tech-invite   World Map     

3GPP     Specs     Glossaries     Architecture     IMS     UICC       IETF     RFCs     Groups     SIP     ABNFs       Search

RFC 8060

Experimental
Pages: 36
Top     in Index     Prev     Next
in Group Index     Prev in Group     Next in Group     Group: LISP

LISP Canonical Address Format (LCAF)

Part 1 of 2, p. 1 to 19
None       Next Section

 


Top       ToC       Page 1 
Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)                      D. Farinacci
Request for Comments: 8060                                   lispers.net
Category: Experimental                                          D. Meyer
ISSN: 2070-1721                                                  Brocade
                                                             J. Snijders
                                                                     NTT
                                                           February 2017


                  LISP Canonical Address Format (LCAF)

Abstract

   This document defines a canonical address format encoding used in
   Locator/ID Separation Protocol (LISP) control messages and in the
   encoding of lookup keys for the LISP Mapping Database System.

Status of This Memo

   This document is not an Internet Standards Track specification; it is
   published for examination, experimental implementation, and
   evaluation.

   This document defines an Experimental Protocol for the Internet
   community.  This document is a product of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  It represents the consensus of the IETF
   community.  It has received public review and has been approved for
   publication by the Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG).  Not
   all documents approved by the IESG are a candidate for any level of
   Internet Standard; see Section 2 of RFC 7841.

   Information about the current status of this document, any errata,
   and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at
   http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8060.

[Page 2] 
Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2017 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Top       Page 3 
Table of Contents

   1. Introduction ....................................................4
   2. Terminology .....................................................5
      2.1. Requirements Language ......................................5
      2.2. Definition of Terms ........................................5
   3. LISP Canonical Address Format Encodings .........................6
   4. LISP Canonical Address Applications .............................8
      4.1. Segmentation Using LISP ....................................8
      4.2. Carrying AS Numbers in the Mapping Database ................9
      4.3. Assigning Geo-Coordinates to Locator Addresses ............10
      4.4. NAT Traversal Scenarios ...................................11
      4.5. Multicast Group Membership Information ....................13
      4.6. Traffic Engineering Using Re-encapsulating Tunnels ........15
      4.7. Storing Security Data in the Mapping Database .............16
      4.8. Source/Destination 2-Tuple Lookups ........................17
      4.9. Replication List Entries for Multicast Forwarding .........18
      4.10. Applications for AFI List LCAF Type ......................19
           4.10.1. Binding IPv4 and IPv6 Addresses ...................19
           4.10.2. Layer 2 VPNs ......................................20
           4.10.3. ASCII Names in the Mapping Database ...............21
           4.10.4. Using Recursive LISP Canonical Address Encodings ..22
           4.10.5. Compatibility Mode Use Case .......................23
   5. Experimental LISP Canonical Address Applications ...............24
      5.1. Convey Application-Specific Data ..........................24
      5.2. Generic Database Mapping Lookups ..........................25
      5.3. PETR Admission Control Functionality ......................26
      5.4. Data Model Encoding .......................................27
      5.5. Encoding Key/Value Address Pairs ..........................28
      5.6. Multiple Data-Planes ......................................29
   6. Security Considerations ........................................31
   7. IANA Considerations ............................................31
   8. References .....................................................32
      8.1. Normative References ......................................32
      8.2. Informative References ....................................33
   Acknowledgments ...................................................35
   Authors' Addresses ................................................36

Top      ToC       Page 4 
1.  Introduction

   The LISP architecture and protocol [RFC6830] introduces two new
   numbering spaces: Endpoint Identifiers (EIDs) and Routing Locators
   (RLOCs).  To provide flexibility for current and future applications,
   these values can be encoded in LISP control messages using a general
   syntax that includes Address Family Identifier (AFI), length, and
   value fields.

   Currently defined AFIs include IPv4 and IPv6 addresses, which are
   formatted according to code-points assigned in the "Address Family
   Numbers" registry [AFN] as follows:

   IPv4-Encoded Address:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |            AFI = 1            |       IPv4 Address ...        |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     ...  IPv4 Address         |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   IPv6-Encoded Address:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |            AFI = 2            |       IPv6 Address ...        |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                     ...  IPv6 Address  ...                    |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                     ...  IPv6 Address  ...                    |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                     ...  IPv6 Address  ...                    |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     ...  IPv6 Address         |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   This document describes the currently defined AFIs that LISP uses
   along with their encodings and introduces the LISP Canonical Address
   Format (LCAF) that can be used to define the LISP-specific encodings
   for arbitrary AFI values.

   Specific detailed uses for the LCAF Types defined in this document
   can be found in the use-case documents that implement them.  The same
   LCAF Type may be used by more than one use-case document.  As an
   Experimental specification, this work is, by definition, incomplete.

Top      ToC       Page 5 
   The LCAF Types defined in this document are to support
   experimentation and are intended for cautious use in self-contained
   environments in support of the corresponding use-case documents.
   This document provides assignment for an initial set of approved LCAF
   Types (registered with IANA) and additional unapproved LCAF Types
   [RFC6830].  The unapproved LCAF encodings are defined to support
   further study and experimentation.

2.  Terminology

2.1.  Requirements Language

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

2.2.  Definition of Terms

   Address Family Identifier (AFI):  a term used to describe an address
      encoding in a packet.  Address families are defined for IPv4 and
      IPv6.  See [AFN] and [RFC3232] for details.  The reserved AFI
      value of 0 is used in this specification to indicate an
      unspecified encoded address where the length of the address is 0
      bytes following the 16-bit AFI value of 0.

   Unspecified Address Format:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |            AFI = 0            |      <no address follows>
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Endpoint ID (EID):  a 32-bit (for IPv4) or 128-bit (for IPv6) value
      used in the source and destination address fields of the first
      (most inner) LISP header of a packet.  The host obtains a
      destination EID the same way it obtains a destination address
      today, for example, through a DNS lookup or SIP exchange.  The
      source EID is obtained via existing mechanisms used to set a
      host's "local" IP address.  An EID is allocated to a host from an
      EID-prefix block associated with the site where the host is
      located.  An EID can be used by a host to refer to other hosts.

   Routing Locator (RLOC):  the IPv4 or IPv6 address of an Egress Tunnel
      Router (ETR).  It is the output of an EID-to-RLOC mapping lookup.
      An EID maps to one or more RLOCs.  Typically, RLOCs are numbered
      from topologically aggregatable blocks that are assigned to a site
      at each point to which it attaches to the global Internet; where

Top      ToC       Page 6 
      the topology is defined by the connectivity of provider networks,
      RLOCs can be thought of as Provider-Assigned (PA) addresses.
      Multiple RLOCs can be assigned to the same ETR device or to
      multiple ETR devices at a site.

3.  LISP Canonical Address Format Encodings

   IANA has assigned AFI value 16387 (0x4003) to the LISP Canonical
   Address Format (LCAF).  This specification defines the encoding
   format of the LISP Canonical Address (LCA).  This section defines all
   Types for which an initial allocation in the LISP-LCAF registry is
   requested.  See Section 7 for the complete list of such Types.

   The AFI definitions in [AFN] only allocate code-points for the AFI
   value itself.  The length of the address or entity that follows is
   not defined and is implied based on conventional experience.  When
   LISP uses LCAF definitions from this document, the AFI-based address
   lengths are specified in this document.  When new LCAF definitions
   are defined in other use-case documents, the AFI-based address
   lengths for any new AFI-encoded addresses are specified in those
   documents.

   The first 6 bytes of a LISP Canonical Address are followed by a
   variable number of fields of variable length:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |           AFI = 16387         |     Rsvd1     |     Flags     |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |    Type       |     Rsvd2     |            Length             |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                             . . .                             |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Rsvd1/Rsvd2:  these 8-bit fields are reserved for future use and MUST
      be transmitted as 0 and ignored on receipt.

   Flags:  this 8-bit field is for future definition and use.  For now,
      set to zero on transmission and ignored on receipt.

   Type:  this 8-bit field is specific to the LISP Canonical Address
      Format encodings.  Both approved and unapproved values are listed
      below.  Unapproved values are indicated; see Section 5 for more
      details.

Top      ToC       Page 7 
   Type 0:  Null Body

   Type 1:  AFI List

   Type 2:  Instance ID

   Type 3:  AS Number

   Type 4:  Application Data (unapproved; see Section 5)

   Type 5:  Geo-Coordinates

   Type 6:  Opaque Key (unapproved; see Section 5)

   Type 7:  NAT-Traversal

   Type 8:  Nonce Locator (unapproved; see Section 5)

   Type 9:  Multicast Info

   Type 10:  Explicit Locator Path

   Type 11:  Security Key

   Type 12:  Source/Dest Key

   Type 13:  Replication List Entry

   Type 14:  JSON Data Model (unapproved; see Section 5)

   Type 15:  Key/Value Address Pair (unapproved; see Section 5)

   Type 16:  Encapsulation Format (unapproved; see Section 5)

   Length:  this 16-bit field is in units of bytes and covers all of the
      LISP Canonical Address payload, starting and including the byte
      after the Length field.  When including the AFI, an LCAF-encoded
      address will have a minimum length of 8 bytes when the Length
      field is 0.  The 8 bytes include the AFI, Flags, Type, Rsvd1,
      Rsvd2, and Length fields.  When the AFI is not next to an encoded
      address in a control message, the encoded address will have a
      minimum length of 6 bytes when the Length field is 0.  The 6 bytes
      include the Flags, Type, Rsvd1, Rsvd2, and Length fields.

Top      ToC       Page 8 
   [RFC6830] states RLOC-records based on an IP address are sorted when
   encoded in control messages, so the locator-set has consistent order
   across all xTRs for a given EID.  The sort order is based on sort-key
   {afi, RLOC-address}.  When an RLOC based on an IP address is LCAF
   encoded, the sort-key is {afi, LCAF-Type}.  Therefore, when a
   locator-set has a mix of AFI records and LCAF records, they are
   ordered from smallest to largest AFI value.

4.  LISP Canonical Address Applications

   The following sections define the LCAF for the currently approved
   initial set of Type values.

4.1.  Segmentation Using LISP

   When multiple organizations inside of a LISP site are using private
   addresses [RFC1918] as EID prefixes, their address spaces must remain
   segregated due to possible address duplication.  An Instance ID in
   the address encoding can aid in making the entire AFI-based address
   unique.

   Another use for the Instance ID LISP Canonical Address Format is when
   creating multiple segmented VPNs inside of a LISP site where keeping
   EID-prefix-based subnets is desirable.

   Instance ID LISP Canonical Address Format:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |           AFI = 16387         |     Rsvd1     |     Flags     |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |   Type = 2    | IID mask-len  |            Length             |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                         Instance ID                           |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |              AFI = x          |         Address  ...          |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   IID mask-len:  if the AFI is set to 0, then this format is not
      encoding an extended EID prefix, but rather an Instance ID range
      where the 'IID mask-len' indicates the number of high-order bits
      used in the Instance ID field for the range.  The low-order bits
      of the Instance ID field must be 0.

   Length:  length in bytes starting and including the byte after this
      Length field.

Top      ToC       Page 9 
   Instance ID:  the low-order 24 bits that can go into a LISP data
      header when the I bit is set.  See [RFC6830] for details.  The
      reason for the length difference is so that the maximum number of
      instances supported per mapping system is 2^32, while conserving
      space in the LISP data header.  This comes at the expense of
      limiting the maximum number of instances per xTR to 2^24.  If an
      xTR is configured with multiple Instance IDs where the value in
      the high-order 8 bits is the same, then the low-order 24 bits MUST
      be unique.

   AFI = x:  x can be any AFI value from [AFN].

   This LISP Canonical Address Type can be used to encode either EID or
   RLOC addresses.

   Usage: When used as a lookup key, the EID is regarded as an extended-
   EID in the mapping system.  This encoding is used in EID-records in
   Map-Request, Map-Reply, Map-Register, and Map-Notify messages.  When
   LISP Delegated Database Tree (LISP-DDT) [LISP-DDT] is used as the
   mapping system mechanism, extended EIDs are used in Map-Referral
   messages.

4.2.  Carrying AS Numbers in the Mapping Database

   When an Autonomous System (AS) number is stored in the LISP Mapping
   Database System for either policy or documentation reasons, it can be
   encoded in a LISP Canonical Address.

   AS Number LISP Canonical Address Format:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |           AFI = 16387         |     Rsvd1     |     Flags     |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |   Type = 3    |     Rsvd2     |             Length            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                           AS Number                           |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |              AFI = x          |         Address  ...          |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Length:  length in bytes starting and including the byte after this
      Length field.

   AS Number:  the 32-bit AS number of the autonomous system that has
      been assigned to either the EID or RLOC that follows.

Top      ToC       Page 10 
   AFI = x:  x can be any AFI value from [AFN].

   The AS Number LCAF Type can be used to encode either EID or RLOC
   addresses.  The former is used to describe the LISP-ALT AS number the
   EID prefix for the site is being carried for.  The latter is used to
   describe the AS that is carrying RLOC based prefixes in the
   underlying routing system.

   Usage: This encoding can be used in EID-records or RLOC-records in
   Map-Request, Map-Reply, Map-Register, and Map-Notify messages.  When
   LISP-DDT [LISP-DDT] is used as the mapping system mechanism, extended
   EIDs are used in Map-Referral messages.

4.3.  Assigning Geo-Coordinates to Locator Addresses

   If an ETR desires to send a Map-Reply describing the Geo-Coordinates
   for each locator in its locator-set, it can use the Geo-Coordinates
   LCAF Type to convey physical location information.

   Coordinates are specified using the WGS 84 (World Geodetic System
   1984) reference coordinate system [WGS-84].

   Geo-Coordinates LISP Canonical Address Format:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |           AFI = 16387         |     Rsvd1     |     Flags     |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |   Type = 5    |     Rsvd2     |            Length             |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |N|     Latitude Degrees        |    Minutes    |    Seconds    |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |E|     Longitude Degrees       |    Minutes    |    Seconds    |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                            Altitude                           |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |              AFI = x          |         Address  ...          |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Length:  length in bytes starting and including the byte after this
      Length field.

   N: When set to 1 means north; otherwise, south.

   Latitude Degrees:  Valid values range from 0 to 90 degrees above or
      below the equator (northern or southern hemisphere, respectively).

Top      ToC       Page 11 
   Latitude Minutes:  Valid values range from 0 to 59.

   Latitude Seconds:  Valid values range from 0 to 59.

   E: When set to 1 means east; otherwise, west.

   Longitude Degrees:  Valid values are from 0 to 180 degrees right or
      left of the Prime Meridian.

   Longitude Minutes:  Valid values range from 0 to 59.

   Longitude Seconds:  Valid values range from 0 to 59.

   Altitude:  Height relative to sea level in meters.  This is a two's
      complement signed integer meaning that the altitude could be below
      sea level.  A value of 0x7fffffff indicates no Altitude value is
      encoded.

   AFI = x:  x can be any AFI value from [AFN].

   The Geo-Coordinates LCAF Type can be used to encode either EID or
   RLOC addresses.  When used for EID encodings, you can determine the
   physical location of an EID along with the topological location by
   observing the locator-set.

   Usage: This encoding can be used in EID-records or RLOC-records in
   Map-Request, Map-Reply, Map-Register, and Map-Notify messages.  When
   LISP-DDT [LISP-DDT] is used as the mapping system mechanism, extended
   EIDs are used in Map-Referral messages.

   The use of the Geo-Coordinates LCAF encoding raises privacy issues as
   location information is privacy sensitive, and possibly unexpectedly
   privacy-sensitive information may be conveyed, e.g., if the location
   information corresponds to a router located in a person's home.
   Therefore, this encoding should not be used unless needed for
   operation of a LISP deployment.  Before electing to utilize this
   encoding, care should be taken to ensure the appropriate policies are
   being used by the EID for controlling the conveyed information.

4.4.  NAT Traversal Scenarios

   When a LISP system is conveying global-address and mapped-port
   information when traversing through a NAT device, the NAT-Traversal
   LCAF Type is used.  See [NAT-LISP] for details.

Top      ToC       Page 12 
   NAT-Traversal Canonical Address Format:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |           AFI = 16387         |     Rsvd1     |     Flags     |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |   Type = 7    |     Rsvd2     |             Length            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |       MS UDP Port Number      |      ETR UDP Port Number      |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |              AFI = x          |  Global ETR RLOC Address  ... |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |              AFI = x          |       MS RLOC Address  ...    |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |              AFI = x          | Private ETR RLOC Address  ... |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |              AFI = x          |      RTR RLOC Address 1 ...   |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |              AFI = x          |      RTR RLOC Address k ...   |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Length:  length in bytes starting and including the byte after this
      Length field.

   MS UDP Port Number:  this is the UDP port number of the Map-Server
      and is set to 4342.

   ETR UDP Port Number:  this is the port number returned to a LISP
      system that was copied from the source port from a packet that has
      flowed through a NAT device.

   AFI = x:  x can be any AFI value from [AFN].

   Global ETR RLOC Address:  this is an address known to be globally
      unique built by NAT-traversal functionality in a LISP router.

   MS RLOC Address:  this is the address of the Map-Server used in the
      destination RLOC of a packet that has flowed through a NAT device.

   Private ETR RLOC Address:  this is an address known to be a private
      address inserted in this LCAF by a LISP router that resides on the
      private side of a NAT device.

   RTR RLOC Address:  this is an encapsulation address used by an
      Ingress Tunnel Router (ITR) or Proxy Ingress Tunnel Router (PITR)
      that resides behind a NAT device.  This address is known to have
      state in a NAT device so packets can flow from it to the LISP ETR

Top      ToC       Page 13 
      behind the NAT.  There can be one or more NAT Re-encapsulating
      Tunnel Router (RTR) [NAT-LISP] addresses supplied in these set of
      fields.  The number of RTRs encoded is determined by parsing each
      field.  When there are no RTRs supplied, the RTR fields can be
      omitted and reflected by the LCAF length field or an AFI of 0 can
      be used to indicate zero RTRs encoded.

   Usage: This encoding can be used in Info-Request and Info-Reply
   messages.  The mapping system does not store this information.  The
   information is used by an xTR and Map-Server to convey private and
   public address information when traversing NAT and firewall devices.

   Care should be taken to protect privacy against the adverse use of a
   Global or Private ETR RLOC Address by ensuring policy controls are
   used during EID registrations that use this LCAF Type in RLOC-
   records.  Refer to the use-case documents for additional information.

4.5.  Multicast Group Membership Information

   Multicast group information can be published in the mapping database.
   So a lookup on a group address EID can return a replication list of
   RLOC group addresses or RLOC unicast addresses.  The intent of this
   type of unicast replication is to deliver packets to multiple ETRs at
   receiver LISP multicast sites.  The locator-set encoding for this
   EID-record Type can be a list of ETRs when they each register with
   "Merge Semantics".  The encoding can be a typical AFI-encoded locator
   address.  When an RTR list is being registered (with multiple levels
   according to [LISP-RE]), the Replication List Entry LCAF Type is used
   for locator encoding.

   This LCAF encoding can be used to send broadcast packets to all
   members of a subnet when an EID is away from its home subnet
   location.

Top      ToC       Page 14 
   Multicast Info Canonical Address Format:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |           AFI = 16387         |     Rsvd1     |     Flags     |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |   Type = 9    |     Rsvd2     |             Length            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                         Instance ID                           |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |            Reserved           | Source MaskLen| Group MaskLen |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |              AFI = x          |   Source/Subnet Address  ...  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |              AFI = x          |       Group Address  ...      |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Length:  length in bytes starting and including the byte after this
      Length field.

   Reserved:  must be set to zero and ignored on receipt.

   Instance ID:  the low-order 24 bits that can go into a LISP data
      header when the I bit is set.  See [RFC6830] for details.  The use
      of the Instance ID in this LCAF Type is to associate a multicast
      forwarding entry for a given VPN.  The Instance ID describes the
      VPN and is registered to the mapping database system as a 3-tuple
      of (Instance ID, S-prefix, G-prefix).

   Source MaskLen:  the mask length of the source prefix that follows.
      The length is the number of high-order mask bits set.

   Group MaskLen:  the mask length of the group prefix that follows.
      The length is the number of high-order mask bits set.

   AFI = x:  x can be any AFI value from [AFN].  When a specific address
      family has a multicast address semantic, this field must be either
      a group address or a broadcast address.

   Source/Subnet Address:  the source address or prefix for encoding an
      (S,G) multicast entry.

   Group Address:  the group address or group prefix for encoding (S,G)
      or (*,G) multicast entries.

Top      ToC       Page 15 
   Usage: This encoding can be used in EID-records in Map-Request, Map-
   Reply, Map-Register, and Map-Notify messages.  When LISP-DDT
   [LISP-DDT] is used as the mapping system mechanism, extended EIDs are
   used in Map-Referral messages.

4.6.  Traffic Engineering Using Re-encapsulating Tunnels

   For a given EID lookup into the mapping database, this LCAF can be
   returned to provide a list of locators in an explicit
   re-encapsulation path.  See [LISP-TE] for details.

   Explicit Locator Path (ELP) Canonical Address Format:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |           AFI = 16387         |     Rsvd1     |     Flags     |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |   Type = 10   |     Rsvd2     |            Length             |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |           Rsvd3         |L|P|S|           AFI = x             |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                         Reencap Hop 1  ...                    |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |           Rsvd3         |L|P|S|           AFI = x             |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                         Reencap Hop k  ...                    |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Length:  length in bytes starting and including the byte after this
      Length field.

   Rsvd3:  this field is reserved for future use and MUST be transmitted
      as 0 and ignored on receipt.

   Lookup bit (L):  this is the Lookup bit used to indicate to the user
      of the ELP not to use this address for encapsulation but to look
      it up in the mapping database system to obtain an encapsulating
      RLOC address.

   RLOC Probe bit (P):  this is the RLOC Probe bit that means the
      Reencap Hop allows RLOC-probe messages to be sent to it.  When the
      R bit is set to 0, RLOC-probes must not be sent.  When a Reencap
      Hop is an anycast address then multiple physical Reencap Hops are
      using the same RLOC address.  In this case, RLOC-probes are not
      needed because when the closest RLOC address is not reachable,
      another RLOC address can be reachable.

Top      ToC       Page 16 
   Strict bit (S):  this is the Strict bit, which means the associated
      Reencap Hop is required to be used.  If this bit is 0, the
      re-encapsulator can skip this Reencap Hop and go to the next one
      in the list.

   AFI = x:  x can be any AFI value from [AFN].  When a specific AFI has
      its own encoding of a multicast address, this field must be either
      a group address or a broadcast address.

   Usage: This encoding can be used in RLOC-records in Map-Request, Map-
   Reply, Map-Register, and Map-Notify messages.  This encoding does not
   need to be understood by the mapping system for mapping database
   lookups, since this LCAF Type is not a lookup key.

4.7.  Storing Security Data in the Mapping Database

   When a locator in a locator-set has a security key associated with
   it, this LCAF will be used to encode key material.  See [LISP-DDT]
   for details.

   Security Key Canonical Address Format:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |           AFI = 16387         |     Rsvd1     |     Flags     |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |   Type = 11   |      Rsvd2    |             Length            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |   Key Count   |      Rsvd3    | Key Algorithm |   Rsvd4     |R|
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |           Key Length          |       Key Material ...        |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                        ... Key Material                       |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |              AFI = x          |       Locator Address ...     |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Length:  length in bytes starting and including the byte after this
      Length field.

   Key Count:  the Key Count field declares the number of Key sections
      included in this LCAF.  A Key section is made up of Key Length and
      Key Material fields.

   Rsvd3:  this field is reserved for future use and MUST be transmitted
      as 0 and ignored on receipt.

Top      ToC       Page 17 
   Key Algorithm:  the Key Algorithm field identifies the key's
      cryptographic algorithm and specifies the format of the Public Key
      field.  Refer to the [LISP-DDT] and [RFC8061] use cases for
      definitions of this field.

   Rsvd4:  this field is reserved for future use and MUST be transmitted
      as 0 and ignored on receipt.

   R bit:  this is the Revoke bit and, if set, it specifies that this
      key is being revoked.

   Key Length:  this field determines the length in bytes of the Key
      Material field.

   Key Material:  the Key Material field stores the key material.  The
      format of the key material stored depends on the Key Algorithm
      field.

   AFI = x:  x can be any AFI value from [AFN].  This is the locator
      address that owns the encoded security key.

   Usage: This encoding can be used in EID-records or RLOC-records in
   Map-Request, Map-Reply, Map-Register, and Map-Notify messages.  When
   LISP-DDT [LISP-DDT] is used as the mapping system mechanism, extended
   EIDs are used in Map-Referral messages.

4.8.  Source/Destination 2-Tuple Lookups

   When both a source and destination address of a flow need
   consideration for different locator-sets, this 2-tuple key is used in
   EID fields in LISP control messages.  When the Source/Dest key is
   registered to the mapping database, it can be encoded as a source-
   prefix and destination-prefix.  When the Source/Dest is used as a key
   for a mapping database lookup, the source and destination come from a
   data packet.

Top      ToC       Page 18 
   Source/Dest Key Canonical Address Format:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |           AFI = 16387         |     Rsvd1     |     Flags     |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |   Type = 12   |     Rsvd2     |             Length            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |            Reserved           |   Source-ML   |    Dest-ML    |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |              AFI = x          |         Source-Prefix ...     |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |              AFI = y          |     Destination-Prefix ...    |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Length:  length in bytes starting and including the byte after this
      Length field.

   Reserved:  must be set to zero and ignored on receipt.

   Source-ML:  the mask length of the source prefix that follows.  The
      length is the number of high-order mask bits set.

   Dest-ML:  the mask length of the destination prefix that follows.
      The length is the number of high-order mask bits set.

   AFI = x:  x can be any AFI value from [AFN].

   AFI = y:  y can be any AFI value from [AFN].  When a specific address
      family has a multicast address semantic, this field must be either
      a group address or a broadcast address.

   Usage: This encoding can be used in EID-records in Map-Request, Map-
   Reply, Map-Register, and Map-Notify messages.  When LISP-DDT
   [LISP-DDT] is used as the mapping system mechanism, extended EIDs are
   used in Map-Referral messages.  Refer to [LISP-TE] for usage details
   of this LCAF Type.

4.9.  Replication List Entries for Multicast Forwarding

   The Replication List Entry LCAF Type is an encoding for a locator
   being used for unicast replication according to the specification in
   [LISP-RE].  This locator encoding is pointed to by a Multicast Info
   LCAF Type and is registered by Re-encapsulating Tunnel Routers (RTRs)
   that are participating in an overlay distribution tree.  Each RTR
   will register its locator address and its configured level in the
   distribution tree.

Top      ToC       Page 19 
   Replication List Entry Canonical Address Format:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |           AFI = 16387         |     Rsvd1     |     Flags     |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |   Type = 13   |    Rsvd2      |             Length            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |              Rsvd3            |     Rsvd4     |  Level Value  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |              AFI = x          |           RTR/ETR #1 ...      |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |              Rsvd3            |     Rsvd4     |  Level Value  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |              AFI = x          |           RTR/ETR  #n ...     |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Length:  length in bytes starting and including the byte after this
      Length field.

   Rsvd3/Rsvd4:  must be set to zero and ignored on receipt.

   Level Value:  this value is associated with the level within the
      overlay distribution tree hierarchy where the RTR resides.  The
      level numbers are ordered from lowest value being close to the ITR
      (meaning that ITRs replicate to level-0 RTRs) and higher levels
      are further downstream on the distribution tree closer to ETRs of
      multicast receiver sites.

   AFI = x:  x can be any AFI value from [AFN].  A specific AFI has its
      own encoding of either a unicast or multicast locator address.
      For efficiency reasons, all RTR/ETR entries for the same level
      should be combined by a Map-Server to avoid searching through the
      entire multilevel list of locator entries in a Map-Reply message.

   Usage: This encoding can be used in RLOC-records in Map-Request, Map-
   Reply, Map-Register, and Map-Notify messages.



(page 19 continued on part 2)

Next Section