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RFC 8280

 
 
 

Research into Human Rights Protocol Considerations

Part 4 of 4, p. 61 to 81
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7.  Security Considerations

   As this document discusses research, there are no security
   considerations.

8.  IANA Considerations

   This document does not require any IANA actions.

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9.  Research Group Information

   The discussion list for the IRTF Human Rights Protocol Considerations
   Research Group is located at the email address <hrpc@ietf.org>.
   Information on the group and information on how to subscribe to the
   list are provided at <https://www.irtf.org/mailman/listinfo/hrpc>.

   Archives of the list can be found at
   <https://www.irtf.org/mail-archive/web/hrpc/current/index.html>.

10.  Informative References

   [Ababil]   Danchev, D., "Dissecting 'Operation Ababil' - an OSINT
              Analysis", September 2012, <http://ddanchev.blogspot.be/
              2012/09/dissecting-operation-ababil-osint.html>.

   [Abbate]   Abbate, J., "Inventing the Internet", MIT Press, 2000,
              <https://mitpress.mit.edu/books/inventing-internet>.

   [Adrian]   Adrian, D., Bhargavan, K., Durumeric, Z., Gaudry, P.,
              Green, M., Halderman, J., Heninger, N., Springall, D.,
              Thome, E., Valenta, L., VanderSloot, B., Wustrow, E.,
              Zanella-Beguelin, S., and P. Zimmermann, "Imperfect
              Forward Secrecy: How Diffie-Hellman Fails in Practice",
              Proceedings of the 22nd ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer
              and Communications Security, pp. 5-17,
              DOI 10.1145/2810103.2813707, October 2015.

   [Alshalan-etal]
              Alshalan, A., Pisharody, S., and D. Huang, "A Survey of
              Mobile VPN Technologies", IEEE Communications Surveys &
              Tutorials, Volume 18, Issue 2, pp. 1177-1196,
              DOI 10.1109/COMST.2015.2496624, 2016,
              <http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/
              document/7314859/?arnumber=7314859>.

   [APIP]     Naylor, D., Mukerjee, M., and P. Steenkiste, "Balancing
              accountability and privacy in the network", SIGCOMM '14,
              Proceedings of the 2014 ACM Conference on
              SIGCOMM, pp. 75-86, DOI 10.1145/2740070.2626306,
              October 2014,
              <https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=2626306>.

   [Appelbaum]
              Appelbaum, J., Gibson, A., Goetz, J., Kabisch, V., Kampf,
              L., and L. Ryge, "NSA targets the privacy-conscious",
              2014, <http://daserste.ndr.de/panorama/aktuell/
              nsa230_page-1.html>.

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   [ars]      Anderson, N., "P2P researchers: use a blocklist or you
              will be tracked... 100% of the time", October 2007,
              <http://arstechnica.com/uncategorized/2007/10/
              p2p-researchers-use-a-blocklist-or-you-will-be-tracked-
              100-of-the-time/>.

   [Aryan-etal]
              Aryan, S., Aryan, H., and J. Alex Halderman, "Internet
              Censorship in Iran: A First Look", 2013,
              <https://jhalderm.com/pub/papers/iran-foci13.pdf>.

   [Babbie]   Babbie, E., "The Basics of Social Research",
              Cengage, Belmont, CA, 2017.

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              BBC, "Whistle-blower site taken offline", February 2008,
              <http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/technology/7250916.stm>.

   [BCP72]    Rescorla, E. and B. Korver, "Guidelines for Writing RFC
              Text on Security Considerations", BCP 72, RFC 3552,
              July 2003, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/bcp72>.

   [Benkler]  Benkler, Y., "The Wealth of Networks - How Social
              Production Transforms Markets and Freedom", Yale
              University Press, New Haven and London, 2006,
              <http://is.gd/rxUpTQ>.

   [Berners-Lee]
              Berners-Lee, T. and M. Fischetti, "Weaving the Web: The
              Original Design and Ultimate Destiny of the World Wide
              Web", HarperCollins, p. 208, 1999.

   [BernersLeeHalpin]
              Berners-Lee, T. and H. Halpin, "Internet Access is a Human
              Right", 2012, <http://www.ibiblio.org/hhalpin/homepage/
              publications/def-timbl-halpin.pdf>.

   [Bhargavan]
              Bhargavan, K., Delignat-Lavaud, A., Fournet, C., Pironti,
              A., and P. Strub, "Triple Handshakes and Cookie Cutters:
              Breaking and Fixing Authentication over TLS", 2014 IEEE
              Symposium on Security and Privacy, pp. 98-113,
              DOI 10.1109/SP.2014.14, May 2014.

   [Bitmessage]
              Bitmessage, "Bitmessage Wiki", March 2017,
              <https://bitmessage.org/wiki/Main_Page>.

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   [Bless1]   Orwat, C. and R. Bless, "Values and Networks - Steps
              Toward Exploring their Relationships", ACM SIGCOMM
              Computer Communication Review, Volume 46, Number 2,
              pp. 25-31, DOI 10.1145/2935634.2935640, April 2016,
              <http://www.sigcomm.org/sites/default/files/ccr/
              papers/2016/April/0000000-0000003.pdf>.

   [Bless2]   Bless, R. and C. Orwat, "Values and Networks", July 2015,
              <https://www.ietf.org/proceedings/93/slides/
              slides-93-hrpc-2.pdf>.

   [Broeders] Broeders, D., "The public core of the Internet.  An
              international agenda for Internet governance", The
              Netherlands Scientific Council for Government Policy (WRR)
              Report No. 94 (under "Reports to the government"), 2015,
              <https://english.wrr.nl/publications/reports/2015/10/01/
              the-public-core-of-the-internet>

   [Brown]    Ziewitz, M. and I. Brown, Ed., "A Prehistory of Internet
              Governance", Research Handbook on Governance of the
              Internet, Part 1, Chapter 1 (pp. 3-26), Edward Elgar
              Publishing Ltd, Cheltenham, DOI 10.4337/9781849805049,
              2013.

   [Brown-etal]
              Brown, I., Clark, D., and D. Trossen, "Should Specific
              Values Be Embedded In The Internet Architecture?",
              ReARCH '10, Proceedings of the Re-Architecting the
              Internet Workshop, Article No. 10,
              DOI 10.1145/1921233.1921246, November 2010,
              <http://conferences.sigcomm.org/co-next/2010/Workshops/
              REARCH/ReArch_papers/10-Brown.pdf>.

   [BrownMarsden]
              Brown, I. and C. Marsden, "Regulating Code: Good
              Governance and Better Regulation in the Information Age",
              MIT Press, 2013,
              <https://mitpress.mit.edu/books/regulating-code>.

   [CAIDA]    Dainotti, A., Squarcella, C., Aben, E., Claffy, K.,
              Chiesa, M., Russo, M., and A. Pescape, "Analysis of
              Country-wide Internet Outages Caused by Censorship",
              DOI 10.1109/TNET.2013.2291244, December 2013,
              <http://www.caida.org/publications/papers/2014/
              outages_censorship/outages_censorship.pdf>.

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   [Cath]     Cath, C., "A Case Study of Coding Rights: Should Freedom
              of Speech Be Instantiated in the Protocols and Standards
              Designed by the Internet Engineering Task Force?",
              August 2015, <https://www.ietf.org/mail-archive/web/
              hrpc/current/pdf36GrmRM84S.pdf>.

   [CathFloridi]
              Cath, C. and L. Floridi, "The Design of the Internet's
              Architecture by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)
              and Human Rights", April 2017.

   [Clark]    Clark, D., "The Design Philosophy of the DARPA Internet
              Protocols", SIGCOMM '88, Proceedings of the ACM CCR,
              Volume 18, Number 4, pp. 106-114, DOI 10.1145/52324.52336,
              August 1988.

   [Clark-etal]
              Clark, D., Wroclawski, J., Sollins, K., and R. Braden,
              "Tussle in cyberspace: defining tomorrow's Internet",
              IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking (TON) archive,
              Volume 13, Issue 3, pp. 462-475,
              DOI 10.1109/TNET.2005.850224, June 2005,
              <https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1074049>.

   [CoE]      Council of Europe, "Applications to ICANN for Community-
              based New Generic Top Level Domains (gTLDs): Opportunities
              and challenges from a human rights perspective", 2016,
              <https://rm.coe.int/CoERMPublicCommonSearchServices/
              DisplayDCTMContent?documentId=09000016806b5a14>.

   [Collins]  Collins, K., "Hacking Team's oppressive regimes customer
              list revealed in hack", July 2015,
              <http://www.wired.co.uk/news/archive/2015-07/06/
              hacking-team-spyware-company-hacked>.

   [Davidson-etal]
              Davidson, A., Morris, J., and R. Courtney, "Strangers in a
              Strange Land: Public Interest Advocacy and Internet
              Standards", Telecommunications Policy Research
              Conference, Alexandria, VA, September 2002,
              <https://www.cdt.org/files/publications/piais.pdf>.

   [DeNardis14]
              DeNardis, L., "The Global War for Internet Governance",
              Yale University Press, 2014,
              <https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt5vkz4n>.

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   [DeNardis15]
              DeNardis, L., "The Internet Design Tension between
              Surveillance and Security", IEEE Annals of the History of
              Computing, Volume 37, Issue 2, DOI 10.1109/MAHC.2015.29,
              2015, <http://is.gd/7GAnFy>.

   [Denzin]   Denzin, N., Ed., and Y. Lincoln, Ed., "The SAGE Handbook
              of Qualitative Research", SAGE Handbooks, Thousand Oaks,
              CA, 2011, <http://www.amazon.com/
              SAGE-Handbook-Qualitative-Research-Handbooks/
              dp/1412974178>.

   [dict]     BusinessDictionary.com, "Reliability (dictionary entry)",
              WebFinance, Inc., 2017,
              <http://www.businessdictionary.com/
              definition/reliability.html>.

   [Doty]     Doty, N., "Automated text analysis of Requests for Comment
              (RFCs)", 2014, <https://github.com/npdoty/rfc-analysis>.

   [Douceur]  Douceur, J., "The Sybil Attack", 2002,
              <https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/research/wp-content/
              uploads/2002/01/IPTPS2002.pdf>.

   [Dutton]   Dutton, W., Dopatka, A., Law, G., and V. Nash, "Freedom of
              Connection, Freedom of Expression: The Changing Legal and
              Regulatory Ecology Shaping the Internet", 2011,
              <http://www.unesco.org/new/en/communication-and-
              information/resources/publications-and-communication-
              materials/publications/full-list/freedom-of-connection-
              freedom-of-expression-the-changing-legal-and-regulatory-
              ecology-shaping-the-internet/>.

   [Farrow]   Farrow, R., "Source Address Spoofing", 2016,
              <https://technet.microsoft.com/library/cc723706.aspx>.

   [FIArch]   "Future Internet Design Principles", January 2012,
              <http://www.future-internet.eu/uploads/media/
              FIArch_Design_Principles_V1.0.pdf>.

   [FOC]      Ministers of the Freedom Online Coalition, "The Tallinn
              Agenda - Recommendations for Freedom Online", 2014,
              <https://www.freedomonlinecoalition.com/wp-content/
              uploads/2014/04/FOC-recommendations-consensus.pdf>.

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   [FRAMEWORK]
              ISO/IEC, "Information technology - Framework for
              internationalization", prepared by ISO/IEC
              JTC 1/SC 22/WG 20 ISO/IEC TR 11017, 1998.

   [Franklin] Franklin, U., "The Real World of Technology", June 1999,
              <http://houseofanansi.com/products/
              the-real-world-of-technology-digital>.

   [freenet1] Freenet, "What is Freenet?", n.d.,
              <https://freenetproject.org/whatis.html>.

   [freenet2] Clarke, I., "The Philosophy behind Freenet", n.d.,
              <https://freenetproject.org/pages/about.html>.

   [geekfeminism]
              Geek Feminism Wiki, "Pseudonymity", 2015,
              <http://geekfeminism.wikia.com/wiki/Pseudonymity>.

   [Geertz]   Geertz, H. and C. Geertz, "Kinship in Bali", University of
              Chicago Press, Chicago, 1975,
              <http://press.uchicago.edu/ucp/books/book/chicago/K/
              bo25832222.html>.

   [Googlepatent]
              Google, "Method and device for network traffic
              manipulation", 2012,
              <https://www.google.com/patents/EP2601774A1?cl=en>.

   [greatfirewall]
              Anonymous, "Towards a Comprehensive Picture of the Great
              Firewall's DNS Censorship", 4th USENIX Workshop on Free
              and Open Communications on the Internet (FOCI) '14,
              August 2014, <https://www.usenix.org/system/files/
              conference/foci14/foci14-anonymous.pdf>.

   [GreenMovement]
              Villeneuve, N., "Iran DDoS", 2009,
              <https://www.nartv.org/2009/06/16/iran-ddos/>.

   [Greenwald]
              Greenwald, G., "XKeyscore: NSA tool collects 'nearly
              everything a user does on the internet'", July 2013,
              <https://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/jul/31/
              nsa-top-secret-program-online-data>.

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   [Haagsma]  Haagsma, L., "Deep dive into QUANTUM INSERT", April 2015,
              <http://blog.fox-it.com/2015/04/20/
              deep-dive-into-quantum-insert/>.

   [Hall]     Hall, J., Aaron, M., Jones, B., and N. Feamster, "A Survey
              of Worldwide Censorship Techniques", Work in Progress,
              draft-hall-censorship-tech-04, July 2016.

   [Hill2014] Hill, R., "Partial Catalog of Human Rights Related to ICT
              Activities", May 2014,
              <http://www.apig.ch/UNIGE%20Catalog.pdf>.

   [HORNET]   Chen, C., Asoni, D., Barrera, D., Danezis, G., and A.
              Perrig, "HORNET: High-speed Onion Routing at the Network
              Layer", CCS '15, Proceedings of the 22nd ACM SIGSAC
              Conference on Computer and Communications
              Security, pp. 1441-1454, DOI 10.1145/2810103.2813628,
              October 2015,
              <https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=2813628>.

   [HTML5]    Hickson, I., Ed., Berjon, R., Ed., Faulkner, S., Ed.,
              Leithead, T., Ed., Navara, E., Ed., O'Connor, E., Ed., and
              S. Pfeiffer, Ed., "HTML5", W3C Recommendation,
              October 2014, <https://www.w3.org/TR/html5/>.

   [ICCPR]    United Nations General Assembly, "International Covenant
              on Civil and Political Rights", 1966,
              <http://www.ohchr.org/EN/ProfessionalInterest/Pages/
              CCPR.aspx>.

   [ICESCR]   United Nations General Assembly, "International Covenant
              on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights", 1966,
              <http://www.ohchr.org/EN/ProfessionalInterest/Pages/
              CESCR.aspx>.

   [Insinuator]
              Schiess, N., "Vulnerabilities & attack vectors of VPNs
              (Pt 1)", August 2013, <https://www.insinuator.net/2013/08/
              vulnerabilities-attack-vectors-of-vpns-pt-1/>.

   [IRP]      Internet Rights and Principles Dynamic Coalition,
              "10 Internet Rights & Principles", 2017,
              <http://internetrightsandprinciples.org/site/campaign/>.

   [Jabri]    Jabri, V., "Discourses on violence: conflict analysis
              reconsidered", Manchester University Press, 1996.

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   [Kaye]     Kaye, D., "Freedom of expression and the private sector in
              the digital age", 2016, <http://www.ohchr.org/EN/Issues/
              FreedomOpinion/Pages/Privatesectorinthedigitalage.aspx>.

   [King]     King, C., "Power, Social Violence and Civil Wars",
              Chapter 8 of "Leashing the Dogs of War: Conflict
              Management in a Divided World", United States Institute of
              Peace Press, Washington, D.C., 2007.

   [Lessig]   Lessig, L., "Code and Other Laws of Cyberspace,
              Version 2.0 ('Codev2')", Basic Books, New York, 2006,
              <http://codev2.cc/>.

   [Marcak]   Marcak, B., Weaver, N., Dalek, J., Ensafi, R., Fifield,
              D., McKune, S., Rey, A., Scott-Railton, J., Deibert, R.,
              and V. Paxson, "China's Great Cannon", April 2015,
              <https://citizenlab.org/2015/04/chinas-great-cannon/>.

   [Marquis-Boire]
              Marquis-Boire, M., "Schrodinger's Cat Video and the Death
              of Clear-Text", August 2014, <https://citizenlab.org/
              2014/08/cat-video-and-the-death-of-clear-text/>.

   [Meyer]    Meyer, J., "Defining and Evaluating Resilience: A
              Performability Perspective", presentation at International
              Workshop on Performability Modeling of Computer and
              Communication Systems, September 2009.

   [Mueller]  Mueller, M., "Networks and States: The Global Politics of
              Internet Governance", MIT Press,
              DOI 10.7551/mitpress/9780262014595.001.0001, 2010,
              <https://mitpress.mit.edu/books/networks-and-states>.

   [Musiani]  Musiani, F., "Giants, Dwarfs and Decentralized
              Alternatives to Internet-based Services: An Issue of
              Internet Governance", Westminster Papers in Communication
              and Culture, 10(1), pp. 81-94, DOI 10.16997/wpcc.214,
              2015, <https://www.westminsterpapers.org/
              articles/10.16997/wpcc.214/>.

   [Namecoin] Namecoin, "Namecoin", 2015, <https://namecoin.info/>.

Top      Up      ToC       Page 70 
   [NATusage] Maier, G., Schneider, F., and A. Feldmann, "NAT usage in
              Residential Broadband networks", PAM: International
              Conference on Passive and Active Network
              Measurement Lecture Notes in Computer Science,
              Volume 6579, Springer, Berlin and Heidelberg,
              DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-19260-9_4, 2011,
              <http://www.icsi.berkeley.edu/pubs/networking/
              NATusage11.pdf>.

   [NETmundial]
              NETmundial, "NETmundial Multistakeholder Statement",
              April 2014, <http://netmundial.br/wp-content/
              uploads/2014/04/NETmundial-Multistakeholder-Document.pdf>.

   [Newegg]   Mullin, J., "Newegg on trial: Mystery company TQP rewrites
              the history of encryption", November 2013,
              <http://arstechnica.com/tech-policy/2013/11/newegg-on-
              trial-mystery-company-tqp-re-writes-the-history-of-
              encryption/>.

   [notewell] IETF, "Note Well", 2015,
              <https://www.ietf.org/about/note-well.html>.

   [patentpolicy]
              Weitzner, D., Ed., "W3C Patent Policy", World Wide
              Web Consortium, February 2004,
              <https://www.w3.org/Consortium/Patent-Policy-20040205/>.

   [Penney]   Penney, J., "Chilling Effects: Online Surveillance and
              Wikipedia Use", 2016, <http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/
              papers.cfm?abstract_id=2769645>.

   [Peterson] Peterson, A., Gellman, B., and A. Soltani, "Yahoo to make
              SSL encryption the default for Webmail users.  Finally.",
              October 2013, <https://www.washingtonpost.com/
              news/the-switch/wp/2013/10/14/
              yahoo-to-make-ssl-encryption-the-default-
              for-webmail-users-finally/?utm_term=.a17eca45ddfe>.

   [PETS2015VPN]
              Perta, V., Barbera, M., Tyson, G., Haddadi, H., and A.
              Mei, "A Glance through the VPN Looking Glass: IPv6 Leakage
              and DNS Hijacking in Commercial VPN clients",
              DOI 10.1515/popets-2015-0006, 2015,
              <http://www.eecs.qmul.ac.uk/~hamed/papers/
              PETS2015VPN.pdf>.

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   [Pidgin]   js and Pidgin Developers, "[XMPP] Invisible mode violating
              standard", 2007,
              <https://developer.pidgin.im/ticket/4322>.

   [Pouwelse] Pouwelse, J., Ed., "Media without censorship (CensorFree)
              scenarios", Work in Progress, draft-pouwelse-censorfree-
              scenarios-02, October 2012.

   [Rachovitsa]
              Rachovitsa, A., "Engineering and lawyering privacy by
              design: understanding online privacy both as a technical
              and an international human rights issue", International
              Journal of Law and Information Technology, Volume 24,
              Issue 4, pp. 374-399, DOI 10.1093/ijlit/eaw012,
              December 2016, <https://academic.oup.com/ijlit/
              article/24/4/374/2566975/
              Engineering-and-lawyering-privacy-by-design>.

   [RFC760]   Postel, J., "DoD standard Internet Protocol", RFC 760,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC0760, January 1980,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc760>.

   [RFC791]   Postel, J., "Internet Protocol", STD 5, RFC 791,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC0791, September 1981,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc791>.

   [RFC793]   Postel, J., "Transmission Control Protocol", STD 7,
              RFC 793, DOI 10.17487/RFC0793, September 1981,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc793>.

   [RFC894]   Hornig, C., "A Standard for the Transmission of IP
              Datagrams over Ethernet Networks", STD 41, RFC 894,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC0894, April 1984,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc894>.

   [RFC1035]  Mockapetris, P., "Domain names - implementation and
              specification", STD 13, RFC 1035, DOI 10.17487/RFC1035,
              November 1987, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc1035>.

   [RFC1122]  Braden, R., Ed., "Requirements for Internet Hosts -
              Communication Layers", STD 3, RFC 1122,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC1122, October 1989,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc1122>.

   [RFC1958]  Carpenter, B., Ed., "Architectural Principles of the
              Internet", RFC 1958, DOI 10.17487/RFC1958, June 1996,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc1958>.

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   [RFC1984]  IAB and IESG, "IAB and IESG Statement on Cryptographic
              Technology and the Internet", BCP 200, RFC 1984,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC1984, August 1996,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc1984>.

   [RFC2026]  Bradner, S., "The Internet Standards Process --
              Revision 3", BCP 9, RFC 2026, DOI 10.17487/RFC2026,
              October 1996, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2026>.

   [RFC2277]  Alvestrand, H., "IETF Policy on Character Sets and
              Languages", BCP 18, RFC 2277, DOI 10.17487/RFC2277,
              January 1998, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2277>.

   [RFC2775]  Carpenter, B., "Internet Transparency", RFC 2775,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2775, February 2000,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2775>.

   [RFC3022]  Srisuresh, P. and K. Egevang, "Traditional IP Network
              Address Translator (Traditional NAT)", RFC 3022,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC3022, January 2001,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3022>.

   [RFC3365]  Schiller, J., "Strong Security Requirements for Internet
              Engineering Task Force Standard Protocols", BCP 61,
              RFC 3365, DOI 10.17487/RFC3365, August 2002,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3365>.

   [RFC3439]  Bush, R. and D. Meyer, "Some Internet Architectural
              Guidelines and Philosophy", RFC 3439,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC3439, December 2002,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3439>.

   [RFC3536]  Hoffman, P., "Terminology Used in Internationalization in
              the IETF", RFC 3536, DOI 10.17487/RFC3536, May 2003,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3536>.

   [RFC3724]  Kempf, J., Ed., Austein, R., Ed., and IAB, "The Rise of
              the Middle and the Future of End-to-End: Reflections on
              the Evolution of the Internet Architecture", RFC 3724,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC3724, March 2004,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3724>.

   [RFC3935]  Alvestrand, H., "A Mission Statement for the IETF",
              BCP 95, RFC 3935, DOI 10.17487/RFC3935, October 2004,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3935>.

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   [RFC4033]  Arends, R., Austein, R., Larson, M., Massey, D., and S.
              Rose, "DNS Security Introduction and Requirements",
              RFC 4033, DOI 10.17487/RFC4033, March 2005,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4033>.

   [RFC4084]  Klensin, J., "Terminology for Describing Internet
              Connectivity", BCP 104, RFC 4084, DOI 10.17487/RFC4084,
              May 2005, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4084>.

   [RFC4101]  Rescorla, E. and IAB, "Writing Protocol Models", RFC 4101,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC4101, June 2005,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4101>.

   [RFC4941]  Narten, T., Draves, R., and S. Krishnan, "Privacy
              Extensions for Stateless Address Autoconfiguration in
              IPv6", RFC 4941, DOI 10.17487/RFC4941, September 2007,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4941>.

   [RFC4949]  Shirey, R., "Internet Security Glossary, Version 2",
              FYI 36, RFC 4949, DOI 10.17487/RFC4949, August 2007,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4949>.

   [RFC5246]  Dierks, T. and E. Rescorla, "The Transport Layer Security
              (TLS) Protocol Version 1.2", RFC 5246,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5246, August 2008,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5246>.

   [RFC5321]  Klensin, J., "Simple Mail Transfer Protocol", RFC 5321,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5321, October 2008,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5321>.

   [RFC5646]  Phillips, A., Ed., and M. Davis, Ed., "Tags for
              Identifying Languages", BCP 47, RFC 5646,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5646, September 2009,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5646>.

   [RFC5694]  Camarillo, G., Ed., and IAB, "Peer-to-Peer (P2P)
              Architecture: Definition, Taxonomies, Examples, and
              Applicability", RFC 5694, DOI 10.17487/RFC5694,
              November 2009, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5694>.

   [RFC5944]  Perkins, C., Ed., "IP Mobility Support for IPv4, Revised",
              RFC 5944, DOI 10.17487/RFC5944, November 2010,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5944>.

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   [RFC6101]  Freier, A., Karlton, P., and P. Kocher, "The Secure
              Sockets Layer (SSL) Protocol Version 3.0", RFC 6101,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6101, August 2011,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6101>.

   [RFC6108]  Chung, C., Kasyanov, A., Livingood, J., Mody, N., and B.
              Van Lieu, "Comcast's Web Notification System Design",
              RFC 6108, DOI 10.17487/RFC6108, February 2011,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6108>.

   [RFC6120]  Saint-Andre, P., "Extensible Messaging and Presence
              Protocol (XMPP): Core", RFC 6120, DOI 10.17487/RFC6120,
              March 2011, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6120>.

   [RFC6365]  Hoffman, P. and J. Klensin, "Terminology Used in
              Internationalization in the IETF", BCP 166, RFC 6365,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6365, September 2011,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6365>.

   [RFC6698]  Hoffman, P. and J. Schlyter, "The DNS-Based Authentication
              of Named Entities (DANE) Transport Layer Security (TLS)
              Protocol: TLSA", RFC 6698, DOI 10.17487/RFC6698,
              August 2012, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6698>.

   [RFC6701]  Farrel, A. and P. Resnick, "Sanctions Available for
              Application to Violators of IETF IPR Policy", RFC 6701,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6701, August 2012,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6701>.

   [RFC6797]  Hodges, J., Jackson, C., and A. Barth, "HTTP Strict
              Transport Security (HSTS)", RFC 6797,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6797, November 2012,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6797>.

   [RFC6973]  Cooper, A., Tschofenig, H., Aboba, B., Peterson, J.,
              Morris, J., Hansen, M., and R. Smith, "Privacy
              Considerations for Internet Protocols", RFC 6973,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6973, July 2013,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6973>.

   [RFC7230]  Fielding, R., Ed., and J. Reschke, Ed., "Hypertext
              Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing",
              RFC 7230, DOI 10.17487/RFC7230, June 2014,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7230>.

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   [RFC7231]  Fielding, R., Ed., and J. Reschke, Ed., "Hypertext
              Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content",
              RFC 7231, DOI 10.17487/RFC7231, June 2014,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7231>.

   [RFC7232]  Fielding, R., Ed., and J. Reschke, Ed., "Hypertext
              Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Conditional Requests",
              RFC 7232, DOI 10.17487/RFC7232, June 2014,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7232>.

   [RFC7233]  Fielding, R., Ed., Lafon, Y., Ed., and J. Reschke, Ed.,
              "Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Range Requests",
              RFC 7233, DOI 10.17487/RFC7233, June 2014,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7233>.

   [RFC7234]  Fielding, R., Ed., Nottingham, M., Ed., and J. Reschke,
              Ed., "Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Caching",
              RFC 7234, DOI 10.17487/RFC7234, June 2014,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7234>.

   [RFC7235]  Fielding, R., Ed., and J. Reschke, Ed., "Hypertext
              Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Authentication", RFC 7235,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7235, June 2014,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7235>.

   [RFC7236]  Reschke, J., "Initial Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
              Authentication Scheme Registrations", RFC 7236,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7236, June 2014,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7236>.

   [RFC7237]  Reschke, J., "Initial Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
              Method Registrations", RFC 7237, DOI 10.17487/RFC7237,
              June 2014, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7237>.

   [RFC7258]  Farrell, S. and H. Tschofenig, "Pervasive Monitoring Is an
              Attack", BCP 188, RFC 7258, DOI 10.17487/RFC7258,
              May 2014, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7258>.

   [RFC7469]  Evans, C., Palmer, C., and R. Sleevi, "Public Key Pinning
              Extension for HTTP", RFC 7469, DOI 10.17487/RFC7469,
              April 2015, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7469>.

   [RFC7540]  Belshe, M., Peon, R., and M. Thomson, Ed., "Hypertext
              Transfer Protocol Version 2 (HTTP/2)", RFC 7540,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7540, May 2015,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7540>.

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   [RFC7574]  Bakker, A., Petrocco, R., and V. Grishchenko, "Peer-to-
              Peer Streaming Peer Protocol (PPSPP)", RFC 7574,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7574, July 2015,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7574>.

   [RFC7624]  Barnes, R., Schneier, B., Jennings, C., Hardie, T.,
              Trammell, B., Huitema, C., and D. Borkmann,
              "Confidentiality in the Face of Pervasive Surveillance: A
              Threat Model and Problem Statement", RFC 7624,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7624, August 2015,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7624>.

   [RFC7626]  Bortzmeyer, S., "DNS Privacy Considerations", RFC 7626,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7626, August 2015,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7626>.

   [RFC7725]  Bray, T., "An HTTP Status Code to Report Legal Obstacles",
              RFC 7725, DOI 10.17487/RFC7725, February 2016,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7725>.

   [RFC7754]  Barnes, R., Cooper, A., Kolkman, O., Thaler, D., and E.
              Nordmark, "Technical Considerations for Internet Service
              Blocking and Filtering", RFC 7754, DOI 10.17487/RFC7754,
              March 2016, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7754>.

   [RFC7858]  Hu, Z., Zhu, L., Heidemann, J., Mankin, A., Wessels, D.,
              and P. Hoffman, "Specification for DNS over Transport
              Layer Security (TLS)", RFC 7858, DOI 10.17487/RFC7858,
              May 2016, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7858>.

   [RFC8164]  Nottingham, M. and M. Thomson, "Opportunistic Security for
              HTTP/2", RFC 8164, DOI 10.17487/RFC8164, May 2017,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8164>.

   [RFC8179]  Bradner, S. and J. Contreras, "Intellectual Property
              Rights in IETF Technology", BCP 79, RFC 8179,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8179, May 2017,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8179>.

   [RFC8200]  Deering, S. and R. Hinden, "Internet Protocol, Version 6
              (IPv6) Specification", STD 86, RFC 8200,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8200, July 2017,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8200>.

   [Rideout]  Rideout, A., "Making security easier", July 2008,
              <http://gmailblog.blogspot.de/2008/07/
              making-security-easier.html>.

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   [Ritchie]  Ritchie, J. and J. Lewis, "Qualitative Research Practice:
              A Guide for Social Science Students and Researchers", SAGE
              Publishing, London, 2003, <http://www.amazon.co.uk/
              Qualitative-Research-Practice-Students-Researchers/
              dp/0761971106>.

   [RSF]      Reporters Without Borders (RSF), "Syria using 34 Blue Coat
              servers to spy on Internet users", January 2016,
              <https://rsf.org/en/news/
              syria-using-34-blue-coat-servers-spy-internet-users>.

   [Saltzer]  Saltzer, J., Reed, D., and D. Clark, "End-to-End Arguments
              in System Design", ACM Transactions on Computer Systems
              (TOCS), Volume 2, Number 4, pp. 277-288,
              DOI 10.1145/357401.357402, November 1984.

   [Sandvine] Sandvine, "Sandvine: Over 70% Of North American Traffic Is
              Now Streaming Video And Audio", December 2015,
              <https://www.sandvine.com/pr/2015/12/7/sandvine-over-70-
              of-north-american-traffic-is-now-streaming-video-and-
              audio.html>.

   [Schillace] Schillace, S., "Default https access for Gmail",
              January 2010, <http://gmailblog.blogspot.de/2010/01/
              default-https-access-for-gmail.html>.

   [Schneier] Schneier, B., "Attacking Tor: how the NSA targets users'
              online anonymity", October 2013,
              <http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/oct/04/
              tor-attacks-nsa-users-online-anonymity>.

   [SPIEGEL]  SPIEGEL, "Prying Eyes - Inside the NSA's War on Internet
              Security", December 2014,
              <http://www.spiegel.de/international/germany/
              inside-the-nsa-s-war-on-internet-security-a-1010361.html>.

   [sslstrip] Marlinspike, M., "Software >> sslstrip", 2011,
              <https://moxie.org/software/sslstrip/>.

   [techyum]  Violet, "Official - vb.ly Link Shortener Seized by Libyan
              Government", October 2010, <http://techyum.com/2010/10/
              official-vb-ly-link-shortener-seized-by-libyan-
              government/>.

   [TorProject]
              The Tor Project, "Anonymity Online", 2006,
              <https://www.torproject.org/>.

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   [torrentfreak1]
              Van der Sar, E., "Is Your ISP Messing With BitTorrent
              Traffic?  Find Out", January 2014,
              <https://torrentfreak.com/is-your-isp-messing-with-
              bittorrent-traffic-find-out-140123/>.

   [torrentfreak2]
              Andy, "Lawyers Sent 109,000 Piracy Threats in Germany
              During 2013", March 2014, <https://torrentfreak.com/
              lawyers-sent-109000-piracy-threats-in-germany-during-
              2013-140304/>.

   [Tribler]  Delft University of Technology, Department EWI/PDS/
              Tribler, "About Tribler", 2013,
              <https://www.tribler.org/about.html>.

   [UDHR]     United Nations General Assembly, "The Universal
              Declaration of Human Rights", 1948, <http://www.un.org/en/
              universal-declaration-human-rights/index.html>.

   [UNGA2013] United Nations General Assembly, "UN General Assembly
              Resolution "The right to privacy in the digital age"
              (A/C.3/68/L.45)", 2013,
              <https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/LTD/N13/
              576/77/PDF/N1357677.pdf?OpenElement>.

   [UNHRC2016]
              United Nations Human Rights Council, "The promotion,
              protection and enjoyment of human rights on the Internet",
              Resolution A/HRC/32/L.20, 2016,
              <http://ap.ohchr.org/documents/alldocs.aspx?doc_id=20340>.

   [Ververis] Ververis, V., Kargiotakis, G., Filasto, A., Fabian, B.,
              and A. Alexandros, "Understanding Internet Censorship
              Policy: The Case of Greece", 5th USENIX Workshop on Free
              and Open Communications on the Internet (FOCI) '15,
              August 2015, <https://www.usenix.org/system/files/
              conference/foci15/foci15-paper-ververis-update.pdf>.

   [W3CAccessibility]
              World Wide Web Consortium, "Accessibility", 2016,
              <https://www.w3.org/standards/webdesign/accessibility>.

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              Ishida, R. and S. Miller, "Localization vs.
              Internationalization", World Wide Web Consortium,
              April 2015, <http://www.w3.org/International/
              questions/qa-i18n.en>.

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   [wikileaks]
              Sladek, T. and E. Broese, "Market Survey: Detection &
              Filtering Solutions to Identify File Transfer of Copyright
              Protected Content for Warner Bros. and movielabs", 2011,
              <https://wikileaks.org/sony/docs/05/docs/Anti-Piracy/CDSA/
              EANTC-Survey-1.5-unsecured.pdf>.

   [WP-Tempora]
              Wikipedia, "Tempora", September 2017,
              <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tempora>.

   [WSJ]      Sonne, P. and M. Coker, "Firms Aided Libyan Spies", The
              Wall Street Journal, August 2011,
              <http://www.wsj.com/articles/
              SB10001424053111904199404576538721260166388>.

   [WynsbergheMoura]
              Nguyen, B., Ed., van Wynsberghe, A., van Wynsberghe, A.,
              and G. Moreira Moura, "The concept of embedded values and
              the example of internet security", June 2013,
              <http://doc.utwente.nl/87095/>.

   [XMPP-Manifesto]
              Saint-Andre, P. and XMPP Operators, "A Public Statement
              Regarding Ubiquitous Encryption on the XMPP Network",
              March 2014, <https://raw.githubusercontent.com/
              stpeter/manifesto/master/manifesto.txt>.

   [Zittrain] Zittrain, J., "The Future of the Internet - And How to
              Stop It", Yale University Press & Penguin UK, 2008,
              <https://dash.harvard.edu/bitstream/handle/1/4455262/
              Zittrain_Future%20of%20the%20Internet.pdf?sequence=1>.

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Acknowledgements

   A special thanks to all members of the HRPC Research Group who
   contributed to this document.  The following deserve a special
   mention:

   -  Joana Varon for helping draft the first iteration of the
      methodology and previous drafts, and for directing the film "Net
      of Rights" and working on the interviews at IETF 92 in Dallas.

   -  Daniel Kahn Gillmor (dkg) for helping with the first iteration of
      the glossary (Section 2) as well as a lot of technical guidance,
      support, and language suggestions.

   -  Claudio Guarnieri for writing the first iterations of the case
      studies on VPNs, HTTP, and P2P.

   -  Will Scott for writing the first iterations of the case studies on
      DNS, IP, and XMPP.

   -  Avri Doria for proposing writing a glossary in the first place,
      help with writing the initial proposals and Internet-Drafts, her
      reviews, and her contributions to the glossary.

   Thanks also to Stephane Bortzmeyer, John Curran, Barry Shein, Joe
   Hall, Joss Wright, Harry Halpin, and Tim Sammut, who made a lot of
   excellent suggestions, many of which found their way directly into
   the text.  We want to thank Amelia Andersdotter, Stephen Farrell,
   Stephane Bortzmeyer, Shane Kerr, Giovane Moura, James Gannon, Alissa
   Cooper, Andrew Sullivan, S. Moonesamy, Roland Bless, and Scott Craig
   for their reviews and for testing the HRPC guidelines in the wild.
   We would also like to thank Molly Sauter, Arturo Filasto, Nathalie
   Marechal, Eleanor Saitta, Richard Hill, and all others who provided
   input on this document or the conceptualization of the idea.  Thanks
   to Edward Snowden for his comments at IETF 93 in Prague regarding the
   impact of protocols on the rights of users.

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Authors' Addresses

   Niels ten Oever
   ARTICLE 19

   Email: mail@nielstenoever.net


   Corinne Cath
   Oxford Internet Institute

   Email: corinnecath@gmail.com