Network Working Group B. Haberman Request for Comments: 3590 Caspian Networks Updates: 2710 September 2003 Category: Standards Track Source Address Selection for the Multicast Listener Discovery (MLD) Protocol Status of this Memo This document specifies an Internet standards track protocol for the Internet community, and requests discussion and suggestions for improvements. Please refer to the current edition of the "Internet Official Protocol Standards" (STD 1) for the standardization state and status of this protocol. Distribution of this memo is unlimited. Copyright Notice Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2003). All Rights Reserved.
AbstractIt has come to light that there is an issue with the selection of a suitable IPv6 source address for Multicast Listener Discovery (MLD) messages when a node is performing stateless address autoconfiguration. This document is intended to clarify the rules on selecting an IPv6 address to use for MLD messages. RFC 2710] mandates the use of a link-local IPv6 source address for the transmission of MLD messages. In addition, MLD also requires nodes to send MLD Report messages when joining any IPv6 multicast group (except the All-Nodes address and addresses of scope less than 2). These MLD requirements conflict with the use of IPv6 multicast within the Neighbor Discovery Protocol [RFC 2461]. For stateless autoconfiguration, as defined in [RFC 2462], a node is required to join several IPv6 multicast groups in order to perform Duplicate Address Detection prior to its use. Since the only address the node has is tentative, and cannot be used for communication, it does not have a suitable address to utilize as a source address.
This document will clarify the IPv6 source address selection rules for use with MLD when no link-local addresses are available. RFC 2119]. RFC 2710], Section 3 requires that all MLD messages be sent with a valid link-local IPv6 source address. However, a node in the process of performing duplicate address detection for its link-local (LL) address will not have one available to use as a source address. For this reason, this document allows the unspecified address to be used as a source address for MLD messages being used during duplicate address detection. The discrepancies in the rules defined in [RFC 2710] and [RFC 2462] has led to implementation issues. Several IPv6 implementations skip sending MLD Report messages during duplicate address detection because they have no valid link-local address. This leads to operational problems when a node is attached to switches that perform MLD snooping. In this scenario, duplicate address detection (DAD) will complete successfully and collisions can occur once the address is put into use because switches may not have forwarded the DAD messages to all nodes on the link as required. This document fixes this problem by specifying that MLD reports are to be sent using an unspecified source address prior to DAD being started in order to ensure that messages sent to LL multicast addresses (e.g., including MLD) are forwarded to all appropriate nodes as required.
Once a valid link-local address is available, a node SHOULD generate new MLD Report messages for all multicast addresses joined on the interface. Routers receiving an MLD Report or Done message with the unspecified address as the IPv6 source address MUST silently discard the packet without taking any action on the packets contents. Snooping switches MUST manage multicast forwarding state based on MLD Report and Done messages sent with the unspecified address as the IPv6 source address. RFC 2710, MLD Report and Done messages are required to have an IPv6 source address that is link-local. This memo augments that rule by allowing these messages to contain the unspecified address (::) as the source address. The behavior of RFC 2710 implementations, when receiving a message with a source address of ::, is dependent upon how the implementation treats the unspecified address. That is, these messages will be dropped if the implementation does not consider the unspecified address to be link-local in scope. As the unspecified address is only used when there is no link-local address, RFC 2710 implementations discarding these packets will have no affect on the packet's sender as the use should only be for joining the link-local solicited-node multicast group [RFC 2462]. There is an implication to senders with respect to joining other multicast groups prior to the activation of a link-local address. The dropping of Reports using the unspecified address as a source address could cause a lack of multicast traffic that is expected by the node. This black hole will be temporary until the node can send a Report with a valid link-local address. RFC 2710]. For hosts and routers, all received MLD messages from an unspecified source address are silently discarded. This is the required behavior from [RFC 2710] and is not changed by this document. Thus, the changes have no new security impacts.
In the case of snooping switches, multicast forwarding state will be maintained based on Report and Done messages sent with the unspecified address as the source address. However, the security vulnerabilities in this scenario are similar to those describing forged messages in the security considerations section of [RFC 2710]. [RFC 2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997. [RFC 2710] Deering, S., Fenner, W. and B. Haberman, "Multicast Listener Discovery (MLD) for IPv6", RFC 2710, October 1999. [RFC 2461] Narten, T., Nordmark, E. and W. Simpson, "Neighbor Discovery for IP Version 6 (IPv6)", RFC 2461, December 1998. [RFC 2462] Thomson, S. and T. Narten, "IPv6 Stateless Address Autoconfiguration", RFC 2462, December 1998.
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