Network Working Group K. Tesink Request for Comments: 2558 Telcordia Technologies Obsoletes: 1595 March 1999 Category: Standards Track Definitions of Managed Objects for the SONET/SDH Interface Type Status of this Memo This document specifies an Internet standards track protocol for the Internet community, and requests discussion and suggestions for improvements. Please refer to the current edition of the "Internet Official Protocol Standards" (STD 1) for the standardization state and status of this protocol. Distribution of this memo is unlimited. Copyright Notice Copyright (C) The Internet Society (1999). All Rights Reserved. 24]. Textual Conventions used in this MIB are defined in  and . This memo replaces RFC 1595 . Changes relative to RFC 1595 are summarized in the MIB module's REVISION clause. 1 Abstract .............................................. 1 2 The SNMP Network Management Framework ................. 2 3 Overview .............................................. 3 3.1 Use of the ifTable .................................. 4 3.2 Use of ifTable for SONET/SDH Medium/Section/Line Layer ............................................... 5 3.3 Use of ifTable for SONET/SDH Paths .................. 6 3.4 Use of ifTable for SONET/SDH VTs/VCs ................ 7 3.5 SONET/SDH Terminology ............................... 8 4 Object Definitions .................................... 16 4.1 The SONET/SDH Medium Group .......................... 19
4.2 The SONET/SDH Section Group ......................... 23 4.2.1 The SONET/SDH Section Current Group ............... 23 4.2.2 The SONET/SDH Section Interval Group .............. 26 4.3 The SONET/SDH Line Group ............................ 28 4.3.1 The SONET/SDH Line Current Group .................. 28 4.3.2 The SONET/SDH Line Interval Group ................. 30 4.4 The SONET/SDH Far End Line Group .................... 32 4.4.1 The SONET/SDH Far End Line Current Group .......... 33 4.4.2 The SONET/SDH Far End Line Interval Group ......... 34 4.5 The SONET/SDH Path Group ............................ 37 4.5.1 The SONET/SDH Path Current Group .................. 37 4.5.2 The SONET/SDH Path Interval Group ................. 39 4.6 The SONET/SDH Far End Path Group .................... 42 4.6.1 The SONET/SDH Far End Path Current Group .......... 42 4.6.2 The SONET/SDH Far End Path Interval Group ......... 44 4.7 The SONET/SDH Virtual Tributary Group ............... 46 4.7.1 The SONET/SDH VT Current Group .................... 46 4.7.2 The SONET/SDH VT Interval Group ................... 49 4.8 The SONET/SDH Far End VT Group ...................... 51 4.8.1 The SONET/SDH Far End VT Current Group ............ 51 4.8.2 The SONET/SDH Far End VT Interval Group ........... 53 4.9 Conformance Information ............................. 55 4.10 Compliance Statements .............................. 56 5 Acknowledgments ....................................... 65 6 Security Considerations ............................... 65 7 References ............................................ 66 8 Author's Address ...................................... 69 9 Intellectual Property ................................. 69 Appendix A .............................................. 70 Appendix B .............................................. 72 Full Copyright Statement ................................ 74 RFC 2271 . 0 Mechanisms for describing and naming objects and events for the purpose of management. The first version of this Structure of Management Information (SMI) is called SMIv1 and described in STD 16, RFC 1155 , STD 16, RFC 1212  and RFC 1215 . The second version, called SMIv2, is described in RFC 1902 , RFC 1903  and RFC 1904 .
0 Message protocols for transferring management information. The first version of the SNMP message protocol is called SNMPv1 and described in STD 15, RFC 1157 . A second version of the SNMP message protocol, which is not an Internet standards track protocol, is called SNMPv2c and described in RFC 1901  and RFC 1906 . The third version of the message protocol is called SNMPv3 and described in RFC 1906 , RFC 2272  and RFC 2274 . 0 Protocol operations for accessing management information. The first set of protocol operations and associated PDU formats is described in STD 15, RFC 1157 . A second set of protocol operations and associated PDU formats is described in RFC 1905 . 0 A set of fundamental applications described in RFC 2273  and the view-based access control mechanism described in RFC 2275 . Managed objects are accessed via a virtual information store, termed the Management Information Base or MIB. Objects in the MIB are defined using the mechanisms defined in the SMI. This memo specifies a MIB module that is compliant to the SMIv2. A MIB conforming to the SMIv1 can be produced through the appropriate translations. The resulting translated MIB must be semantically equivalent, except where objects or events are omitted because no translation is possible (e.g., use of Counter64). Some machine readable information in SMIv2 will be converted into textual descriptions in SMIv1 during the translation process. However, this loss of machine readable information is not considered to change the semantics of the MIB. 19] and CCITT G.707, 708, 709, and G.783 .
23], is used for SONET/SDH interfaces. The SONET/SDH layers support several multiplexing possibilities. For example in SONET, an Synchronous Transport Signal 3 (STS-3) has 3 SONET Paths, and a STS-3c has 1 SONET Path. Another example could be a STS-12 having 4 SONET STS-3c Paths. Similarly, a SONET Synchronous Payload Envelope (SPE) can carry many Virtual Tributaries (VTs), for example, one SONET SPE can carry 28 VT1.5s. It is important to note that an SPE and a VT in SONET is collectively referred to as a Virtual Container (VC) in SDH. Also, an STS is called Synchronous Transport Module (STM) in SDH. Not all SONET/SDH equipment terminates all SONET/SDH layers. For example, a SONET/SDH STE regenerator terminates SONET/SDH Sections only, and is transparent for all layers above that. SONET/SDH Add- Drop multiplexers and Digital Cross Connect Systems terminate SONET/SDH Lines. SONET/SDH Terminal Multiplexers may also terminate SONET/SDH Paths and VTs/VCs. MIB II , as extended by , accommodates these cases by appropriate use of the MIB II system group, and the interfaces group. The system group can name and describe the type of managed resource. The interfaces group defines which SONET/SDH layers apply, how these layers are configured and multiplexed. This is achieved by proper representation of SONET/SDH Layers by ifEntries as defined in , as follows:
_____________________________ | | | | > | | | | | | VT 1 |..........|VT K| > K ifEntries | | | | | |_____________|__________|____| > | | | | > | | | | | | Path 1 |......|Path L| > L ifEntries | | | | | |_______________|______|______| > | | > | | | | Line | | | | | |_____________________________| | | | | | | | | Section Layer | > 1 ifEntry | | | |_____________________________| | | | | | | | | Physical Medium Layer | | | | | |_____________________________| > Use of ifTable for a SONET/SDH port The exact configuration and multiplexing of the layers is maintained in the ifStackTable .
ifPhysAddress The value of the Circuit Identifier. If no Circuit Identifier has been assigned this object should have an octet string with zero length. ifAdminStatus Supports read-only access. The desired administrative status of the interface. ifOperStatus The value testing(3) is not used. This object assumes the value down(2), if the objects sonetSectionCurrentStatus and sonetLineCurrentStatus have any other value than sonetSectionNoDefect(1) and sonetLineNoDefect(1), respectively. ifLastChange sysUpTime at the last change in ifOperStatus. ifName Textual name of the interface or an OCTET STRING of zero length. ifLinkUpDownTrapEnable Default value is enabled(1). Just read-only access may be supported. ifHighSpeed Speed of line in Mega-bits per second (e.g., 155 Mbps) ifConnectorPresent Set to true(1). ifAlias The (non-volatile) alias name for this interface as assigned by the network manager.
ifPhysAddress Circuit Identifier or OCTET STRING of zero length. ifAdminStatus Supports read-only access. The desired administrative status of the interface. ifOperStatus This object assumes the value down(2), if the object sonetPathCurrentStatus has any other value than sonetPathNoDefect(1). ifLastChange sysUpTime at the last change in ifOperStatus. ifName Textual name of the interface or an OCTET STRING of zero length. ifLinkUpDownTrapEnable Default value is disabled(2). Just read-only access may be supported. ifHighSpeed Set to rate of SONET/SDH path in Mega-bits per second. ifConnectorPresent Set to false(2). ifAlias The (non-volatile) alias name for this interface as assigned by the network manager.
ifOperStatus This object assumes the value down(2), if the object sonetVTCurrentStatus has any other value than sonetVTNoDefect(1). ifLastChange sysUpTime at the last change in ifOperStatus. ifName Textual name of the interface or an OCTET STRING of zero length. ifLinkUpDownTrapEnable Default value is disabled(2). Just read-only access may be supported. ifHighSpeed Set to rate of VT in Mega-bits per second. ifConnectorPresent Set to false(2). ifAlias The (non-volatile) alias name for this interface as assigned by the network manager. 22]. The terminology used in this document to describe error conditions on a SDH circuit as monitored by a SDH system are from the CCITT G.783 . Only the SONET Performance Monitoring terminology is defined in this document. The definitions for SDH Performance Monitoring terms are similar but not identical, and they can be found in . If the definition in this document does not match the definition in the T1.231 document, the implementer should follow the definition described in this document. In some cases other or additional references are used as compared with the ones cited above. This will be indicated in the text. Section Loss Of Frame Failure (Out of Frame Event, Severely Errored Frame Defect) An Out of Frame (OOF) event (or Severely Errored Frame defect) is the occurrence of four contiguous errored frame alignment words. A frame alignment word occupies the A1 and A2 bytes of an STS frame, and is defined in T1.105. The SEF defect is terminated when two contiguous error-free frame words are detected. Any implementation of the frame recovery circuitry which achieves realignment following an OOF within the 250 microsecond (two frames) interval implied by this definition is acceptable.
A Loss of Frame (LOF) defect is declared when an OOF/SEF defect persists for a period of 3 milliseconds. The LOF defect is terminated when the incoming signal remains continuously in- frame for a period of 1 ms to 3 ms. A LOF failure is declared when the LOF defect persists for a period of 2.5 +/- 0.5 seconds, except when an LOS defect or failure is present. The LOF failure is cleared when the LOS failure is declared, or when the LOF defect is absent for 10 +/- 0.5 seconds. Loss of Signal The Loss of Signal (LOS) defect is declared when no transitions are detected on the incoming signal (before descrambling). The LOS defect is detected upon observing 2.3 to 100 microseconds of no transitions. The LOS defect is cleared after a 125 microsecond interval (one frame) during which no LOS defect is detected. The LOS failure is declared when the LOS defect persists for a period of 2.5 +/- 0.5 seconds, or if LOS defect is present when the criteria for LOF failure declaration have been met. The LOS failure is cleared when the LOS defect is absent for a period of 10 +/- 0.5 seconds. Declaration of LOS failure clears any existing LOF failure. Clearing the LOS failure allows immediate declaration of the LOF failure if conditions warrant. STS-Path Loss of Pointer A Loss of Pointer (LOP) defect is declared when either a valid pointer is not detected in eight consecutive frames, or when eight consecutive frames are detected with the New Data Flag (NDF) set to "1001" without a valid concatenation indicator (see ANSI T1.105). A LOP defect is terminated when either a valid pointer with a normal NDF set to "0110", or a valid concatenation indicator is detected for three contiguous frames. Incoming STS-Path AIS shall not result in the declaration of a LOP defect. An STS-Path LOP failure is declared when the STS-Path LOP defect persists for a period of 2.5 +/- 0.5 seconds. A STS-Path LOP failure is cleared when the STS-Path LOP defect is absent for 10 +/- 0.5 seconds. VT Loss of Pointer A VT LOP defect is declared when either a valid pointer is not detected in eight consecutive VT superframes, or when eight consecutive VT superframes are detected with the NDF set to "1001" without a valid concatenation indicator. A VT LOP defect
is terminated when either a valid pointer with a normal NDF set to "0110", or a valid concatenation indicator is detected for three contiguous VT superframes. Incoming VT-Path AIS shall not result in declaring a VT LOP defect. A VT LOP failure is declared when the VT LOP defect persists for 2.5 +/- 0.5 seconds. A VT LOP failure is cleared when the VT LOP defect is absent for 10 +/- 0.5 seconds. Line Alarm Indication Signal A Line Alarm Indication Signal (L-AIS) is defined in ANSI T1.105. The following criteria are specific to the L-AIS defect: -- Line AIS defect is detected as a "111" pattern in bits 6, 7, and 8 of the K2 byte in five consecutive frames. -- Line AIS defect is terminated when bits 6, 7, and 8 of the K2 byte do not contain the code "111" for five consecutive frames. A Line AIS failure is declared when the Line AIS defect persists for a period of 20.5 +/- 0.5 seconds. A Line AIS failure is cleared when the Line AIS defect is absent for 10 +/- 0.5 seconds. STS-Path Alarm Indication Signal The STS-Path Alarm Indication Signal (AIS) is defined in ANSI T1.105 as all ones in bytes H1, H2, and H3 as well as all ones in the entire STS SPE. The following criteria are specific to the STS-Path AIS defect: -- STS-Path AIS defect is detected as all ones in bytes H1 and H2 in three contiguous frames. -- The STS-Path AIS defect is terminated when a valid STS Pointer is detected with the NDF set to "1001" (inverted) for one frame, or "0110" (normal) for three contiguous frames. An STS-Path AIS failure is declared when the STS-Path AIS defect persists for 2.5 +/- 0.5 seconds. An STS-Path AIS failure is cleared when the STS-Path AIS defect is absent for 10 +/- 0.5 seconds. VT-Path Alarm Indication Signal The VT-Path Alarm Indication Signal (AIS) is only applicable for VTs in the floating mode of operation. VT-Path AIS is used to alert the downstream VT Path Terminating Entity (PTE) of an
upstream failure. Upon detection of a failure, Line AIS, or STS-Path AIS, an STS PTE will generate downstream VT-Path AIS if the STS Synchronous Payload Envelope (SPE) is carrying floating VTs. VT-Path AIS is specified in ANSI T1.105 as all ones in bytes V1, V2, V3, and V4, as well as all ones in the entire VT SPE. The following criteria are specific to VT-Path AIS defect: -- VT-Path AIS defect is detected by a VT PTE as all ones in bytes V1 and V2 in three contiguous VT superframes. -- VT-Path AIS defect is terminated when valid VT pointer with a valid VT size is detected with the NDF set to "1001" (inverted) for one VT superframe, or "0110" (normal) for three contiguous VT superframes are detected. A VT-Path AIS failure is declared when the VT-Path AIS defect persists for 2.5 +/- 0.5 seconds. A VT-Path AIS failure is cleared when the VT-Path AIS defect is absent for 10 +/- 0.5 seconds. Line Remote Defect Indication Line Remote Defect Indication (RDI) (aka Line FERF) signal is the occurrence of a "110" pattern in bit positions 6, 7, and 8 of the K2 byte in STS-1 #1 of the STS-N signal. Line RDI is defined in ANSI T1.105. The following criteria are specific to Line RDI defect: -- Line RDI defect is a "110" code in bits 6, 7, and 8 of the K2 byte of in STS-1 #1 in x consecutive frames, where x = 5  or 10 . -- Line RDI defect is terminated when any code other than "110" is detected in bits 6, 7, and 8 of the K2 byte in x consecutive frames, where x = 5  or 10 . A Line Remote Failure Indication (RFI) failure is declared when the incoming Line RDI defects lasts for 2.5 +/- 0.5 seconds. The Line RFI failure is cleared when no Line RDI defects are detected for 10 +/- 0.5 seconds. STS-Path Remote Defect Indication STS-Path RDI (aka STS-Path FERF) signal shall be generated within 100 milliseconds by the STS PTE upon detection of an AIS or LOP defect. Transmission of the STS-Path RDI signal shall cease within 100 milliseconds when the STS PTE no longer detects STS-Path AIS or STS-Path LOP defect. The STS-Path RDI shall accurately report the presence or absence of STS-Path AIS or STS-Path LOP defects. STS-Path RDI defect is defined in ANSI
T1.105. The following requirements are specific to the STS-Path RDI defect: -- STS-Path RDI is detected by all STS PTEs. STS-Path RDI is detected by the upstream STS PTE as a "1" in bit five of the Path Status byte (G1) for x consecutive frames, where x = 5  or 10 . -- Removal of STS-Path Remote Defect Indication is detected by a "0" in bit 5 of the G1 byte in x consecutive frames, where x = 5  or 10 . An STS-Path Remote Failure Indication (RFI) failure is declared when the incoming STS-Path RDI defects lasts for 2.5 +/- 0.5 seconds. The STS-Path RFI failure is cleared when no STS-Path RDI defects are detected for 10 +/- 0.5 seconds. VT-Path Remote Defect Indication VT Path RDI (aka VT Path FERF) signal shall be generated within 100 milliseconds by the VT PTE upon detection of a VT-Path AIS or LOP defect. Transmission of the VT-Path RDI signal shall cease within 100 milliseconds when the VT PTE no longer detects VT-Path AIS or VT-Path LOP defect. The VT-Path RDI shall accurately report the presence or absence of VT-Path AIS or VT- Path LOP defects. VT-Path RDI defect is defined in ANSI T1.105. The following requirements are specific to VT-Path RDI defect: -- VT-Path RDI defect is the occurrence of a "1" in bit 4 of the VT-Path Overhead byte (V5) in x consecutive frames, where x = 5  or 10 . -- VT-Path RDI defect is terminated when a "0" is detected in bit 4 of the VT-Path Overhead byte (V5) for x consecutive frames, where x = 5  or 10 . A VT-Path Remote Failure Indication (RFI) (derived) failure is declared when the incoming VT-Path RDI defects lasts for 2.5 +/- 0.5 seconds. The VT-Path RFI failure is cleared when no VT-Path RDI defects are detected for 10 +/- 0.5 seconds. VT-Path Remote Failure Indication The VT-Path RFI signal is only required for the case of byte synch mapped DS1s where the DS1 frame bit is not mapped. The VT-Path RFI is specified in ANSI T1.105, where it is currently called VT path yellow. When provided, the VT-Path RFI signal is used to indicate the occurrence of far-end failures. When the VT-Path RFI is not provided, far-end failures are derived from local timing of the VT-Path RDI defect. The VT-Path RFI failure
is declared within 5 ms of detecting the incoming VT-Path RFI Signal. The VT-Path Remote Failure Indication (RFI) failure is cleared within 50 ms of detecting the removal of the incoming VT-Path RFI signal. Coding Violation Coding Violations (CV) are Bit Interleaved Parity (BIP) errors that are detected in the incoming signal. CV counters are incremented for each BIP error detected. That is, each BIP-8 can detect up to eight errors per STS-N frame, with each error incrementing the CV counter. Section CVs shall be collected using the BIP-8 in the B1 byte located in the Section Overhead of STS-1 #1. Line CVs shall be collected using the BIP-8s in B2 bytes located in the Line Overhead of each STS-1 (since all CVs on an STS-N line are counted together, this is equivalent to counting each error in the BIP-8*N contained in the B2 bytes of the STS-N Line Overhead). Thus, on an STS-N signal, up to 8 x N CVs may occur in each frame. Path CVs shall be collected using the BIP-8 in the B3 byte of the STS-Path Overhead of the STS SPE. VT CVs shall be collected using the BIP-2 in the V5 overhead byte of the floating VT. Errored Seconds At each layer, an Errored Second (ES) is a second with one or more Coding Violations at that layer OR one or more incoming defects (e.g., SEF, LOS, AIS, LOP) at that layer has occurred. Severely Errored Seconds According to  at each layer, an Severely Errored Second (SES) is a second with x or more CVs at that layer, or a second during which at least one or more incoming defects at that layer has occurred. The values of x in RFC1595 were based on  and  (see Appendix B). These values have subsequently been relaxed in . In addition, according to G.826  SESs are measured as a percentage of errored blocks. To deal with these sets of definitions this memo defines an object sonetSESThresholdSet that determines the correct interpretation of SES. For backward compatibility, if this object is not implemented the interpretation of Appendix B shall apply. Otherwise, a more recent interpretation is suggested. An agent is not required to support all sets of definitions. Note that if a manager changes the value of this object all SES statistics collected prior to this change shall be invalidated.
Severely Errored Framing Seconds A Severely Errored Framing Second (SEFS) is a second containing one or more SEF events. This counter is only counted at the Section Layer. Unavailable Seconds At the Line, Path, and VT layers, an unavailable second is calculated by counting the number of seconds that the interface is unavailable. At each layer, the SONET/SDH interface is said to be unavailable at the onset of 10 contiguous SESs. The 10 SESs are included in unavailable time. Once unavailable, the SONET/SDH interface becomes available at the onset of 10 contiguous seconds with no SESs. The 10 seconds with no SESs are excluded from unavailable time. With respect to the SONET/SDH error counts at each layer, all counters at that layer are incremented while the SONET/SDH interface is deemed available at that layer. While the interface is deemed unavailable at that layer, the only count that is incremented is UASs at that layer. Note that this definition implies that the agent cannot determine until after a ten second interval has passed whether a given one-second interval belongs to available or unavailable time. If the agent chooses to update the various performance statistics in real time then it must be prepared to retroactively reduce the ES, SES, and SEFS counts by 10 and increase the UAS count by 10 when it determines that available time has been entered. It must also be prepared to reduce the CV count by the number of violations counted since the onset of unavailable time. The agent must be similarly prepared to retroactively decrease the UAS count by 10 and increase the ES and CV counts as necessary upon entering available time. A special case exists when the 10 second period leading to available or unavailable time crosses a 900 second statistics window boundary, as the foregoing description implies that the CV, ES, SES, SEFS, and UAS counts the PREVIOUS interval must be adjusted. In this case successive GETs of the affected sonetPathIntervalSES and sonetPathIntervalUAS objects (and the analogous Line and VT objects also) objects will return differing values if the first GET occurs during the first few seconds of the window. According to ANSI T1.231 unavailable time begins at the _onset_ of 10 contiguous severely errored seconds -- that is, unavailable time starts with the _first_ of the 10 contiguous SESs. Also, while an interface is deemed unavailable all counters for that interface are frozen except for the UAS count. It follows that an implementation which strictly complies with
this standard must _not_ increment any counters other than the UAS count -- even temporarily -- as a result of anything that happens during those 10 seconds. Since changes in the signal state lag the data to which they apply by 10 seconds, an ANSI- compliant implementation must pass the one-second statistics through a 10-second delay line prior to updating any counters. That can be done by performing the following steps at the end of each one second interval. i) Read near/far end CV counter and alarm status flags from the hardware. ii) Accumulate the CV counts for the preceding second and compare them to the ES and SES threshold for the layer in question. Update the signal state and shift the one-second CV counts and ES/SES flags into the 10-element delay line. Note that far-end one-second statistics are to be flagged as "absent" during any second in which there is an incoming defect at the layer in question or at any lower layer. iii) Update the current interval statistics using the signal state from the _previous_ update cycle and the one-second CV counts and ES/SES flags shifted out of the 10-element delay line. This approach is further described in Appendix A. An agent may choose to use this approach in lieu of retroactive adjustments to the counters. In any case, a linkDown trap shall be sent only after the agent has determined for certain that the unavailable state has been entered, but the time on the trap will be that of the first UAS (i.e., 10 seconds earlier). A linkUp trap shall be handled similarly. Unequipped If a Path or VT connection is not provisioned (idle) the SONET equipment will signal this state by transmitting the Path or VT Signal Label as follows: - byte C2 of the STS Path Overhead equal to 0 for an unequipped Path, - byte V5 of the VT Path Overhead equal to 0 for an unequipped VT. Signal Label Mismatch A Path or VT connection is not correctly provisioned if a received Path or VT Signal Label mismatch occurs. A received Signal Label is considered mismatched if it does not equal either the locally provisioned value or the value 'equipped
non-specific' (1 hex). Note that any received non-zero Signal Label is considered a locally provisioned value of 'equipped non-specific'. Only in-service, provisioned Path Terminating equipment can detect mismatched Signal labels. It is considered provisioned if it has been configured for a mapping and has been assigned signals to and from which the mapping takes place. While a Path is unequipped or has mismatched signal labels ES/SES counts continue, but these conditions do not themselves contribute to ES/SES. Circuit Identifier This is a character string specified by the circuit vendor, and is useful when communicating with the vendor during the troubleshooting process.