With the assistance of 5G networks, many industries including mining, operate unmanned and automated. In mining scenarios, drilling safety and precise control for automated rigs and sending effective alarms when needed to the onsite crew is vital for their safety. When crew move heavy lifting equipment wearing personal protection equipment (PPE) for their safety or work in a noisy/poor visibility environment, audio/light alarm systems coverage may not be detected for immediate reaction therefore use of wearables (belts, shoe sole, arm/shoulder tactile equipment) can improve the reliability of alarm system.
Furthermore, the nature of human brain response time to light and audio makes the use of haptic feedback to alert faster and more reliable. Human brain response to the sense of touch in range of 1 ms where the response to audio and video is in 100s of milliseconds. Therefore, the alarm system can be enriched with additional haptic information and multi-modal session can be relayed to the on-site crew over to accelerate human response time and improve the system reliability.
While haptic alarm can be actuated on an extended PPE haptic device (e.g., belt) to improve alerting the on-site crew, the audio siren and light evacuation signals (where possible) need to be sent, as an alert to ambient actuators requiring a multi-modal information transfer via separate service data flows, to the proximity devices during an emergency for directing them to a safe location. Furthermore, affective wearables feedback and affective or biometric data collected from workers can adjust the navigation process to the workers' temperament in order to effectively guide them away from the hazard locations.
As an exmple, in a large mining environment, a hazard scenario is detected by the remote control unit to notif and navigate on-site workers by a multi-modal alarm system to avoid exclusion zones. The multi-modal alarm system monitors the environment using surveillance cameras fixed in the local site, on drones, or on workers helmets as well as haptic information relayed by the workers. Ambient sensory information (smoke, temperature, audio/video) can be relayed to a remote central monitoring and control unit to predict/detect hazard scenarios.
The personal exclusion zone needs to be defined to prohibit the entry of the on-site workers which can change over time. The detected exclusion zone information from remote control unit will actuate devices (e.g., siren and light) fixed in the local site or in drones as well PPE haptic belt actuator to navigate the workers.
Multi-modal UEs, with sensor, haptic and audio/visual capabilities, are interconnected, through the 5G Network provided by the MNO, both locally, or remotly over the MNO 5G Network.
The MNO provides service data flows for multi-modal information delivered over one common session to different UEs. E.g., a single user may receive haptic information be sent to her/his haptic glove and belt and audio to be sent to her/his headset to help navigate the worker through the exclusion zone.
The site worker is safely navigated away from the dangerous exclusion zone as the 5G network enables the PPE to alert the monitoring and control unit of dangerous situations which triggers the monitor and control unit to use the 5G network to transmit multi-modal commands to steer away site workers from dangerous exclusion zones.
In TS 22.263
, there are requirements for supporting video, imaging, and audio for professional applications.
In TS 22.261
there are requirements to support the following:
Multiple Access Technologies
"The 5G system shall support a set of identities for a single user in order to provide a consistent set of policies and a single set of services across 3GPP and non-3GPP access type"
"The 5G system shall support traffic scenarios typically found in a home setting (from sensors to video streaming, relatively low amount of UEs per group, many devices are used only occasionally) for 5G LAN-type service"
The 5G network shall support a mechanism to allow an authorized 3rd party to provide QoS policy for flows of multiple UEs associated with an application. The policy may contain e.g. the expected 5GS handling and the associated triggering event.
The 5G system shall support a mechanism to apply QoS policy for flows of multiple UEs associated with an application received from an authorized 3rd party.
The 5G system shall provide a network connection to address the KPIs for immersive multi-modal navigation applications, see Table 5.5.6-1
The 5G system shall support the following synchronization thresholds to support immersive multi-modal navigation applications, see Table 5.5.6-2