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Content for  TR 22.861  Word version:  14.1.0

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5.3  Resource efficiency aspectsWord‑p. 21

5.3.1  DescriptionWord‑p. 21

5G introduces the opportunity to design a 3GPP system to be optimized for supporting devices and services. While some support for IoT will be provided by current systems, there is room for improvement in efficient resource utilization that can be designed into a 5G system whereas they are not easily retrofitted into an existing system. Some of the underlying principles of the potential service and network operation requirements associated with efficient configuration, deployment, and use of devices in the 5G next generation network include bulk provisioning, resource efficient access, optimization for device originated data transfer, and efficiencies based on the reduced needs related to mobility management for stationary devices and devices with very restricted range of movement.
The next generation network will need to be designed to be flexible and elastic and adapt its resources and capabilities to the specific needs of the services and applications being executed, as well as to the types of devices accessing those services.
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5.3.2  Traffic scenariosWord‑p. 21

5.3.2.1  Bulk provisioningWord‑p. 21

Understanding the IoT use cases depicting devices being deployed in large numbers in a given coverage area, a method by which they can be authenticated without requiring the arduous task of provisioning individual devices with identifiers and shared keys is required. The two characteristics that come into play in this scenario are that 1) most likely the devices in a given deployment are owned by same entity, and 2) the coverage area is limited (e.g., warehouse, disaster area, etc.). Given this, the devices can be provisioned and authenticated in bulk whereby they are treated as a single device with many appendages.
Devices will range from very simple, limited function devices to very complex, sophisticated computing platforms. On the lower end of the device function range, not all such devices may use IMS and may not need to be equipped with an IMS client, and yet it would still be desirable to activate such a device remotely due to sensor deployment configurations. A light weight configuration mechanism may be used to provide the configuration information to the device.
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5.3.2.2  Resource efficient accessWord‑p. 21

Devices will have to operate in modes quite different from other types of 3GPP UEs. First and foremost is that much of time the traffic will have low data throughput and a low duty cycle. There may be no expectation of service continuity. Devices may operate in a mode where all user plane traffic is originated by the device, with no response required from the network. Yet other devices may engage in both mobile and network originated communications. These operational modes introduce opportunities for improving resource efficiency in supporting access by devices to a 3GPP network.
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5.3.2.3  Diverse mobility needs of devicesWord‑p. 22

Many devices will be stationary (e.g., smart parking meters) or have a limited range of mobility (e.g., smart household or office devices). Once activated, the location of these devices can be expected to remain the same, or move within a very limited area. For these types of devices, there are opportunities to reduce the use of mobility management resources compared to those required for EPS. The 5G system should be designed to consider the different mobility management needs of devices.

5.3.2.4  Device support for discovery mechanismWord‑p. 22

Many devices will interact with each other (e.g., e-health devices, wearables). A clear example of a device that will be needed of discovery mechanisms is a printer connected to the 5G network.
In the case a user would need to use this printer, the user needs to discover the printer and its functionalities before being able to use it (apart for any authorization mechanism which is out of scope of this traffic scenario). This discovery mechanism can be announcing mode (the printer announces itself in the network and the user listens to these messages) or scanning mode (the printer reacts to requests from the user).
In the announcing mode, a printer will be sending to the network every certain period of time (e.g., 30 sec) messages where it announces that the device it is a printer, characteristics of the printer and also exposes interfaces to use this printer. These messages must be treated in an efficient way by the network (e.g., minimizing signalling, forwarding messages to the correct group of user and not to the whole network).
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5.3.3  Potential requirementsWord‑p. 22

5.3.3.1  Bulk provisioningWord‑p. 22

[PR.5.3.3.1-001]
The 3GPP system shall support a resource efficient mechanism to provide service parameters and activate groups of devices.
[PR.5.3.3.1-002]
The 3GPP system shall support high density massive connections (e.g., 1 million connections per square kilometre) of grouped devices in an efficient manner.
[PR.5.3.3.1-003]
The 3GPP system shall be able to support devices, including groups of devices, (e.g., smart meter) with limited communication requirements and capabilities.
[PR.5.3.3.1-004]
The 3GPP system shall support a resource efficient mechanism for device configuration (i.e., service parameters).
[PR.5.3.3.1-005]
The 3GPP system shall support a mechanism which provides an appropriate and efficient authentication mechanism for groups of devices.
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5.3.3.2  Resource efficient accessWord‑p. 22

[PR.5.3.3.2-001]
The 3GPP system shall minimize resources usage for infrequent data transfer from devices which send information without requiring a response (e.g., send status information to an application but do not need to receive information from the application).
[PR.5.3.3.2-001a]
The 3GPP system shall minimize resources usage for transfer of infrequent small data units.
[PR.5.3.3.2-002]
The 3GPP system shall support a resource efficient mechanism to provide service parameters to devices.
[PR.5.3.3.2-003]
The 3GPP system shall support a resource efficient mechanism to activate groups of devices.
[PR.5.3.3.2-004]
The 3GPP system shall support significantly increased device power efficiency over what is supported by EPS.
[PR.5.3.3.2-005]
The 3GPP system shall support significant coverage enhancement over what is supported by EPS.
[PR.5.3.3.2-006]
The 3GPP system shall support a resource efficient mechanism to provide information to a stationary device (e.g., simplified device location mechanism).
[PR.5.3.3.2-007]
The 3GPP system shall provide a resource efficient mechanism to receive information from stationary devices (e.g., lower signalling to user data resource usage ratio).
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5.3.3.3  Resource efficiencies for mobility managementWord‑p. 23

The 5G mobility management requirements included in TR 22.864, clause 5.3.2 apply for minimizing resource usage in support of devices. In addition to those requirements, the following are specific to devices.
[PR.5.3.3.3-001]
The 3GPP system shall provide efficient support for devices with restricted range of mobility (e.g., within a warehouse).
[PR.5.3.3.3-002]
The 3GPP system shall provide resource efficient support for stationary devices with reduced mobility management (e.g., handover support, idle mode mobility management).
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5.3.3.4  Resource efficiency for variable data sizeWord‑p. 23

[PR.5.3.3.4-001]
The 3GPP system shall be able to efficiently and flexibly support any size of data transmissions (e.g., from a few bits to streaming video) from the same device.
[PR.5.3.3.4-002]
The 3GPP system shall minimize the signalling that is required prior to user data transmission.

5.3.3.5  Resource efficiency for discovery mechanismsWord‑p. 23

[PR.5.3.3.5-001]
The 3GPP system shall efficiently support service discovery mechanisms where devices can discover:
  • status of other devices (e.g., sound on/off);
  • capabilities of other devices (e.g., the device is a relay device) and/or;
  • services provided by other devices (e.g., the device is a colour printer).

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