Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) V. Fuller Request for Comments: 8111 VAF.NET Internet Consulting Category: Experimental D. Lewis ISSN: 2070-1721 V. Ermagan Cisco Systems A. Jain Juniper Networks A. Smirnov Cisco Systems May 2017 Locator/ID Separation Protocol Delegated Database Tree (LISP-DDT) Abstract This document describes the Locator/ID Separation Protocol Delegated Database Tree (LISP-DDT), a hierarchical distributed database that embodies the delegation of authority to provide mappings from LISP Endpoint Identifiers (EIDs) to Routing Locators (RLOCs). It is a statically defined distribution of the EID namespace among a set of LISP-speaking servers called "DDT nodes". Each DDT node is configured as "authoritative" for one or more EID-prefixes, along with the set of RLOCs for Map-Servers or "child" DDT nodes to which more-specific EID-prefixes are delegated. Status of This Memo This document is not an Internet Standards Track specification; it is published for examination, experimental implementation, and evaluation. This document defines an Experimental Protocol for the Internet community. This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). It represents the consensus of the IETF community. It has received public review and has been approved for publication by the Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG). Not all documents approved by the IESG are a candidate for any level of Internet Standard; see Section 2 of RFC 7841. Information about the current status of this document, any errata, and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8111.
Copyright Notice Copyright (c) 2017 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the document authors. All rights reserved. This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal Provisions Relating to IETF Documents (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of publication of this document. Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as described in the Simplified BSD License. Table of Contents 1. Introduction ....................................................4 2. Requirements Language ...........................................5 3. Definitions of Terms ............................................6 4. Database Organization ...........................................8 4.1. XEID-Prefixes ..............................................8 4.2. Structure of the DDT Database ..............................8 4.3. Configuring Prefix Delegation ..............................9 4.3.1. The Root DDT Node ..................................10 5. DDT Map-Request ................................................10 6. The Map-Referral Message .......................................11 6.1. Action Codes ..............................................11 6.2. Referral Set ..............................................12 6.3. "Incomplete" Flag .........................................12 6.4. Map-Referral Message Format ...............................13 6.4.1. Signature Section ..................................15 7. DDT Network Elements and Their Operation .......................17 7.1. DDT Node ..................................................17 7.1.1. Matching of a Delegated Prefix (or Sub-prefix) .....17 7.1.2. Missing Delegation from an Authoritative Prefix ....18 7.2. DDT Map-Server ............................................18 7.3. DDT Client ................................................18 7.3.1. Queuing and Sending DDT Map-Requests ...............19 7.3.2. Receiving and Following Referrals ..................20 7.3.3. Handling Referral Errors ...........................22 7.3.4. Referral Loop Detection ............................22
8. Pseudocode and Decision Tree Diagrams ..........................23 8.1. Map-Resolver Processing of ITR Map-Request ................23 8.1.1. Pseudocode Summary .................................23 8.1.2. Decision Tree Diagram ..............................24 8.2. Map-Resolver Processing of Map-Referral Message ...........25 8.2.1. Pseudocode Summary .................................25 8.2.2. Decision Tree Diagram ..............................27 8.3. DDT Node Processing of DDT Map-Request Message ............28 8.3.1. Pseudocode Summary .................................28 8.3.2. Decision Tree Diagram ..............................30 9. Example Topology and Request/Referral Following ................31 9.1. Lookup of 2001:db8:0103:1::1/128 ..........................33 9.2. Lookup of 2001:db8:0501:8:4::1/128 ........................34 9.3. Lookup of 2001:db8:0104:2::2/128 ..........................35 9.4. Lookup of 2001:db8:0500:2:4::1/128 ........................36 9.5. Lookup of 2001:db8:0500::1/128 (Nonexistent EID) ..........37 10. Securing the Database and Message Exchanges ...................37 10.1. XEID-Prefix Delegation ...................................38 10.2. DDT Node Operation .......................................38 10.2.1. DDT Public Key Revocation .........................38 10.3. Map-Server Operation .....................................39 10.4. Map-Resolver Operation ...................................39 11. Open Issues and Considerations ................................40 12. IANA Considerations ...........................................41 13. Security Considerations .......................................41 14. References ....................................................42 14.1. Normative References .....................................42 14.2. Informative References ...................................43 Acknowledgments ...................................................44 Authors' Addresses ................................................44
1. Introduction The Locator/ID Separation Protocol (LISP) [RFC6830] specifies an architecture and mechanism for replacing the addresses currently used by IP with two separate namespaces: o Endpoint Identifiers (EIDs), used end to end for terminating transport-layer associations, and o Routing Locators (RLOCs), which are bound to topological locations and are used for routing and forwarding through the Internet infrastructure. [RFC6833] specifies an interface between a database storing EID-to-RLOC mappings and LISP devices that need this information for packet forwarding. The internal organization of such a database is beyond the scope of [RFC6833]. Multiple architectures of the database have been proposed, each having its advantages and disadvantages (see, for example, [RFC6836] and [RFC6837]). This document specifies an architecture for a database of LISP EID-to-RLOC mappings, with an emphasis on high scalability. The LISP Delegated Database Tree (LISP-DDT) is a hierarchical distributed database that embodies the delegation of authority to provide mappings, i.e., its internal structure mirrors the hierarchical delegation of address space. It also provides delegation information to Map-Resolvers, which use the information to locate EID-to-RLOC mappings. A Map-Resolver that needs to locate a given mapping will follow a path through the tree-structured database and will contact, one after another, the DDT nodes along that path until it reaches the leaf DDT node(s) authoritative for the mapping it is seeking. LISP offers a general-purpose mechanism for mapping between EIDs and RLOCs. In organizing a database of EID-to-RLOC mappings, this specification extends the definition of the EID numbering space by logically prepending and appending several fields for purposes of defining the database index key: o Database-ID (DBID) (16 bits), o Instance Identifier (IID) (32 bits), o Address Family Identifier (AFI) (16 bits), and o EID-prefix (variable, according to the AFI value). The resulting concatenation of these fields is termed an "Extended EID-prefix", or XEID-prefix.
LISP-DDT defines a new device type, the DDT node, that is configured as authoritative for one or more XEID-prefixes. It is also configured with the set of more-specific sub-prefixes that are further delegated to other DDT nodes. To delegate a sub-prefix, the "parent" DDT node is configured with the RLOCs of each child DDT node that is authoritative for the sub-prefix. Each RLOC either points to a DDT Map-Server (MS) to which an Egress Tunnel Router (ETR) has registered that sub-prefix or points to another DDT node in the database tree that further delegates the sub-prefix. See [RFC6833] for a description of the functionality of the Map-Server and Map-Resolver. Note that the target of a delegation must always be an RLOC (not an EID) to avoid any circular dependency. To provide a mechanism for traversing the database tree, LISP-DDT defines a new LISP message type, the Map-Referral, which is returned to the sender of a Map-Request when the receiving DDT node can refer the sender to another DDT node that has more detailed information. See Section 6 for the definition of the Map-Referral message. To find an EID-to-RLOC mapping, a LISP-DDT client, usually a DDT Map-Resolver, starts by sending an Encapsulated Map-Request to a preconfigured DDT node RLOC. The DDT node responds with a Map-Referral message indicating that either (1) it will find the requested mapping to complete processing of the request or (2) the DDT client should contact another DDT node that has more-specific information; in the latter case, the DDT node then sends a new Encapsulated Map-Request to the next DDT node and the process repeats in an iterative manner. Conceptually, this is similar to the way that a client of the Domain Name System (DNS) follows referrals (DNS responses that contain only NS records) from a series of DNS servers until it finds an answer. 2. Requirements Language The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in BCP 14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all capitals, as shown here.
3. Definitions of Terms Extended EID (XEID): a LISP EID extended with data uniquely identifying the address space to which it belongs (LISP IID, address family, etc.). See Section 4.1 for a detailed description of XEID data. Extended EID-prefix (XEID-prefix): a LISP EID-prefix prepended with XEID data. An XEID-prefix is used as a key index into the DDT database. XEID-prefixes are used to describe database organization and are not seen as a single entity in protocol messages, though messages contain individual fields constituting XEID-prefixes. DDT node: a network infrastructure component responsible for specific XEID-prefix(es) and for the delegation of more-specific sub-prefixes to other DDT nodes. DDT client: a network infrastructure component that sends DDT Map-Request messages and implements the iterative following of Map-Referral results. Typically, a DDT client will be a Map-Resolver (as defined by [RFC6833]), but it is also possible for an Ingress Tunnel Router (ITR) to implement DDT client functionality. DDT Map-Server: a DDT node that also implements Map-Server functionality (forwarding Map-Requests and/or returning Map-Replies if offering a proxy Map-Reply service) for a subset of its delegated prefixes. Map-Server functions, including proxying Map-Replies, are described in [RFC6833]. DDT Map-Server peers: a list of all DDT Map-Servers performing Map-Server functionality for the same prefix. If peers are configured on a DDT Map-Server, then the latter will provide complete information about the prefix in its Map-Replies; otherwise, the Map-Server will mark the returned reply as potentially incomplete. DDT Map-Resolver: a network infrastructure element that implements both DDT client functionality and Map-Resolver functionality as defined by [RFC6833]. A DDT Map-Resolver accepts Map-Requests from ITRs, sends DDT Map-Requests to DDT nodes, and implements the iterative following of Map-Referrals. Note that Map-Resolvers do not respond to clients that sent Map-Requests; they only ensure that the Map-Request has been forwarded to a LISP device (ETR or proxy Map-Server) that will provide an authoritative response to the original requester. A DDT Map-Resolver will typically
maintain a cache (termed the "referral cache") of previously received Map-Referral message results containing RLOCs for DDT nodes responsible for XEID-prefixes of interest. Encapsulated Map-Request: a LISP Map-Request that is carried within an Encapsulated Control Message and that has an additional LISP header prepended to it. Sent to UDP destination port 4342. The "outer" addresses are globally routable IP addresses, also known as RLOCs. Used by an ITR when sending a Map-Request to a Map-Resolver and by a Map-Server when forwarding a Map-Request to an ETR as documented in [RFC6833]. DDT Map-Request: an Encapsulated Map-Request sent by a DDT client to a DDT node. The "DDT-originated" flag is set in the encapsulation header, indicating that the DDT node should return Map-Referral messages if the Map-Request EID matches a delegated XEID-prefix known to the DDT node. Section 7.3.1 describes how DDT Map-Requests are sent. Section 5 defines the position of the "DDT-originated" flag in the Encapsulated Control Message header. Authoritative XEID-prefix: an XEID-prefix delegated to a DDT node and for which the DDT node may provide further delegations of more-specific sub-prefixes. Map-Referral: a LISP message sent by a DDT node in response to a DDT Map-Request for an XEID that matches a configured XEID-prefix delegation. A non-Negative Map-Referral includes a "referral" -- a set of RLOCs for DDT nodes that have information about the more-specific XEID-prefix covering the requested XEID; a DDT client "follows the referral" by sending another DDT Map-Request to one of those RLOCs to obtain either an answer or another referral to DDT nodes responsible for an XEID-prefix that is even more specific. See Sections 7.1 and 7.3.2 for details on the sending and processing of Map-Referral messages. Negative Map-Referral: an answer from an authoritative DDT node that there is no mapping for the requested XEID. A Negative Map-Referral is a Map-Referral sent in response to a DDT Map-Request that matches an authoritative XEID-prefix but for which there is no delegation configured (or no ETR registration, if sent by a DDT Map-Server). Pending Request List: the set of outstanding requests for which a DDT Map-Resolver has received Encapsulated Map-Requests from its clients seeking EID-to-RLOC mapping for an XEID. Each entry in the list contains additional state needed by the referral-following process, including the XEID, requester(s) of the XEID (typically one or more ITRs), saved information about the
last referral received and followed (matching XEID-prefix, action code, RLOC set, index of the last RLOC queried in the RLOC set), and any LISP-Security (LISP-SEC) information [LISP-SEC] that was included in the DDT client Map-Request. An entry in the list may be interchangeably termed a "pending request list entry" or simply a "pending request". For definitions of other terms -- notably Map-Request, Map-Reply, ITR, ETR, Map-Server, and Map-Resolver -- please consult the LISP specification [RFC6830] and the LISP Mapping Service specification [RFC6833]. 4. Database Organization 4.1. XEID-Prefixes A DDT database is indexed by Extended EID-prefixes (XEID-prefixes). An XEID-prefix is a LISP EID-prefix, together with data extending it to uniquely identify the address space of the prefix. An XEID-prefix is composed of four binary-encoded fields, ordered by significance: DBID (16 bits), IID (32 bits), AFI (16 bits), and EID-prefix (variable, according to the AFI value). The fields are concatenated, with the most significant fields as listed above. The DBID is the LISP-DDT Database-ID, a 16-bit field provided to allow the definition of multiple databases. Implementations that are compliant with this document must always set this field to 0. Other values of the DBID are reserved for future use. The Instance ID (IID) is a 32-bit value describing the context of the EID-prefix, if the latter is intended for use in an environment where addresses may not be unique, such as in a Virtual Private Network where the [RFC1918] address space is used. See Section 5.5 of [RFC6830] for more discussion of IIDs. Encoding of the IID is specified by [RFC8060]. The AFI is a 16-bit value defining the syntax of the EID-prefix. AFI values are assigned by IANA [AFI]. 4.2. Structure of the DDT Database The LISP-DDT database for each DDT node is organized as a tree structure that is indexed by XEID-prefixes. Leaves of the database tree describe the delegation of authority between DDT nodes (see Section 4.3 for details regarding delegation and information kept in the database entries).
DDT Map-Requests sent by the DDT client to DDT nodes always contain specific values for the DBID, IID, and AFI; unspecified values or ranges of values are never used for any of these fields. Thus, an XEID-prefix used as a key for searches in the database tree will have a length of at least 64 bits. A DDT node may, for example, be authoritative for a consecutive range of 3-tuples (DBID, IID, AFI) and all associated EID-prefixes, or only for a specific EID-prefix of a single 3-tuple. Thus, XEID-prefixes/keys of the database tree leaves may have lengths less than, equal to, or more than 64 bits. It is important to note that LISP-DDT does not store actual EID-to-RLOC mappings; it is, rather, a distributed index that can be used to find the devices (ETRs that registered their EIDs with DDT Map-Servers) that can be queried with LISP to obtain those mappings. Changes to EID-to-RLOC mappings are made on the ETRs that define them, not to any DDT node configuration. DDT node configuration changes are only required when branches of the database hierarchy are added, removed, or modified. 4.3. Configuring Prefix Delegation Every DDT node is configured with one or more XEID-prefixes for which it is authoritative, along with a list of delegations of XEID-prefixes to other DDT nodes. A DDT node is required to maintain a list of delegations for all sub-prefixes of its authoritative XEID-prefixes; it also may list "hints", which are prefixes that it knows about that belong to its parents, to the root, or to any other point in the XEID-prefix hierarchy. A delegation (or hint) consists of an XEID-prefix, a set of RLOCs for DDT nodes that have more detailed knowledge of the XEID-prefix, and accompanying security information (for details regarding security information exchange and its use, see Section 10). Those RLOCs are returned in Map-Referral messages when the DDT node receives a DDT Map-Request with an XEID that matches a delegation. A DDT Map-Server will also have a set of sub-prefixes for which it accepts ETR mapping registrations and for which it will forward (or answer, if it provides a proxy Map-Reply service) Map-Requests. One or more XEID-prefixes for which a DDT node is authoritative, and the delegation of authority for sub-prefixes, are provided as part of the configuration of the DDT node. Implementations will likely develop a language to express this prefix authority and delegation. Since DDT configuration is static (i.e., not exchanged between DDT nodes as part of the protocol itself), such language is implementation dependent and is outside the scope of this specification.
4.3.1. The Root DDT Node The root DDT node is the logical "top" of the distributed database hierarchy. It is authoritative for all XEID-prefixes -- that is, for all valid 3-tuples (DBID, IID, AFI) and their EID-prefixes. A DDT Map-Request that matches no configured XEID-prefix will be referred to the root node (see Section 8 for a formal description of conditions where a DDT Map-Request is forwarded to the root node). The root node in a particular instantiation of LISP-DDT therefore MUST be configured, at a minimum, with delegations for all defined IIDs and AFIs. 5. DDT Map-Request A DDT client (usually a Map-Resolver) uses LISP Encapsulated Control Messages (ECMs) to send Map-Request messages to a DDT node. The format of the ECM is defined by [RFC6830]. This specification adds to the Encapsulated Control Message (ECM) header a new flag, "DDT-originated", as shown in the diagram and described below. 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ / | IPv4 or IPv6 Header | OH | (uses RLOC addresses) | \ | | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ / | Source Port = xxxx | Dest Port = 4342 | UDP +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ \ | UDP Length | UDP Checksum | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ LH |Type=8 |S|D| Reserved | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ / | IPv4 or IPv6 Header | IH | (uses RLOC or EID addresses) | \ | | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ / | Source Port = xxxx | Dest Port = yyyy | UDP +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ \ | UDP Length | UDP Checksum | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ LCM | LISP Control Message | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
D: The "DDT-originated" flag. This flag is set by a DDT client to indicate that the receiver SHOULD return Map-Referral messages as appropriate. The use of this flag is further described in Section 7.3.1. This bit is allocated from LISP message header bits marked as "Reserved" in [RFC6830]. 6. The Map-Referral Message This specification defines a new LISP message called the Map-Referral message. A Map-Referral message is sent by a DDT node to a DDT client in response to a DDT Map-Request message. See Section 6.4 for a detailed layout of the Map-Referral message fields. The message consists of an action code along with delegation information about the XEID-prefix that matches the requested XEID. 6.1. Action Codes The action codes are as follows: NODE-REFERRAL (0): indicates that the replying DDT node has delegated an XEID-prefix that matches the requested XEID to one or more other DDT nodes. The Map-Referral message contains a "map-record" with additional information -- most significantly, the set of RLOCs to which the prefix has been delegated -- that is used by a DDT client to "follow" the referral. MS-REFERRAL (1): indicates that the replying DDT node has delegated an XEID-prefix that matches the requested XEID to one or more DDT Map-Servers. It contains the same additional information as a NODE-REFERRAL but is handled slightly differently by the receiving DDT client (see Section 7.3.2). MS-ACK (2): indicates that the replying DDT Map-Server received a DDT Map-Request that matches an authoritative XEID-prefix for which it has one or more registered ETRs. This means that the request has been forwarded to one of those ETRs to provide an answer to the querying ITR. MS-NOT-REGISTERED (3): indicates that the replying DDT Map-Server received a Map-Request for one of its configured XEID-prefixes that has no ETRs registered.
DELEGATION-HOLE (4): indicates that the requested XEID matches a non-delegated sub-prefix of the XEID space. This is a non-LISP "hole", which has not been delegated to any DDT Map-Server or ETR. See Section 7.1.2 for details. Also sent by a DDT Map-Server with authoritative configuration covering the requested EID but for which no specific site ETR is configured. NOT-AUTHORITATIVE (5): indicates that the replying DDT node received a Map-Request for an XEID for which it is not authoritative and has no configured matching hint referrals. This can occur if a cached referral has become invalid due to a change in the database hierarchy. However, if such a DDT node has a "hint" delegation covering the requested EID, it MAY choose to return NODE-REFERRAL or MS-REFERRAL as appropriate. When returning action code NOT-AUTHORITATIVE, the DDT node MUST provide the EID-prefix received in the request and the TTL MUST be set to 0. 6.2. Referral Set For "positive" action codes (NODE-REFERRAL, MS-REFERRAL, MS-ACK), a DDT node MUST include in the Map-Referral message a list of RLOCs for DDT nodes that are authoritative for the XEID-prefix being returned; a DDT client uses this information to contact one of those DDT nodes as it "follows" a referral. 6.3. "Incomplete" Flag A DDT node sets the "Incomplete" flag in a Map-Referral message if the Referral Set is incomplete; this is intended to prevent a DDT client from caching a referral with incomplete information. A DDT node MUST set the "Incomplete" flag in the following cases: o If it is setting action code MS-ACK or MS-NOT-REGISTERED but the matching XEID-prefix is not flagged as "complete" in the configuration. The XEID-prefix configuration on the DDT Map-Server SHOULD be marked as "complete" when the configuration of the XEID-prefix lists all "peer" DDT nodes that are also authoritative for the same XEID-prefix or when it is known that a local DDT node is the only authoritative node for the XEID-prefix. o If it is setting action code NOT-AUTHORITATIVE.
6.4. Map-Referral Message Format 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ |Type=6 | Reserved | Record Count | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Nonce . . . | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | . . . Nonce | +-> +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | | Record TTL | | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ R | Referral Count| EID mask-len | ACT |A|I| Reserved | e +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ c |SigCnt | Map Version Number | EID-AFI | o +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ r | EID-prefix ... | d +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | /| Priority | Weight | M Priority | M Weight | | R +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | e | Unused Flags |L|p|R| Loc-AFI | | f +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | \| Locator ... | | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | ~ Sig section ~ +-> +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ Type: Type value 6 was reserved for future use in [RFC6830]. This document allocates this value to identify Map-Referral messages. ACT: The ACT (Action) field of the mapping Record in a Map-Referral message encodes one of the following six action types: NODE-REFERRAL, MS-REFERRAL, MS-ACK, MS-NOT-REGISTERED, DELEGATION-HOLE, or NOT-AUTHORITATIVE. See Section 6.1 for descriptions of these action types.
Incomplete: The "I" bit indicates that a DDT node's Referral Set of locators is incomplete and the receiver of this message SHOULD NOT cache the referral. A DDT sets the "Incomplete" flag, the TTL, and the Action field as follows: ------------------------------------------------------------------- Type (Action field) Incomplete Referral Set TTL values ------------------------------------------------------------------- 0 NODE-REFERRAL No Yes 1440 1 MS-REFERRAL No Yes 1440 2 MS-ACK * * 1440 3 MS-NOT-REGISTERED * * 1 4 DELEGATION-HOLE No No 15 5 NOT-AUTHORITATIVE Yes No 0 ------------------------------------------------------------------- *: The "Incomplete" flag setting for the Map-Server-originated referral of MS-ACK and MS-NOT-REGISTERED types depends on whether the Map-Server has the full peer Map-Server configuration for the same prefix and has encoded the information in the mapping Record. The "Incomplete" bit is not set when the Map-Server has encoded the information; this means that the Referral Set includes all the RLOCs of all Map-Servers that serve the prefix. It MUST be set when the configuration of the Map-Server does not flag the matching prefix as configured with the complete information about "peer" Map-Servers or when the Map-Server does not return all configured locators. Referral Count: Number of RLOCs in the current Referral Set. This number is equal to the number of "Ref" sections in the message (as shown in the diagram above). SigCnt: Indicates the number of signatures (Signature section) present in the Record. If SigCnt is larger than 0, the signature information captured in a Signature section as described in Section 6.4.1 will be appended to the end of the Record. The number of Signature sections at the end of the Record MUST match the SigCnt. Note that bits occupied by SigCnt were marked as "Reserved" in Records embedded into messages defined by [RFC6830] and were required to be set to zero.
Loc-AFI: AFI of the Locator field. If the AFI value is different from the LISP Canonical Address Format (LCAF) AFI, security keys are not included in the Record. If the AFI value is equal to the LCAF AFI, the contents of the LCAF depend on the Type field of the LCAF. LCAF Type 11 is used to store security material along with the AFI of the locator. DDT nodes and DDT Map-Servers can use this LCAF Type to include public keys associated with their child DDT nodes for an XEID-prefix Map-Referral Record. LCAF Types and formats are defined in [RFC8060]. Locator: RLOC of a DDT node to which the DDT client is being referred. This is a variable-length field; its length is determined by the Loc-AFI setting. All other fields and their descriptions are equivalent to those in the Map-Reply message, as defined in LISP [RFC6830]. Note, though, that the set of RLOCs correspond to the DDT node to be queried as a result of the referral and not to the RLOCs for an actual EID-to-RLOC mapping. 6.4.1. Signature Section SigCnt counts the number of signature sections that appear at the end of the Record. The format of the signature section is described below. +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ /| Original Record TTL | / +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ / | Signature Expiration | | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ s | Signature Inception | i +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ g | Key Tag | Sig Length | | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ \ | Sig-Algorithm | Reserved | Reserved | \ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ \ ~ Signature ~ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ Original Record TTL: The original Record TTL for this Record that is covered by the signature. The Record TTL value is specified in minutes.
Signature Expiration and Signature Inception: Specify the validity period for the signature. The signature MUST NOT be used for authentication prior to the inception date and MUST NOT be used for authentication after the expiration date. Each field specifies a date and time in the form of a 32-bit unsigned number of seconds elapsed since 1 January 1970 00:00:00 UTC, ignoring leap seconds, in network byte order. Key Tag: An identifier to specify which key is used for this signature if more than one valid key exists for the signing DDT node. Sig Length: The length of the Signature field in bytes. Sig-Algorithm: The identifier of the cryptographic algorithm used for the signature. Sig-Algorithm values defined in this specification are listed in Table 1. Implementations conforming to this specification MUST implement at least RSA-SHA256 for DDT signing. Sig-Algorithm type 1 (RSA-SHA1) is deprecated and SHOULD NOT be used. +---------------+------------+-----------+------------+ | Sig-Algorithm | Name | Reference | Notes | +---------------+------------+-----------+------------+ | 1 | RSA-SHA1 | [RFC8017] | DEPRECATED | | | | | | | 2 | RSA-SHA256 | [RFC8017] | MANDATORY | +---------------+------------+-----------+------------+ Table 1: Sig-Algorithm Values Reserved: MUST be set to 0 on transmit and MUST be ignored on receipt. Signature: Contains the cryptographic signature that covers the entire Map-Referral Record to which this signature belongs. For the purpose of computing the signature, the Record TTL (Section 6.4) value is set to the value of Original Record TTL and the Signature field is filled with zeros.
7. DDT Network Elements and Their Operation As described above, LISP-DDT introduces a new network element -- the DDT node -- and extends the functionality of Map-Servers and Map-Resolvers to send and receive Map-Referral messages. The operation of each of these devices is described below. 7.1. DDT Node When a DDT node receives a DDT Map-Request, it compares the requested XEID against its list of XEID-prefix delegations and its list of authoritative XEID-prefixes, and proceeds as follows: 7.1.1. Matching of a Delegated Prefix (or Sub-prefix) If the requested XEID matches one of the DDT node's delegated prefixes, then a Map-Referral message is returned with the matching more-specific XEID-prefix and the set of RLOCs for the referral target DDT nodes, including associated security information (see Section 10 for details on security). If at least one DDT node of the delegation is known to be a DDT Map-Server, then the Map-Referral message SHOULD be sent with action code MS-REFERRAL to indicate to the receiver that LISP-SEC information (if saved in the pending request) SHOULD be included in the next DDT Map-Request; otherwise, the action code NODE-REFERRAL SHOULD be used. Note that a matched delegation does not have to be for a sub-prefix of an authoritative prefix; in addition to being configured to delegate sub-prefixes of an authoritative prefix, a DDT node may also be configured with other XEID-prefixes for which it can provide referrals to DDT nodes anywhere in the database hierarchy. This capability to define "shortcut hints" is never required to be configured, but it may be a useful heuristic for reducing the number of iterations needed to find an EID, particularly for private network deployments. Referral hints, if used properly, may reduce the number of referrals a DDT client needs to follow to locate a DDT Map-Server authoritative for the XEID-prefix being resolved. On the other hand, the incorrect use of hints may create circular dependencies (or "referral loops") between DDT nodes. A DDT client MUST be prepared to handle such circular referrals. See Section 7.3.4 for a discussion of referral loops and measures that the DDT client must implement in order to detect circular referrals and prevent infinite looping. Another danger related to the use of hints is when a DDT deployment spans multiple administrative domains (i.e., different authorities manage DDT nodes in the same DDT database). In this case, an
operator managing a DDT node may not be aware of the fact that the node is being referred to by hints. Locator addresses in hints may become stale when referred DDT nodes are taken out of service or change their locator addresses. 7.1.2. Missing Delegation from an Authoritative Prefix If the requested XEID did not match a configured delegation but does match an authoritative XEID-prefix, then the DDT node MUST return a Negative Map-Referral that uses the least-specific XEID-prefix that does not match any XEID-prefix delegated by the DDT node. The action code is set to DELEGATION-HOLE; this indicates that the XEID is not a LISP destination. If the requested XEID did not match either a configured delegation, an authoritative XEID-prefix, or a hint, then a Negative Map-Referral with action code NOT-AUTHORITATIVE MUST be returned. 7.2. DDT Map-Server When a DDT Map-Server receives a DDT Map-Request, its operation is similar to that of a DDT node, with additional processing as follows: o If the requested XEID matches a registered XEID-prefix, then the Map-Request is forwarded to one of the destination ETR RLOCs (or the Map-Server sends a Map-Reply, if it is providing a proxy Map-Reply service), and a Map-Referral with action code MS-ACK MUST be returned to the sender of the DDT Map-Request. o If the requested XEID matches a configured XEID-prefix for which no ETR registration has been received, then a Negative Map-Referral with action code MS-NOT-REGISTERED MUST be returned to the sender of the DDT Map-Request. 7.3. DDT Client A DDT client queries one or more DDT nodes and uses an iterative process of following returned referrals until it receives one with action code MS-ACK (or an error indication). MS-ACK indicates that the Map-Request has been sent to a Map-Server that will forward it to an ETR that, in turn, will provide a Map-Reply to the locator address in the Map-Request. DDT client functionality will typically be implemented by DDT Map-Resolvers. Just as would any other Map-Resolver, a DDT Map-Resolver accepts Map-Requests from its clients (typically ITRs) and ensures that those Map-Requests are forwarded to the correct ETR, which generates Map-Replies. However, unlike a Map-Resolver that
uses the LISP Alternative Logical Topology (LISP+ALT) mapping system [RFC6836], a DDT Map-Resolver implements DDT client functionality to find the correct ETR to answer a Map-Request; this requires a DDT Map-Resolver to maintain additional state: a Map-Referral cache and a pending request list of XEIDs that are going through the iterative referral process. DDT client functionality may be implemented on ITRs. In this case, the DDT client will not receive a Map-Request from another network element; instead, equivalent information will be provided to the DDT client via a programming interface. 7.3.1. Queuing and Sending DDT Map-Requests When a DDT client receives a request to resolve an XEID (in the case of a DDT Map-Resolver, this will be in the form of a received Encapsulated Map-Request), it first performs a longest-match search for the XEID in its referral cache. If no match is found or if a negative cache entry is found, then the destination is not in the database; a Negative Map-Reply MUST be returned, and no further processing is performed by the DDT client. If a match is found, the DDT client creates a pending request list entry for the XEID and saves the original request (in the case of a DDT Map-Resolver, this will be the original Map-Request minus the encapsulation header) along with other information needed to track progress through the iterative referral process; the "referral XEID-prefix" is also initialized to indicate that no referral has yet been received. The DDT client then creates a DDT Map-Request (which is an Encapsulated Map-Request with the "DDT-originated" flag set in the message header) for the XEID but without any authentication data that may have been included in the original request. It sends the DDT Map-Request to one of the RLOCs in the chosen referral cache entry. The referral cache is initially populated with one or more statically configured entries; additional entries are added when referrals are followed, as described below. A DDT client is not absolutely required to cache referrals, but doing so will decrease latency and reduce lookup delays. Note that in normal use on the public Internet, the statically configured initial referral cache for a DDT client should include a "default" entry with RLOCs for either the root DDT node or one or more DDT nodes that contain hints for the root DDT node. If a DDT client does not have such a configuration, it will return a Negative Map-Reply if it receives a query for an EID outside the subset of the mapping database known to it. While this may be desirable on private network deployments or during early transition to LISP when few sites are using it, this behavior is not appropriate when LISP is in
general use on the Internet. If DDT message exchanges are authenticated as described in Section 10, then the DDT client MUST also be configured with public keys of DDT nodes pointed to by the "default" cache entry. In this case, the "default" entry will typically be for the root DDT node. 7.3.2. Receiving and Following Referrals After sending a DDT Map-Request, a DDT client expects to receive a Map-Referral response. If none occurs within the timeout period, the DDT client retransmits the request, sending it to the next RLOC in the referral cache entry if one is available. If all RLOCs have been tried and the maximum number of retransmissions has occurred for each, then the pending request list entry is dequeued and discarded. In this case, the DDT client returns no response to the sender of the original request. A DDT client processes a received Map-Referral message according to each action code: NODE-REFERRAL: The DDT client checks for a possible referral loop as described in Section 7.3.4. If no loop is found, the DDT client saves the prefix returned in the Map-Referral message in the referral cache, updates the saved prefix and saved RLOCs in the pending request list entry, and follows the referral by sending a new DDT Map-Request to one of the DDT node RLOCs listed in the Referral Set; security information saved with the original Map-Request SHOULD NOT be included. MS-REFERRAL: The DDT client processes an MS-REFERRAL in the same manner as a NODE-REFERRAL, except that security information saved with the original Map-Request MUST be included in the new Map-Request sent to a Map-Server (see Section 10 for details on security). MS-ACK: An MS-ACK is returned by a DDT Map-Server to indicate that it has one or more registered ETRs that can answer a Map-Request for the XEID and the request has been forwarded to one of them (or, if the Map-Server is providing a proxy service for the prefix, then a reply has been sent to the querying ITR). If the pending request did not include saved LISP-SEC information or if that information was already included in the previous DDT Map-Request (sent by the DDT client in response to either an MS-REFERRAL or a previous MS-ACK referral), then the pending request for the XEID is complete; processing of the request stops, and all request state can be discarded. Otherwise, LISP-SEC information is required and has not yet been sent to the authoritative DDT Map-Server; the DDT client MUST resend the DDT
Map-Request with LISP-SEC information included, and the pending request queue entry remains until another Map-Referral with action code MS-ACK is received. If the "Incomplete" flag is not set, the prefix is saved in the referral cache. MS-NOT-REGISTERED: The DDT Map-Server queried could not process the request because it did not have any ETRs registered for a matching, authoritative XEID-prefix. If the DDT client has not yet tried all of the RLOCs saved with the pending request, then it sends a Map-Request to the next RLOC in that list. If all RLOCs have been tried, then the destination XEID is not registered and is unreachable. The DDT client MUST return a Negative Map-Reply to the requester (or, in the case of a DDT Map-Resolver, to the sender of the original Map-Request). This Map-Reply contains the least-specific XEID-prefix in the range for which this DDT Map-Server is authoritative and in which no registrations exist. The TTL value of the Negative Map-Reply SHOULD be set to 1 minute. A negative referral cache entry is created for the prefix (whose TTL also SHOULD be set to 1 minute), and processing of the request stops. DELEGATION-HOLE: The DDT Map-Server queried did not have an XEID-prefix defined that matched the requested XEID, so the XEID does not exist in the mapping database. The DDT client MUST return a Negative Map-Reply to the requester (or, in the case of a DDT Map-Resolver, to the sender of the original Map-Request); this Map-Reply SHOULD indicate the least-specific XEID-prefix matching the requested XEID for which no delegations exist and SHOULD have a TTL value of 15 minutes. A negative referral cache entry is created for the prefix (which also SHOULD have a TTL of 15 minutes), and processing of the pending request stops. NOT-AUTHORITATIVE: The DDT Map-Server queried is not authoritative for the requested XEID. This can occur if a cached referral has become invalid due to a change in the database hierarchy. If the DDT client receiving this message can determine that it is using old cached information, it MAY choose to delete that cached information and retry the original Map-Request, starting from its "root" cache entry. If this action code is received in response to a query that did not use cached referral information, then it indicates a database synchronization problem or configuration error. The pending request is silently discarded; i.e., all state for the request that caused this answer is removed, and no answer is returned to the original requester.
7.3.3. Handling Referral Errors Other states are possible, such as a misconfigured DDT node (acting as a proxy Map-Server, for example) returning a Map-Reply to the DDT client; they should be considered errors and logged as such. It is not clear exactly what else the DDT client should do in such cases; one possibility is to remove the pending request list entry and send a Negative Map-Reply to the requester (or, in the case of a DDT Map-Resolver, to the sender of the original Map-Request). Alternatively, if a DDT client detects unexpected behavior by a DDT node, it could mark that node as unusable in its referral cache and update the pending request to try a different DDT node if more than one is listed in the referral cache. In any case, any prefix contained in a Map-Referral message that causes a referral error (including a referral loop) is not saved in the DDT client referral cache. 7.3.4. Referral Loop Detection In response to a Map-Referral message with action code NODE-REFERRAL or MS-REFERRAL, a DDT client is directed to query a new set of DDT node RLOCs that are expected to have more-specific XEID-prefix information for the requested XEID. To prevent a possible "iteration loop" (following referrals back and forth among a set of DDT nodes without ever finding an answer), a DDT client saves the last received referral XEID-prefix for each pending request and checks to see if a newly received NODE-REFERRAL or MS-REFERRAL message contains a more-specific referral XEID-prefix; an exact or less-specific match of the saved XEID-prefix indicates a referral loop. If a loop is detected, the DDT Map-Resolver handles the request as described in Section 7.3.3. Otherwise, the DDT client saves the most recently received referral XEID-prefix with the pending request when it follows the referral. As an extra measure to prevent referral loops, it is probably also wise to limit the total number of referrals for any request to some reasonable number; the exact value of that number will be determined during experimental deployment of LISP-DDT but is bounded by the maximum length of the XEID. Note that when a DDT client adds an entry to its lookup queue and sends an initial Map-Request for an XEID, the queue entry has no previous referral XEID-prefix; this means that the first DDT node contacted by a DDT Map-Resolver may provide a referral to anywhere in the DDT hierarchy. This, in turn, allows a DDT client to use essentially any DDT node RLOCs for its initial cache entries and
depend on the initial referral to provide a good starting point for Map-Requests; there is no need to configure the same set of root DDT nodes on all DDT clients.