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RFC 3745

MIME Type Registrations for JPEG 2000 (ISO/IEC 15444)

Pages: 14
Proposed Standard

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Network Working Group                                          D. Singer
Request for Comments: 3745                                Apple Computer
Category: Standards Track                                       R. Clark
                                                             Elysium Ltd
                                                                  D. Lee
                                                              Yahoo Inc.
                                                              April 2004


         MIME Type Registrations for JPEG 2000 (ISO/IEC 15444)

Status of this Memo

   This document specifies an Internet standards track protocol for the
   Internet community, and requests discussion and suggestions for
   improvements.  Please refer to the current edition of the "Internet
   Official Protocol Standards" (STD 1) for the standardization state
   and status of this protocol.  Distribution of this memo is unlimited.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2004).  All Rights Reserved.

Abstract

This document serves to register and document the standard MIME types associated with the ISO/IEC 15444 standards, commonly known as JPEG 2000 (Joint Photographic Experts Group).

1. Introduction

This document describes the registration of the MIME [MIME1] sub- types image/jp2, video/mj2, image/jpx, and image/jpm. The image encoding is defined by [ISO-JPEG2000-1]. The still image file format to which this document refers is defined in Annex I of [ISO-JPEG2000-1]. Note that a file format is optional in [ISO-JPEG2000-1], but mandatory for the MIME sub-type. This document is not related to the definition of the MIME sub-type image/jpeg, which is partly defined by [ISO-JPEG-1], and partly by the file format specification defined in [JFIF]. JPEG 2000 is a new standard, intended to create a image coding system for many types of still images (bi-level, gray-level, color, multi- component) with different characteristics (natural images, scientific, medical, remote sensing, imagery, text, rendered graphics, etc.) allowing different imaging models (client/server, real-time transmission, image library archival, limited buffer and
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   bandwidth resources, etc.) within a unified system.  This coding
   system is intended to provide low bit-rate operation with rate-
   distortion and subjective image quality performance superior to
   existing standards, without sacrificing performance at other points
   in the rate-distortion spectrum.

   This standard is intended to serve still image compression needs that
   are currently not served by the current JPEG standards [ISO-JPEG-1],
   [ISO-JPEG-2], [ISO-JPEG-3], and [ISO-JPEG-4], and is intended to
   compliment, not replace, the current JPEG standards.  JPEG 2000 is a
   modern wavelet-based codec that is expected to be widely used for
   still images.  Its use for motion sequences is expected to be similar
   to JPEG:  in those environments where only a single codec is
   required, and JPEG 2000 is available (e.g., digital still cameras
   recording short motion sequences) or where frame-by-frame coding is
   desired (no inter-frame coding).

   There is a standard file format for Motion JPEG 2000 sequences.  This
   file format permits the carriage of audio in addition to the video.
   The format is derived from the ISO Base Media File Format as defined
   in [ISO-JPEG2000-12].  The visual coder in a Motion JPEG 2000 file is
   JPEG 2000.  The Motion JPEG 2000 standard is specified in [ISO-
   JPEG2000-3].  The ISO Base Media File Format is jointly maintained by
   the ISO/IEC JPEG and MPEG committees.  The MP4 format is also derived
   from the ISO Base Media File Format.

   Therefore, to identify this restricted usage, a new mime type is
   desirable.

   This file type is intended always to contain a video sequence, though
   simple audio is permitted in addition to the video.  Therefore it
   falls correctly under the "video" branch of mime types.

   Also within WG1 of ISO there is an effort underway to define a
   standard file format for Compound Images.  This file format
   optionally supports other coding systems, in addition to JPEG 2000,
   as needed.

2. JPEG 2000 Definition

JPEG 2000 is defined in detail in [ISO-JPEG2000-1]. The documentation can be obtained from any national standards body or from ISO at http://www.iso.ch. Information as to its latest status, and downloads of the initial documents and some supporting documentation are available through the JPEG committee's official Web site at http://www.jpeg.org.
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   While a brief scope and feature description is provided in this
   section as background information, the reader is directed to the
   original JPEG 2000 specification [ISO-JPEG2000-1] to obtain complete
   feature and technical details.

2.1. JPEG 2000 Scope

JPEG 2000 is used to compress image data that typically comes from digital cameras, scanners, frame grabbers, complex image capture devices such as medical or satellite systems, and paint- and photo- retouching programs. Unlike previous JPEG standards, it includes information necessary to allow its use as a complete coding architecture. [ISO-JPEG2000-1] defines a set of lossless (bit- preserving) and lossy compression methods for coding continuous-tone, bi-level, gray-scale, or colour digital still images. It therefore: - specifies decoding processes for converting compressed image data to reconstructed image data; - specifies a codestream syntax containing information for interpreting the compressed image data; - specifies a file format; - provides guidance on encoding processes for converting source image data to compressed image data; - provides guidance on how to implement these processes in practice. [ISO-JPEG2000-1] is one of a series of standards which will cover the full range of facilities the new architecture is intended to offer. Approval has been given for JPEG to develop the following documents in addition to [ISO-JPEG2000-1]. - Part 2 - Coding extensions [ISO-JPEG2000-2]. This includes a more comprehensive file format and other extensions to the definitions in [ISO-JPEG2000-1]. The mime sub-type image/jpx is recommended to describe files based on this Part, and a separate RFC is planned to describe this usage and its associated file extensions of jpf and jpx. - Part 3 - Motion JPEG 2000 [ISO-JPEG2000-3]. This provides definitions of how the standard may be extended for use in recording time series of JPEG 2000 images with associated metadata such as audio objects. This document registers the mime sub-type video/mj2 for motion JPEG 2000, with associated file extensions mj2 and mjp2.
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   -  Part 4 - Conformance [ISO-JPEG2000-4].  This deals with testing of
      equipment and systems claimed to conform to the JPEG 2000
      standards.

   -  Part 5 - Reference software [ISO-JPEG2000-5].  This will provide
      developers with a source of publicly available reference software.
      Its role is envisaged as similar in concept to that played by the
      Independent JPEG Group (IJG) in publicizing the current [ISO-
      JPEG-1] standard.

   -  Part 6 - Compound Image File Format [ISO-JPEG2000-6].  This
      describes a file format used to store compound documents using
      JPEG 2000 compression.  These may contain scanned images,
      synthetic images or both.  This work is based on the multi-layer
      Mixed Raster Content (MRC) imaging model, defined in ITU-T T.44 |
      ISO 16485.  The mime sub-type image/jpm is recommended to describe
      files based on this Part.

   -  Part 7 - Has been withdrawn

   -  Part 8 - JPSEC (Security aspects) [ISO-JPEG2000-8].  This provides
      standardised tools and solutions in terms of specifications in
      order to ensure the security of transaction, protection of
      contents (IPR), and protection of technologies (IP), and to allow
      applications to generate, consume, and exchange JPEG 2000 Secured
      bitstreams.

   -  Part 9 - JPIP (Interactive protocols) [ISO-JPEG2000-9].  This
      client-server protocol has been designed to exploit JPEG 2000's
      flexibility with respect to random access, codestream reordering
      and incremental decoding in a networked environment.

   -  Part 10 - JP3D (Volumetric imaging) [ISO-JPEG2000-10].  This will
      provide extensions of JPEG 2000 for logically rectangular 3-
      dimensional data sets with no time component.

   -  Part 11 - JPWL (Wireless applications) [ISO-JPEG2000-11].  This
      extends the elements in [ISO-JPEG2000-1] with mechanisms for error
      protection and correction.

   -  Part 12 - ISO Base Media File Format [ISO-JPEG2000-12].  This is
      the part of the file format used by JPEG 2000 which is common with
      that used within MPEG-4 [ISO-MPEG4].
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2.2. JPEG 2000 Features

Some of the features of JPEG 2000 include: - JPEG 2000 is capable of describing bi-level, grayscale, palette- color, and full-color image data in several color spaces. - JPEG 2000 includes a number of compression schemes that allow developers to choose the best space or time tradeoff for their applications. - JPEG 2000 is designed to be extensible and to evolve gracefully as new needs arise. - JPEG 2000 allows the inclusion of an unlimited amount of private or special-purpose information within the metadata of its file format. - These are features that JPEG 2000 shares with the definition of TIFF [RFC-TIFF]. In addition, JPEG 2000 offers: - state of the art lossless and lossy compression, based on wavelet technology, within a single codestream - low bit-rate compression performance effective down to below 0.25 bits per pixel for high resolution gray-scale images - large image handling (greater than 64k x 64k pixels) without tiling - single decompression architecture. The current JPEG standard [ISO-JPEG-1] has 44 modes, many of which are application specific and not used by the majority of JPEG decoders. - features to improve transmission in noisy environments, for example mobile radio / telephony - capability to handle both natural and computer generated imagery

3. Security Considerations

JPEG 2000 utilizes a structure that can store image data, and metadata corresponding to this image data. The fields defined in the JPEG 2000 standards are of a descriptive nature and provide information that may be useful to facilitate viewing, rendering and cataloging of images by a recipient. As such, the fields currently defined in the JPEG 2000 standards do not in themselves create additional security risks, since the fields are not used to induce
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   any particular behavior by the recipient application.  It should be
   noted that selected metadata fields may encompass information partly
   intended to protect the image against unauthorized use or
   distribution.  In this case the intention is that alteration or
   removal of the data in the field would be treated as an offense under
   national agreements based World Intellectual Property Organization
   (WIPO) treaties.

   JPEG 2000 has an extensible structure, so that it is theoretically
   possible that metadata fields could be defined in the future which
   could be used to induce particular actions on the part of the
   recipient, thus presenting additional security risks, but this type
   of capability is currently not supported in the referenced JPEG 2000
   specification.

   Encryption, signing, or authentication of these file formats can use
   mechanisms defined in [ISO-JPEG2000-8].

4. MIME Types

4.1. Still Image Registration

The image/jp2 content-type refers to all of the profiles and extensions that build on JPEG 2000 [ISO-JPEG2000-1] encoded image data. The file format is also defined in [ISO-JPEG2000-1], Annex I. The recommended file suffix is "jp2" To: ietf-types@iana.org Subject: Registration of Standard MIME media type image/jp2 MIME media type name: image MIME subtype name: jp2 Required parameters: none Optional parameters: none It is up to the implementation to determine the application (if necessary) and render the image to the user. Encoding considerations: files are binary and should be transmitted in a suitable encoding without CR/LF conversion, 7-bit stripping etc.; base64 is a suitable encoding; Security considerations: see above Interoperability considerations: The ability of implementations to handle all the defined applications (or profiles within applications) of JPEG 2000 may not be ubiquitous. As
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                                   a result, implementations may decode
                                   and attempt to display the encoded
                                   JPEG 2000 image data only to
                                   determine that the image cannot be
                                   rendered either partially or in full.
Published specification:           ISO/IEC 15444-1 defines the JPEG 2000
                                   codec and the jp2 file format
Applications which use this media type: Imaging, fax, messaging and
                                   multi-media
Additional information:
Magic number(s):                   12 byte string: X'0000 000C 6A50 2020
                                   0D0A 870A' (for all JPEG-2000 family
                                   files)
File extension(s):                 jp2 and jpg2 are both declared at
                                   http://www.nist.gov/nics/; jp2 is
                                   preferred
Macintosh File Type Code(s):       'jp2 '
Person & email address to contact for further information:
                                   JPEG Webmaster - mimesupport@jpeg.org
                                   JPEG Convenor - convenor@jpeg.org
                                   JPEG2000 Editor - J2KEditor@jpeg.org
Intended usage:                    COMMON
Change controller:                 JPEG Webmaster

4.2. Extended Still Image Registration

The image/jpx content-type refers to all of the profiles and extensions that build on JPEG 2000 [ISO-JPEG2000-2] encoded image data. The file format is also defined in [ISO-JPEG2000-2], Annex M. The recommended file suffix is "jpf" To: ietf-types@iana.org Subject: Registration of Standard MIME media type image/jpx MIME media type name: image MIME subtype name: jpx Required parameters: none Optional parameters: none It is up to the implementation to determine the application (if necessary) and render the image to the user. Encoding considerations: files are binary and should be transmitted in a suitable encoding without CR/LF conversion, 7-bit stripping etc.; base64 is a suitable encoding; Security considerations: see above
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Interoperability considerations:   The ability of implementations to
                                   handle all the defined applications
                                   (or profiles within applications) of
                                   JPEG 2000 may not be ubiquitous.  As
                                   a result, implementations may decode
                                   and attempt to display the encoded
                                   JPEG 2000 image data only to
                                   determine that the image cannot be
                                   rendered either partially or in full.
Published specification:           ISO/IEC 15444-2, JPEG 2000 Extensions
Applications which use this media type: Imaging, fax, messaging and
                                   multi-media
Additional information:
Magic number(s):                   12 byte string: X'0000 000C 6A50 2020
                                   0D0A 870A' (for all JPEG-2000 family
                                   files)
File extension(s):                 jpf is declared at
                                   http://www.nist.gov/nics/. jpx is
                                   also an acceptable file extension,
                                   although it is not recommended for
                                   files on a desktop computer that are
                                   not directly associated with a MIME
                                   media type
Macintosh File Type Code(s):       'jpx '
Person & email address to contact for further information:
                                   JPEG Webmaster - mimesupport@jpeg.org
                                   JPEG Convenor - convenor@jpeg.org
                                   JPEG 2000 Editor - J2KEditor@jpeg.org
Intended usage:                    COMMON
Change controller:                 JPEG Webmaster

4.3. Motion Registration

MIME media type name: video MIME subtype name: mj2 Required parameters: none Optional parameters: none Encoding considerations: files are binary and should be transmitted in a suitable encoding without CR/LF conversion, 7-bit stripping etc.; base64 is a suitable encoding; Security considerations: see above Interoperability considerations: A number of interoperating implementations exist within the MPEG-4 community with the formats derived from the ISO Base Media File
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                                   Format;  and that community has
                                   reference software for reading and
                                   writing the file format.  Reference
                                   software for MJP2 is also available.
Published specification:           ISO/IEC 15444-3, Motion JPEG 2000
Applications:                      Multimedia
Additional information:

Magic number(s):                   12 byte string: X'0000 000C 6A50 2020
                                   0D0A 870A' (for all JPEG-2000 family
                                   files)
File extension(s):                 mj2 and mjp2 are both declared at
                                   http://www.nist.gov/nics/;  mj2 is
                                   preferred
Macintosh File Type Code(s):       mjp2 is registered with Apple

Person to contact for info:        David Singer, singer@apple.com

Intended usage:                    Common

Author/Change controller:          David Singer, MJP2 file format editor

4.4. Compound Image Registration

The image/jpm content-type refers to all of the profiles and extensions that build on JPEG 2000 [ISO-JPEG2000-1] encoded image data. The file format is also defined in [ISO-JPEG2000-6]. The recommended file suffix is "jpm" To: ietf-types@iana.org Subject: Registration of Standard MIME media type image/jpm MIME media type name: image MIME subtype name: jpm Required parameters: none Optional parameters: none It is up to the implementation to determine the application (if necessary) and render the image to the user. Encoding considerations: files are binary and should be transmitted in a suitable encoding without CR/LF conversion, 7-bit stripping etc.; base64 is a suitable encoding; Security considerations: see above
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Interoperability considerations:   A number of interoperating
                                   implementations are under development
                                   within the JPEG 2000 community.
Published specification:           ISO/IEC 15444-6, JPEG 2000 Compound
                                   Image File Format
Applications:                      Imaging, fax, messaging, scanning
Additional information:
Magic number(s):                   12 byte string: X'0000 000C 6A50 2020
                                   0D0A 870A' (for all JPEG-2000 family
                                   files)
File extension(s):                 jpm and jpgm are both declared at
                                   http://www.nist.gov/nics/; jpm is
                                   preferred
Macintosh File Type Code(s):       'jpm '
Person & email address to contact for further information:
                                   JPEG Webmaster - mimesupport@jpeg.org
                                   JPEG Convenor - convenor@jpeg.org
                                   JPEG 2000 Editor - J2KEditor@jpeg.org
Intended usage:                    COMMON
Change controller:                 JPEG Webmaster

5. IANA Considerations

This document registers the MIME types image/jp2, image/jpx, video/mj2, and image/jpm, defined above.

6. Acknowledgments

This document has benefited greatly by contributions from many people, including Eric Edwards and Takahiro Fukuhara. Their contribution is gratefully acknowledged.

6. References

6.1. Normative References

[ISO-JPEG2000-1] ITU-T Recommendation T.800 | ISO/IEC 15444-1. International Organization for Standardization, "JPEG 2000 Image Coding System: Core Coding System". [ISO-JPEG2000-2] International Organization for Standardization, "JPEG 2000 Image Coding System: Extensions", IS 15444-2. [ISO-JPEG2000-3] International Organization for Standardization, "Motion JPEG 2000", IS 15444-3.
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   [ISO-JPEG2000-6]  International Organization for Standardization,
                     "JPEG 2000 Image Coding System: Compound Image File
                     Format", IS 15444-6.

   [ISO-JPEG2000-12] International Organization for Standardization,
                     "JPEG 2000 Image Coding System: ISO base media file
                     format", IS 15444-12 (technically identical to
                     ISO/IEC 14496-12.

   [MIME1]           Freed, N. and n. Borenstein, "Multipurpose Internet
                     Mail Extensions [MIME] Part One: Format of Internet
                     Message Bodies", RFC 2045, November 1996.

6.2. Informative References

[ISO-JPEG2000-4] International Organization for Standardization, "JPEG 2000 Image Coding System: Conformance Testing", IS 15444-4. [ISO-JPEG2000-5] International Organization for Standardization, "JPEG 2000 Image Coding System: Reference Software", IS 15444-5. [ISO-JPEG2000-8] International Organization for Standardization, "JPEG 2000 Image Coding System: JPSEC - Secure JPEG 2000", IS 15444-8. [ISO-JPEG2000-9] International Organization for Standardization, "JPEG 2000 Image Coding System: JPIP - Interactivity tools, APIs and protocols", IS 15444-9. [ISO-JPEG2000-10] International Organization for Standardization, "JPEG 2000 Image Coding System: JP3D - 3-D and floating point data", IS 15444-10. [ISO-JPEG2000-11] International Organization for Standardization, "JPEG 2000 Image Coding System: JPWL - Wireless", IS 15444-11. [ISO-JPEG-1] ITU-T Recommendation T.81 | ISO/IEC 10918-1:1994, Information technology - Digital compression and coding of continuous-tone still images: Requirements and guidelines.
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   [ISO-JPEG-2]      ITU-T Recommendation T.83 | ISO/IEC 10918-2:1995,
                     Information technology - Digital compression and
                     coding of continuous-tone still images: Compliance
                     testing.

   [ISO-JPEG-3]      ITU-T Recommendation T.84 | ISO/IEC 10918-3:1996,
                     Information technology - Digital compression and
                     coding of continuous-tone still images: Extensions.

   [ISO-JPEG-4]      ITU-T Recommendation T.86 | ISO/IEC 10918-4,
                     Information technology - Digital compression and
                     coding of continuous-tone still images:
                     Registration of JPEG Profiles, SPIFF Profiles,
                     SPIFF Tags, SPIFF colour Spaces, APPn Markers,
                     SPIFF, Compression types and Registration
                     authorities (REGAUT).

   [JFIF]            JPEG File Interchange Format, Version 1.02.
                     Published and made freely available by C-Cube
                     Microsystems. Corporate Communications, 1778
                     McCarthy Blvd., Milpitas, CA 95035

   [RFC-TIFF]        Parsons, G. and J. Rafferty, "Tag Image File Format
                     (TIFF) - image/tiff MIME Sub-type Registration",
                     RFC 3302, September 2002.

   [ISO-MPEG4]       ISO/IEC 14496, Information technology - Coding of
                     Audio-Visual Objects.
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7. Authors' Addresses

David Singer Apple Computer, Inc. One Infinite Loop, MS:302-3MT Cupertino CA 95014 USA Phone: +1 408 974 3162 EMail: singer@apple.com Richard Clark (Current JPEG Webmaster) Elysium Ltd Milton House Whitehill Road Crowborough East Sussex TN6 1LB UK Phone: +44 1892 667411 Fax: +44 1892 667433 EMail: richard@elysium.ltd.uk Dr. Daniel T Lee (Current JPEG Convenor) Yahoo!, Inc. 701, First Avenue Sunnyvale, California 94089, USA Phone: +1 408 349 7051 Fax: +1 253 830 0372 EMail: dlee@yahoo-inc.com
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8. Full Copyright Statement

Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2004). This document is subject to the rights, licenses and restrictions contained in BCP 78 and except as set forth therein, the authors retain all their rights. This document and the information contained herein are provided on an "AS IS" basis and THE CONTRIBUTOR, THE ORGANIZATION HE/SHE REPRESENTS OR IS SPONSORED BY (IF ANY), THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE INTERNET ENGINEERING TASK FORCE DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE INFORMATION HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. Intellectual Property The IETF takes no position regarding the validity or scope of any Intellectual Property Rights or other rights that might be claimed to pertain to the implementation or use of the technology described in this document or the extent to which any license under such rights might or might not be available; nor does it represent that it has made any independent effort to identify any such rights. Information on the procedures with respect to rights in RFC documents can be found in BCP 78 and BCP 79. Copies of IPR disclosures made to the IETF Secretariat and any assurances of licenses to be made available, or the result of an attempt made to obtain a general license or permission for the use of such proprietary rights by implementers or users of this specification can be obtained from the IETF on-line IPR repository at http://www.ietf.org/ipr. The IETF invites any interested party to bring to its attention any copyrights, patents or patent applications, or other proprietary rights that may cover technology that may be required to implement this standard. Please address the information to the IETF at ietf-ipr@ietf.org. Acknowledgement Funding for the RFC Editor function is currently provided by the Internet Society.