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Content for  TS 32.277  Word version:  16.0.0

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1  ScopeWord‑p. 7

The present document is part of a series of documents that specify charging functionality and charging management in GSM/UMTS networks. The GSM/UMTS core network charging architecture and principles are specified in TS 32.240, which provides an umbrella for other charging management TSs that specify:
  • the content of the CDRs per domain / subsystem / service (offline charging);
  • the content of real-time charging messages per domain / subsystem / service (online charging);
  • the functionality of online and offline charging for those domains / subsystems / services;
  • the interfaces that are used in the charging framework to transfer the charging information (i.e. CDRs or charging events).
The complete document structure for these TSs is defined in TS 32.240.
The present document specifies the offline and online charging description for the Proximity-based Services (ProSe), based on the stage 2 description of ProSe in TS 23.303. This charging description includes the offline and online charging architecture and scenarios specific to the ProSe, as well as the mapping of the common 3GPP charging architecture specified in TS 32.240 onto the ProSe. It further specifies the structure and content of the CDRs for offline charging, and the charging events for online charging. The present document is related to other 3GPP charging TSs as follows:
  • The common 3GPP charging architecture is specified in TS 32.240.
  • The parameters, abstract syntax and encoding rules for the CDRs are specified in TS 32.298.
  • A transaction based mechanism for the transfer of CDRs within the network is specified in TS 32.295.
  • The file based mechanism used to transfer the CDRs from the network to the operator's billing domain (e.g. the billing system or a mediation device) is specified in TS 32.297.
  • The 3GPP Diameter application that is used for ProSe offline and online charging is specified in TS 32.299.
All references, abbreviations, definitions, descriptions, principles and requirements, used in the present document, that are common across 3GPP TSs, are defined in TR 21.905. Those that are common across charging management in GSM/UMTS domains, services or subsystems are provided in the umbrella TS 32.240 and are copied into clause 3 of the present document for ease of reading. Finally, those items that are specific to the present document are defined exclusively in the present document.

2  References

The following documents contain provisions which, through reference in this text, constitute provisions of the present document.
  • References are either specific (identified by date of publication, edition number, version number, etc.) or non specific.
  • For a specific reference, subsequent revisions do not apply.
  • For a non-specific reference, the latest version applies. In the case of a reference to a 3GPP document (including a GSM document), a non-specific reference implicitly refers to the latest version of that document in the same Release as the present document.
TS 32.240: "Telecommunication management; Charging management; Charging Architecture and Principles".
[2] - [9]  Void.
TS 32.250: "Telecommunication management; Charging management; Circuit Switched (CS) domain charging".
TS 32.251: "Telecommunication management; Charging management; Packet Switched (PS) domain charging".
[12] - [19]  Void.
TS 32.260: "Telecommunication management; Charging management; IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) charging".
[21] - [29]  Void.
TS 32.270: "Telecommunication management; Charging management; Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS) charging".
[31] - [49]  Void.
TS 32.299: "Telecommunication management; Charging management; Diameter charging applications".
TS 32.298: "Telecommunication management; Charging management; Charging Data Record (CDR) parameter description".
TS 32.297: "Telecommunication management; Charging management; Charging Data Record (CDR) file format and transfer".
[53]  Void.
TS 32.295: "Telecommunication management; Charging management; Charging Data Record (CDR) transfer".
[55] - [99]  Void.
TR 21.905: "Vocabulary for 3GPP Specifications".
TS 22.115: "Service aspects; Charging and billing".
[102] - [199]  Void.
[200] - [236]  Void.
TS 24.002: "GSM - UMTS Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN) Access Reference Configuration".
TS 23.303: "Proximity-based services (ProSe); Stage 2".
[239]  Void.
TS 33.303: "Proximity-based Services (ProSe); Security aspects".
[241] - [499]  Void.

3  Definitions, symbols and abbreviationsWord‑p. 8

3.1  Definitions

For the purposes of the present document, the terms and definitions given in TR 21.905 and the following apply. A term defined in the present document takes precedence over the definition of the same term, if any, in TR 21.905.
2G / 3G:
prefixes 2G and 3G refer to functionality that supports only GSM or UMTS, respectively, e.g. 2G SGSN refers only to the GSM functionality of an SGSN. When the term/prefix is omitted, reference is made independently from the GSM or UMTS functionality.
process of apportioning charges between the Home Environment, Serving Network and Subscriber.
function whereby CDRs generated by the charging function(s) are transformed into bills requiring payment.
Billing Domain:
part of the operator network, which is outside the telecommunication network that receives and processes CDR files from the core network charging functions. It includes functions that can provide billing mediation and billing or other (e.g. statistical) end applications. It is only applicable to offline charging (see "Online Charging System" for equivalent functionality in online charging).
chargeable event:
activity utilizing telecommunication network resources and related services for:
  • user to user communication (e.g. a single call, a data communication session or a short message); or
  • user to network communication (e.g. service profile administration); or
  • inter-network communication (e.g. transferring calls, signalling, or short messages); or
  • mobility (e.g. roaming or inter-system handover); and
  • that the network operator may want to charge for.
As a minimum, a chargeable event characterises the resource / service usage and indicates the identity of the involved end user(s).
charged party:
user involved in a chargeable event who has to pay parts or the whole charges of the chargeable event, or a third party paying the charges caused by one or all users involved in the chargeable event, or a network operator.
function within the telecommunications network and the associated OCS/BD components whereby information related to a chargeable event is collected, formatted, transferred and evaluated in order to make it possible to determine usage for which the charged party may be billed (offline charging) or the subscriber's account balance may be debited (online charging).
Charging Data Record (CDR):
formatted collection of information about one or more chargeable event(s) (e.g. time of call set-up, duration of the call, amount of data transferred, etc) for use in billing and accounting. For each party to be charged for parts of or all charges of the chargeable event(s) a separate CDR should be generated, i.e. more than one CDR may be generated for a single chargeable event, e.g. because of its long duration, or because more than one charged party is to be charged.
charging event:
set of charging information forwarded by the CTF towards the CDF (offline charging) or towards the OCS (online charging). Each charging event matches exactly one chargeable event.
charging function:
entity inside the core network domain, subsystem or service that is involved in charging for that domain, subsystem or service.
Credit Control:
mechanism which directly interacts in real-time with an account and controls or monitors the charges, related to the service usage. Credit control is a process of: checking if credit is available, credit reservation, deduction of credit from the end user account when service is completed and refunding of reserved credit not used.
part of a communication network that provides network resources using a certain bearer technology.
EPC-level ProSe Discovery:
A ProSe Discovery procedure by which the EPC determines the proximity of two ProSe-enabled UEs and informs them of their proximity.
Fully Qualified Partial CDR (FQPC):
partial CDR that contains a complete set of the fields specified in the present document. This includes all the mandatory and conditional fields as well as those fields that the PLMN operator has provisioned to be included in the CDR. The first Partial CDR should be a Fully qualified Partial CDR.
GPRS protocol used for CDR transport. It is derived from GTP with enhancements to improve transport reliability necessary for CDRs.
GSM only:
qualifier indicating that this clause or paragraph applies only to a GSM system. For multi-system cases this is determined by the current serving radio access network.
in GSM,...:
qualifier indicating that this paragraph applies only to GSM System.
in UMTS,...:
qualifier indicating that this paragraph applies only to UMTS System.
inter-system change:
change of radio access between different radio access technologies such as GSM and UMTS.
Local PLMN:
A PLMN which is not the serving PLMN, and in whose radio resources the monitoring UE is authorized by the HPLMN to engage in ProSe Direct Discovery.
middle tier TS:
term used for the 3GPP charging TSs that specify the domain / subsystem / service specific, online and offline, charging functionality. These are all the TSs in the numbering range from 3GPP TS 32.250 to 3GPP TS 32.279, e.g. TS 32.250 for the CS domain, or TS 32.270 for the MMS service. Currently, there is only one "tier 1" TS in 3GPP, which is TS 32.240 that specifies the charging architecture and principles. Finally, there are a number of top tier TSs in the 32.29x numbering range ([50] ff) that specify common charging aspects such as parameter definitions, encoding rules, the common billing domain interface or common charging applications.
Model A:
involves one UE announcing "I am here"
Model B:
involves one UE asking "who is there" and/or "are you there"
offline charging:
charging mechanism where charging information does not affect, in real-time, the service rendered.
online charging:
charging mechanism where charging information can affect, in real-time, the service rendered and therefore a direct interaction of the charging mechanism with bearer/session/service control is required.
Online Charging System (OCS):
the entity that performs real-time credit control. Its functionality includes transaction handling, rating, online correlation and management of subscriber account balances.
partial CDR:
CDR that provides charging information on part of a subscriber session. A long session may be covered by several partial CDRs. Two formats are considered for Partial CDRs. One that contains all of the provisioned fields (FQPC); the second has a reduced format (RPC).
ProSe Direct Discovery:
A procedure employed by a ProSe-enabled UE to discover other ProSe-enabled UEs in its vicinity by using only the capabilities of the two UEs with E-UTRA technology.
ProSe Discovery:
A process that identifies that a UE that is ProSe-enabled is in proximity of another, using E-UTRA (with or without E-UTRAN) or EPC.
ProSe-enabled Public Safety UE:
A UE that the HPLMN has configured to be authorized for Public Safety use, and which is ProSe-enabled and supports ProSe procedures and capabilities specific to Public Safety.
ProSe Function:
The ProSe Function is the logical function that is used for network related actions required for ProSe. The ProSe Function plays different roles for each of the features of ProSe. In this version of the specification it is assumed that there is only one logical ProSe Function in each PLMN that supports Proximity Services.
The ProSe Function contains three main sub-functions: Direct Provisioning Function (DPF), Direct Discovery Name Management Function, and EPC-level Discovery Function. The ProSe Function provides the necessary charging functionality for usage of ProSe.
real-time charging and billing information is to be generated, processed, and transported to a desired conclusion in less than 1 second.
Reduced Partial CDR (RPC):
partial CDRs that only provide mandatory fields and information regarding changes in the session parameters relative to the previous CDR.
EXAMPLE: Location information is not repeated in these CDRs if the subscriber did not change its location.
payment of amounts resulting from the accounting process.
entity (associated with one or more users) that is engaged in a subscription with a service provider. The subscriber is allowed to subscribe and unsubscribe services, to register a user or a list of users authorized to enjoy these services, and also to set the limits relative to the use that associated users make of these services.
entity, not part of the 3GPP System, that uses network resources by means of a subscription. The user may or may not be identical to the subscriber holding that subscription.
User Equipment (UE):
device allowing a user access to network services. For the purpose of 3GPP specifications the interface between the UE and the network is the radio interface. A User Equipment can be subdivided into a number of domains, the domains being separated by reference points. Currently defined domains are the USIM and ME Domains. The ME Domain can further be subdivided into several components showing the connectivity between multiple functional groups. These groups can be implemented in one or more hardware devices. An example of such a connectivity is the TE - MT interface. Further, an occurrence of a User Equipment is an MS for GSM as defined in TS 24.002.

3.2  SymbolsWord‑p. 11

For the purposes of the present document, the following symbols apply:
Reference point for CDR file transfer between ProSe CGF and the BD.
Reference point for CDR file transfer between any (generic) 3G domain, subsystem or service CGF and the BD.
Reference point for CDR transfer between a CDF and the CGF.
Reference point between UE and the ProSe Function.
Subset of PC3 specific to usage information collection for charging purposes.
Offline charging reference point between a ProSe Function and the CDF.
Online charging reference point between a ProSe Function and the OCS.

3.3  Abbreviations

For the purposes of the present document, the abbreviations given in TR 21.905 and the following apply. An abbreviation defined in the present document takes precedence over the definition of the same abbreviation, if any, in TR 21.905.
3rd Generation
3rd Generation Partnership Project
Access Point Name
Attribute Value Pair
Billing Domain
Charging Data Function
Charging Data Record
Charging Gateway Function
Charging Trigger Function
Event Charging with Unit Reservation
Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access
Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network
Fully Qualified Partial CDR
GPRS Tunnelling Protocol
The GPRS protocol used for CDR transport. It is derived from GTP with enhancements to improve transport reliability necessary for CDRs.
Home Subscriber Server
Information Element
Immediate Event Charging
IP Multimedia Subsystem
International Mobile Subscriber Identity
Internet Protocol
Internet Protocol version 4
Internet Protocol version 6
Integrated Services Digital Network
Mobile Country Code (part of IMSI)
Mobile Equipment
Mobile Network Code (part of IMSI)
Mobile Station ISDN number
Network Element
Online Charging System
Public Land Mobile Network
Proximity-based Services
Quality of Service
Radio Access Network
Session Charging with Unit Reservation
Subscriber Identity Module
Technical Report
Technical Specification
User Equipment
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
User Service Identity Module
Visited PLMN
Wireless LAN

4  Architecture considerationsWord‑p. 13

4.1  High level ProSe architecture

Figure 4.1.1 shows the high level view of the non-roaming architecture for ProSe that is defined in TS 23.303.
In this figure, UE A and UE B have subscriptions from the same PLMN.
[not reproduced yet]
Figure 4.1.1: Non-roaming reference architecture
Figure 4.1.2 shows the high level view of non-roaming inter-PLMN architecture for ProSe defined in TS 23.303. In this figure, PLMN A is the HPLMN of UE A, and PLMN B is the HPLMN of UE B.
[not reproduced yet]
Figure 4.1.2: Inter-PLMN reference architecture
Figure 4.1.3 shows the high level view of the roaming architecture for ProSe as defined in TS 23.303. In this figure, UE A uses a subscription of PLMN A and UE B uses a subscription of PLMN B; UE A is roaming in PLMN C while UE B is not roaming.
[not reproduced yet]
Figure 4.1.3: Roaming reference architecture

4.2  ProSe offline charging architectureWord‑p. 15

For ProSe Direct Discovery and EPC-level Discovery services, as described in TS 32.240, the CTF (an integrated component in each charging relevant ProSe Function) generates charging events and forwards them to the CDF. The CDF, in turn, generates CDRs which are then transferred to the CGF. Finally, the CGF creates CDR files and forwards them to the Billing Domain.
If the ProSe Function generating the charging information has an integrated CDF, then the ProSe Function can produce CDRs. The CGF may also be integrated in the ProSe Function, or it may exist as a physically separate entity. If the CGF is external to the ProSe Function, then the CDF forwards the CDRs to the CGF across the Ga interface.
In this case, the relationship between ProSe Function/CDF and CGF is m:1. If the CGF is integrated in the ProSe Function, then there is only an internal interface between the CDF and the CGF. In this case, the relationship between ProSe Function/CDF and CGF is 1:1.
If the CDF is external to the ProSe Function, the charging events are transferred from the ProSe Function to the CDF via the Rf interface specified in TS 32.299. In this case, the relationship between ProSe Function and CDF is m:1.
When an external CGF is used, this CGF may also be used by other, i.e. non-ProSe, network elements, according to network design and operator decision. It should be noted that the CGF may also be an integrated component of the BD - in this case, the Bx interface does not exist and is replaced by a proprietary solution internal to the BD.
Figure 4.2.1 depicts the architectural options described above.
[not reproduced yet]
Figure 4.2.1: ProSe offline charging architecture
For the ProSe Direction Communication Service, the CTF is divided into two functional blocks as described in Annex D of TS 32.240. The Accounting Metrics Collection (AMC) function block is in the UE. The AMC sends usage information collected to the Accounting Data Forwarding (ADF) function block of the CTF in the ProSe Function over the PC3 reference point defined in TS 23.303. The subset of PC3 specific to usage information collection for charging purposes is denoted as PC3ch in figure 4.2.2.
[not reproduced yet]
Figure 4.2.2: ProSe Direct Communication offline charging architecture
The PC3 protocol shall allow the following deployment options for the ProSe Function CTF (ADF) for ProSe Direct Communication depicted in figure 4.2.2:
  • The ProSe Function CTF (ADF) for ProSe Direct Communication may be deployed in the same system as any combination of the ProSe Function components defined in clause 4.4.1 of TS 23.303 (i.e. Direct Provisioning Function, Direct Discovery Name Management Function, EPC-level Discovery Function).
  • The ProSe Function CTF (ADF) for ProSe Direct Communication may be deployed in a logically or physically separate system from the ProSe Function components defined in clause 4.4.1 of TS 23.303. To support this deployment scenario, the PC3ch subset of the protocol for usage information report delivery shall not require interaction with any other ProSe Function component for successful and complete processing.
The network ensures that the UE can have IP access to its HPLMN ProSe Function, in non-roaming and roaming case, as defined in TS 23.303.
When the UE is out of coverage, PC3 reference point is not available. UE will store the logged information and upload to the ProSe Function once the PC3 becomes available and the reporting criteria are met. UE's reporting of usage information is only visible to the ProSe Function.
It is mandatory to support at least one of the options Rf, Ga or Bx interfaces from the ProSe Function as described in the specification.

4.3  ProSe online charging architectureWord‑p. 18

ProSe online charging is based on ProSe function utilizing Ro interface and application towards the OCS as specified in TS 32.299. The Ro reference point covers all online charging functionality required for ProSe.
[not reproduced yet]
Figure 4.3.1: ProSe online charging architecture

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