the NAPT implementations. NAPT implementations may be distinguished between one another by monitoring the BIND and NAT Session objects generated by the NAT device as described in section 4.6.
4.2. natAddrMapTablenatAddrMapTable is defined in the MIB module to configure address maps on a per-interface basis. natAddrMapTable is indexed by the tuple of (ifIndex, natAddrMapIndex). The same table is also used to collect Statistics for the address map entries. Address maps are key to NAT configuration. An operator may configure one or more address map entries per interface. NAT looks up address map entries in the order in which they are defined to determine the translation function at the start of each new session traversing the interface. An address map may consist of static or dynamic entries. A static address map entry has a direct one-to-one relationship with binds. NAT will dynamically create binds from a dynamic address map entry. The operator must be careful in selecting address map entries for an interface based on the interface realm-type and the type of NAT service desired. The operator can be amiss in the selection of address map entries when not paying attention to the associated interface characteristics defined in natInterfaceTable (described in section 4.1). For example, say the operator wishes to configure a NAPT map entry on an interface of a NAT device. If the operator chooses to configure the NAPT map entry on a public interface (i.e., interface realm-type is public), the operator should set the TranslationEntity of the NAPT address map entry to be outboundSrcEndPoint. On the other hand, if the operator chooses to configure the NAPT map entry on a private interface (i.e., interface realm-type is private), the operator should set the TranslationEntity of the NAPT address map entry to be InboundSrcEndPoint.
4.3. Default Timeouts, Protocol Table, and Other ScalarsDefTimeouts is defined in the MIB module to configure idle Bind timeout and IP protocol specific idle NAT session timeouts. The timeouts defined are global to the system and are not interface specific. Protocol specific statistics are maintained in natProtocolTable, which is indexed by the protocol type. The scalars natAddrBindNumberOfEntries and natAddrPortBindNumberOfEntries hold the number of entries that currently exist in the Address Bind and the Address Port Bind tables, respectively. The generation of natPacketDiscard notifications can be configured by using the natNotifThrottlingInterval scalar MIB object.
4.4. natAddrBindTable and natAddrPortBindTableTwo Bind tables, natAddrBindTable and natAddrPortBindTable, are defined to hold the bind entries. Entries are derived from the address map table and are not configurable. natAddrBindTable contains Address Binds, and natAddrPortBindTable contains Address Port Binds. natAddrBindTable is indexed by the tuple of (ifIndex, LocalAddrType, LocalAddr). natAddrPortBindTable is indexed by the tuple of (ifIndex, LocalAddrType, LocalAddr, LocalPort, Protocol). These tables also maintain bind specific statistics. A Symmetric NAT will have no entries in the Bind tables.
4.5. natSessionTablenatSessionTable is defined to hold NAT session entries. NAT session entries are derived from NAT Binds (except in the case of Symmetric NAT) and are not configurable. The NAT session provides the necessary translation glue between two session representations of the same end-to-end session; that is, a session as seen in the private realm and in the public realm. Session orientation (inbound or outbound) is determined from the orientation of the first packet traversing the NAT interface. Address map entries and bind entries on the interface determine whether a session is subject to NAT translation. One or both endpoints of a session may be subject to translation. With the exception of symmetric NAT, all other NAT functions use end-point specific bind to perform individual end-point translations. Multiple NAT sessions would use the same bind as long as they share
the same endpoint. Symmetric NAT does not retain a consistent port bind across multiple sessions using the same endpoint. For this reason, the bind identifier for a NAT session in symmetric NAT is set to zero. natSessionTable is indexed by the tuple of (ifIndex, natSessionIndex). Statistics for NAT sessions are also maintained in the same table.
4.6. RFC 3489 NAPT Variations, NAT Session and Bind Tables[RFC3489] defines four variations of NAPT - Full Cone, Restricted Cone, Port Restricted Cone, and Symmetric NAT. These can be differentiated in the NAT MIB based on different values for the objects in the session and the bind tables, as indicated below. In a Port Restricted Cone NAT, NAT Session objects will contain a non-zero PrivateSrcEPBindId object. Further, all address and port objects within a NAT session will have non-zero values (i.e., no wildcard matches). An Address Restricted Cone NAT may have been implemented in the same way as a Port Restricted Cone NAT, except that the UDP NAT Sessions may use ANY match on PrivateDstPort and PublicDstPort objects; i.e., PrivateDstPort and PublicDstPort objects within a NAT session may be set to zero. A Full Cone NAT may have also been implemented in the same way as a Port Restricted Cone NAT, except that the UDP NAT Sessions may use ANY match on PrivateDstAddr, PrivateDstPort, PublicDstAddr, and PublicDstPort objects. Within a NAT Session, all four of these objects may be set to zero. Alternately, all address and port objects within a NAT Session may have non-zero values, yet the TranslationEntity of the PrivateSrcEPBindId for the NAT Sessions may be set bi-directionally, i.e., as a bit mask of (outboundSrcEndPoint and inboundDstEndPoint) or (inboundSrcEndPoint and outboundDstEndPoint), depending on the interface realm type. Lastly, a Symmetric NAT does not maintain Port Bindings. As such, the NAT Session objects will have the PrivateSrcEPBindId set to zero.
4.7. NotificationsnatPacketDiscard notifies the end user/manager of packets being discarded due to lack of address mappings.
4.8. Relation Among TablesThe association between the various NAT tables can be represented as follows: Interface | | | Address map | | | ---------------------------------------------- | | | | | | Address Bind Port Bind | | | | | | ---------------------------------------------- | | | NAT Session All NAT functions, with the exception of Symmetric NAT, use Bind(s) to provide the glue necessary for a NAT Session. natSessionPrivateSrcEPBindId and natSessionPrivateDstEPBindId objects represent the endpoint Binds used by NAT Sessions.
4.9. Configuration via the MIBSections 4.1 and 4.2 and part of section 4.3 refer to objects that are configurable on a NAT device. NAT derives Address Bind and Address Port Bind entries from the Address Map table. Hence, an Address Bind or an Address Port Bind entry must not exist without an associated entry in the Address Map table. Further, NAT derives NAT session entries from NAT Binds, except in the case of symmetric NAT, which derives translation parameters for a NAT session directly from an address map entry. Hence, with the exception of Symmetric NAT, a NAT session entry must not exist in the NAT Session table without a corresponding bind.
A Management station may use the following steps to configure entries in the NAT-MIB: - Create an entry in the natInterfaceTable specifying the value of ifIndex as the interface index of the interface on which NAT is being configured. Specify appropriate values, as applicable, for the other objects (e.g., natInterfaceRealm, natInterfaceServiceType) in the table (refer to Section 4.1). - Create one or more address map entries sequentially in reduced order of priority in the natAddrMapTable, specifying the value of ifIndex to be the same for all entries. The ifIndex specified would be the same as that specified for natInterfaceTable (refer to Section 4.2). - Configure the maximum permitted idle time duration for BINDs and TCP, UDP, and ICMP protocol sessions by setting the relevant scalars in natDefTimeouts object (refer to Section 4.3).
4.10. Relationship to Interface MIBThe natInterfaceTable specifies the NAT configuration attributes on each interface. The concept of "interface" is as defined by InterfaceIndex/ifIndex of the IETF Interfaces MIB [RFC2863].