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Content for  TS 22.071  Word version:  16.0.0

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B  Descriptions of possible location based services |R4|Word‑p. 38

B.1  Public Safety ServicesWord‑p. 38

Service providers offer these location-based services for the good of the public. They are made available without requiring pre-subscription.

B.1.1  Emergency ServicesWord‑p. 38

Specific consideration of mandated Emergency Services is outside the scope of this specification. Such requirements may be regionally or nationally specific.

B.1.1.1  AttributesWord‑p. 38

Specific consideration of the attributes for mandated Emergency Services is outside the scope of this specification. However, the current requirements specified by the U.S. FCC [12] and [13] may be useful as examples.
The FCC's Fourth Report and Order (FCC 15-9) in the matter of Wireless E911 Location Accuracy Requirements (PS Docket No. 07-114), adopted January 29, 2015, is reproduced here:
All CMRS providers must provide (1) dispatchable location, or (2) x/y location within 50 meters, for the following percentages of wireless 911 calls within the following timeframes, measured from the effective date of rules adopted in this Order ("Effective Date"):
  • Within 2 years: 40 percent of all wireless 911 calls.
  • Within 3 years: 50 percent of all wireless 911 calls.
  • Within 5 years: 70 percent of all wireless 911 calls.
  • Within 6 years: 80 percent of all wireless 911 calls.
Within 6 years: Nationwide CMRS provides must deploy either (1) dispatchable location, or (2) z-axis technology that achieves the Commission-approved z-axis metric, in each of the top 25 Cellular Market Areas
Within 8 years: Nationwide CMRS providers must deploy dispatchable location or z-axis technology in accordance with the above benchmarks in each of the top 50 CMAs.
The network should be sufficiently flexible to accommodate evolving enabling mechanisms and service requirements to provide new and improved services.

B.1.1.2  Emergency Alert ServicesWord‑p. 38

Emergency Alert Services may be enabled to notify wireless subscribers within a specific geographic location of emergency alerts. This may include such alerts as tornado warnings, pending volcano eruptions, etc.
No requirements currently exist for Emergency Alert Services, and they may be considered for further study.

B.2  Location Based ChargingWord‑p. 38

Location Based Charging allows a subscriber to be charged different rates depending on the subscriber's location or geographic zone, or changes in location or zone. The rates charged may be applicable to the entire duration of the call, or to only a part of call's duration. This service may be provided on an individual subscriber basis, or on a group basis.
For example, when provided on an individual basis this service could apply reduced rates to those areas most often frequented by the subscriber by taking into consideration the subscriber's daily route and lifestyle. Different rates may be applied at country clubs, golf courses, or shopping malls. For example, a "home" zone may be defined which is centered around a user's home, an agreed larger area, work or travel corridor or some unrelated zone. The zone may vary in size and shape from a cell (or sector) coverage area to a precisely defined polygon completely independent of cell coverage.
Additionally, different rates may be applied in different zones based on the time of day or week.
In addition to being applicable on an individual basis, this service may be applicable on a group basis, which may be desirable for example, for business groups. Locations may be defined for business groups to include corporate campuses, work zones or business zones with different tiers of charging rates.
Individual and group subscribers should be notified of the zone or billing rate currently applicable, and be notified when the rate changes. Location Based Charging may be invoked upon initial registration. A charging zone would then be associated with the subscriber's location. When the subscriber moves to a different zone, the subscriber would be notified.
This service should be transparently provided to the subscriber (i.e. independent of existing voice calls, data, or other services being provided).

B.2.1  AttributesWord‑p. 39

Normal service operation includes invocation upon initial registration, autonomous registration, call origination, and call termination. Location-Based Charging should analyze location information to compare against service zones established for the subscriber. The service would notify the subscriber of their relative location to the established service zone, indicating either "in" or "out" of zone. As the subscriber changes location or predefined location service area they should be notified of their location-based charging service opportunity, being "in" or "out" of a subscribed zone. Except for subscriber notification, the user should experience transparency in interaction with other services (Voice, Data, SMS, etc).
This service may, as an option, be activated/de-activated using special feature codes on a subscriber or business customer basis.

B.2.1.1  Target Subscriber NotificationWord‑p. 39

The user needs to be informed on an ongoing basis which zone and billing rate is currently applicable.
Users should be enabled to make an informed decision on expected call charges and therefore need to be provided charging zone information accurately, and in a timely manner, being notified which zone they are in when a call is set up. Notification to the subscriber/user could be provided in several forms including tone, announcement, or short message.
The billing system will need to consider the following possible scenarios:
For the duration of the call, the subscriber remains in a single charging zone
During the call, the charging zones may change
The user may initiate a call in one zone, then move to a different zone where the call is terminated.
The user may cross back and forth between zones multiple times during the duration of a call, and the call may terminate in the zone it was originated from, or in a different zone.
Notification to the user may be via the UE MMI prior to initiation of the call and, during the call.

B.2.1.2  ChargingWord‑p. 39

To support appropriate charging, call detail records may need to include the following additional information:
  1. Location Service (Location Based Charging) Identification
  2. Location Information
  3. Zone Information
  4. Type of Event
  5. Duration of Event

B.2.1.3  RoamingWord‑p. 40

If a subscriber with active location-based charging roams into a system that does not support the service, the subscriber may be notified of an "out of coverage zone" notification using the best possible method (UE display, SMS, etc.).

B.3  Tracking ServicesWord‑p. 40

Although Fleet and Asset Management services may be offered as separate services, within this document they are described as a single service category. In a similar manner, Person Tracking may be viewed as a form of personal asset tracking.

B.3.1  Fleet and Asset Management ServicesWord‑p. 40

Fleet and Asset Management services allow the tracking of location and status of specific service group users. Examples may include a supervisor of a delivery service who needs to know the location and status of employees, parents who need to know where their children are, animal tracking, and tracking of assets.
The service may be invoked by the managing entity, or the entity being managed, depending on the service being provided.
Fleet Management may enable an enterprise or a public organization to track the location of vehicles (cars, trucks, etc.) and use location information to optimize services.
Asset management services, for example, may range from asset visualization (general reporting of position) to stolen vehicle location and geofencing (reporting of location when an asset leaves or enters a defined zone). The range of attributes for these services is wide.
For Fleet and Asset Management services, a distinction may be made between the manager of the fleet/assets in charge of tracking, and the entities being tracked (service group users, etc). The tracking service may make use of mobile station handsets with possible specialized functions (Web browsers, etc) to allow for tracking and specific methods for communicating with the managing entity. A managing entity would be able to access one or several managed entities' location and status information through a specified communication interface (Internet, Interactive Voice Response, Data service, etc). The managing entity would be able to access both real-time and recent location and status results of managed entities.
The network shall provide the capability to provide the last known location and timestamp. In cases where the service group user's mobile station is not registered (i.e. Inactive, out of coverage) the last known location information and timestamp may optionally be provided. If this information is unavailable in real-time, a reason for why the information is unattainable may be provided. The managing entity may also be able to relay messages to service group users through the appropriate interface, as well as receive messages originated by the service group users.
Activation of Fleet and Asset Management services could be performed via subscriber provisioning by the service provider, as well as by offering subscriber-based service activation codes to the service group user/subscriber. The managing entity could also initiate service via requests to a provisioning system through Interactive Voice Response or Internet request. A feature code may optionally also be provided to allow for specific mobile user group subscriber activation by the managing entity (*FC + Mobile ID). A specific user group mobile could also be able to self-activate through the use of a feature code.

B.3.2  Traffic MonitoringWord‑p. 41

Mobiles in automobiles on freeways anonymously sampled to determine average velocity of vehicles. Congestion detected and reported.
Congestion, average flow rates, vehicle occupancy and related traffic information can be gathered from a variety of sources including roadside telematic sensors, roadside assistance organizations and ad-hoc reports from individual drivers. In addition, average link speeds can be computed through anonymous random sampling of UE locations.

B.3.2.1  AttributesWord‑p. 41

B.  PrivacyWord‑p. 41
Anonymous sampling of target UE requires all unique information relating to the UE location to be retained by the network operator. Depending on the capabilities of the location method (ref. section 3.4) traffic behavior described above can only be determined if a UE is sampled at least twice within a finite predetermined period.
The UE identification must be sufficiently unique to allow time separated measurements to be paired before discarding the source UE identification.
The level of uniqueness can be a highly truncated form of the UE-IMSI (or equivalent). For example, maintaining 1000 unattached location estimates for subsequent pairing with future estimates will only require 3 least significant digits of the IMSI. Ambiguity in matching will occur but at a low (detectable) rate. Finally, all unattached estimates can be set to expire after a preset time.

B.4  Enhanced Call RoutingWord‑p. 41

Enhanced Call Routing (ECR) allows subscriber or user calls to be routed to the closest service client based on the location of the originating and terminating calls of the user. The user may optionally dial a feature or service code to invoke the service (*GAS for closest gas station, etc).
In addition to routing the call based on location, ECR should be capable of delivering the location information to the associated service client. For example, this capability may be needed for services such as Emergency Roadside Service. This could be used for the purpose of dispatching service agents for ECR service clients that can make use of this information.
ECR services may be offered, for example, through menu driven access allowing users to interactively select from a variety of services.

B.5  Location Based Information ServicesWord‑p. 41

Location-Based Information services allow subscribers to access information for which the information is filtered and tailored based on the location of the requesting user. Service requests may be initiated on demand by subscribers, or automatically when triggering conditions are met, and may be a singular request or result in periodic responses.
The following subsections provide some examples of possible location-based information services.

B.5.1  NavigationWord‑p. 41

The purpose of the navigation application is to guide the handset user to his/her destination. The destination can be input to the terminal, which gives guidance how to reach the destination. The guidance information can be e.g. plain text, symbols with text information (e.g. turn + distance) or symbols on the map display. If the handset's velocity is available in addition to its position, real-time, adaptable turn-by-turn directions can be provided. The instructions may also be given verbally to the users by using a voice call.
This can be accomplished through carrying a mobile phone that has location technology capabilities down to a few feet. Less granularity impedes the applicability of this functionality.
This service can either be menu driven from a handset using SIM Application Toolkit or a WAP based terminal with a map application running - similar to a GPS system. A central server may handle all mapping of locations, and may save specific locations (i.e., favorite fishing holes).

B.5.2  City SightseeingWord‑p. 42

City Sightseeing would enable the delivery of location specific information to a sightseer. Such information might consist of combinations of the services described throughout this document to describe historical sites, providing navigation directions between sites, facilitate finding the nearest restaurant, bank, airport, bus terminal, restroom facility, etc.

B.5.3  Location Dependent Content BroadcastWord‑p. 42

The main characteristic of this service category is that the network automatically broadcasts information to terminals in a certain geographical area. The information may be broadcast to all terminals in a given area, or only to members of specific group (perhaps only to members of a specific organization). The user may disable the functionality totally from the terminal or select only the information categories that the user is interested in.
An example of such a service may be localized advertising. For example, merchants could broadcast advertisements to passersby based on location / demographic / psychographic information (for example "today only, 30% off on blue jeans").

B.5.4  Mobile Yellow PagesWord‑p. 42

The internet has also changed how people find phone numbers. Instead of thumbing through the yellow pages or calling Directory assistance you simply go online and search the number. The need for paper copy phonebooks is gone. Wireless takes this one step further by adding the location of the subscriber to the search. Now the phone number of the nearest location can be ascertained as opposed to all locations within a 50-mile area.
Mobile Yellow Pages services provide the user with the location of the nearest service point, e.g. Italian restaurant. The result of the query may be a list of service points fulfilling the criteria (e.g. Italian restaurants within three kilometers). The information can be provided to the users in text format (e.g. name of the restaurant, address and telephone number) or in graphical format (map showing the location of the user and the restaurants).

B.5.5  Location Sensitive InternetWord‑p. 42

Location Sensitive Internet is for further study.

B.6  Network Enhancing ServicesWord‑p. 42

The Network Enhancing Services described in this section are for further study and privacy issues will require further consideration.

B.6.1  Applications for Network PlanningWord‑p. 42

The network operator may be able to use location information to aid network planning. The operator may be able to locate calls in certain areas to estimate the distribution of calls and user mobility for network planning purposes. These applications may be used for hot spot detection and user behavior modeling

B.6.2  Applications for Network QoS ImprovementsWord‑p. 42

The network operator may be able to use location services to improve the Quality of Service of the network. The location system may be used to track dropped calls to identify problematic areas. The system may also be used to identify poor quality areas.

B.6.3  Improved Radio Resource ManagementWord‑p. 43

The location of the handset may be used for more intelligent handovers and more efficient channel allocation techniques.

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