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Glossary of 3GPP Reference Points

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G   Ga   Gb   Gc   GC1   Gd   Gdd   Ge   Gf   Ghv   Gi   GLa   GLb   GLc   GLd   GLe   GLf   GLg   GLh   GLi   GLj   GLk   Gm   Gmb   Gmc   Gn   Go   Gp   Gq   Gr   Gs   Gw   Gwn   Gx   Gxa   Gxb   Gxb*   Gxc   Gxx   Gy   Gya   Gyn   Gz   Gza   Gzn


G-interface   (MAP)


between  VLR
and  VLR

see it   here

specified from  GSM Phase 2  in
TS 09.02, clause 4.4.4 

When a mobile subscriber moves from a VLR area to another VLR area, a Location Registration procedure will happen using a TMSI. This procedure may include the retrieval of the IMSI and authentication parameters from the old VLR.

Ga   (GTP')


between  CDF
and  CGF

see it   here

specified from  Rel-6  in
TS 32.240, clause 

GTP' has been designed to deliver the CDR(s) from the CDF, which generates CDRs to the CGF(s). This protocol is required if the CGF resides outside the CDFs. It utilizes some aspects of GTP (defined in TS 29.060), which is used for packet data tunnelling in the backbone network.

GTP' operates on the Ga interface and does not imply the use of any specific backbone network.

GTP' performs the following functions:
  • CDR transfer between the CDF and the CGF.
  • Redirection of CDRs to another CGF.
  • Detect communication failures between the communicating peers, using echo messaging.
  • Advertise to peers about its CDR transfer capability (e.g., after a period of service downtime).
  • Prevents duplicate CDRs that might arise during redundancy operations. If so configured, the CDR duplication prevention function may also be carried out by marking potentially duplicated CDR packets, and, delegating the final duplicate deletion task to a CGF or the Billing Domain (instead of handling the possible duplicates solely by GTP' messaging).



between  SGSN
and  BSS

see it   here

specified from  GSM Rel-97  in
TS 08.14   …   TS 48.014
TS 08.16   …   TS 48.016
TS 08.18   …   TS 48.018 

Gc   (MAP)


between  GGSN
and  HLR

see it   here

specified from  GSM Rel-97  in
TS 03.60, clause 

This optional signalling path may be used by the GGSN to retrieve information about the location and supported services for the mobile subscriber, to be able to activate a packet data network address.

There are two alternative ways to implement this signalling path:
  • If an SS7 interface is implemented in the GGSN, signalling between the GGSN and the HLR uses MAP.
  • If there is no SS7 interface in the GGSN, any GSN in the same PLMN and which has an SS7 interface installed can be used as a GTP to MAP protocol converter, thus forming a signalling path between the GGSN and the HLR.



between  GCS AS
and  UE Application

see it   here

specified from  Rel-12  in
TS 23.468, clause 

The GC1 reference point is not specified. However, TS 23.468 includes high level descriptions of interactions on the GC1 reference point, which are necessary in order to convey certain information (e.g. PLMN ID) and perform certain functions (e.g. register or re-register with serving PLMN ID) in order for the EPS and MBMS bearer services to be delivered accurately.

Gd   (MAP)


between  SGSN / IP-SM-GW

specified from  GSM Rel-97  in
TS 03.60, clause 

This interface is used to transfer short messages between SGSN/IP-SM-GW and SMS-GMSC or SMS-IWMSC over GPRS.

Gdd   (Diameter)


between  SGSN

specified from  Rel-11  in
TS 29.338 

The Gdd reference point is used to transfer short messages between the SGSN, the SMS-IWMSC, the SMS-GMSC and the SMS Router, and the alerting of the SMS-GMSC by the SGSN (possibly via an SMS Router).

  • OFR/OFA:  MO-Forward-Short-Message-Request/Answer
  • TFR/TFA:  MT-Forward-Short-Message-Request/Answer
See also  RFC 6733  for Diameter Base Protocol, and  TS 29.230  for 3GPP-specific Diameter codes and identifiers.

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