Tech-invite3GPPspecsSIPRFCs
898887868584838281807978777675747372717069686766656463626160595857565554535251504948474645444342414039383736353433323130292827262524232221201918171615141312111009080706050403020100

in Index   Prev   Next

RFC 3923

End-to-End Signing and Object Encryption for the Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP)

Pages: 27
Proposed Standard
Errata

Top   ToC   RFC3923 - Page 1
Network Working Group                                     P. Saint-Andre
Request for Comments: 3923                    Jabber Software Foundation
Category: Standards Track                                   October 2004


           End-to-End Signing and Object Encryption for the
           Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP)

Status of this Memo

   This document specifies an Internet standards track protocol for the
   Internet community, and requests discussion and suggestions for
   improvements.  Please refer to the current edition of the "Internet
   Official Protocol Standards" (STD 1) for the standardization state
   and status of this protocol.  Distribution of this memo is unlimited.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2004).

Abstract

This memo defines methods of end-to-end signing and object encryption for the Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP).

Table of Contents

1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2. Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 3. Securing Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 4. Securing Presence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 5. Securing Arbitrary XMPP Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 6. Rules for S/MIME Generation and Handling . . . . . . . . . . 15 7. Recipient Error Handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 8. Secure Communications Through a Gateway . . . . . . . . . . 20 9. urn:ietf:params:xml:xmpp-e2e Namespace . . . . . . . . . . . 21 10. application/xmpp+xml Media Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 11. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 12. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 13. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 A. Schema for urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-e2e . . . . . . . . . 26 Author's Address. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Full Copyright Statement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Top   ToC   RFC3923 - Page 2

1. Introduction

This memo defines methods of end-to-end signing and object encryption for the Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP). (For information about XMPP, see [XMPP-CORE] and [XMPP-IM].) The method specified herein enables a sender to sign and/or encrypt an instant message sent to a specific recipient, sign and/or encrypt presence information that is directed to a specific user, and sign and/or encrypt any arbitrary XMPP stanza directed to a specific user. This memo thereby helps the XMPP specifications meet the requirements specified in [IMP-REQS].

1.1. Terminology

This document inherits terminology defined in [CMS], [IMP-MODEL], [SMIME], and [XMPP-CORE]. The capitalized key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in BCP 14, RFC 2119 [TERMS].

2. Requirements

For the purposes of this memo, we stipulate the following requirements: 1. The method defined MUST address signing and encryption requirements for minimal instant messaging and presence, as those are defined in [IMP-REQS]. In particular, the method MUST address the following requirements, which are copied here verbatim from [IMP-REQS]: * The protocol MUST provide means to ensure confidence that a received message (NOTIFICATION or INSTANT MESSAGE) has not been corrupted or tampered with. (Section 2.5.1) * The protocol MUST provide means to ensure confidence that a received message (NOTIFICATION or INSTANT MESSAGE) has not been recorded and played back by an adversary. (Section 2.5.2) * The protocol MUST provide means to ensure that a sent message (NOTIFICATION or INSTANT MESSAGE) is only readable by ENTITIES that the sender allows. (Section 2.5.3)
Top   ToC   RFC3923 - Page 3
       *  The protocol MUST allow any client to use the means to ensure
          non-corruption, non-playback, and privacy, but the protocol
          MUST NOT require that all clients use these means at all
          times.  (Section 2.5.4)

       *  When A establishes a SUBSCRIPTION to B's PRESENCE INFORMATION,
          the protocol MUST provide A means of verifying the accurate
          receipt of the content B chooses to disclose to A.  (Section
          5.1.4)

       *  The protocol MUST provide A means of verifying that the
          presence information is accurate, as sent by B.  (Section
          5.3.1)

       *  The protocol MUST provide A means of ensuring that no other
          PRINCIPAL C can see the content of M.  (Section 5.4.6)

       *  The protocol MUST provide A means of ensuring that no other
          PRINCIPAL C can tamper with M, and B means to verify that no
          tampering has occurred.  (Section 5.4.7)

   2.  The method defined MUST enable interoperability with non-XMPP
       messaging systems that support the Common Presence and Instant
       Messaging (CPIM) specifications published by the Instant
       Messaging and Presence (IMPP) Working Group.  Two corollaries of
       this requirement are:

       *  Prior to signing and/or encrypting, the format of an instant
          message MUST conform to the CPIM Message Format defined in
          [MSGFMT].

       *  Prior to signing and/or encrypting, the format of presence
          information MUST conform to the CPP Presence Information Data
          Format defined in [PIDF].

   3.  The method MUST follow the required procedures (including the
       specific algorithms) defined in [CPIM] and [CPP].  In particular,
       these documents specify:

       *  Signing MUST use [SMIME] signatures with [CMS] SignedData.

       *  Encryption MUST use [SMIME] encryption with [CMS]
          EnvelopeData.

   4.  In order to enable interoperable implementations, sending and
       receiving applications MUST implement the algorithms specified
       under Mandatory-to-Implement Cryptographic Algorithms (Section
       6.10).
Top   ToC   RFC3923 - Page 4
   We further stipulate that the following functionality is out of scope
   for this memo:

   o  Discovery of support for this protocol.  An entity could discover
      whether another entity supports this protocol by (1) attempting to
      send signed or encrypted stanzas and receiving an error stanza
      ("technical" discovery) or a textual message in reply ("social"
      discovery) if the protocol is not supported, or (2) using a
      dedicated service discovery protocol, such as [DISCO] or [CAPS].
      However, the definition of a service discovery protocol is out of
      scope for this memo.

   o  Signing or encryption of XMPP groupchat messages, which are
      mentioned in [XMPP-IM] but not defined therein since they are not
      required by [IMP-REQS]; such messages are best specified in [MUC].

   o  Signing or encryption of broadcasted presence as described in
      [XMPP-IM] (the methods defined herein apply to directed presence
      only).

   o  Signing or encryption of communications that occur within the
      context of applications other than instant messaging and presence
      as those are described in [IMP-MODEL] and [IMP-REQS].

3. Securing Messages

3.1. Process for Securing Messages

In order to sign and/or encrypt a message, a sending agent MUST use the following procedure: 1. Generate a "Message/CPIM" object as defined in [MSGFMT]. 2. Sign and/or encrypt both the headers and content of the "Message/CPIM" object as specified in Requirement 3 of Section 2 above. 3. Provide the resulting signed and/or encrypted object within an XML CDATA section (see Section 2.7 of [XML]) contained in an <e2e/> child of a <message/> stanza, where the <e2e/> element is qualified by the 'urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-e2e' namespace as specified more fully in Section 9 below.

3.2. Example of a Signed Message

The following example illustrates the defined steps for signing a message.
Top   ToC   RFC3923 - Page 5
   First, the sending agent generates a "Message/CPIM" object in
   accordance with the rules and formats specified in [MSGFMT].

   Example 1: Sender generates "Message/CPIM" object:

   |   Content-type: Message/CPIM
   |
   |   From: Juliet Capulet <im:juliet@example.com>
   |   To: Romeo Montague <im:romeo@example.net>
   |   DateTime: 2003-12-09T11:45:36.66Z
   |   Subject: Imploring
   |
   |   Content-type: text/plain; charset=utf-8
   |   Content-ID: <1234567890@example.com>
   |
   |   Wherefore art thou, Romeo?

   Once the sending agent has generated the "Message/CPIM" object, the
   sending agent may sign it.  The result is a multipart [SMIME] object
   (see [MULTI]) that has a Content-Type of "multipart/signed" and
   includes two parts: one whose Content-Type is "Message/CPIM" and
   another whose Content-Type is "application/pkcs7-signature".
Top   ToC   RFC3923 - Page 6
   Example 2: Sender generates multipart/signed object:

   |   Content-Type: multipart/signed; boundary=next;
   |                 micalg=sha1;
   |                 protocol=application/pkcs7-signature
   |
   |   --next
   |   Content-type: Message/CPIM
   |
   |   From: Juliet Capulet <im:juliet@example.com>
   |   To: Romeo Montague <im:romeo@example.net>
   |   DateTime: 2003-12-09T23:45:36.66Z
   |   Subject: Imploring
   |
   |   Content-type: text/plain; charset=utf-8
   |   Content-ID: <1234567890@example.com>
   |
   |   Wherefore art thou, Romeo?
   |   --next
   |   Content-Type: application/pkcs7-signature
   |   Content-Disposition: attachment;handling=required;\
   |                                   filename=smime.p7s
   |
   |   [signed body part]
   |
   |   --next--

   The sending agent now wraps the "multipart/signed" object in an XML
   CDATA section, which is contained in an <e2e/> element that is
   included as a child element of the XMPP message stanza and that is
   qualified by the 'urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-e2e' namespace.
Top   ToC   RFC3923 - Page 7
   Example 3: Sender generates XMPP message stanza:

   |   <message to='romeo@example.net/orchard' type='chat'>
   |     <e2e xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-e2e'>
   |   <![CDATA[
   |   Content-Type: multipart/signed; boundary=next;
   |                 micalg=sha1;
   |                 protocol=application/pkcs7-signature
   |
   |   --next
   |   Content-type: Message/CPIM
   |
   |   From: Juliet Capulet <im:juliet@example.com>
   |   To: Romeo Montague <im:romeo@example.net>
   |   DateTime: 2003-12-09T23:45:36.66Z
   |   Subject: Imploring
   |
   |   Content-type: text/plain; charset=utf-8
   |   Content-ID: <1234567890@example.com>
   |
   |   Wherefore art thou, Romeo?
   |   --next
   |   Content-Type: application/pkcs7-signature
   |   Content-Disposition: attachment;handling=required;\
   |                                   filename=smime.p7s
   |
   |   [signed body part]
   |
   |   --next--
   |   ]]>
   |     </e2e>
   |   </message>


3.3. Example of an Encrypted Message

The following example illustrates the defined steps for encrypting a message. First, the sending agent generates a "Message/CPIM" object in accordance with the rules and formats specified in [MSGFMT].
Top   ToC   RFC3923 - Page 8
   Example 4: Sender generates "Message/CPIM" object:

   |   Content-type: Message/CPIM
   |
   |   From: Juliet Capulet <im:juliet@example.com>
   |   To: Romeo Montague <im:romeo@example.net>
   |   DateTime: 2003-12-09T11:45:36.66Z
   |   Subject: Imploring
   |
   |   Content-type: text/plain; charset=utf-8
   |   Content-ID: <1234567890@example.com>
   |
   |   Wherefore art thou, Romeo?

   Once the sending agent has generated the "Message/CPIM" object, the
   sending agent may encrypt it.

   Example 5: Sender generates encrypted object:

   |   U2FsdGVkX19okeKTlLxa/1n1FE/upwn1D20GhPWqhDWlexKMUKYJInTWzERP+vcQ
   |   /OxFs40uc9Fx81a5/62p/yPb/UWnuG6SR6o3Ed2zwcusDImyyz125HFERdDUMBC9
   |   Pt6Z4cTGKBmJzZBGyuc3Y+TMBTxqFFUAxeWaoxnZrrl+LP72vwbriYc3KCMxDbQL
   |   Igc1Vzs5/5JecegMieNY24SlNyX9HMFRNFpbI64vLxYEk55A+3IYbZsluCFT31+a
   |   +GeAvJkvH64LRV4mPbUhENTQ2wbAwnOTvbLIaQEQrii78xNEh+MK8Bx7TBTvi4yH
   |   Ddzf9Sim6mtWsXaCAvWSyp0X91d7xRJ4JIgKfPzkxNsWJFCLthQS1p734eDxXVd3
   |   i08lEHzyll6htuEr59ZDAw==

   The sending agent now wraps the encrypted object in an XML CDATA
   section, which is contained in an <e2e/> element that is included as
   a child element of the XMPP message stanza and that is qualified by
   the 'urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-e2e' namespace.

   Example 6: Sender generates XMPP message stanza:

   |   <message to='romeo@example.net/orchard' type='chat'>
   |     <e2e xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-e2e'>
   |   <![CDATA[
   |   U2FsdGVkX19okeKTlLxa/1n1FE/upwn1D20GhPWqhDWlexKMUKYJInTWzERP+vcQ
   |   /OxFs40uc9Fx81a5/62p/yPb/UWnuG6SR6o3Ed2zwcusDImyyz125HFERdDUMBC9
   |   Pt6Z4cTGKBmJzZBGyuc3Y+TMBTxqFFUAxeWaoxnZrrl+LP72vwbriYc3KCMxDbQL
   |   Igc1Vzs5/5JecegMieNY24SlNyX9HMFRNFpbI64vLxYEk55A+3IYbZsluCFT31+a
   |   +GeAvJkvH64LRV4mPbUhENTQ2wbAwnOTvbLIaQEQrii78xNEh+MK8Bx7TBTvi4yH
   |   Ddzf9Sim6mtWsXaCAvWSyp0X91d7xRJ4JIgKfPzkxNsWJFCLthQS1p734eDxXVd3
   |   i08lEHzyll6htuEr59ZDAw==
   |   ]]>
   |     </e2e>
   |   </message>
Top   ToC   RFC3923 - Page 9

4. Securing Presence

4.1. Process for Securing Presence Information

In order to sign and/or encrypt presence information, a sending agent MUST use the following procedure: 1. Generate an "application/pidf+xml" object as defined in [PIDF]. 2. Sign and/or encrypt the "application/pidf+xml" object as specified in Requirement 3 of Section 2 above. 3. Provide the resulting signed and/or encrypted object within an XML CDATA section (see Section 2.7 of [XML]) contained in an <e2e/> child of a <presence/> stanza, where the <e2e/> element is qualified by the 'urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-e2e' namespace. The <presence/> stanza MUST include a 'to' attribute, i.e., it must be an instance of directed presence as defined in [XMPP-IM].

4.2. Example of Signed Presence Information

The following example illustrates the defined steps for signing presence information. First, the sending agent generates an "application/pidf+xml" object in accordance with the rules and formats specified in [PIDF]. Example 7: Sender generates "application/pidf+xml" object: | <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> | <presence xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:pidf" | xmlns:im="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:pidf:im" | entity="pres:juliet@example.com"> | <tuple id="hr0zny" | <status> | <basic>open</basic> | <im:im>away</im:im> | </status> | <note xml:lang="en">retired to the chamber</note> | <timestamp>2003-12-09T23:53:11.31</timestamp> | </tuple> | </presence> Once the sending agent has generated the "application/pidf+xml" object, the sending agent may sign it. The result is a multipart [SMIME] object (see [MULTI]) that has a Content-Type of "multipart/signed" and includes two parts: one whose Content-Type is "application/pidf+xml" and another whose Content-Type is "application/pkcs7-signature".
Top   ToC   RFC3923 - Page 10
   Example 8: Sender generates multipart/signed object:

   |   Content-Type: multipart/signed; boundary=next;
   |                 micalg=sha1;
   |                 protocol=application/pkcs7-signature
   |
   |   --next
   |   Content-type: application/pidf+xml
   |   Content-ID: <2345678901@example.com>
   |
   |   <xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
   |   <presence xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:pidf"
   |             xmlns:im="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:pidf:im"
   |             entity="pres:juliet@example.com">
   |     <tuple id="hr0zny">
   |       <status&gt;
   |         <basic>open</basic>
   |         <im:im>away</im:im>
   |       </status>
   |       <note xml:lang="en">retired to the chamber</note>
   |       <timestamp>2003-12-09T23:53:11.31Z</timestamp>
   |     </tuple>
   |   </presence>
   |   --next
   |   Content-Type: application/pkcs7-signature
   |   Content-Disposition: attachment;handling=required;\
   |                                   filename=smime.p7s
   |
   |   [signed body part]
   |
   |   --next--

   The sending agent now wraps the "multipart/signed" object in an XML
   CDATA section, which is contained in an <e2e/> element that is
   included as a child element of the XMPP message stanza and that is
   qualified by the 'urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-e2e' namespace.
Top   ToC   RFC3923 - Page 11
   Example 9: Sender generates XMPP presence stanza:

   |   <presence to='romeo@example.net/orchard'>
   |     <e2e xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-e2e'>
   |   <![CDATA[
   |   Content-Type: multipart/signed; boundary=next;
   |                 micalg=sha1;
   |                 protocol=application/pkcs7-signature
   |
   |   --next
   |   Content-type: application/pidf+xml
   |   Content-ID: <2345678901@example.com>
   |
   |   <xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
   |   <presence xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:pidf"
   |             xmlns:im="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:pidf:im"
   |             entity="pres:juliet@example.com">
   |     <tuple id="hr0zny">
   |       <status>
   |         <basic>open</basic>
   |         <im:im>away</im:im>
   |       </status>
   |       <note xml:lang="en">retired to the chamber</note>
   |       <timestamp>2003-12-09T23:53:11.31Z</timestamp>
   |     </tuple>
   |   </presence>
   |   --next
   |   Content-Type: application/pkcs7-signature
   |   Content-Disposition: attachment;handling=required;\
   |                                   filename=smime.p7s
   |
   |   [signed body part]
   |
   |   --next--
   |   ]]>
   |     </e2e>
   |   </presence>

4.3. Example of Encrypted Presence Information

The following example illustrates the defined steps for encrypting presence information. First, the sending agent generates an "application/pidf+xml" object in accordance with the rules and formats specified in [PIDF].
Top   ToC   RFC3923 - Page 12
   Example 10: Sender generates "application/pidf+xml" object:

   |   <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
   |   <presence xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:pidf"
   |             xmlns:im="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:pidf:im"
   |             entity="pres:juliet@example.com">
   |     <tuple id="hr0zny"
   |       <status>
   |         <basic>open</basic>
   |         <im:im>away</im:im>
   |       </status>
   |       <note xml:lang="en">retired to the chamber</note>
   |       <timestamp>2003-12-09T23:53:11.31</timestamp>
   |     </tuple>
   |   </presence>

   Once the sending agent has generated the "application/pidf+xml"
   object, the sending agent may encrypt it.

   Example 11: Sender generates encrypted object:

   |   U2FsdGVkX18VJPbx5GMdFPTPZrHLC9QGiVP+ziczu6zWZLFQxae6O5PP6iqpr2No
   |   zOvBVMWvYeRAT0zd18hr6qsqKiGl/GZpAAbTvPtaBxeIykxsd1+CX+U+iw0nEGCr
   |   bjiQrk0qUKJ79bNxwRnqdidjhyTpKSbOJC0XZ8CTe7AE9KDM3Q+uk+O3jrqX4byL
   |   GBlKThbzKidxz32ObojPEEwfFiM/yUeqYUP1OcJpUmeQ8lcXhD6tcx+m2MAyYYLP
   |   boKQxpLknxRnbM8T/voedlnFLbbDu69mOlxDPbr1mHZd3hDsyFudb1fb4rI3Kw0K
   |   Nq+3udr2IkysviJDgQo+xGIQUG/5sED/mAaPRlj4f/JtTzvT4EaQTawv69ntXfKV
   |   MCr9KdIMMdjdJzOJkYLoAhNVrcZn5tw8WsJGwuKuhYb/SShy7InzOapPaPAl7/Mm
   |   PHj7zj3NZ6EEIweDOuAwWlIG/dT506tci27+EW7JnXwMPnFMkF+6a7tr/0Y+iiej
   |   woJxUIBqCOgX+U7srHpK2NYtNTZ7UQp2V0yEx1JV8+Y=

   The sending agent now wraps the encrypted object in an XML CDATA
   section, which is contained in an <e2e/> element that is included as
   a child element of the XMPP message stanza and that is qualified by
   the 'urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-e2e' namespace.
Top   ToC   RFC3923 - Page 13
   Example 12: Sender generates XMPP presence stanza:

   |   <presence to='romeo@example.net/orchard'>
   |     <e2e xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-e2e'>
   |   <![CDATA[
   |   U2FsdGVkX18VJPbx5GMdFPTPZrHLC9QGiVP+ziczu6zWZLFQxae6O5PP6iqpr2No
   |   zOvBVMWvYeRAT0zd18hr6qsqKiGl/GZpAAbTvPtaBxeIykxsd1+CX+U+iw0nEGCr
   |   bjiQrk0qUKJ79bNxwRnqdidjhyTpKSbOJC0XZ8CTe7AE9KDM3Q+uk+O3jrqX4byL
   |   GBlKThbzKidxz32ObojPEEwfFiM/yUeqYUP1OcJpUmeQ8lcXhD6tcx+m2MAyYYLP
   |   boKQxpLknxRnbM8T/voedlnFLbbDu69mOlxDPbr1mHZd3hDsyFudb1fb4rI3Kw0K
   |   Nq+3udr2IkysviJDgQo+xGIQUG/5sED/mAaPRlj4f/JtTzvT4EaQTawv69ntXfKV
   |   MCr9KdIMMdjdJzOJkYLoAhNVrcZn5tw8WsJGwuKuhYb/SShy7InzOapPaPAl7/Mm
   |   PHj7zj3NZ6EEIweDOuAwWlIG/dT506tci27+EW7JnXwMPnFMkF+6a7tr/0Y+iiej
   |   woJxUIBqCOgX+U7srHpK2NYtNTZ7UQp2V0yEx1JV8+Y=
   |   ]]>
   |     </e2e>
   |   </presence>

5. Securing Arbitrary XMPP Data

The foregoing sections of this memo describe how to secure "least common denominator" messaging and presence data of the kind that can be directly translated into the MSGFMT or PIDF formats. However, XMPP possesses a third base-level stanza type (<iq/>) in addition to <message/> and <presence/>, as well as the ability to include extended XML data within arbitrary child elements of the three core stanza types. Therefore, it would be desirable to secure such data if possible. Because [MSGFMT] specifies the ability to encapsulate any MIME type, the approach taken in this memo is to include arbitrary XMPP data in an XML media type named "application/xmpp+xml" as specified more fully in Section 10 below. The following examples illustrate the structure of the "application/xmpp+xml" MIME type. (Note: The 'http://jabber.org/protocol/evil' namespace used in these examples is associated with an April Fool's protocol written to be the instant messaging equivalent of RFC 3514; it is included only as an instance of extended information included in an XML stanza and should not be taken seriously as a functional XMPP extension.)
Top   ToC   RFC3923 - Page 14
   Example 13: Message stanza with extended data contained in
   "application/xmpp+xml" MIME type:

   |   <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
   |   <xmpp xmlns='jabber:client'>
   |     <message
   |         from='iago@example.com/pda'
   |         to='emilia@example.com/cell'>
   |       <body>
   |         I told him what I thought, and told no more
   |         Than what he found himself was apt and true.
   |       </body>
   |       <evil xmlns='http://jabber.org/protocol/evil'/>
   |     </message>
   |   </xmpp>

   Example 14: Presence stanza with extended data contained in
   "application/xmpp+xml" MIME type:

   |   <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
   |   <xmpp xmlns='jabber:client'>
   |     <presence from='iago@example.com/pda'>
   |       <show>dnd</show>
   |       <status>Fomenting dissension</status>
   |       <evil xmlns='http://jabber.org/protocol/evil'/>
   |     </presence>
   |   </xmpp>

   Example 15: IQ stanza with extended data contained in "application/
   xmpp+xml" MIME type:

   |   <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
   |   <xmpp xmlns='jabber:client'>
   |     <iq type='result'
   |         from='iago@example.com/pda'
   |         to='emilia@example.com/cell'
   |         id='evil1'>
   |       <query xmlns='jabber:iq:version'>
   |         <name>Stabber</name>
   |         <version>666</version>
   |         <os>FiendOS</os>
   |       </query>
   |       <evil xmlns='http://jabber.org/protocol/evil'/>
   |     </iq>
   |   </xmpp>
Top   ToC   RFC3923 - Page 15
   Just as with the "Message/CPIM" and "application/pidf+xml" objects,
   the "application/xmpp+xml" object would be signed and/or encrypted,
   then encapsulated within an XML CDATA section (see Section 2.7 of
   [XML]) contained in an <e2e/> child of a <presence/> stanza, where
   the <e2e/> element is qualified by the
   'urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-e2e' namespace.

6. Rules for S/MIME Generation and Handling

6.1. Certificate Enrollment

[SMIME] does not specify how to obtain a certificate from a certificate authority, but instead mandates that every sending agent must already have a certificate. The PKIX Working Group has, at the time of this writing, produced two separate standards for certificate enrollment: [CMP] and [CMC]. Which method to use for certificate enrollment is outside the scope of this memo.

6.2. Certificate Retrieval

A receiving agent MUST provide some certificate retrieval mechanism in order to gain access to certificates for recipients of digital envelopes. This memo does not address how S/MIME agents handle certificates, only what they do after a certificate has been validated or rejected. S/MIME certification issues are covered in [CERT]. However, at a minimum, for initial S/MIME deployment, a user agent SHOULD automatically generate a message to an intended recipient requesting that recipient's certificate in a signed return message. Receiving and sending agents SHOULD also provide a mechanism to allow a user to "store and protect" certificates for correspondents in such a way so as to guarantee their later retrieval.

6.3. Certificate Names

End-entity certificates used by XMPP entities in the context of this memo SHOULD contain a valid instant messaging and presence address. The address SHOULD be specified as both an 'im:' URI (for instant messaging, as defined in [CPIM]) and a 'pres:' URI (for presence, as defined in [CPP]); each of these URIs SHOULD be specified in a separate GeneralName entry of type uniformResourceIdentifier inside the subjectAltName (i.e., two separate entries). Information in the subject distinguished name SHOULD be ignored. Each URI MUST be of the form <im:address> or <pres:address>, where the "address" portion is an XMPP address (also referred to as a Jabber Identifier or JID) as defined in [XMPP-CORE], prepended with
Top   ToC   RFC3923 - Page 16
   the 'im:' or 'pres:' URI scheme.  The address SHOULD be of the form
   <node@domain> (i.e., a "bare JID"), although any valid JID form MAY
   be used.

   The value of the JID contained in the XMPP 'from' attribute MUST
   match a JID provided in the signer's certificate, with the exception
   that the resource identifier portion of the JID contained in the
   'from' attribute SHOULD be ignored for matching purposes.

   Receiving agents MUST check that the sending JID matches a JID
   provided in the signer's certificate, with the exception that the
   resource identifier portion of the JID contained in the 'from'
   attribute SHOULD be ignored for matching purposes.  A receiving agent
   SHOULD provide some explicit alternate processing of the stanza if
   this comparison fails, which may be to display a message informing
   the recipient of the addresses in the certificate or other
   certificate details.

   The subject alternative name extension is used in S/MIME as the
   preferred means to convey the instant messaging and presence address
   that corresponds to the entity for this certificate.  Any XMPP
   address present in the certificate MUST be encoded using the ASN.1
   Object Identifier "id-on-xmppAddr" as specified in Section 5.1.1 of
   [XMPP-CORE].

6.4. Transfer Encoding

Because it is expected that XMPP applications will not interface with older 7-bit systems, the transfer encoding (as defined in Section 3.1.2 of [SMIME]) MUST be "binary".

6.5. Order of Signing and Encrypting

If a stanza is both signed and encrypted, it SHOULD be signed first, then encrypted.

6.6. Inclusion of Certificates

If the sender and recipient are involved in an active messaging session over a period of time, the sending agent SHOULD include the sender's certificate along with at least one encrypted message stanza every five minutes. Outside the context of an active messaging session, the sending agent SHOULD include the sender's certificate along with each encrypted message stanza. A sending agent MAY include the sender's certificate along with each encrypted presence stanza. However, a sending agent SHOULD NOT include a certificate more than once every five minutes.
Top   ToC   RFC3923 - Page 17

6.7. Attachment and Checking of Signatures

Sending agents SHOULD attach a signature to each encrypted XML stanza. If a signature is attached, a Content-Disposition header field (as defined in [DISP]) SHOULD be included to specify how the signature is to be handled by the receiving application. If the receiving agent determines that the signature attached to an encrypted XML stanza is invalid, it SHOULD NOT present the stanza to the intended recipient (human or application), SHOULD provide some explicit alternate processing of the stanza (which may be to display a message informing the recipient that the attached signature is invalid), and MAY return a stanza error to the sender as described under Recipient Error Handling (Section 7).

6.8. Decryption

If the receiving agent is unable to decrypt the encrypted XML stanza, it SHOULD NOT present the stanza to the intended recipient (human or application), SHOULD provide some explicit alternate processing of the stanza (which may be to display a message informing the recipient that it has received a stanza that cannot be decrypted), and MAY return a stanza error to the sender as described under Recipient Error Handling (Section 7).

6.9. Inclusion and Checking of Timestamps

Timestamps are included in "Message/CPIM" and "application/pidf+xml" objects to help prevent replay attacks. All timestamps MUST conform to [DATETIME] and be presented as UTC with no offset, including fractions of a second as appropriate. Absent a local adjustment to the sending agent's perceived time or the underlying clock time, the sending agent MUST ensure that the timestamps it sends to the receiver increase monotonically (if necessary by incrementing the seconds fraction in the timestamp if the clock returns the same time for multiple requests). The following rules apply to the receiving application: o It MUST verify that the timestamp received is within five minutes of the current time. o It SHOULD verify that the timestamp received is greater than any timestamp received in the last 10 minutes which passed the previous check.
Top   ToC   RFC3923 - Page 18
   o  If any of the foregoing checks fails, the timestamp SHOULD be
      presented to the receiving entity (human or application) marked as
      "old timestamp", "future timestamp", or "decreasing timestamp",
      and the receiving entity MAY return a stanza error to the sender
      as described under Recipient Error Handling (Section 7).

6.10. Mandatory-to-Implement Cryptographic Algorithms

All implementations MUST support the following algorithms. Implementations MAY support other algorithms as well. For CMS SignedData: o The SHA-1 message digest as specified in [CMS-ALG] section 2.1. o The RSA (PKCS #1 v1.5) with SHA-1 signature algorithm, as specified in [CMS-ALG] section 3.2. For CMS EnvelopedData: o The RSA (PKCS #1 v1.5) key transport, as specified in [CMS-ALG] section 4.2.1. o The AES-128 encryption algorithm in CBC mode, as specified in [CMS-AES].

7. Recipient Error Handling

When an XMPP entity receives an XML stanza containing data that is signed and/or encrypted using the protocol described herein, several scenarios are possible: Case #1: The receiving application does not understand the protocol. Case #2: The receiving application understands the protocol and is able to decrypt the payload and verify the sender's signature. Case #3: The receiving application understands the protocol and is able to decrypt the payload and verify the sender's signature, but the timestamps fail the checks specified above under Checking of Timestamps (Section 6.9). Case #4: The receiving application understands the protocol and is able to decrypt the payload but is unable to verify the sender's signature. Case #5: The receiving application understands the protocol but is unable to decrypt the payload.
Top   ToC   RFC3923 - Page 19
   In Case #1, the receiving application MUST do one and only one of the
   following: (1) ignore the <e2e/> extension, (2) ignore the entire
   stanza, or (3) return a <service-unavailable/> error to the sender,
   as described in [XMPP-CORE].

   In Case #2, the receiving application MUST NOT return a stanza error
   to the sender, since this is the success case.

   In Case #3, the receiving application MAY return a <not-acceptable/>
   error to the sender (as described in [XMPP-CORE]), optionally
   supplemented by an application-specific error condition element
   <bad-timestamp/> as shown below:

   Example 16: Recipient returns <not-acceptable/> error:

   <message from='romeo@example.net/orchard' type='chat'>
     <e2e xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-e2e'>
     [CDATA section here]
     </e2e>
     <error type='modify'>
       <not-acceptable xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-stanzas'/>
       <bad-timestamp xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:xmpp-e2e'/>
     </error>
   </message>

   In Case #4, the receiving application SHOULD return a
   <not-acceptable/> error to the sender (as described in [XMPP-CORE]),
   optionally supplemented by an application-specific error condition
   element <unverified-signature/> as shown below:

   Example 17: Recipient returns <not-acceptable/> error:

   <message from='romeo@example.net/orchard' type='chat'>
     <e2e xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-e2e'>
     [CDATA section here]
     </e2e>
     <error type='modify'>
       <not-acceptable xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-stanzas'/>
       <unverified-signature xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:xmpp-e2e'/>
     </error>
   </message>

   In Case #5, the receiving application SHOULD return a <bad-request/>
   error to the sender (as described in [XMPP-CORE]), optionally
   supplemented by an application-specific error condition element
   <decryption-failed/> as shown below:
Top   ToC   RFC3923 - Page 20
   Example 18: Recipient returns <bad-request/> error:

   <message from='romeo@example.net/orchard' type='chat'>
     <e2e xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-e2e'>
     [CDATA section here]
     </e2e>
     <error type='modify'>
       <bad-request xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-stanzas'/>
       <decryption-failed xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:xmpp-e2e'/>
     </error>
   </message>

8. Secure Communications Through a Gateway

A common method for achieving interoperability between two disparate services is through the use of a "gateway" that interprets the protocols of each service and translates them into the protocols of the other. The CPIM specifications (specifically [MSGFMT] and [PIDF] define the common profiles to be used for interoperability between instant messaging and presence services that comply with [IMP-REQS]. In the case of communications between an XMPP service and a non-XMPP service, we can visualize this relationship as follows: +-------------+ +-------------+ +------------+ | | | | | | | XMPP | | XMPP-CPIM | | Non-XMPP | | Service | <----> | Gateway | <----> | Service | | | | | | | +-------------+ +-------------+ +------------+ The end-to-end encryption method defined herein enables the exchange of encrypted and/or signed instant messages and presence through an XMPP-CPIM gateway. In particular: o When a gateway receives a secured XMPP message or presence stanza from the XMPP service that is addressed to a user on the non-XMPP service, it MUST remove the XMPP "wrapper" (everything down to and including the <e2e> and </e2e> tags) in order to reveal the multipart S/MIME object, then route the object to the non-XMPP service (first wrapping it in the protocol used by the non-XMPP service if necessary).
Top   ToC   RFC3923 - Page 21
   o  When a gateway receives a secured non-XMPP instant message or
      presence document from the non-XMPP service that is addressed to a
      user on the XMPP service, it MUST remove the non-XMPP "wrapper"
      (if any) in order to reveal the multipart S/MIME object, wrap the
      object in an XMPP message or presence "wrapper" (including the
      <e2e> and </e2e> tags), and then route the XMPP stanza to the XMPP
      service.

   The wrapped S/MIME object MUST be immutable and MUST NOT be modified
   by an XMPP-CPIM gateway.

9. urn:ietf:params:xml:xmpp-e2e Namespace

The <e2e xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-e2e'/> element is a wrapper for an XML CDATA section (see Section 2.7 of [XML]) that contains a "Message/CPIM", "application/pidf+xml", or "application/xmpp+xml" object. Thus the 'urn:ietf:params:xml:xmpp-e2e' namespace has no inherent semantics, and the semantics of the encapsulated object are defined by one of the following specifications: o [MSGFMT] for "Message/CPIM" o [PIDF] for "application/pidf+xml" o [XMPP-CORE] for "application/xmpp+xml" Although the "application/xmpp+xml" media type is specified in this document, the <xmpp/> element is simply a wrapper for a <message/>, <presence/>, or <iq/> stanza, where the semantics of those stanza types are specified in [XMPP-CORE]. Given that the 'urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-e2e' namespace has no inherent semantics and specifies a using protocol only, versioning is the responsibility of the protocols that define the encapsulated objects ([MSGFMT], [PIDF], and [XMPP-CORE]).

10. application/xmpp+xml Media Type

The "application/xmpp+xml" media type adheres to the guidelines specified in [XML-MEDIA]. The root element for this MIME type is <xmpp/>, and the root element MUST contain one and only one child element, corresponding to one of the XMPP stanza types (i.e., message, presence, or iq) if the default namespace is 'jabber:client' or 'jabber:server' as defined in [XMPP-CORE]. The character encoding for this XML media type MUST be UTF-8, in accordance with Section 11.5 of [XMPP-CORE].
Top   ToC   RFC3923 - Page 22

11. Security Considerations

This entire memo discusses security. Detailed security considerations for instant messaging and presence protocols are given in [IMP-REQS] (Sections 5.1 through 5.4), and for XMPP in particular are given in [XMPP-CORE] (Sections 12.1 through 12.6). In addition, all of the security considerations specified in [XML-MEDIA] apply to the "application/xmpp+xml" media type. The end-to-end security method defined here MAY result in exchanging secured instant messages and presence information through a gateway that implements the CPIM specifications. Such a gateway MUST be compliant with the minimum security requirements of the instant messaging and presence protocols with which it interfaces.

12. IANA Considerations

12.1. XML Namespace Name for e2e Data in XMPP

A URN sub-namespace of signed and encrypted content for the Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP) is defined as follows. (This namespace name adheres to the format defined in [XML-REG].) URI: urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-e2e Specification: RFC 3923 Description: This is an XML namespace name of signed and encrypted content for the Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol as defined by RFC 3923. Registrant Contact: IESG, <iesg@ietf.org>

12.2. Content-type Registration for "application/xmpp+xml"

To: ietf-types@iana.org Subject: Registration of MIME media type application/xmpp+xml MIME media type name: application MIME subtype name: xmpp+xml Required parameters: (none) Optional parameters: (charset) Same as charset parameter of application/xml as specified in RFC 3023; per Section 11.5 of [XMPP-CORE], the charset must be UTF-8. Encoding considerations: Same as encoding considerations of application/xml as specified in RFC 3023; per Section 11.5 of [XMPP-CORE], the encoding must be UTF-8.
Top   ToC   RFC3923 - Page 23
   Security considerations: All of the security considerations specified
      in RFC 3023 and [XMPP-CORE] apply to this XML media type.  Refer
      to Section 11 of RFC 3923.
   Interoperability considerations: (none)
   Specification: RFC 3923
   Applications which use this media type: XMPP-compliant instant
      messaging and presence systems.
   Additional information: (none)
   Person and email address to contact for further information: IESG,
      <iesg@ietf.org>
   Intended usage: COMMON
   Author/Change controller: IETF, XMPP Working Group

13. References

13.1. Normative References

[CERT] Ramsdell, B., Ed., "Secure/Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (S/MIME) Version 3.1 Certificate Handling", RFC 3850, July 2004. [CMS] Housley, R., "Cryptographic Message Syntax (CMS)", RFC 3852, July 2004. [CMS-AES] Schaad, J., "Use of the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Encryption Algorithm in Cryptographic Message Syntax (CMS)", RFC 3565, July 2003. [CMS-ALG] Housley, R., "Cryptographic Message Syntax (CMS) Algorithms", RFC 3370, August 2002. [CPIM] Peterson, J., "Common Profile for Instant Messaging (CPIM)", RFC 3860, August 2004. [CPP] Peterson, J., "Common Profile for Presence (CPP)", RFC 3859, August 2004. [DATETIME] Klyne, G. and C. Newman, "Date and Time on the Internet: Timestamps", RFC 3339, July 2002. [DISP] Troost, R., Dorner, S., and K. Moore, Ed., "Communicating Presentation Information in Internet Messages: The Content-Disposition Header Field", RFC 2183, August 1997. [IMP-MODEL] Day, M., Rosenberg, J., and H. Sugano, "A Model for Presence and Instant Messaging", RFC 2778, February 2000.
Top   ToC   RFC3923 - Page 24
   [IMP-REQS]    Day, M., Aggarwal, S., Mohr, G., and J. Vincent,
                 "Instant Messaging/Presence Protocol Requirements", RFC
                 2779, February 2000.

   [MSGFMT]      Klyne, G. and D. Atkins, "Common Presence and Instant
                 Messaging (CPIM): Message Format", RFC 3862, August
                 2004.

   [MULTI]       Galvin, J., Murphy, S., Crocker, S., and N. Freed,
                 "Security Multiparts for MIME: Multipart/Signed and
                 Multipart/Encrypted", RFC 1847, October 1995.

   [PIDF]        Sugano, H., Fujimoto, S., Klyne, G., Bateman, A., Carr,
                 W., and J. Peterson, "Presence Information Data Format
                 (PIDF)", RFC 3863, August 2004.

   [SMIME]       Ramsdell, B., Ed., "Secure/Multipurpose Internet Mail
                 Extensions (S/MIME) Version 3.1 Message Specification",
                 RFC 3851, July 2004.

   [TERMS]       Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
                 Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [XML-MEDIA]   Murata, M., St. Laurent, S. and D. Kohn, "XML Media
                 Types", RFC 3023, January 2001.

   [XMPP-CORE]   Saint-Andre, P., Ed., "Extensible Messaging and
                 Presence Protocol (XMPP): Core", RFC 3920, October
                 2004.

   [XMPP-IM]     Saint-Andre, P., Ed., "Extensible Messaging and
                 Presence Protocol (XMPP) Instant Messaging and
                 Presence", RFC 3921, October 2004.
Top   ToC   RFC3923 - Page 25

13.2. Informative References

[CAPS] Hildebrand, J. and P. Saint-Andre, "Entity Capabilities", JSF JEP 0115, August 2004. [CMC] Myers, M., Liu, X., Schaad, J. and J. Weinstein, "Certificate Management Messages over CMS", RFC 2797, April 2000. [CMP] Adams, C. and S. Farrell, "Internet X.509 Public Key Infrastructure Certificate Management Protocols", RFC 2510, March 1999. [DISCO] Hildebrand, J., Millard, P., Eatmon, R. and P. Saint- Andre, "Service Discovery", JSF JEP 0030, July 2004. [MUC] Saint-Andre, P., "Multi-User Chat", JSF JEP 0045, June 2004. [XML] Bray, T., Paoli, J., Sperberg-McQueen, C. and E. Maler, "Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.0 (3rd ed)", W3C REC-xml, February 2004, <http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-xml>. [XML-REG] Mealling, M., "The IETF XML Registry", BCP 81, RFC 3688, January 2004.
Top   ToC   RFC3923 - Page 26

Appendix A. Schema for urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-e2e

The following XML schema is descriptive, not normative. <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> <xs:schema xmlns:xs='http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema' targetNamespace='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-e2e' xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-e2e' elementFormDefault='qualified'> <xs:element name='e2e' type='xs:string'/> <xs:element name='decryption-failed' type='empty'/> <xs:element name='signature-unverified' type='empty'/> <xs:element name='bad-timestamp' type='empty'/> <xs:simpleType name='empty'> <xs:restriction base='xs:string'> <xs:enumeration value=''/> </xs:restriction> </xs:simpleType> </xs:schema>

Author's Address

Peter Saint-Andre Jabber Software Foundation EMail: stpeter@jabber.org
Top   ToC   RFC3923 - Page 27
Full Copyright Statement

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2004).

   This document is subject to the rights, licenses and restrictions
   contained in BCP 78, and except as set forth therein, the authors
   retain all their rights.

   This document and the information contained herein are provided on an
   "AS IS" basis and THE CONTRIBUTOR, THE ORGANIZATION HE/S HE
   REPRESENTS OR IS SPONSORED BY (IF ANY), THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE
   INTERNET ENGINEERING TASK FORCE DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR
   IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF
   THE INFORMATION HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED
   WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.

Intellectual Property

   The IETF takes no position regarding the validity or scope of any
   Intellectual Property Rights or other rights that might be claimed to
   pertain to the implementation or use of the technology described in
   this document or the extent to which any license under such rights
   might or might not be available; nor does it represent that it has
   made any independent effort to identify any such rights.  Information
   on the IETF's procedures with respect to rights in IETF Documents can
   be found in BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Copies of IPR disclosures made to the IETF Secretariat and any
   assurances of licenses to be made available, or the result of an
   attempt made to obtain a general license or permission for the use of
   such proprietary rights by implementers or users of this
   specification can be obtained from the IETF on-line IPR repository at
   http://www.ietf.org/ipr.

   The IETF invites any interested party to bring to its attention any
   copyrights, patents or patent applications, or other proprietary
   rights that may cover technology that may be required to implement
   this standard.  Please address the information to the IETF at ietf-
   ipr@ietf.org.

Acknowledgement

   Funding for the RFC Editor function is currently provided by the
   Internet Society.