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Content for  TR 22.847  Word version:  18.2.0

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5.5  Haptic feedback for a personal exclusion zone in dangerous remote environmentsp. 20

5.5.1  Descriptionp. 20

With the assistance of 5G networks, many industries including mining, operate unmanned and automated. In mining scenarios, drilling safety and precise control for automated rigs and sending effective alarms when needed to the onsite crew is vital for their safety. When crew move heavy lifting equipment wearing personal protection equipment (PPE) for their safety or work in a noisy/poor visibility environment, audio/light alarm systems coverage may not be detected for immediate reaction therefore use of wearables (belts, shoe sole, arm/shoulder tactile equipment) can improve the reliability of alarm system.
Furthermore, the nature of human brain response time to light and audio makes the use of haptic feedback to alert faster and more reliable. Human brain response to the sense of touch in range of 1 ms where the response to audio and video is in 100s of milliseconds. Therefore, the alarm system can be enriched with additional haptic information and multi-modal session can be relayed to the on-site crew over to accelerate human response time and improve the system reliability.
While haptic alarm can be actuated on an extended PPE haptic device (e.g., belt) to improve alerting the on-site crew, the audio siren and light evacuation signals (where possible) need to be sent, as an alert to ambient actuators requiring a multi-modal information transfer via separate service data flows, to the proximity devices during an emergency for directing them to a safe location. Furthermore, affective wearables feedback and affective or biometric data collected from workers can adjust the navigation process to the workers' temperament in order to effectively guide them away from the hazard locations.
As an exmple, in a large mining environment, a hazard scenario is detected by the remote control unit to notif and navigate on-site workers by a multi-modal alarm system to avoid exclusion zones. The multi-modal alarm system monitors the environment using surveillance cameras fixed in the local site, on drones, or on workers helmets as well as haptic information relayed by the workers. Ambient sensory information (smoke, temperature, audio/video) can be relayed to a remote central monitoring and control unit to predict/detect hazard scenarios.
The personal exclusion zone needs to be defined to prohibit the entry of the on-site workers which can change over time. The detected exclusion zone information from remote control unit will actuate devices (e.g., siren and light) fixed in the local site or in drones as well PPE haptic belt actuator to navigate the workers.

5.5.2  Pre-conditionsp. 21

Multi-modal UEs, with sensor, haptic and audio/visual capabilities, are interconnected, through the 5G Network provided by the MNO, both locally, or remotly over the MNO 5G Network.
The MNO provides service data flows for multi-modal information delivered over one common session to different UEs. E.g., a single user may receive haptic information be sent to her/his haptic glove and belt and audio to be sent to her/his headset to help navigate the worker through the exclusion zone.
Copy of original 3GPP image for 3GPP TS 22.847, Fig. 5.5.2-1: Example of a personal exclusion zone
Figure 5.5.2-1: Example of a personal exclusion zone
(⇒ copy of original 3GPP image)

5.5.3  Service Flowsp. 21

  1. A Worker using PPE connected to a monitoring and control unit walks through a mining site where multiple exclusion zones are defined to protect her/him from hazardous occurrences. As the worker gets closer to the exclusion zone, her/his PPE establishes a session to enable transmission of alarms to the monitoring and control unit, e.g., noise levels, visibility levels and user location.
  2. If a hazard situation is detected, on-site workers need to be alerted immediately and defined personal exclusion zone(s) should be communicated with the on-site miners according to their proximity to the exclusion zone. Thus, the monitoring system determines that the user must be alerted, through haptic and audio alerts, since the monitoring and control unit determined that those are the modal types the user can utilized safely in the dangerous environment.
  3. The monitoring and control system, navigates workers using both a trained haptic language instruction (single buzz on the right side: move right, single buzz on the left side: move left, etc.) set and audio/visual mechanism to enable the user to safely leave the hazard area.

5.5.4  Post-conditionsp. 22

The site worker is safely navigated away from the dangerous exclusion zone as the 5G network enables the PPE to alert the monitoring and control unit of dangerous situations which triggers the monitor and control unit to use the 5G network to transmit multi-modal commands to steer away site workers from dangerous exclusion zones.

5.5.5  Existing features partly or fully covering the use case functionalityp. 22

In TS 22.263, there are requirements for supporting video, imaging, and audio for professional applications.
In TS 22.261 there are requirements to support the following:
Clause 6.3 Multiple Access Technologies
"The 5G system shall support a set of identities for a single user in order to provide a consistent set of policies and a single set of services across 3GPP and non-3GPP access type"
Clause Traffic Types
"The 5G system shall support traffic scenarios typically found in a home setting (from sensors to video streaming, relatively low amount of UEs per group, many devices are used only occasionally) for 5G LAN-type service"

5.5.6  Potential New Requirements needed to support the use casep. 22

[PR 5.5.6-1]
The 5G network shall support a mechanism to allow an authorized 3rd party to provide QoS policy for flows of multiple UEs associated with an application. The policy may contain e.g. the expected 5GS handling and the associated triggering event.
[PR 5.5.6-2]
The 5G system shall support a mechanism to apply QoS policy for flows of multiple UEs associated with an application received from an authorized 3rd party.
[PR 5.5.6-3]
The 5G system shall provide a network connection to address the KPIs for immersive multi-modal navigation applications, see Table 5.5.6-1.
Use Cases Characteristic parameter (KPI) Influence quantity Remarks
Max allowed end-to-end latency Service bit rate: user-experienced data rate Reliability Message size (byte) # of UEs UE Speed Service Area
Immersive multi-modal navigation applications Remote Site → Local Site (DL) 50 ms [11]16 kbit/s - 2 Mbit/s
(without haptic compression encoding)
0.8 - 200 kbit/s
(with haptic compression encoding)
[99.999 %]1 DoF: 2 to 8
10 DoF: 20 to 80
100 DoF: 200 to 800
-Stationary or Pedestrian≤ 100 km²
Haptic feedback
< 400 ms [11]1-100 Mbit/s[99.999 %]1500-Workers: Stationary/ or Pedestrian≤ 100 km²
< 150 ms [11]5-512 kbit/s[99.9 %]50-Stationary or Pedestrian≤ 100 km²
< 300 ms600 Mbit/s[99.9 %]MTU-Stationary or Pedestrian≤ 100 km²
Local Site → Remote Site (UL)< 300 ms 12 kbit/s [26][99.999 %]1 500Stationary or Pedestrian≤ 100 km²
Biometric / Affective
< 400 ms [11]1-100 Mbit/s[99.999 %]1 500-Workers: Stationary/ or Pedestrian,
UAV: [30-300mph]
≤ 100 km²
< 150 ms [11]5-512 kbit/s[99.9 %]50-Stationary or Pedestrian≤ 100 km²
< 300 ms600 Mbit/s[99.9 %]MTU-Stationary or Pedestrian≤ 100 km²
The number of UEs is not indicated in the table, but the number depends on the application, the actual deployment, the service area and the distributed UEs chosen to improve / address required user experience.
The service area depends on the deployment but is the same for uplink and downlink traffic. A local approach can be used in order to satisfy requirements of low latency and high reliability (i.e. the application server will be hosted at the network edge).
[PR 5.5.6-4]
The 5G system shall support the following synchronization thresholds to support immersive multi-modal navigation applications, see Table 5.5.6-2.
synchronisation threshold
audio-tactileaudio delay:
[50 ms]
tactile delay:
[25 ms]
visual-tactilevisual delay:
[15 ms]
tactile delay:
[50 ms]

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