A 3GPP System is made of the following components:
one or more Access Networks, using different types of access techniques (GSM, UTRA, DECT, PSTN, ISDN, ...) of which at least one is GSM BSS, UTRA; or LTE radio access network
one or more Core Networks;
one or more Intelligent Node Networks, service logic and mobility management, (IN, GSM ...);
one or more transmission networks (PDH, SDH etc) in various topologies (point-to-point, ring, point to multipoint etc) and physical means (radio, fibre, copper, etc.).
The 3GPP system components have signalling mechanisms among them (DSS1, INAP, MAP, SS7, RSVP, etc.).
From the service perspective, the 3GPP system is defined to offer:
service support transparent to the location, access technique and core network, within the bearer capabilities available in one particular case;
user to terminal and user to network interface (MMI) irrespective of the entities supporting the services required (VHE);
Two major entities, which cover the set of 3GPP functionalities involved in the provision of the 3GPP services to the user, are identified as follows:
Home Environment: This entity holds the functionalities that enable a user to obtain 3GPP services in a consistent manner regardless of the user's location or the terminal used.
Serving Network: This entity provides the user with access to the services of the Home Environment.
Every PLMN Organisation has its own Management Infrastructure. Each Management Infrastructure will contain different functionality depending on the role-played and the equipment used by that Entity.
However, the core management architecture of the PLMN Organisation is very similar. Every PLMN Organisation:
provides services to its customers;
needs an infrastructure to fulfil them (advertise, ordering, creation, provisioning, ...);
assures them (Operation, Quality of Service, Trouble Reporting and Fixing, ...);
bills them (Rating, Discounting, ...).
Not every PLMN Organisation will implement the complete Management Architecture and related Processes. Some processes may be missing dependent on the role a particular Organisation is embodying. Processes not implemented by a particular Organisation are accessed via interconnections to other organisations, which have implemented these processes (called X-interfaces in the TMN architecture).
The Management architecture itself does not distinguish between external and internal interfaces.
TMN (Telecommunications Management Network), as defined in , provides:
an architecture, made of OS (Operations Systems) and NEs (Network Elements), and the interfaces between them (Q, within one Operator Domain and X, between different Operators);
the methodology to define those interfaces;
other architectural tools such as LLA (Logical Layered Architecture) that help to further refine and define the Management Architecture of a given management area;
a number of generic and/or common management functions to be specialised/applied to various and specific TMN interfaces.
The PLMN Management Architecture is largely based on TMN, and will reuse those functions, methods and interfaces already defined (or being defined) that are suitable for the management needs of a PLMN. However, the new challenges of 3GPP Telecom Management may require the exploration and incorporation of other concepts (other management paradigms widely accepted and deployed).
Next Generation Networks (NGN) as defined in [18, 19], are essentially about delivering new services that are available any place, any time, and on any device, through any customer-chosen access mechanism.
NGN Management (NGNM)  supports the aims of the NGN by decoupling and make independent, the service creation/deployment infrastructure from the transport infrastructure. The decoupling is reflected in the NGN architecture as the separation of the Transport and Service strata and shown as two independent stratums. NGNM also introduces the NGN management plane, union of the NGN service stratum management plane and the NGN transport stratum management plane and may include joint management functions, i.e., functions used to manage entities in both strata plus functions required to support this management .
NGNM introduces a new set of grouping of management functionality compared to TMN LLA to better support the complexity of the NGN .e.g. NGNM Resource Management layer encompasses the Network Management layer and the Element Management layer.
The PLMN management architecture will facilitate the ITU-T NGN Management principles above where necessary and suitable.