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RFC 3878

Alarm Reporting Control Management Information Base (MIB)

Pages: 16
Proposed Standard

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Network Working Group                                             H. Lam
Request for Comments: 3878                           Lucent Technologies
Category: Standards Track                                       A. Huynh
                                                          Cetus Networks
                                                              D. Perkins
                                                                SNMPinfo
                                                          September 2004


                        Alarm Reporting Control
                   Management Information Base (MIB)

Status of this Memo

   This document specifies an Internet standards track protocol for the
   Internet community, and requests discussion and suggestions for
   improvements.  Please refer to the current edition of the "Internet
   Official Protocol Standards" (STD 1) for the standardization state
   and status of this protocol.  Distribution of this memo is unlimited.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2004).

Abstract

This memo defines a portion of the Management Information Base (MIB) for use with network management protocols in TCP/IP-based internets. In particular, it defines objects for controlling the reporting of alarm conditions.

Table of Contents

1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2. The Internet-Standard Management Framework . . . . . . . . . . 2 3. Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 4. ARC MIB Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 4.1. Relationship between ARC mode and Alarm Reporting. . . . 4 5. ARC MIB Object Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 6. Security Considerations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 7. Acknowledgments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 8. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 8.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 8.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 9. Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 10. Full Copyright Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
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1. Introduction

The scope of this MIB is targeted for network operators responsible for managing the operations of network resources. This document defines an alarm reporting control (ARC) MIB module, which provides a mechanism for a manager to suppress or defer the reporting of alarm conditions based on the resource ID and alarm condition type.

2. The Internet-Standard Management Framework

For a detailed overview of the documents that describe the current Internet-Standard Management Framework, please refer to section 7 of RFC 3410 [RFC3410]. Managed objects are accessed via a virtual information store, termed the Management Information Base or MIB. MIB objects are generally accessed through the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). Objects in the MIB are defined using the mechanisms defined in the Structure of Management Information (SMI). This memo specifies a MIB module that is compliant to the SMIv2, which is described in STD 58, RFC 2578 [RFC2578], STD 58, RFC 2579 [RFC2579] and STD 58, RFC 2580 [RFC2580].

3. Conventions

The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in BCP 14, RFC 2119 [RFC2119].

4. ARC MIB Overview

There is a need to provide a mechanism for controlling the reporting of alarm conditions of resources in a network device. For example, (a) inhibiting the reporting of alarm conditions of a resource until the resource is problem-free, (b) inhibiting the reporting of alarm conditions of a resource for a specified time period, or (c) inhibiting the reporting of alarm conditions of a resource indefinitely until explicitly allowed by the managing system at a later time. The alarm reporting control (ARC) feature provides an automatic in- service provisioning capability. It allows sufficient time for service setup, customer testing, and other maintenance activities in an "alarm-free" state. Once a resource is "problem-free", alarm reporting can be automatically or manually turned on (i.e., allowed).
Top   ToC   RFC3878 - Page 3
   By putting a network resource in ARC mode, (i.e., in nalm, nalmTI,
   nalmQI, or nalmQICD states, as described in the MIB), the technicians
   and managing systems will not be flooded with unnecessary work items
   during operations activities such as service provisioning and network
   setup/teardown.  This will reduce maintenance costs and improve the
   operation and maintenance of these systems.  Putting a network
   resource in ARC mode shall not affect the availability of active
   alarm condition information for potential retrieval.

   ITU-T Recommendation M.3100 Amendment 3 [M.3100 Amd3] provides the
   business requirements, analysis, and design of the Alarm Reporting
   Control feature.

   This document defines the MIB objects to support a subset of the ARC
   functions described in M.3100 Amd3.  In particular, it defines a
   table that can be used to specify the ARC settings for the resources
   in a system.

   Defined in M.3100 Amendment 3 [M.3100 Amd3], there are five ARC
   states: alm, nalm, nalmQI, nalmQICD and nalmTI.  In the ARC MIB
   module, the arcState object is defined to model the M.3100 ARC
   states. Note that the state alm (alarm reporting is allowed) is not
   listed in the enumeration of the value of this object.  However, this
   state is implicitly supported by the mib.  Once a resource enters the
   normal reporting mode (i.e., into the alm state) for the specified
   alarm type, the corresponding row will be automatically deleted from
   the arc table.  Also the manual setting of arcState to alm can be
   achieved through setting the RowStatus object to 'destroy'.

   The ARC MIB module defined in this document provides a way to control
   the reporting of alarm conditions.  A set of applicable alarm
   conditions is defined in ITU-T Recommendation M.3100 [M.3100] and is
   named "probable causes".  These probable causes (alarm conditions)
   have been included in the IANAItuProbableCause TC, which is defined
   in the IANA-ITU-ALARM-TC MIB module [RFC3877].  The IANA-ITU-ALARM-TC
   MIB module is maintained in the IANA web-site [ITUALARMTC].
   [RFC3877].

   The ARC MIB module defines an IANAItuProbableCauseOrZero TC which can
   take any value of IANAItuProbableCause or 0.  The ARC MIB module
   further uses IANAItuProbableCauseOrZero to define the ARC settings
   for the managed resource in the network elements.  Specification of
   objects for defining and storing alarms, including active and history
   alarms, standing and transient alarms, and alarm notifications are
   out of the scope of this document.
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4.1. Relationship between ARC mode and alarm reporting

When the ARC MIB module is used in a managed system, the following rules apply: For alarm condition raised prior to entering ARC mode, reporting of alarm raised and alarm cleared will be sent as usual. For alarm condition raised after entering ARC mode and also cleared before exiting ARC mode, no reporting of alarm raised will be sent and no reporting of alarm cleared will be sent. For alarm condition raised after entering ARC mode and not cleared when exiting ARC mode, the reporting of alarm raised will be deferred until the moment of exiting ARC mode. The reporting of alarm cleared will be sent as usual (i.e., at the time of alarm cleared). Further details of the ARC function can be found in M.3100 Amd3 [M.3100 Amd3].

5. ARC MIB Object Definition

ARC-MIB DEFINITIONS ::= BEGIN IMPORTS MODULE-IDENTITY, OBJECT-TYPE, Unsigned32, mib-2 FROM SNMPv2-SMI -- [RFC2578] TEXTUAL-CONVENTION, RowStatus, StorageType FROM SNMPv2-TC -- [RFC2579] MODULE-COMPLIANCE, OBJECT-GROUP FROM SNMPv2-CONF -- [RFC2580] ResourceId FROM ALARM-MIB; -- [RFC3877] arcMibModule MODULE-IDENTITY LAST-UPDATED "200409090000Z" -- September 09, 2004 ORGANIZATION "IETF Distributed Management Working Group" CONTACT-INFO "WG EMail: disman@ietf.org Subscribe: disman-request@ietf.org http://www.ietf.org/html.charters/disman-charter.html Chair: Randy Presuhn E-mail: randy_presuhn@mindspring.com Editor: Hing-Kam Lam Lucent Technologies, 4C-616 101 Crawfords Corner Road
Top   ToC   RFC3878 - Page 5
                   Holmdel, NJ 07733
                   USA
                   Tel: +1 732 949 8338
                   E-mail: hklam@lucent.com"

  DESCRIPTION
    "The MIB module describes the objects for controlling a resource
     in reporting alarm conditions that it detects.

     Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2004).  This version
     of this MIB module is part of RFC 3878;  see the RFC
     itself for full legal notices."

  REVISION  "200409090000Z"  -- September 09, 2004
  DESCRIPTION
       "Initial version, published as RFC 3878."
  ::={ mib-2 117 }

------------------
-- TEXTUAL-CONVENTION
------------------

IANAItuProbableCauseOrZero ::= TEXTUAL-CONVENTION
  STATUS  current
  DESCRIPTION
    "This TC can take any value of IANAItuProbableCause or 0.
     IANAItuProbableCause is defined in the IANA-ITU-ALARM-TC
     module, which is maintained at the IANA web site and
     published in the Alarm MIB document (see RFC 3877)."
  REFERENCE
    "IANA-ITU-ALARM-TC MIB module as maintained at the IANA web site.
     The initial module was also published in RFC 3877."
--
  SYNTAX  INTEGER (0..2147483647)

------------------
-- MIB Objects
------------------

arcTimeIntervals   OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { arcMibModule 1 }
arcObjects         OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { arcMibModule 2 }

arcTITimeInterval OBJECT-TYPE
  SYNTAX  Unsigned32
  UNITS       "seconds"
  MAX-ACCESS  read-write
  STATUS  current
  DESCRIPTION
Top   ToC   RFC3878 - Page 6
    "This variable indicates the time interval used for the nalmTI
     state, in units of second.  It is a pre-defined length of time
     in which the resource will stay in the nalmTI state before
     transition into the alm state.

     Instances of this object SHOULD persist across agent restarts."
  ::= { arcTimeIntervals 1 }

arcCDTimeInterval OBJECT-TYPE
  SYNTAX  Unsigned32
  UNITS       "seconds"
  MAX-ACCESS  read-write
  STATUS  current
  DESCRIPTION
    "This variable indicates the time interval used for the nalmQICD
     state, in units of second.  It is a pre-defined length of time
     in which the resource will stay in the nalmQICD state before
     transition into the alm state after it is problem-free.

     Instances of this object SHOULD persist across agent restarts."
  ::= { arcTimeIntervals 2 }

arcTable OBJECT-TYPE
  SYNTAX  SEQUENCE OF ArcEntry
  MAX-ACCESS  not-accessible
  STATUS  current
  DESCRIPTION
    "A table of Alarm Reporting Control (ARC) settings on the system.

     Alarm Reporting Control is a feature that provides an automatic
     in-service provisioning capability.  Alarm reporting is turned
     off on a per-resource basis for a selective set of potential
     alarm conditions to allow sufficient time for customer testing
     and other maintenance activities in an 'alarm free' state.
     Once a resource is ready for service, alarm reporting is
     automatically or manually turned on.

     Functional description and requirements of Alarm Reporting
     Control are defined in ITU-T Recommendation M.3100 Amendment 3
     [M.3100 Amd3]."

  REFERENCE
        "ITU Recommendation M.3100 Amendment 3, 'Generic Network
         Information Model', January 2001."
  ::= { arcObjects 1 }

arcEntry OBJECT-TYPE
  SYNTAX  ArcEntry
Top   ToC   RFC3878 - Page 7
  MAX-ACCESS  not-accessible
  STATUS  current
  DESCRIPTION
    "A conceptual row that contains information about an ARC setting
     of a resource in the system.

     Implementation need to be aware that if the total size of
     arcIndex and arcNotificationId exceeds 114 sub-IDs, then OIDs
     of column instances in this table will have more than 128
     sub-IDs and cannot be access using SNMPv1, SNMPv2c, or snmpv3."

  INDEX  { arcIndex, arcAlarmType, arcNotificationId }
  ::= { arcTable 1 }

ArcEntry ::=
  SEQUENCE {
    arcIndex                      ResourceId,
    arcAlarmType                  IANAItuProbableCauseOrZero,
    arcNotificationId             OBJECT IDENTIFIER,
    arcState                      INTEGER,
    arcNalmTimeRemaining          Unsigned32,
    arcRowStatus                  RowStatus,
    arcStorageType                StorageType
    }

arcIndex OBJECT-TYPE
  SYNTAX  ResourceId
  MAX-ACCESS  not-accessible
  STATUS  current
  DESCRIPTION
    "This object uniquely identifies a resource, which is under the
     arcState's control for the associated arcAlarmType.

     For example, if the resource is an interface, this object will
     point to an instance of interface, e.g., ifIndex.1."
  ::= { arcEntry 1 }

arcAlarmType OBJECT-TYPE
  SYNTAX  IANAItuProbableCauseOrZero
  MAX-ACCESS  not-accessible
  STATUS  current
  DESCRIPTION
    "This object identifies the alarm condition type controlled by the
     arcState.  It specifies the value 0 or a value of
     IANAItuProbableCause that is applicable to the resource.
     IANAItuProbableCause is defined in the IANA-ITU-ALARM-TC
     module in the Alarm MIB document.
Top   ToC   RFC3878 - Page 8
     The value of zero (0) implies any probable causes that are
     applicable to the resource.  Usually, the applicable probable
     causes of a resource are specified in the resource-specific mib."
  ::= { arcEntry 2 }

arcNotificationId OBJECT-TYPE
  SYNTAX  OBJECT IDENTIFIER
  MAX-ACCESS  not-accessible
  STATUS  current
  DESCRIPTION
    "This object identifies the type of notification to be suppressed.
     The notification type identified should be the one normally used
     by the resource for reporting its alarms.  When the value of 0.0 is
     specified for this object, it implies all applicable notification
     types."
  ::= { arcEntry 3 }

arcState OBJECT-TYPE
  SYNTAX  INTEGER {
            nalm (1),
            nalmQI (2),
            nalmTI (3),
            nalmQICD (4)
            }
  MAX-ACCESS  read-create
  STATUS  current
  DESCRIPTION
    "Defined in M.3100 Amendment 3 [M.3100 Amd3], there are five
     ARC states: alm, nalm, nalmQI, nalmQICD, and nalmTI.

        alm:        Alarm reporting is turned on (i.e., is allowed).
        nalm:       Alarm reporting is turned off (i.e., not allowed).
        nalmQI:     nalm - Qualified Inhibit. Alarm reporting is
                    turned off until the managed entity is qualified
                    problem-free for an optional persistence interval.
                    Problem-free means that the condition corresponding
                    to the specified alarm type is cleared.
        nalmQICD:   nalmQI - Count down.  This is a substate of nalmQI
                    and performs the persistence timing countdown
                    function after the managed entity is qualified
                    problem-free.
        nalmTI:     nalm - Timed Inhibit.  Alarm reporting is turned
                    off for a specified time interval.

     alm may transition to nalm, nalmQI or nalmTI by management request.

     nalm may transition to alm, nalmQI or nalmTI by management request.
Top   ToC   RFC3878 - Page 9
     nalmQI may transition to nalm or alm by management request.

     nalmQI may transition to alm automatically
             if qualified problem-free (if nalmQICD is not supported) or
             if the CD timer expired (if nalmQICD is supported)

     nalmTI may transition to alm or nalm by management request.

     nalmTI may transition to alm automatically if the TI timer expired.

     Further details of ARC state transitions are defined in Figure 3
     of M.3100 Amd3 [M.3100 Amd3].

     According to the requirements in M.3100 Amd3, a resource
     supporting the ARC feature shall support the alm state and at
     least one of the nalm, nalmTI, and nalmQI states. The nalmQICD
     state is an optional substate of nalmQI.

     The arcState object controls the alarm reporting state of a
     resource. Note that the state alm (alarm reporting is allowed) is
     not listed in the enumeration of the value of this object. However,
     this state is implicitly supported by the mib.
     Once a resource enters the normal reporting mode (i.e., in the alm
     state) for the specified alarm type, the corresponding
     row will be automatically deleted from the arc table.
     Also the manual setting of arcState to alm can be achieved through
     setting the RowStatus object to 'destroy'.

     The nalamQICD state is a transitional state from nalmQI to alm. It
     is optional depending on the resource type and the implementation
     of the resource.  If it is supported, before the state
     transitions from nalmQI to alm, a count down period is activated
     for a duration set by the object arcNalmCDTimeInterval.  When the
     time is up, the arcState transitions to alm."

  ::= { arcEntry 4 }

arcNalmTimeRemaining OBJECT-TYPE
  SYNTAX  Unsigned32
  UNITS       "seconds"
  MAX-ACCESS  read-create
  STATUS  current
  DESCRIPTION
    "This variable indicates the time remaining in the nalmTI state
     or the nalmQICD state, in units of second.

     At the moment the resource enters the nalmTI state, this variable
     will have the initial value equal to the value of
Top   ToC   RFC3878 - Page 10
     arcNalmTITimeInterval and then starts decrementing as time goes by.

     Similarly at the moment the resource enters the nalmQICD state,
     this variable will have the initial value equal to the value of
     arcNalmCDTimeInterval and then starts decrementing as time goes by.

     This variable is read-create and thus will allow the manager to
     write (extend or shorten), as needed, the remaining time when the
     resource is in the nalmTI or nalmQICD state.

     If this variable is supported and the resource is currently not in
     the nalmTI nor nalmQICD state, the value of this variable shall
     equal to zero."
  ::= { arcEntry 5 }

arcRowStatus OBJECT-TYPE
  SYNTAX  RowStatus
  MAX-ACCESS  read-create
  STATUS  current
  DESCRIPTION
    "This columnar object is used for creating and deleting a conceptual
     row of the arcTable.  It is used to create and delete an arc
     setting.

     Setting RowStatus to createAndGo or createAndWait implies creating
     a new ARC setting for the specified resource and alarm type.
     Setting RowStatus to destroy implies removing the ARC setting and
     thus has the effect of resuming normal reporting behaviour of the
     resource for the alarm type.

     Only the objects arcState, arcNalmTimeRemaining, and arcRowStatus
     can be updated when a row is active. All the objects, except
     arcNalmTimeRemaining, must be set before the row can be activated."
  ::= { arcEntry 6 }

arcStorageType OBJECT-TYPE
  SYNTAX       StorageType
  MAX-ACCESS   read-create
  STATUS       current
  DESCRIPTION
    "The storage type for this conceptual row.
     Conceptual rows having the value 'permanent' must
     allow write-access at a minimum to arcState.
     Note that arcState must allow change by management request.
     Therefore, no row can be created with 'readOnly'.
     If a set operation tries to set the value to 'readOnly',
     then an 'inconsistentValue' error must be returned."
  DEFVAL      { nonVolatile }
Top   ToC   RFC3878 - Page 11
  ::= { arcEntry 7}

--------------------------
-- conformance information
--------------------------

arcConformance OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { arcMibModule 3 }

arcCompliances OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { arcConformance 1 }

arcCompliance MODULE-COMPLIANCE
  STATUS  current
    DESCRIPTION
      "The compliance statement for systems supporting
       the ARC MIB module."

  MODULE -- this module
           MANDATORY-GROUPS {
            arcSettingGroup
           }

  OBJECT arcStorageType
    WRITE-SYNTAX StorageType {
                         volatile(2),
                         nonVolatile(3),
                         permanent(4)
                         }
    DESCRIPTION
      "Support for value 'other' is not required.
       The arcState object must allow change by management
       request.  Therefore, no row can be created with
       'readOnly'."

  GROUP  arcTIGroup
  DESCRIPTION
    "This group is REQUIRED for ARC settings
     that provide the Time Inhibit (TI) function."

  GROUP  arcQICDGroup
  DESCRIPTION
    "This group is REQUIRED for ARC settings
     that provide the Quality Inhibit (QI) Count Down (CD)
     function."

  ::= { arcCompliances 1 }

arcGroups OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { arcConformance 2 }
Top   ToC   RFC3878 - Page 12
arcSettingGroup OBJECT-GROUP
  OBJECTS {
          arcState,
          arcRowStatus,
          arcStorageType
          }
   STATUS   current
   DESCRIPTION
     "A collection of objects applicable to
      basic ARC setting."
   ::= { arcGroups 1}

arcTIGroup OBJECT-GROUP
  OBJECTS {
          arcTITimeInterval,
          arcNalmTimeRemaining
          }
   STATUS   current
   DESCRIPTION
     "A collection of objects applicable to
      ARC setting that support the Time Inhibit (TI)
      function."
   ::= { arcGroups 2}

arcQICDGroup OBJECT-GROUP
  OBJECTS {
          arcCDTimeInterval,
          arcNalmTimeRemaining
          }
  STATUS   current
  DESCRIPTION
    "A collection of objects applicable to
     ARC setting that support the Quality Inhibit (QI)
     Count Down (CD) function."
  ::= { arcGroups 3}

END
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6. Security Considerations

There are a number of management objects defined in this MIB module with a MAX-ACCESS clause of read-write and/or read-create. Such objects may be considered sensitive or vulnerable in some network environments. The support for SET operations in a non-secure environment without proper protection can have a negative effect on network operations. These are the tables and objects and their sensitivity/vulnerability: arcTITimeInterval, arcCDTimeInterval, arcState, arcNalmTimeRemaining, arcRowStatus, arcStorageType. Setting these objects may have disruptive effects on network operation that range from omission of alarm notifications to flooding of unwanted alarm notifications from the network. The consequence of suppressing or deferring the reporting of an alarm can prevent the timely delivery of important diagnostic information, including information that can help identify an attack. Some of the readable objects in this MIB module (i.e., objects with a MAX-ACCESS other than not-accessible) may be considered sensitive or vulnerable in some network environments. It is thus important to control even GET and/or NOTIFY access to these objects and possibly to even encrypt the values of these objects when sending them over the network via SNMP. These are the tables and objects and their sensitivity/vulnerability: arcTITimeInterval, arcCDTimeInterval, arcState, arcNalmTimeRemaining, arcRowStatus, arcStorageType. Reading these objects will provide information about the setting which affects alarm notification generation. SNMP versions prior to SNMPv3 did not include adequate security. Even if the network itself is secure (for example by using IPSec), there is no control as to who on the secure network is allowed to access and GET/SET (read/change/create/delete) the objects in this MIB module.
Top   ToC   RFC3878 - Page 14
   It is RECOMMENDED that implementers consider the security features as
   provided by the SNMPv3 framework (see [RFC3410], section 8),
   including full support for the SNMPv3 cryptographic mechanisms (for
   authentication and privacy).

   Further, deployment of SNMP versions prior to SNMPv3 is NOT
   RECOMMENDED.  Instead, it is RECOMMENDED to deploy SNMPv3 and to
   enable cryptographic security.  It is then a customer/operator
   responsibility to ensure that the SNMP entity giving access to an
   instance of this MIB module is properly configured to give access to
   the objects only to those principals (users) that have legitimate
   rights to indeed GET or SET (change/create/delete) them.

7. Acknowledgements

The authors wish to thank Brian Teer and Sharon Chisholm for reviewing and commenting on this document.

8. References

8.1. Normative References

[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirements Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997. [RFC2578] McCloghrie, K., Perkins, D., and J. Schoenwaelder, "Structure of Management Information Version 2 (SMIv2)", STD 58, RFC 2578, April 1999. [RFC2579] McCloghrie, K., Perkins, D., and J. Schoenwaelder, "Textual Conventions for SMIv2", STD 58, RFC 2579, April 1999. [RFC2580] McCloghrie, K., Perkins, D., and J. Schoenwaelder, "Conformance Statements for SMIv2", STD 58, RFC 2580, April 1999. [RFC3877] Chisholm, S. and D. Romascanu, "Alarm Management Information Base (MIB)", RFC 3877, September 2004. [ITUALARMTC] http://www.iana.org/assignments/ianaitualarmtc-mib [M.3100] ITU Recommendation M.3100, "Generic Network Information Model", July 1995. [M.3100 Amd3] ITU Recommendation M.3100 Amendment 3, "Generic Network Information Model", January 2001.
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8.2. Informative References

[RFC3410] Case, J., Mundy, R., Partain, D., and B. Stewart, "Introduction and Applicability Statements for Internet-Standard Management Framework", RFC 3410, December 2002.

9. Authors' Addresses

Hing-Kam Lam Lucent Technologies 101 Crawfords Corner Road, Room 4C-616 Holmdel, NJ 07733 USA Phone: +1 732-949-8338 EMail: hklam@lucent.com An-ni Huynh Cetus Networks USA EMail: a_n_huynh@yahoo.com David T. Perkins 548 Quailbrook Ct San Jose, CA 95110 USA Phone: +1 408-394-8702 EMail: dperkins@snmpinfo.com
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10. Full Copyright Statement

Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2004). This document is subject to the rights, licenses and restrictions contained in BCP 78, and except as set forth therein, the authors retain all their rights. This document and the information contained herein are provided on an "AS IS" basis and THE CONTRIBUTOR, THE ORGANIZATION HE/SHE REPRESENTS OR IS SPONSORED BY (IF ANY), THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE INTERNET ENGINEERING TASK FORCE DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE INFORMATION HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. Intellectual Property The IETF takes no position regarding the validity or scope of any Intellectual Property Rights or other rights that might be claimed to pertain to the implementation or use of the technology described in this document or the extent to which any license under such rights might or might not be available; nor does it represent that it has made any independent effort to identify any such rights. Information on the procedures with respect to rights in RFC documents can be found in BCP 78 and BCP 79. Copies of IPR disclosures made to the IETF Secretariat and any assurances of licenses to be made available, or the result of an attempt made to obtain a general license or permission for the use of such proprietary rights by implementers or users of this specification can be obtained from the IETF on-line IPR repository at http://www.ietf.org/ipr. The IETF invites any interested party to bring to its attention any copyrights, patents or patent applications, or other proprietary rights that may cover technology that may be required to implement this standard. Please address the information to the IETF at ietf- ipr@ietf.org. Acknowledgement Funding for the RFC Editor function is currently provided by the Internet Society.