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RFC 7922

Informational
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Interface to the Routing System (I2RS) Traceability: Framework and Information Model

 


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Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)                         J. Clarke
Request for Comments: 7922                                  G. Salgueiro
Category: Informational                                     C. Pignataro
ISSN: 2070-1721                                                    Cisco
                                                               June 2016


                 Interface to the Routing System (I2RS)
             Traceability: Framework and Information Model

Abstract

   This document describes a framework for traceability in the Interface
   to the Routing System (I2RS) and the information model for that
   framework.  It specifies the motivation, requirements, and use cases,
   and defines an information model for recording interactions between
   elements implementing the I2RS protocol.  This framework provides a
   consistent tracing interface for components implementing the I2RS
   architecture to record what was done, by which component, and when.
   It aims to improve the management of I2RS implementations, and can be
   used for troubleshooting, auditing, forensics, and accounting
   purposes.

Status of This Memo

   This document is not an Internet Standards Track specification; it is
   published for informational purposes.

   This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force
   (IETF).  It represents the consensus of the IETF community.  It has
   received public review and has been approved for publication by the
   Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG).  Not all documents
   approved by the IESG are a candidate for any level of Internet
   Standard; see Section 2 of RFC 7841.

   Information about the current status of this document, any errata,
   and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at
   http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7922.

[Page 2] 
Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2016 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1. Introduction ....................................................3
   2. Terminology and Conventions .....................................3
   3. Motivation ......................................................4
   4. Use Cases .......................................................4
   5. Information Model ...............................................5
      5.1. I2RS Traceability Framework ................................5
      5.2. I2RS Trace Log Fields ......................................7
      5.3. End of Message Marker .....................................11
   6. Examples .......................................................11
   7. Operational Guidance ...........................................11
      7.1. Trace Log Creation ........................................12
      7.2. Trace Log Temporary Storage ...............................12
      7.3. Trace Log Rotation ........................................13
      7.4. Trace Log Retrieval .......................................13
           7.4.1. Retrieval via Syslog ...............................14
           7.4.2. Retrieval via I2RS Information Collection ..........14
           7.4.3. Retrieval via I2RS Pub/Sub .........................14
   8. Security Considerations ........................................15
   9. References .....................................................16
      9.1. Normative References ......................................16
      9.2. Informative References ....................................16
   Acknowledgments ...................................................17
   Authors' Addresses ................................................17

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1.  Introduction

   The architecture for the Interface to the Routing System [RFC7921]
   specifies that I2RS clients wishing to retrieve or change the routing
   state on a routing element MUST authenticate to an I2RS agent.  The
   I2RS client will have a unique identity it provides for
   authentication, and should provide another opaque identity for
   applications communicating through it.  The programming of routing
   state will produce a return code containing the results of the
   specified operation and associated reason(s) for the result.  All of
   this is critical information to be used for understanding the history
   of I2RS interactions.

   This document defines the framework necessary to trace those
   interactions between the I2RS client and I2RS agent.  It goes on to
   describe use cases for traceability within I2RS.  Based on these use
   cases, the document proposes an information model and reporting
   requirements to provide for effective recording of I2RS interactions.
   In this context, effective troubleshooting means being able to
   identify what operation was performed by a specific I2RS client via
   the I2RS agent, what was the result of the operation, and when that
   operation was performed.

2.  Terminology and Conventions

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

   The architecture specification for I2RS [RFC7921] defines additional
   terms used in this document that are specific to the I2RS domain,
   such as "I2RS agent", "I2RS client", etc.  The reader is expected to
   be familiar with the terminology and concepts defined in [RFC7921].

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3.  Motivation

   As networks scale and policy becomes an increasingly important part
   of the control plane that creates and maintains the forwarding state,
   operational complexity increases as well.  I2RS offers more granular
   and coherent control over policy and control-plane state, but it also
   removes or reduces the locality of the policy that has been applied
   to the control plane at any individual forwarding device.  The
   ability to automate and abstract even complex policy-based controls
   highlights the need for an equally scalable traceability function to
   provide recording at event-level granularity of the evolution of the
   routing system compliant with the requirements of I2RS (Section 5 of
   [RFC7920]).

4.  Use Cases

   An obvious motivation for I2RS traceability is the need to
   troubleshoot and identify root causes of problems in these
   increasingly complex routing systems.  For example, since I2RS is a
   high-throughput multi-channel, full duplex, and highly responsive
   interface, I2RS clients may be performing a large number of
   operations on I2RS agents concurrently or at nearly the same time and
   quite possibly in very rapid succession.  As these many changes are
   made, the network reacts accordingly.  These changes might lead to a
   race condition, performance issues, data loss, or disruption of
   services.  In order to isolate the root cause of these issues, it is
   critical that a network operator or administrator has visibility into
   what changes were made via I2RS at a specific time.

   Some network environments have strong auditing requirements for
   configuration and runtime changes.  Other environments have policies
   that require saving logging information for operational or regulatory
   compliance considerations.  These requirements therefore demand that
   I2RS provides an account of changes made to network element routing
   systems.

   As I2RS becomes increasingly pervasive in routing environments, a
   traceability model that supports controllable trace log retention
   using a standardized structured data format offers significant
   advantages, such as the ability to create common tools supporting
   automated testing, and facilitates the following use cases:

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   o  real-time monitoring and troubleshooting of router events;

   o  automated event correlation, trend analysis, and anomaly
      detection;

   o  offline (manual or tools-based) analysis of router state evolution
      from the retained trace logs;

   o  enhanced network audit, management, and forensic analysis
      capabilities;

   o  improved accounting of routing system operations; and

   o  providing a standardized format for incident reporting and test
      logging.

5.  Information Model

   These sections describe the I2RS traceability information model and
   the details about each of the fields to be logged.

5.1.  I2RS Traceability Framework

   This section describes a framework for I2RS traceability based on the
   I2RS Architecture.

   The interaction between the optional network application that drives
   client activity, I2RS client, I2RS agent, the Routing System, and the
   data captured in the I2RS trace log is shown in Figure 1.

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              +---------------+
         +----------------+   |
         |Application     |   |
         |..............  |   |  0 or more Applications
         | Application ID |   +
         +----------------+
                ^
                |
                |
                v
             +-------------+
         +-------------+   |
         |I2RS Client  |   |
         |.............|   |  1 or more Clients
         |  Client ID  |   +
         +-------------+
                ^
                |
                |
                v
         +-------------+                 +-----------------------------+
         |I2RS Agent   |---------------->|Trace Log                    |
         |             |                 |.............................|
         +-------------+                 |Log Entry  [1 .. N]          |
               |  ^                      |.............................|
               |  |                      |Event ID                     |
               |  |                      |Starting Timestamp           |
               |  |                      |Request State                |
               |  |                      |Client ID                    |
               |  |                      |Client Priority              |
               |  |                      |Secondary ID                 |
   Operation + |  | Result Code          |Client Address               |
    Op Data    |  |                      |Requested Operation          |
               |  |                      |Applied Operation            |
               |  |                      |Operation Data Present       |
               |  |                      |Requested Operation Data     |
               |  |                      |Applied Operation Data       |
               |  |                      |Transaction ID               |
               |  |                      |Result Code                  |
               |  |                      |Ending Timestamp             |
               |  |                      |Timeout Occurred             |
               v  |                      |End Of Message               |
         +-------------+                 +-----------------------------+
         |Routing      |
         |System       |
         +-------------+

               Figure 1: I2RS Interaction Trace Log Capture

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5.2.  I2RS Trace Log Fields

   The following fields comprise an I2RS trace log.  These fields ensure
   that each I2RS interaction can be properly traced back to the client
   that made the request at a specific point in time.

   The list below describes the fields captured in the I2RS trace log.
   This list represents a common set of fields that MUST appear in all
   I2RS trace logs.  In addition to these fields, I2RS agent
   implementations MAY choose to log additional fields such as I2RS
   client vendor or agent statistics like free memory, performance
   metrics, etc.

   Event ID:   This is a unique identifier for each event in the I2RS
      trace log.  An event can be a client authenticating with the
      agent, a client to agent operation, or a client disconnecting from
      an agent.  Operation events can either be logged atomically upon
      completion (in which case they will have both a Starting and an
      Ending Timestamp field) or they can be logged at the beginning of
      each Request State transition.  Since operations can occur from
      the same client at the same time, it is important to have an
      identifier that can be unambiguously associated to a specific
      entry.  If each state transition is logged for an operation, the
      same ID MUST be used for each of the Request State log entries.
      In this way, the life of a request can be easily followed in the
      I2RS trace log.  Beyond the requirement that the Event ID MUST be
      unique for each event, the specific type and value is left up to
      the implementation.

   Starting Timestamp:   The specific time at which the I2RS operation
      enters the specified Request State within the agent.  If the log
      entry covers the entire duration of the request, then this will be
      the time that it was first received by the agent.  This field MUST
      be present in all entries that specify the beginning of the state
      transition, as well as those entries that log the entire duration
      of the request.  The time is passed in the full timestamp format
      [RFC3339], including the date and offset from Coordinated
      Universal Time (UTC).  Given that many I2RS operations can occur
      in rapid succession, the fractional seconds element of the
      timestamp MUST be used to provide adequate granularity.
      Fractional seconds SHOULD be expressed with at least three
      significant digits in second.microsecond format.

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   Request State:   The state of the given operation within the I2RS
      agent state machine at the specified Starting or Ending
      Timestamps.  The I2RS agent SHOULD generate a log entry at the
      moment a request enters and exits a state.  Upon entering a new
      state, the log entry will have a Starting Timestamp set to the
      time of entry and no Ending Timestamp.  Upon exiting a state, the
      log entry will have an Ending Timestamp set to the time of exit
      and no Starting Timestamp.  The progression of the request through
      its various states can be linked using the Event ID.  The states
      can be one of the following values:

         PENDING: The request has been received and queued for
         processing.

         IN PROCESS: The request is currently being handled by the I2RS
         agent.

         COMPLETED: The request has reached a terminal point.

      Every state transition SHOULD be logged unless doing so will put
      an undue performance burden on the I2RS agent.  However, an entry
      with the Request State set to COMPLETED MUST be logged for all
      operations.  If the COMPLETED state is the only entry for a given
      request, then it MUST have both Starting and Ending Timestamps
      that cover the entire duration of the request from ingress to the
      agent until completion.

   Client Identity:   The I2RS client identity used to authenticate the
      client to the I2RS agent.

   Client Priority:   The I2RS client priority assigned by the access
      control model that authenticates the client.  For example, this
      can be set by the Network Configuration Protocol (NETCONF) Access
      Control Model (NACM) as described in [RFC6536].

   Secondary Identity:   This is an opaque identity that may be known to
      the client from a controlling network application.  This is used
      to trace the network application driving the actions of the
      client.  The client may not provide this identity to the agent if
      there is no external network application driving the client.
      However, this field MUST be logged even if the client does not
      provide a Secondary Identity.  In that case, the field will be
      logged with an empty value.

   Client Address:   This is the network address of the client that
      connected to the agent.  For example, this may be an IPv4 or an
      IPv6 address.

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   Requested Operation:   This is the I2RS operation that was requested
      to be performed.  For example, this may be an add route operation
      if a route is being inserted into a routing table.  This may not
      be the operation that was actually applied to the agent.

      In the case of a client authenticating to the agent, the Requested
      Operation MUST be "CLIENT AUTHENTICATE".  In the case of a client
      disconnecting from the agent, the Requested Operation MUST be
      "CLIENT DISCONNECT".

   Applied Operation:   This is the I2RS operation that was actually
      performed.  This can differ from the Requested Operation in cases
      where the agent cannot satisfy the Requested Operation.  This
      field may not be logged unless the Request State is COMPLETED.

   Operation Data Present:   This is a Boolean field that indicates
      whether or not additional per-Operation Data is present.

   Requested Operation Data:   This field comprises the data passed to
      the agent to complete the desired operation.  For example, if the
      operation is a route add operation, the Operation Data would
      include the route prefix, prefix length, and next-hop information
      to be inserted as well as the specific routing table to which the
      route will be added.  If Operation Data is provided, then the
      Operation Data Present field MUST be set to TRUE.  Some operations
      may not provide operation data.  In those cases, the Operation
      Data Present field MUST be set to FALSE, and this field MUST be
      empty.  This may not represent the data that was used for the
      operation that was actually applied on the agent.

      When a client authenticates to the agent, the Requested Operation
      Data MUST contain the client priority.  Other attributes such as
      credentials used for authentication MAY be logged.

   Applied Operation Data:   This field comprises the data that was
      actually applied as part of the Applied Operation.  If the agent
      cannot satisfy the Requested Operation with the Requested
      Operation Data, then this field can differ from the Requested
      Operation Data.  This field will be empty unless the Requested
      Operation Data was specified.  This field may not be logged unless
      the Request State is COMPLETED.

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   Transaction ID:   The Transaction Identity represents that this
      particular operation is part of a long-running I2RS transaction
      that can consist of multiple, related I2RS operations.  Using this
      value, one can relate multiple log entries together as they are
      part of a single, overall I2RS operation.  This is an optional
      field that may not be logged unless the event is part of a long-
      running transaction.

   Result Code:   This field holds the result of the operation once the
      Request State is COMPLETED.  In the case of Routing Information
      Base (RIB) operations, this MUST be the return code as specified
      in Section 4 of [RIBINFO].  The operation may not complete with a
      result code in the case of a timeout.  If the operation fails to
      complete, it MUST still log the attempted operation with an
      appropriate result code.

   Timeout Occurred:   This is a Boolean field that indicates whether or
      not a timeout occurred in the operation.  When this is true, the
      value of the Ending Timestamp MUST be set to the time the agent
      recorded for the timeout occurrence.  This field may not be logged
      unless the Request State is COMPLETED.

   Ending Timestamp:   The specific time at which the I2RS operation
      exits the specified Request State within the I2RS agent.  If the
      log entry covers the entire duration of the request, then this
      will be the time that the request reached a terminal point within
      the agent.  This field MUST be present in all entries that specify
      the ending of the state transition, as well as those entries that
      log the entire duration of the request.  The time is passed in the
      full timestamp format [RFC3339], including the date and offset
      from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).  See the description for
      Starting Timestamp above for the proper format of the Ending
      Timestamp.

   End Of Message:   Each log entry SHOULD have an appropriate End Of
      Message (EOM) indicator.  See Section 5.3 below for more details.

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5.3.  End of Message Marker

   Because of variability within I2RS trace log fields, implementors
   MUST use a format-appropriate End Of Message (EOM) indicator in order
   to signify the end of a particular record.  That is, regardless of
   format, the I2RS trace log MUST provide a distinct way of
   distinguishing between the end of one record and the beginning of
   another.  For example, in a linear-formatted log (similar to a
   syslog) the EOM marker may be a newline character.  In an XML-
   formatted log, the schema would provide for element tags that denote
   the beginning and end of records.  In a JSON-formatted log, the
   syntax would provide record separation (likely by comma-separated
   array elements).

6.  Examples

   This section shows a sample of what the fields and values could look
   like.

   Event ID:                 1
   Starting Timestamp:       2013-09-03T12:00:01.21+00:00
   Request State:            COMPLETED
   Client ID:                5CEF1870-0326-11E2-A21F-0800200C9A66
   Client Priority:          100
   Secondary ID:             com.example.RoutingApp
   Client Address:           2001:db8:c0c0::2
   Requested Operation:      ROUTE_ADD
   Applied Operation:        ROUTE_ADD
   Operation Data Present:   TRUE
   Requested Operation Data: PREFIX 2001:db8:feed:: PREFIX-LEN 64
                             NEXT-HOP 2001:db8:cafe::1
   Applied Operation Data:   PREFIX 2001:db8:feed:: PREFIX-LEN 64
                             NEXT-HOP 2001:db8:cafe::1
   Transaction ID:           2763461
   Result Code:              SUCCESS(0)
   Timeout Occurred:         FALSE
   Ending Timestamp:         2013-09-03T12:00:01.23+00:00

7.  Operational Guidance

   Specific operational procedures regarding temporary log storage,
   rollover, retrieval, and access of I2RS trace logs is out of scope
   for this document.  Organizations employing I2RS trace logging are
   responsible for establishing proper operational procedures that are
   appropriately suited to their specific requirements and operating
   environment.  In this section, we only provide fundamental and
   generalized operational guidelines that are implementation
   independent.

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7.1.  Trace Log Creation

   The I2RS agent interacts with the Routing and Signaling functions of
   the Routing Element.  Since the I2RS agent is responsible for
   actually making the routing changes on the associated network device,
   it creates and maintains a log of operations that can be retrieved to
   troubleshoot I2RS-related impact to the network.  Changes that occur
   to the network element's local configuration outside of the I2RS
   protocol that preempt I2RS state will only be logged if the network
   element notifies the I2RS agent.

7.2.  Trace Log Temporary Storage

   The trace information may be temporarily stored either in an
   in-memory buffer or as a file local to the agent.  Care should be
   given to the number of I2RS operations expected on a given agent so
   that the appropriate storage medium is used, and to maximize the
   effectiveness of the log while not impacting the performance and
   health of the agent.  client requests may not always be processed
   synchronously or within a bounded time period.  Consequently, to
   ensure that trace log fields, such as "Operation" and "Result Code",
   are part of the same trace log record, buffering of the trace log
   entries may be required.  This buffering may result in additional
   resource load on the agent and the network element.

   Section 7.3 discusses rotating the trace log in order to preserve the
   operation history without exhausting agent or network device
   resources.  It is perfectly acceptable, therefore, to use both an
   in-memory buffer for recent operations while rotating or archiving
   older operations to a local file.

   It is outside the scope of this document to specify the
   implementation details (i.e., size, throughput, data protection,
   etc.) for the physical storage of the I2RS log file.  In terms of
   data retention, attention should be paid to the length of time that
   the I2RS trace log data is kept when that data contains security- or
   privacy-sensitive attributes.  The longer this data is retained, the
   higher the impact if it were to be leaked.  It is also possible that
   legislation may impose some additional requirements on the minimum
   and/or maximum durations for which some kinds of data may be
   retained.

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7.3.  Trace Log Rotation

   In order to prevent the exhaustion of resources on the I2RS agent or
   its associated network device, it is RECOMMENDED that the I2RS agent
   implements trace log rotation.  The details on how this is achieved
   are left to the implementation and are outside the scope of this
   document.  However, it should be possible to do a file rotation based
   on either the time or size of the current trace log.  If file
   rollover is supported, multiple archived log files should be
   supported in order to maximize the troubleshooting and accounting
   benefits of the trace log.

7.4.  Trace Log Retrieval

   Implementors are free to provide their own, proprietary interfaces
   and develop custom tools to retrieve and display the I2RS trace log.
   These may include the display of the I2RS trace log as command-line
   interface (CLI) output.  However, a key intention of defining this
   information model is to establish a vendor-agnostic and consistent
   interface to collect I2RS trace data.  Correspondingly, retrieval of
   the data should also be made vendor-agnostic.

   Despite the fact that export of I2RS trace log information could be
   an invaluable diagnostic tool for off-box analysis, exporting this
   information MUST NOT interfere with the ability of the agent to
   process new incoming operations.

   The following three sections describe potential ways the trace log
   can be accessed.  The use of I2RS pub/sub for accessing trace log
   data is mandatory-to-implement, while others are optional.

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7.4.1.  Retrieval via Syslog

   The syslog protocol [RFC5424] is a standard way of sending event
   notification messages from a host to a collector.  However, the
   protocol does not define any standard format for storing the
   messages, and thus implementors of I2RS tracing would be left to
   define their own format.  So, while the data contained within the
   syslog message would adhere to this information model, and may be
   consumable by a human operator, it would not be easily parseable by a
   machine.  Syslog MAY be employed as a means of retrieving or
   disseminating the I2RS trace log contents.

   If syslog is used for trace log retrieval, then existing logging
   infrastructure and capabilities of syslog [RFC5424] should be
   leveraged without the need to define or extend existing formats.
   That is, the various fields described in Section 5.2 SHOULD be
   modeled and encoded as Structured Data Elements (referred to as
   "SD-ELEMENT"), as described in Section 6.3.1 of [RFC5424].

7.4.2.  Retrieval via I2RS Information Collection

   Section 7.7 of the I2RS architecture [RFC7921] defines a mechanism
   for information collection.  The information collected includes
   obtaining a snapshot of a large amount of data from the network
   element.  It is the intent of I2RS to make this data available in an
   implementor-agnostic fashion.  Therefore, the I2RS trace log SHOULD
   be made available via the I2RS information collection mechanism
   either as a single snapshot or via a subscription stream.

7.4.3.  Retrieval via I2RS Pub/Sub

   Section 7.6 of the I2RS architecture [RFC7921] goes on to describe
   notification mechanisms for a feed of changes happening within the
   I2RS layer.  Specifically, the requirements for a publish-subscribe
   system for I2RS are defined in [RFC7923].  I2RS agents MUST support
   publishing I2RS trace log information to that feed as described in
   [RFC7923].  Subscribers would then receive a live stream of I2RS
   interactions in trace log format and could flexibly choose to do a
   number of things with the log messages.  For example, the subscribers
   could log the messages to a datastore, aggregate, and summarize
   interactions from a single client, etc.  The full range of potential
   activities is virtually limitless and the details of how they are
   performed are outside the scope of this document, however.

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8.  Security Considerations

   The I2RS trace log, like any log file, reveals the state of the
   entity producing it as well as the identifying information elements
   and detailed interactions of the system containing it.  The
   information model described in this document does not itself
   introduce any security issues, but it does define the set of
   attributes that make up an I2RS log file.  These attributes may
   contain sensitive information, and thus should adhere to the
   security, privacy, and permission policies of the organization making
   use of the I2RS log file.

   It is outside the scope of this document to specify how to protect
   the stored log file, but it is expected that adequate precautions and
   security best practices such as disk encryption, appropriately
   restrictive file/directory permissions, suitable hardening and
   physical security of logging entities, mutual authentication,
   transport encryption, channel confidentiality, and channel integrity
   if transferring log files.  Additionally, the potentially sensitive
   information contained in a log file SHOULD be adequately anonymized
   or obfuscated by operators to ensure its privacy.

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9.  References

9.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC3339]  Klyne, G. and C. Newman, "Date and Time on the Internet:
              Timestamps", RFC 3339, DOI 10.17487/RFC3339, July 2002,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3339>.

   [RFC5424]  Gerhards, R., "The Syslog Protocol", RFC 5424,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5424, March 2009,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5424>.

   [RFC7921]  Atlas, A., Halpern, J., Hares, S., Ward, D., and T.
              Nadeau, "An Architecture for the Interface to the Routing
              System", RFC 7921, DOI 10.17487/RFC7921, June 2016,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7921>.

   [RFC7923]  Voit, E., Clemm, A., and A. Gonzalez Prieto, "Requirements
              for Subscription to YANG Datastores", RFC 7923,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7923, June 2016.

9.2.  Informative References

   [RFC6536]  Bierman, A. and M. Bjorklund, "Network Configuration
              Protocol (NETCONF) Access Control Model", RFC 6536,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6536, March 2012,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6536>.

   [RFC7920]  Atlas, A., Ed., Nadeau, T., Ed., and D. Ward, "Problem
              Statement for the Interface to the Routing System",
              RFC 7923, DOI 10.17487/RFC7923, June 2016,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7920>.

   [RIBINFO]  Bahadur, N., Ed., Kini, S., Ed., and J. Medved, "Routing
              Information Base Info Model", Work in Progress,
              draft-ietf-i2rs-rib-info-model-08, October 2015.

Top      ToC       Page 17 
Acknowledgments

   The authors would like to thank Alia Atlas for her initial feedback
   and overall support for this work.  Additionally, the authors
   acknowledge Alvaro Retana, Russ White, Matt Birkner, Jeff Haas, Joel
   Halpern, Dean Bogdanovich, Ignas Bagdonas, Nobo Akiya, Kwang-koog
   Lee, Sue Hares, Mach Chen, Alex Clemm, Stephen Farrell, Benoit
   Claise, Les Ginsberg, Suresh Krishnan, and Elwyn Davies for their
   reviews, contributed text, and suggested improvements to this
   document.

Authors' Addresses

   Joe Clarke
   Cisco Systems, Inc.
   7200-12 Kit Creek Road
   Research Triangle Park, NC  27709
   United States

   Phone: +1-919-392-2867
   Email: jclarke@cisco.com


   Gonzalo Salgueiro
   Cisco Systems, Inc.
   7200-12 Kit Creek Road
   Research Triangle Park, NC  27709
   United States

   Email: gsalguei@cisco.com


   Carlos Pignataro
   Cisco Systems, Inc.
   7200-11 Kit Creek Road
   Research Triangle Park, NC  27709
   United States

   Email: cpignata@cisco.com