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RFC 7741

Proposed STD
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RTP Payload Format for VP8 Video

 


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Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)                         P. Westin
Request for Comments: 7741                                     H. Lundin
Category: Standards Track                                         Google
ISSN: 2070-1721                                                M. Glover
                                                                 Twitter
                                                               J. Uberti
                                                             F. Galligan
                                                                  Google
                                                              March 2016


                    RTP Payload Format for VP8 Video

Abstract

   This memo describes an RTP payload format for the VP8 video codec.
   The payload format has wide applicability, as it supports
   applications from low-bitrate peer-to-peer usage to high-bitrate
   video conferences.

Status of This Memo

   This is an Internet Standards Track document.

   This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force
   (IETF).  It represents the consensus of the IETF community.  It has
   received public review and has been approved for publication by the
   Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG).  Further information on
   Internet Standards is available in Section 2 of RFC 5741.

   Information about the current status of this document, any errata,
   and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at
   http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7741.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2016 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

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Table of Contents

   1. Introduction ....................................................3
   2. Conventions, Definitions, and Abbreviations .....................3
   3. Media Format Description ........................................4
   4. Payload Format ..................................................5
      4.1. RTP Header Usage ...........................................6
      4.2. VP8 Payload Descriptor .....................................7
      4.3. VP8 Payload Header ........................................11
      4.4. Aggregated and Fragmented Payloads ........................12
      4.5. Example Algorithms ........................................13
           4.5.1. Frame Reconstruction Algorithm .....................13
           4.5.2. Partition Reconstruction Algorithm .................13
      4.6. Examples of VP8 RTP Stream ................................14
           4.6.1. Key Frame in a Single RTP Packet ...................14
           4.6.2. Non-discardable VP8 Interframe in a Single
                  RTP Packet; No PictureID ...........................14
           4.6.3. VP8 Partitions in Separate RTP Packets .............15
           4.6.4. VP8 Frame Fragmented across RTP Packets ............16
           4.6.5. VP8 Frame with Long PictureID ......................18
   5. Using VP8 with RPSI and SLI Feedback ...........................18
      5.1. RPSI ......................................................18
      5.2. SLI .......................................................19
      5.3. Example ...................................................19
   6. Payload Format Parameters ......................................21
      6.1. Media Type Definition .....................................21
      6.2. SDP Parameters ............................................23
           6.2.1. Mapping of Media Subtype Parameters to SDP .........23
           6.2.2. Offer/Answer Considerations ........................23
   7. Security Considerations ........................................24
   8. Congestion Control .............................................24
   9. IANA Considerations ............................................24
   10. References ....................................................25
      10.1. Normative References .....................................25
      10.2. Informative References ...................................26
   Authors' Addresses ................................................28

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1.  Introduction

   This memo describes an RTP payload specification applicable to the
   transmission of video streams encoded using the VP8 video codec
   [RFC6386].  The format described in this document can be used both in
   peer-to-peer and video-conferencing applications.

   VP8 is based on the decomposition of frames into square sub-blocks of
   pixels known as "macroblocks" (see Section 2 of [RFC6386]).
   Prediction of such sub-blocks using previously constructed blocks,
   and adjustment of such predictions (as well as synthesis of
   unpredicted blocks) is done using a discrete cosine transform
   (hereafter abbreviated as DCT).  In one special case, however, VP8
   uses a "Walsh-Hadamard" transform (hereafter abbreviated as WHT)
   instead of a DCT.  An encoded VP8 frame is divided into two or more
   partitions, as described in [RFC6386].  The first partition
   (prediction or mode) contains prediction mode parameters and motion
   vectors for all macroblocks.  The remaining partitions all contain
   the quantized DCT/WHT coefficients for the residuals.  There can be
   1, 2, 4, or 8 DCT/WHT partitions per frame, depending on encoder
   settings.

   In summary, the payload format described in this document enables a
   number of features in VP8, including:

   o  Taking partition boundaries into consideration, to improve loss
      robustness and facilitate efficient packet-loss concealment at the
      decoder.

   o  Temporal scalability.

   o  Advanced use of reference frames to enable efficient error
      recovery.

   o  Marking of frames that have no impact on the decoding of any other
      frame, so that these non-reference frames can be discarded in a
      server or media-aware network element if needed.

2.  Conventions, Definitions, and Abbreviations

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

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   This document uses the definitions of [RFC6386].  In particular, the
   following terms are used.

   Key frames:  Frames that are decoded without reference to any other
      frame in a sequence (also called intraframes and I-frames).

   Interframes:  Frames that are encoded with reference to prior frames,
      specifically all prior frames up to and including the most recent
      key frame (also called prediction frames and P-frames).

   Golden and altref frames:  alternate prediction frames.  Blocks in an
      interframe may be predicted using blocks in the immediately
      previous frame as well as the most recent golden frame or altref
      frame.  Every key frame is automatically golden and altref, and
      any interframe may optionally replace the most recent golden or
      altref frame.

   Macroblock:  a square array of pixels whose Y (luminance) dimensions
      are 16x16 pixels and whose U and V (chrominance) dimensions are
      8x8 pixels.

   Two definitions from [RFC4585] are also used in this document.

   RPSI:  Reference picture selection indication.  A feedback message to
      let the encoder know that the decoder has correctly decoded a
      certain frame.

   SLI:  Slice loss indication.  A feedback message to let a decoder
      inform an encoder that it has detected the loss or corruption of
      one or several macroblocks.

3.  Media Format Description

   The VP8 codec uses three different reference frames for interframe
   prediction: the previous frame, the golden frame, and the altref
   frame.  Blocks in an interframe may be predicted using blocks in the
   immediately previous frame as well as the most recent golden frame or
   altref frame.  Every key frame is automatically golden and altref,
   and any interframe may optionally replace the most recent golden or
   altref frame.  Golden frames and altref frames may also be used to
   increase the tolerance to dropped frames.  The payload specification
   in this memo has elements that enable advanced use of the reference
   frames, e.g., for improved loss robustness.

   One specific use case of the three reference frame types is temporal
   scalability.  By setting up the reference hierarchy in the
   appropriate way, up to five temporal layers can be encoded.  (How to
   set up the reference hierarchy for temporal scalability is not within

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   the scope of this memo.)  Support for temporal scalability is
   provided by the optional TL0PICIDX and TID/Y/KEYIDX fields described
   in Section 4.2.  For a general description of temporal scalability
   for video coding, see [Sch07].

   Another property of the VP8 codec is that it applies data
   partitioning to the encoded data.  Thus, an encoded VP8 frame can be
   divided into two or more partitions, as described in "VP8 Data Format
   and Decoding Guide" [RFC6386].  The first partition (prediction or
   mode) contains prediction mode parameters and motion vectors for all
   macroblocks.  The remaining partitions all contain the transform
   coefficients for the residuals.  The first partition is decodable
   without the remaining residual partitions.  The subsequent partitions
   may be useful even if some part of the frame is lost.  Accordingly,
   this document RECOMMENDS that the frame be packetized by the sender
   with each data partition in a separate packet or packets.  This may
   be beneficial for decoder-side error concealment, and the payload
   format described in Section 4 provides fields that allow the
   partitions to be identified even if the first partition is not
   available.  The sender can, alternatively, aggregate the data
   partitions into a single data stream and, optionally, split it into
   several packets without consideration of the partition boundaries.
   The receiver can use the length information in the first partition to
   identify the partitions during decoding.

   The format specification is described in Section 4.  In Section 5, a
   method to acknowledge receipt of reference frames using RTCP
   techniques is described.

   The payload partitioning and the acknowledging method both serve as
   motivation for three of the fields included in the payload format:
   the "PID", "1st partition size", and "PictureID" fields.  The ability
   to encode a temporally scalable stream motivates the "TL0PICIDX" and
   "TID" fields.

4.  Payload Format

   This section describes how the encoded VP8 bitstream is encapsulated
   in RTP.  To handle network losses, usage of RTP/AVPF [RFC4585] is
   RECOMMENDED.  All integer fields in the specifications are encoded as
   unsigned integers in network octet order.

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4.1.  RTP Header Usage

   The general RTP payload format for VP8 is depicted below.

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |V=2|P|X|  CC   |M|     PT      |       sequence number         |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                           timestamp                           |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |           synchronization source (SSRC) identifier            |
     +=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+
     |            contributing source (CSRC) identifiers             |
     |                             ....                              |
     +=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+
     |            VP8 payload descriptor (integer #octets)           |
     :                                                               :
     |                               +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                               : VP8 payload header (3 octets) |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     | VP8 pyld hdr  :                                               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                                               |
     :                   Octets 4..N of VP8 payload                  :
     |                                                               |
     |                               +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                               :    OPTIONAL RTP padding       |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   The VP8 payload descriptor and VP8 payload header will be described
   in Sections 4.2 and 4.3.  OPTIONAL RTP padding MUST NOT be included
   unless the P bit is set.  The figure specifically shows the format
   for the first packet in a frame.  Subsequent packets will not contain
   the VP8 payload header and will have later octets in the frame
   payload.

                                 Figure 1

   Marker bit (M):  MUST be set for the very last packet of each encoded
      frame in line with the normal use of the M bit in video formats.
      This enables a decoder to finish decoding the picture, where it
      otherwise may need to wait for the next packet to explicitly know
      that the frame is complete.

   Payload type (PT):  The assignment of an RTP payload type for this
      packet format is outside the scope of this document and will not
      be specified here.

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   Timestamp:  The RTP timestamp indicates the time when the frame was
      sampled.  The granularity of the clock is 90 kHz, so a delta of 1
      represents 1/90,000 of a second.

      The remaining RTP Fixed Header Fields (V, P, X, CC, sequence
      number, SSRC, and CSRC identifiers) are used as specified in
      Section 5.1 of [RFC3550].

4.2.  VP8 Payload Descriptor

   The first octets after the RTP header are the VP8 payload descriptor,
   with the following structure.  The single-octet version of the
   PictureID is illustrated to the left (M bit set to 0), while the
   dual-octet version (M bit set to 1) is shown to the right.

         0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7                      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
        |X|R|N|S|R| PID | (REQUIRED)        |X|R|N|S|R| PID | (REQUIRED)
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   X:   |I|L|T|K| RSV   | (OPTIONAL)   X:   |I|L|T|K| RSV   | (OPTIONAL)
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   I:   |M| PictureID   | (OPTIONAL)   I:   |M| PictureID   | (OPTIONAL)
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   L:   |   TL0PICIDX   | (OPTIONAL)        |   PictureID   |
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   T/K: |TID|Y| KEYIDX  | (OPTIONAL)   L:   |   TL0PICIDX   | (OPTIONAL)
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                                       T/K: |TID|Y| KEYIDX  | (OPTIONAL)
                                            +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                                 Figure 2

   X: Extended control bits present.  When set to 1, the extension octet
      MUST be provided immediately after the mandatory first octet.  If
      the bit is zero, all optional fields MUST be omitted.  Note: this
      X bit is not to be confused with the X bit in the RTP header.

   R: Bit reserved for future use.  MUST be set to 0 and MUST be ignored
      by the receiver.

   N: Non-reference frame.  When set to 1, the frame can be discarded
      without affecting any other future or past frames.  If the
      reference status of the frame is unknown, this bit SHOULD be set
      to 0 to avoid discarding frames needed for reference.

         Informative note: This document does not describe how to
         determine if an encoded frame is non-reference.  The reference
         status of an encoded frame is preferably provided from the
         encoder implementation.

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   S: Start of VP8 partition.  SHOULD be set to 1 when the first payload
      octet of the RTP packet is the beginning of a new VP8 partition,
      and MUST NOT be 1 otherwise.  The S bit MUST be set to 1 for the
      first packet of each encoded frame.

   PID:  Partition index.  Denotes to which VP8 partition the first
      payload octet of the packet belongs.  The first VP8 partition
      (containing modes and motion vectors) MUST be labeled with PID =
      0.  PID SHOULD be incremented by 1 for each subsequent partition,
      but it MAY be kept at 0 for all packets.  PID cannot be larger
      than 7.  If more than one packet in an encoded frame contains the
      same PID, the S bit MUST NOT be set for any packet other than the
      first packet with that PID.

   When the X bit is set to 1 in the first octet, the Extended Control
   Bits field octet MUST be provided as the second octet.  If the X bit
   is 0, the Extended Control Bits field octet MUST NOT be present, and
   no extensions (I, L, T, or K) are permitted.

   I: PictureID present.  When set to 1, the PictureID MUST be present
      after the extension bit field and specified as below.  Otherwise,
      PictureID MUST NOT be present.

   L: TL0PICIDX present.  When set to 1, the TL0PICIDX MUST be present
      and specified as below, and the T bit MUST be set to 1.
      Otherwise, TL0PICIDX MUST NOT be present.

   T: TID present.  When set to 1, the TID/Y/KEYIDX octet MUST be
      present.  The TID|Y part of the octet MUST be specified as below.
      If K (below) is set to 1 but T is set to 0, the TID/Y/KEYIDX octet
      MUST be present, but the TID field MUST be ignored.  If neither T
      nor K is set to 1, the TID/Y/KEYIDX octet MUST NOT be present.

   K: KEYIDX present.  When set to 1, the TID/Y/KEYIDX octet MUST be
      present.  The KEYIDX part of the octet MUST be specified as below.
      If T (above) is set to 1 but K is set to 0, the TID/Y/KEYIDX octet
      MUST be present, but the KEYIDX field MUST be ignored.  If neither
      T nor K is set to 1, the TID/Y/KEYIDX octet MUST NOT be present.

   RSV:  Bits reserved for future use.  MUST be set to 0 and MUST be
      ignored by the receiver.

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   After the extension bit field follow the extension data fields that
   are enabled.

   The PictureID extension:  If the I bit is set to 1, the PictureID
      extension field MUST be present, and it MUST NOT be present
      otherwise.  The field consists of two parts:

      M: The most significant bit of the first octet is an extension
         flag.  If M is set, the remainder of the PictureID field MUST
         contain 15 bits, else it MUST contain 7 bits.  Note: this M bit
         is not to be confused with the M bit in the RTP header.

      PictureID:  7 or 15 bits (shown left and right, respectively, in
         Figure 2) not including the M bit.  This is a running index of
         the frames, which MAY start at a random value, MUST increase by
         1 for each subsequent frame, and MUST wrap to 0 after reaching
         the maximum ID (all bits set).  The 7 or 15 bits of the
         PictureID go from most significant to least significant,
         beginning with the first bit after the M bit.  The sender
         chooses a 7- or 15-bit index and sets the M bit accordingly.
         The receiver MUST NOT assume that the number of bits in
         PictureID stays the same through the session.  Having sent a
         7-bit PictureID with all bits set to 1, the sender may either
         wrap the PictureID to 0 or extend to 15 bits and continue
         incrementing.

   The TL0PICIDX extension:  If the L bit is set to 1, the TL0PICIDX
      extension field MUST be present, and it MUST NOT be present
      otherwise.  The field consists of one part:

      TL0PICIDX:  8 bits temporal level zero index.  TL0PICIDX is a
         running index for the temporal base layer frames, i.e., the
         frames with TID set to 0.  If TID is larger than 0, TL0PICIDX
         indicates on which base-layer frame the current image depends.
         TL0PICIDX MUST be incremented when TID is 0.  The index MAY
         start at a random value, and it MUST wrap to 0 after reaching
         the maximum number 255.  Use of TL0PICIDX depends on the
         presence of TID.  Therefore, it is RECOMMENDED that the TID be
         used whenever TL0PICIDX is.

   The TID/Y/KEYIDX extension:  If either of the T or K bits are set to
      1, the TID/Y/KEYIDX extension field MUST be present.  It MUST NOT
      be present if both T and K are zero.  The field consists of three
      parts:

      TID:  2 bits temporal-layer index.  The TID field MUST be ignored
         by the receiver when the T bit is set equal to 0.  The TID
         field indicates which temporal layer the packet represents.

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         The lowest layer, i.e., the base layer, MUST have the TID set
         to 0.  Higher layers SHOULD increment the TID according to
         their position in the layer hierarchy.

      Y: 1 layer sync bit.  The Y bit SHOULD be set to 1 if the current
         frame depends only on the base layer (TID = 0) frame with
         TL0PICIDX equal to that of the current frame.  The Y bit MUST
         be set to 0 if the current frame depends on any other frame
         than the base layer (TID = 0) frame with TL0PICIDX equal to
         that of the current frame.  Additionally, the Y bit MUST be set
         to 0 if any frame following the current frame depends on a non-
         base-layer frame older than the base-layer frame with TL0PICIDX
         equal to that of the current frame.  If the Y bit is set when
         the T bit is equal to 0, the current frame MUST only depend on
         a past base-layer (TID=0) key frame as signaled by a change in
         the KEYIDX field.  Additionally, this frame MUST NOT depend on
         any of the three codec buffers (as defined by [RFC6386]) that
         have been updated since the last time the KEYIDX field was
         changed.

         Informative note: This document does not describe how to
         determine the dependency status for a frame; this information
         is preferably provided from the encoder implementation.  In the
         case of unknown status, the Y bit can safely be set to 0.

      KEYIDX:  5 bits temporal key frame index.  The KEYIDX field MUST
         be ignored by the receiver when the K bit is set equal to 0.
         The KEYIDX field is a running index for key frames.  KEYIDX MAY
         start at a random value, and it MUST wrap to 0 after reaching
         the maximum number 31.  When in use, the KEYIDX SHOULD be
         present for both key frames and interframes.  The sender MUST
         increment KEYIDX for key frames that convey parameter updates
         critical to the interpretation of subsequent frames, and it
         SHOULD leave the KEYIDX unchanged for key frames that do not
         contain these critical updates.  If the KEYIDX is present, a
         receiver SHOULD NOT decode an interframe if it has not received
         and decoded a key frame with the same KEYIDX after the last
         KEYIDX wraparound.

         Informative note: This document does not describe how to
         determine if a key frame updates critical parameters; this
         information is preferably provided from the encoder
         implementation.  A sender that does not have this information
         may either omit the KEYIDX field (set K equal to 0) or
         increment the KEYIDX on every key frame.  The benefit with the
         latter is that any key-frame loss will be detected by the
         receiver, which can signal for re-transmission or request a new
         key frame.

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   Informative note:  Implementations doing splicing of VP8 streams will
      have to make sure the rules for incrementing TL0PICIDX and KEYIDX
      are obeyed across the splice.  This will likely require rewriting
      values of TL0PICIDX and KEYIDX after the splice.

4.3.  VP8 Payload Header

   The beginning of an encoded VP8 frame is referred to as an
   "uncompressed data chunk" in Section 9.1 of [RFC6386], and it also
   serves as a payload header in this RTP format.  The codec bitstream
   format specifies two different variants of the uncompressed data
   chunk: a 3-octet version for interframes and a 10-octet version for
   key frames.  The first 3 octets are common to both variants.  In the
   case of a key frame, the remaining 7 octets are considered to be part
   of the remaining payload in this RTP format.  Note that the header is
   present only in packets that have the S bit equal to one and the PID
   equal to zero in the payload descriptor.  Subsequent packets for the
   same frame do not carry the payload header.

   The length of the first partition can always be obtained from the
   first partition-size parameter in the VP8 payload header.  The VP8
   bitstream format [RFC6386] specifies that if multiple DCT/WHT
   partitions are produced, the location of each partition start is
   found at the end of the first (prediction or mode) partition.  In
   this RTP payload specification, the location offsets are considered
   to be part of the first partition.

                             0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
                            +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                            |Size0|H| VER |P|
                            +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                            |     Size1     |
                            +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                            |     Size2     |
                            +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                            | Octets 4..N of|
                            | VP8 payload   |
                            :               :
                            +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                            | OPTIONAL RTP  |
                            | padding       |
                            :               :
                            +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

                                 Figure 3

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   A packetizer needs access to the P bit.  The other fields are defined
   in [RFC6386], Section 9.1, and their meanings do not influence the
   packetization process.  None of these fields are modified by the
   packetization process.

   P: Inverse key frame flag.  When set to 0, the current frame is a key
      frame.  When set to 1, the current frame is an interframe.
      Defined in [RFC6386]

4.4.  Aggregated and Fragmented Payloads

   An encoded VP8 frame can be divided into two or more partitions, as
   described in Section 1.  It is OPTIONAL for a packetizer implementing
   this RTP specification to pay attention to the partition boundaries
   within an encoded frame.  If packetization of a frame is done without
   considering the partition boundaries, the PID field MAY be set to 0
   for all packets and the S bit MUST NOT be set to 1 for any other
   packet than the first.

   If the preferred usage suggested in Section 3 is followed, with each
   packet carrying data from exactly one partition, the S bit and PID
   fields described in Section 4.2 SHOULD be used to indicate what the
   packet contains.  The PID field should indicate to which partition
   the first octet of the payload belongs and the S bit indicates that
   the packet starts on a new partition.

   If the packetizer does not pay attention to the partition boundaries,
   one packet can contain a fragment of a partition, a complete
   partition, or an aggregate of fragments and partitions.  There is no
   explicit signaling of partition boundaries in the payload, and the
   partition lengths at the end of the first partition have to be used
   to identify the boundaries.  Partitions MUST be aggregated in
   decoding order.  Two fragments from different partitions MAY be
   aggregated into the same packet along with one or more complete
   partitions.

   In all cases, the payload of a packet MUST contain data from only one
   video frame.  Consequently, the set of packets carrying the data from
   a particular frame will contain exactly one VP8 Payload Header (see
   Section 4.3) carried in the first packet of the frame.  The last, or
   only, packet carrying data for the frame MUST have the M bit set in
   the RTP header.

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4.5.  Example Algorithms

4.5.1.  Frame Reconstruction Algorithm

   Example of frame reconstruction algorithm.

   1: Collect all packets with a given RTP timestamp.

   2: Go through packets in order, sorted by sequence numbers, if
      packets are missing, send NACK as defined in [RFC4585] or decode
      with missing partitions, see Section 4.5.2 below.

   3: A frame is complete if the frame has no missing sequence numbers,
      the first packet in the frame contains S=1 with partId=0 and the
      last packet in the frame has the marker bit set.

4.5.2.  Partition Reconstruction Algorithm

   Example of partition reconstruction algorithm.  The algorithm only
   applies for the RECOMMENDED use case with partitions in separate
   packets.

   1: Scan for the start of a new partition; S=1.

   2: Continue scan to detect end of partition; hence, a new S=1
      (previous packet was the end of the partition) is found or the
      marker bit is set.  If a loss is detected before the end of the
      partition, abandon all packets in this partition and continue the
      scan repeating from step 1.

   3: Store the packets in the complete partition, continue the scan
      repeating from step 1 until end of frame is reached.

   4: Send all complete partitions to the decoder.  If no complete
      partition is found discard the whole frame.

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4.6.  Examples of VP8 RTP Stream

   A few examples of how the VP8 RTP payload can be used are included
   below.

4.6.1.  Key Frame in a Single RTP Packet

      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |  RTP header   |
     |  M = 1        |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |1|0|0|1|0|0 0 0| X = 1; S = 1; PID = 0
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |1|0|0|0|0 0 0 0| I = 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1| PictureID = 17
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |Size0|1| VER |0| P = 0
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |     Size1     |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |     Size2     |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     | VP8 payload   |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

4.6.2.  Non-discardable VP8 Interframe in a Single RTP Packet; No
        PictureID

      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |  RTP header   |
     |  M = 1        |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |0|0|0|1|0|0 0 0| X = 0; S = 1; PID = 0
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |Size0|1| VER |1| P = 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |     Size1     |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |     Size2     |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     | VP8 payload   |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

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4.6.3.  VP8 Partitions in Separate RTP Packets

   First RTP packet; complete first partition.

      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |  RTP header   |
     |  M = 0        |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |1|0|0|1|0|0 0 0| X = 1; S = 1; PID = 0
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |1|0|0|0|0 0 0 0| I = 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1| PictureID = 17
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |Size0|1| VER |1| P = 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |     Size1     |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |     Size2     |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     | Octets 4..L of|
     | first VP8     |
     | partition     |
     :               :
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Second RTP packet; complete second partition.

      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |  RTP header   |
     |  M = 1        |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |1|0|0|1|0|0 0 1| X = 1; S = 1; PID = 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |1|0|0|0|0 0 0 0| I = 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1| PictureID = 17
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     | Remaining VP8 |
     | partitions    |
     :               :
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

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4.6.4.  VP8 Frame Fragmented across RTP Packets

   First RTP packet; complete first partition.

      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |  RTP header   |
     |  M = 0        |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |1|0|0|1|0|0 0 0| X = 1; S = 1; PID = 0
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |1|0|0|0|0 0 0 0| I = 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1| PictureID = 17
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |Size0|1| VER |1| P = 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |     Size1     |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |     Size2     |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     | Complete      |
     | first         |
     | partition     |
     :               :
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Second RTP packet; first fragment of second partition.

      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |  RTP header   |
     |  M = 0        |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |1|0|0|1|0|0 0 1| X = 1; S = 1; PID = 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |1|0|0|0|0 0 0 0| I = 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1| PictureID = 17
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     | First fragment|
     | of second     |
     | partition     |
     :               :
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

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   Third RTP packet; second fragment of second partition.

      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |  RTP header   |
     |  M = 0        |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |1|0|0|0|0|0 0 1| X = 1; S = 0; PID = 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |1|0|0|0|0 0 0 0| I = 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1| PictureID = 17
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     | Mid fragment  |
     | of second     |
     | partition     |
     :               :
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Fourth RTP packet; last fragment of second partition.

      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |  RTP header   |
     |  M = 1        |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |1|0|0|0|0|0 0 1| X = 1; S = 0; PID = 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |1|0|0|0|0 0 0 0| I = 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1| PictureID = 17
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     | Last fragment |
     | of second     |
     | partition     |
     :               :
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

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4.6.5.  VP8 Frame with Long PictureID

   PictureID = 4711 = 001001001100111 binary (first 7 bits: 0010010,
   last 8 bits: 01100111).

      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |  RTP header   |
     |  M = 1        |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |1|0|0|1|0|0 0 0| X = 1; S = 1; PID = 0
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |1|0|0|0|0 0 0 0| I = 1;
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0| Long PictureID flag = 1
     |0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1| PictureID = 4711
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |Size0|1| VER |1|
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |     Size1     |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |     Size2     |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     | Octets 4..N of|
     | VP8 payload   |
     :               :
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

5.  Using VP8 with RPSI and SLI Feedback

   The VP8 payload descriptor defined in Section 4.2 contains an
   optional PictureID parameter.  This parameter is included mainly to
   enable use of reference picture selection indication (RPSI) and slice
   loss indication (SLI), both defined in [RFC4585].

5.1.  RPSI

   The RPSI is a payload-specific feedback message defined within the
   RTCP-based feedback format.  The RPSI message is generated by a
   receiver and can be used in two ways.  Either it can signal a
   preferred reference picture when a loss has been detected by the
   decoder -- preferably then a reference that the decoder knows is
   perfect -- or it can be used as positive feedback information to
   acknowledge correct decoding of certain reference pictures.  The
   positive-feedback method is useful for VP8 used for point-to-point
   (unicast) communication.  The use of RPSI for VP8 is preferably
   combined with a special update pattern of the codec's two special
   reference frames -- the golden frame and the altref frame -- in which

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   they are updated in an alternating leapfrog fashion.  When a receiver
   has received and correctly decoded a golden or altref frame, and that
   frame has a PictureID in the payload descriptor, the receiver can
   acknowledge this simply by sending an RPSI message back to the
   sender.  The message body (i.e., the "native RPSI bit string" in
   [RFC4585]) is simply the PictureID of the received frame.

5.2.  SLI

   The SLI is another payload-specific feedback message defined within
   the RTCP-based feedback format.  The SLI message is generated by the
   receiver when a loss or corruption is detected in a frame.  The
   format of the SLI message is as follows [RFC4585]:

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |         First           |        Number           | PictureID |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

                                 Figure 4

   Here, First is the macroblock address (in scan order) of the first
   lost block and Number is the number of lost blocks, as defined in
   [RFC4585].  PictureID is the six least significant bits of the codec-
   specific picture identifier in which the loss or corruption has
   occurred.  For VP8, this codec-specific identifier is naturally the
   PictureID of the current frame, as read from the payload descriptor.
   If the payload descriptor of the current frame does not have a
   PictureID, the receiver MAY send the last received PictureID+1 in the
   SLI message.  The receiver MAY set the First parameter to 0, and the
   Number parameter to the total number of macroblocks per frame, even
   though only part of the frame is corrupted.  When the sender receives
   an SLI message, it can make use of the knowledge from the latest
   received RPSI message.  Knowing that the last golden or altref frame
   was successfully received, it can encode the next frame with
   reference to that established reference.

5.3.  Example

   The use of RPSI and SLI is best illustrated in an example.  In this
   example, the encoder may not update the altref frame until the last
   sent golden frame has been acknowledged with an RPSI message.  If an
   update is not received within some time, a new golden frame update is
   sent instead.  Once the new golden frame is established and
   acknowledged, the same rule applies when updating the altref frame.

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   +-------+-------------------+-------------------------+-------------+
   | Event | Sender            | Receiver                | Established |
   |       |                   |                         | reference   |
   +-------+-------------------+-------------------------+-------------+
   | 1000  | Send golden frame |                         |             |
   |       | PictureID = 0     |                         |             |
   |       |                   |                         |             |
   |       |                   | Receive and decode      |             |
   |       |                   | golden frame            |             |
   |       |                   |                         |             |
   | 1001  |                   | Send RPSI(0)            |             |
   |       |                   |                         |             |
   | 1002  | Receive RPSI(0)   |                         | golden      |
   |       |                   |                         |             |
   | ...   | (sending regular  |                         |             |
   |       | frames)           |                         |             |
   |       |                   |                         |             |
   | 1100  | Send altref frame |                         |             |
   |       | PictureID = 100   |                         |             |
   |       |                   |                         |             |
   |       |                   | Altref corrupted or     | golden      |
   |       |                   | lost                    |             |
   |       |                   |                         |             |
   | 1101  |                   | Send SLI(100)           | golden      |
   |       |                   |                         |             |
   | 1102  | Receive SLI(100)  |                         |             |
   |       |                   |                         |             |
   | 1103  | Send frame with   |                         |             |
   |       | reference to      |                         |             |
   |       | golden            |                         |             |
   |       |                   |                         |             |
   |       |                   | Receive and decode      | golden      |
   |       |                   | frame (decoder state    |             |
   |       |                   | restored)               |             |
   |       |                   |                         |             |
   | ...   | (sending regular  |                         |             |
   |       | frames)           |                         |             |
   |       |                   |                         |             |
   | 1200  | Send altref frame |                         |             |
   |       | PictureID = 200   |                         |             |
   |       |                   |                         |             |
   |       |                   | Receive and decode      | golden      |
   |       |                   | altref frame            |             |
   |       |                   |                         |             |
   | 1201  |                   | Send RPSI(200)          |             |
   |       |                   |                         |             |
   | 1202  | Receive RPSI(200) |                         | altref      |
   |       |                   |                         |             |

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   | ...   | (sending regular  |                         |             |
   |       | frames)           |                         |             |
   |       |                   |                         |             |
   | 1300  | Send golden frame |                         |             |
   |       | PictureID = 300   |                         |             |
   |       |                   |                         |             |
   |       |                   | Receive and decode      | altref      |
   |       |                   | golden frame            |             |
   |       |                   |                         |             |
   | 1301  |                   | Send RPSI(300)          | altref      |
   |       |                   |                         |             |
   | 1302  | RPSI lost         |                         |             |
   |       |                   |                         |             |
   | 1400  | Send golden frame |                         |             |
   |       | PictureID = 400   |                         |             |
   |       |                   |                         |             |
   |       |                   | Receive and decode      | altref      |
   |       |                   | golden frame            |             |
   |       |                   |                         |             |
   | 1401  |                   | Send RPSI(400)          |             |
   |       |                   |                         |             |
   | 1402  | Receive RPSI(400) |                         | golden      |
   +-------+-------------------+-------------------------+-------------+

          Table 1: Example Signaling between Sender and Receiver

   Note that the scheme is robust to loss of the feedback messages.  If
   the RPSI is lost, the sender will try to update the golden (or
   altref) again after a while, without releasing the established
   reference.  Also, if an SLI is lost, the receiver can keep sending
   SLI messages at any interval allowed by the RTCP sending timing
   restrictions as specified in [RFC4585], as long as the picture is
   corrupted.

6.  Payload Format Parameters

   This payload format has two optional parameters.

6.1.  Media Type Definition

   This registration is done using the template defined in [RFC6838] and
   following [RFC4855].

   Type name:  video

   Subtype name:  VP8

   Required parameters:  None.

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   Optional parameters:

      These parameters are used to signal the capabilities of a receiver
      implementation.  If the implementation is willing to receive
      media, both parameters MUST be provided.  These parameters MUST
      NOT be used for any other purpose.

      max-fr:  The value of max-fr is an integer indicating the maximum
         frame rate in units of frames per second that the decoder is
         capable of decoding.

      max-fs:  The value of max-fs is an integer indicating the maximum
         frame size in units of macroblocks that the decoder is capable
         of decoding.

         The decoder is capable of decoding this frame size as long as
         the width and height of the frame in macroblocks are less than
         int(sqrt(max-fs * 8)).  For instance, a max-fs of 1200 (capable
         of supporting 640x480 resolution) will support widths and
         heights up to 1552 pixels (97 macroblocks).

   Encoding considerations:
      This media type is framed in RTP and contains binary data; see
      Section 4.8 of [RFC6838].

   Security considerations:  See Section 7 of RFC 7741.

   Interoperability considerations:  None.

   Published specification:  VP8 bitstream format [RFC6386] and RFC
      7741.

   Applications that use this media type:
      For example: Video over IP, video conferencing.

   Fragment identifier considerations:  N/A.

   Additional information:  None.

   Person & email address to contact for further information:
      Patrik Westin, patrik.westin@gmail.com

   Intended usage:  COMMON

   Restrictions on usage:
      This media type depends on RTP framing, and hence it is only
      defined for transfer via RTP [RFC3550].

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   Author:  Patrik Westin, patrik.westin@gmail.com

   Change controller:
      IETF Payload Working Group delegated from the IESG.

6.2.  SDP Parameters

   The receiver MUST ignore any fmtp parameter unspecified in this memo.

6.2.1.  Mapping of Media Subtype Parameters to SDP

   The media type video/VP8 string is mapped to fields in the Session
   Description Protocol (SDP) [RFC4566] as follows:

   o  The media name in the "m=" line of SDP MUST be video.

   o  The encoding name in the "a=rtpmap" line of SDP MUST be VP8 (the
      media subtype).

   o  The clock rate in the "a=rtpmap" line MUST be 90000.

   o  The parameters "max-fs" and "max-fr" MUST be included in the
      "a=fmtp" line if the SDP is used to declare receiver capabilities.
      These parameters are expressed as a media subtype string, in the
      form of a semicolon-separated list of parameter=value pairs.

6.2.1.1.  Example

   An example of media representation in SDP is as follows:

   m=video 49170 RTP/AVPF 98
   a=rtpmap:98 VP8/90000
   a=fmtp:98 max-fr=30; max-fs=3600;

6.2.2.  Offer/Answer Considerations

   The VP8 codec offers a decode complexity that is roughly linear with
   the number of pixels encoded.  The parameters "max-fr" and "max-fs"
   are defined in Section 6.1, where the macroblock size is 16x16 pixels
   as defined in [RFC6386], the max-fs and max-fr parameters MUST be
   used to establish these limits.

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7.  Security Considerations

   RTP packets using the payload format defined in this specification
   are subject to the security considerations discussed in the RTP
   specification [RFC3550], and in any applicable RTP profile such as
   RTP/AVP [RFC3551], RTP/AVPF [RFC4585], RTP/SAVP [RFC3711], or RTP/
   SAVPF [RFC5124].  However, as "Securing the RTP Protocol Framework:
   Why RTP Does Not Mandate a Single Media Security Solution" [RFC7202]
   discusses, it is not an RTP payload format's responsibility to
   discuss or mandate what solutions are used to meet the basic security
   goals like confidentiality, integrity, and source authenticity for
   RTP in general.  This responsibility lays on anyone using RTP in an
   application.  They can find guidance on available security mechanisms
   and important considerations in "Options for Securing RTP Sessions"
   [RFC7201].  Applications SHOULD use one or more appropriate strong
   security mechanisms.  The rest of this security consideration section
   discusses the security impacting properties of the payload format
   itself.

   This RTP payload format and its media decoder do not exhibit any
   significant difference in the receiver-side computational complexity
   for packet processing and, thus, are unlikely to pose a denial-of-
   service threat due to the receipt of pathological data.  Nor does the
   RTP payload format contain any active content.

8.  Congestion Control

   Congestion control for RTP SHALL be used in accordance with RFC 3550
   [RFC3550] and with any applicable RTP profile; e.g., RFC 3551
   [RFC3551].  The congestion control mechanism can, in a real-time
   encoding scenario, adapt the transmission rate by instructing the
   encoder to encode at a certain target rate.  Media-aware network
   elements MAY use the information in the VP8 payload descriptor in
   Section 4.2 to identify non-reference frames and discard them in
   order to reduce network congestion.  Note that discarding of non-
   reference frames cannot be done if the stream is encrypted (because
   the non-reference marker is encrypted).

9.  IANA Considerations

   The IANA has registered a media type as described in Section 6.1.

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10.  References

10.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC3550]  Schulzrinne, H., Casner, S., Frederick, R., and V.
              Jacobson, "RTP: A Transport Protocol for Real-Time
              Applications", STD 64, RFC 3550, DOI 10.17487/RFC3550,
              July 2003, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3550>.

   [RFC3551]  Schulzrinne, H. and S. Casner, "RTP Profile for Audio and
              Video Conferences with Minimal Control", STD 65, RFC 3551,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC3551, July 2003,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3551>.

   [RFC4566]  Handley, M., Jacobson, V., and C. Perkins, "SDP: Session
              Description Protocol", RFC 4566, DOI 10.17487/RFC4566,
              July 2006, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4566>.

   [RFC4585]  Ott, J., Wenger, S., Sato, N., Burmeister, C., and J. Rey,
              "Extended RTP Profile for Real-time Transport Control
              Protocol (RTCP)-Based Feedback (RTP/AVPF)", RFC 4585,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC4585, July 2006,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4585>.

   [RFC4855]  Casner, S., "Media Type Registration of RTP Payload
              Formats", RFC 4855, DOI 10.17487/RFC4855, February 2007,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4855>.

   [RFC6386]  Bankoski, J., Koleszar, J., Quillio, L., Salonen, J.,
              Wilkins, P., and Y. Xu, "VP8 Data Format and Decoding
              Guide", RFC 6386, DOI 10.17487/RFC6386, November 2011,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6386>.

   [RFC6838]  Freed, N., Klensin, J., and T. Hansen, "Media Type
              Specifications and Registration Procedures", BCP 13,
              RFC 6838, DOI 10.17487/RFC6838, January 2013,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6838>.

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10.2.  Informative References

   [RFC3711]  Baugher, M., McGrew, D., Naslund, M., Carrara, E., and K.
              Norrman, "The Secure Real-time Transport Protocol (SRTP)",
              RFC 3711, DOI 10.17487/RFC3711, March 2004,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3711>.

   [RFC5124]  Ott, J. and E. Carrara, "Extended Secure RTP Profile for
              Real-time Transport Control Protocol (RTCP)-Based Feedback
              (RTP/SAVPF)", RFC 5124, DOI 10.17487/RFC5124, February
              2008, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5124>.

   [RFC7201]  Westerlund, M. and C. Perkins, "Options for Securing RTP
              Sessions", RFC 7201, DOI 10.17487/RFC7201, April 2014,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7201>.

   [RFC7202]  Perkins, C. and M. Westerlund, "Securing the RTP
              Framework: Why RTP Does Not Mandate a Single Media
              Security Solution", RFC 7202, DOI 10.17487/RFC7202, April
              2014, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7202>.

   [Sch07]    Schwarz, H., Marpe, D., and T. Wiegand, "Overview of the
              Scalable Video Coding Extension of the H.264/AVC
              Standard", IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for
              Video Technology, Volume 17: Issue 9,
              DOI 10.1109/TCSVT.2007.905532, September 2007,
              <http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TCSVT.2007.905532>.

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Authors' Addresses

   Patrik Westin
   Google, Inc.
   1600 Amphitheatre Parkway
   Mountain View, CA  94043
   United States

   Email: patrik.westin@gmail.com


   Henrik F Lundin
   Google, Inc.
   Kungsbron 2
   Stockholm  11122
   Sweden

   Email: hlundin@google.com


   Michael Glover
   Twitter Boston
   10 Hemlock Way
   Durham, NH  03824
   United States

   Email: michaelglover262@gmail.com


   Justin Uberti
   Google, Inc.
   747 6th Street South
   Kirkland, WA  98033
   United States

   Email: justin@uberti.name


   Frank Galligan
   Google, Inc.
   1600 Amphitheatre Parkway
   Mountain View, CA  94043
   United States

   Email: fgalligan@google.com