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RFC 7703

Informational
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Experience with Testing of Mapping of Address and Port Using Translation (MAP-T)

Part 1 of 3, p. 1 to 13
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Independent Submission                                       E. Cordeiro
Request for Comments: 7703                                    R. Carnier
Category: Informational
ISSN: 2070-1721                                              A. Moreiras
                                                                  NIC.br
                                                           November 2015


                       Experience with Testing of
         Mapping of Address and Port Using Translation (MAP-T)

Abstract

   This document describes the testing result of a network utilizing a
   Mapping of Address and Port using Translation (MAP-T) double
   translation solution; it provides an overview of user applications'
   behavior with a shared IPv4 address.

   The MAP-T software is from CERNET Center and the test environment is
   on the NIC.br network with real and virtualized machines.

Status of This Memo

   This document is not an Internet Standards Track specification; it is
   published for informational purposes.

   This is a contribution to the RFC Series, independently of any other
   RFC stream.  The RFC Editor has chosen to publish this document at
   its discretion and makes no statement about its value for
   implementation or deployment.  Documents approved for publication by
   the RFC Editor are not a candidate for any level of Internet
   Standard; see Section 2 of RFC 5741.

   Information about the current status of this document, any errata,
   and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at
   http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7703.

Page 2 
Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2015 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   2.  Testbed Overview  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     2.1.  Network Topology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     2.2.  Configuration Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
       2.2.1.  MAP-T Core  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
       2.2.2.  IPv6-Only Router  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
       2.2.3.  MAP-T CPE 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
       2.2.4.  Host 1  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   3.  Operating Systems Used in This Test . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     3.1.  Linux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     3.2.  Windows 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     3.3.  Windows XP  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   4.  Application Testing Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   5.  Effect Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     5.1.  User Experience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     5.2.  Testing Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   6.  Future Testing Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   7.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   8.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     8.1.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     8.2.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   Appendix A.  Application Testing Details  . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
     A.1.  Browsers  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
       A.1.1.  Google Chrome . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
       A.1.2.  Mozilla Firefox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
       A.1.3.  Internet Explorer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
       A.1.4.  Safari  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
       A.1.5.  Lynx (Text Browser) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18
     A.2.  Web Browsing  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
       A.2.1.  www.google.com  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
       A.2.2.  www.msn.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
     A.3.  Web Dynamic Content . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21
       A.3.1.  Flash Player  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21
       A.3.2.  Silverlight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  22

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       A.3.3.  Java Applets  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  23
       A.3.4.  HTML5 Websites  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  24
     A.4.  Video-Stream Websites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  25
       A.4.1.  www.youtube.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  25
       A.4.2.  www.dailymotion.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  26
       A.4.3.  www.zappiens.br . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  27
     A.5.  Social-Networking Websites  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  28
       A.5.1.  www.facebook.com  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  28
       A.5.2.  www.twitter.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  28
     A.6.  Webmails  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  30
       A.6.1.  www.gmail.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  30
       A.6.2.  www.hotmail.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  31
     A.7.  Real-Time Internet Text Messaging (Chat) Website  . . . .  32
       A.7.1.  Chat Rooms of Universo Online (UOL) Content Provider   32
     A.8.  Image-Hosting Site  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  33
       A.8.1.  www.flickr.com  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  33
     A.9.  Communication Protocol  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  34
       A.9.1.  Skype . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  34
       A.9.2.  Google Talk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  35
       A.9.3.  Jabber (XMPP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  36
       A.9.4.  MSN Messenger (Microsoft Notification Protocol) . . .  37
       A.9.5.  IRC (Internet Relay Chat) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  38
     A.10. Torrent Clients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  39
       A.10.1.  Vuze . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  39
       A.10.2.  uTorrent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  40
       A.10.3.  Ktorrent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  41
       A.10.4.  Note about BitTorrent Seeders  . . . . . . . . . . .  42
     A.11. Remote Access and File Transfer Software  . . . . . . . .  43
       A.11.1.  SSH  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  43
       A.11.2.  FTP  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  44
       A.11.3.  FileZilla FTP  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  45
       A.11.4.  WGET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  46
     A.12. Antivirus Updates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  47
       A.12.1.  Avira  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  47
       A.12.2.  AVG  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  48
       A.12.3.  Avast  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  49
     A.13. Media Player Updates and Video Streaming  . . . . . . . .  50
       A.13.1.  VLC  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  50
       A.13.2.  RealPlayer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  51
       A.13.3.  Windows Media Player . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  52
     A.14. Network Testing Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  53
       A.14.1.  ping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  53
       A.14.2.  traceroute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  54
       A.14.3.  tracert  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  55
   Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  56
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  56

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1.  Introduction

   This testing is based on most common applications utilized by home
   users.  The main purpose is to check if those applications work
   correctly on a network using MAP-T [RFC7599].  MAP-T is based on
   [RFC6791].

   Based on testing, we know which applications could be used on a
   network with MAP-T and the impact on a typical Internet user in
   Brazil.  The classification as a working application is based on user
   experience, not on network measurements.

2.  Testbed Overview

2.1.  Network Topology

        -------                    +--------+
      / NIC.br  \ IPv4 ------- IPv6|  IPv6  |IPv6 ------- IPv4 ------
     |   IPv4    |----| MAP-T |----|  only  |----| MAP-T |----| Host |
      \ Network /     | Core  |    | Router |  | | CPE 1 |    |   1  |
        -------        -------     +--------+  |  -------      ------
                                       |       |
                                       |IPv6   |  ------- IPv4 ------
                                       |       |-| MAP-T |----| Host |
                                    -------      | CPE n |    |   n  |
                                  / NIC.br  \     -------      ------
                                 |   IPv6    |
                                  \ Network /
                                    -------

               Figure 1: Network Topology Used in the Tests

   The MAP-T Core and MAP-T Customer Premises Equipment (CPE) are
   virtualized Linux machines running Fedora 11 and MAP-T 1.1 software
   developed by CERNET (https://github.com/cernet/MAP).

   The host machine is, in fact, three virtualized machines: one with
   Linux Kubuntu 12.04, one with Windows 7, and one with Windows XP.
   The host machine is replaced in the topology to test each operating
   system (OS).

   The IPv6 router is a Linux machine with static routes to match the
   MAP-T network topology routes.

   The NIC.br IPv4 Network is an IPv4 network with public IPv4
   addresses.  It is connected to the global IPv4 Internet.

Top      ToC       Page 5 
   The NIC.br IPv6 Network is an IPv6 network with global unicast IPv6
   addresses.  It is connected to the global IPv6 Internet.

   The host may have both IPv4 and IPv6 addresses, but to guarantee that
   the translation was being tested, the host received only an IPv4
   address; the IPv4 packet must be translated to pass on the IPv6-only
   network.  If the host is assigned an IPv6 address, this address
   should have a preference as specified in [RFC6555], and the
   translation might not be tested in some cases where the application
   or the content provider is available on IPv6.

Top      ToC       Page 6 
2.2.  Configuration Files

2.2.1.  MAP-T Core

   Configuration summary:

   o  ipv6-prefix=2001:db8:6:d600::/56

   o  ipv4-prefix=198.51.100.248/29

   o  interface-ipv6-only=2001:db8:6:e000::2/64

   o  interface-ipv4-wan=192.0.2.171/27

   Configuration file:

    #!/bin/sh

    ./control stop

    # configure system profile
    echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward
    echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv6/conf/all/forwarding
    echo 0 > /proc/sys/net/ipv6/conf/eth0/autoconf
    echo 0 > /proc/sys/net/ipv6/conf/eth1/autoconf

    # configure eth0 -- IPv6 interface
    ifconfig eth0 down
    ifconfig eth0 up
    ifconfig eth0 inet6 add 2001:db8:6:e000::2/64
    ip -6 route add 2001:db8:6:d600::/56 via 2001:db8:6:e000::1 dev eth0
    route -A inet6 add default gw 2001:db8:6:e000::1

    # configure eth1 -- IPv4 interface
    ifconfig eth1 down
    ifconfig eth1 up
    ifconfig eth1 192.0.2.171/27
    ip route add default via 192.0.2.161 dev eth1

    ./control start
    ./utils/ivictl -r -p 198.51.100.248/29 -P 2001:db8:6:d600::/56 -R 16
    -M 2
    ./utils/ivictl -r -d -P 2001:db8:6:d6ff::/64
    ./utils/ivictl -s -i eth1 -I eth0

    service iptables stop
    service ip6tables stop

Top      ToC       Page 7 
2.2.2.  IPv6-Only Router

   Configuration summary:

   o  interface-ipv6-to-mapt-core=2001:db8:6:e000::1/64

   o  interface-ipv6-to-mapt-cpe1=2001:db8:6:e001::1/64

   o  interface-ipv6-to-gateway=2001:db8:0:6160::ed19/64

   Configuration file:

    #!/bin/sh

    # configure system profile
    echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward
    echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv6/conf/all/forwarding
    echo 0 > /proc/sys/net/ipv6/conf/eth0/autoconf
    echo 0 > /proc/sys/net/ipv6/conf/eth1/autoconf
    echo 0 > /proc/sys/net/ipv6/conf/eth2/autoconf

    # configure eth0 -- IPv6 interface to core
    ifconfig eth0 down
    ifconfig eth0 up
    ifconfig eth0 inet6 add 2001:db8:6:e000::1/64

    # configure eth1 -- IPv6 interface to cpe
    ifconfig eth1 down
    ifconfig eth1 up
    ifconfig eth1 inet6 add 2001:db8:6:e001::1/64

    # configure eth2 -- IPv6 interface gateway
    ifconfig eth2 down
    ifconfig eth2 up
    ifconfig eth2 inet6 add 2001:db8:0:6160::ed19/64

    ip -6 route add 2001:db8:6:d640::/64 via 2001:db8:6:e001::2 dev eth1
    ip -6 route add 2001:db8:6:d6ff::/64 via 2001:db8:6:e000::2 dev eth0

    ip -6 route add 2001:db8:6:e000::/64 dev eth0
    ip -6 route add 2001:db8:6:e001::/64 dev eth1

    ip -6 route add ::/0 via 2001:db8:0:6160::1ab6 dev eth2

    service iptables stop
    service ip6tables stop

Top      ToC       Page 8 
2.2.3.  MAP-T CPE 1

   Configuration summary:

   o  ipv6-prefix=2001:db8:6:d600::/56

   o  ipv4-prefix=198.51.100.248/29

   o  interface-ipv6-only=2001:db8:6:e001::2/64

   o  interface-ipv4-lan=198.51.100.249/29

   Configuration file:

     #!/bin/sh

     ./control stop

     # configure system profile
     echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward
     echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv6/conf/all/forwarding
     echo 0 > /proc/sys/net/ipv6/conf/eth0/autoconf
     echo 0 > /proc/sys/net/ipv6/conf/eth1/autoconf

     # configure eth0 -- IPv6 interface
     ip -6 link set eth0 down
     ip -6 link set eth0 up
     ip -6 addr add 2001:db8:6:e001::2/64 dev eth0
     ip -6 route add default via 2001:db8:6:e001::1 dev eth0

     # configure eth1 -- IPv4 interface
     ip link set eth1 down
     ip link set eth1 up
     ip addr add 198.51.100.249/29 dev eth1

     ./control start
     ./utils/ivictl -r -d -P 2001:db8:6:d6ff::/64
     ./utils/ivictl -s -i eth1 -I eth0 -H -a 198.51.100.250/29
     -P 2001:db8:6:d600::/56 -R 16 -M 2 -o 0 -c 1440

     service iptables stop
     service ip6tables stop

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2.2.4.  Host 1

   The host could be Linux, Windows 7, or Windows XP, so there isn't a
   script for each of them.  The following must be configured manually:

   o  ipv4-address=198.51.100.250/29

   o  ipv4-gateway=198.51.100.249

   o  ipv4-DNS=8.8.8.8

   o  IPv6 is disabled

   The communication using IPv6 from/to the host to/from the Internet
   has no limitation and is not impacted by the translation mechanism.
   IPv6 is disabled to guarantee that the translation is being used.

3.  Operating Systems Used in This Test

3.1.  Linux

      +--------------+------------------------------------------------+
      |OS            |Linux                                           |
      +--------------+------------------------------------------------+
      |Details       |Ubuntu 12.04 LTS Kernel 3.2.0-23                |
      +--------------+------------------------------------------------+
      |Architecture  |32 bits                                         |
      +--------------+------------------------------------------------+


3.2.  Windows 7

      +--------------+------------------------------------------------+
      |OS            |Windows 7                                       |
      +--------------+------------------------------------------------+
      |Details       |Windows 7 Ultimate                              |
      +--------------+------------------------------------------------+
      |Architecture  |64 bits                                         |
      +--------------+------------------------------------------------+

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3.3.  Windows XP

      +--------------+------------------------------------------------+
      |OS            |Windows XP                                      |
      +--------------+------------------------------------------------+
      |Details       |Windows XP Professional Service Pack 3          |
      +--------------+------------------------------------------------+
      |Architecture  |32 bits                                         |
      +--------------+------------------------------------------------+

4.  Application Testing Summary

   The table below contains the summary of the testing results.  The
   details of each test are included in Appendix A.

   +------------------------------+-----------------------+------------+
   |           Category           |      Application      |   Result   |
   +------------------------------+-----------------------+------------+
   |           Browser            |     Google Chrome     |   Passed   |
   |           Browser            |    Mozilla Firefox    |   Passed   |
   |           Browser            |   Internet Explorer   |   Passed   |
   |           Browser            |         Safari        |   Passed   |
   |           Browser            |  Lynx (text browser)  |   Passed   |
   |         Web browsing         |     www.google.com    |   Passed   |
   |         Web browsing         |      www.msn.com      |   Passed   |
   |     Web dynamic content      |      Flash Player     |   Passed   |
   |     Web dynamic content      |      Silverlight      |   Passed   |
   |     Web dynamic content      |      Java applets     |   Passed   |
   |     Web dynamic content      |     HTML5 websites    |   Passed   |
   |     Video-stream website     |    www.youtube.com    |   Passed   |
   |     Video-stream website     |  www.dailymotion.com  |   Passed   |
   |     Video-stream website     |    www.zappiens.br    |   Passed   |
   |  Social-networking website   |    www.facebook.com   |   Passed   |
   |  Social-networking website   |    www.twitter.com    |   Passed   |
   |           Webmail            |     www.gmail.com     |   Passed   |
   |           Webmail            |    www.hotmail.com    |   Passed   |
   |   Real-time Internet text    |   Chat rooms of UOL   |   Passed   |
   |   messaging (chat) website   |    content provider   |            |
   |      Image-hosting site      |     www.flickr.com    |   Passed   |
   |    Communication protocol    |         Skype         |   Passed   |
   |    Communication protocol    |      Google Talk      |   Passed   |
   |    Communication protocol    |     Jabber (XMPP)     |   Passed   |
   |    Communication protocol    |     MSN Messenger     |   Passed   |
   |    Communication protocol    |          IRC          |   Passed   |
   |        Torrent client        |          Vuze         | Partially  |
   |                              |                       |   Passed   |
   |        Torrent client        |        uTorrent       | Partially  |
   |                              |                       |   Passed   |

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   |        Torrent client        |        Ktorrent       | Partially  |
   |                              |                       |   Passed   |
   |    Remote access and file    |          ssh          |   Passed   |
   |      transfer software       |                       |            |
   |    Remote access and file    |          ftp          |   Failed   |
   |      transfer software       |                       |            |
   |    Remote access and file    |     FileZilla ftp     |   Passed   |
   |      transfer software       |                       |            |
   |    Remote access and file    |          wget         |   Passed   |
   |      transfer software       |                       |            |
   |       Antivirus update       |         Avira         |   Passed   |
   |       Antivirus update       |          AVG          |   Passed   |
   |       Antivirus update       |         Avast         |   Passed   |
   |   Media player updates and   |          VLC          |   Passed   |
   |       video streaming        |                       |            |
   |   Media player updates and   |       RealPlayer      |   Passed   |
   |       video streaming        |                       |            |
   |   Media player updates and   |  Windows Media Player |   Passed   |
   |       video streaming        |                       |            |
   |     Network testing tool     |     ping outbound     |   Passed   |
   |     Network testing tool     |      ping inbound     |   Failed   |
   |     Network testing tool     |       traceroute      |   Failed   |
   |     Network testing tool     |        tracert        |   Failed   |
   +------------------------------+-----------------------+------------+

5.  Effect Analysis

5.1.  User Experience

   User experience can only be evaluated subjectively: there is no
   quantitative rule to define if the user experience is acceptable.
   Network delay, streaming experience, and download time are similar to
   a network without MAP-T using IPv4 addresses and a NAT44 on the CPE.

   The user experience was reported to be very good.  Almost all the
   software and websites worked correctly, the exceptions were the
   network traceroute and command-line FTP.

   The traceroute is only capable of reaching the MAP-T CPE and
   receiving a return message that the destination net is unreachable.

   The command-line FTP, using active mode, is capable of connecting to
   the host with or without authentication, creating, deleting, and
   navigating folders, but it is not capable of listing folder contents
   or sending/receiving files.  The differences between active and
   passive mode are explained in [RFC959].

Top      ToC       Page 12 
   The BitTorrent applications can't seed or share files, since there
   aren't incoming connections to the host, it may cause some
   difficulties and low downloading speeds.

5.2.  Testing Summary

   The working applications had no need of a special configuration to
   function.  The user experience was reported to be very good.  Almost
   all the software and websites worked correctly, the exceptions were
   the network traceroute and command-line FTP.

   The command-line FTP doesn't work correctly because active mode
   requires incoming connections to specific ports without having an
   outbound connection on those ports.  When the test was run on FTP
   passive mode on Linux, the FTP worked correctly.  When the test was
   run on FTP passive mode on Windows 7 and Windows XP, the FTP didn't
   work correctly.  When using FileZilla FTP in passive mode, FTP worked
   on all tested operating systems.

   The network traceroute doesn't work in inbound or outbound directions
   because there is no continuity of the IPv4 network, as it is
   interrupted by an IPv6-only network.  The tool is not capable of
   detecting the hosts in this IPv6-only network and because of that the
   traceroute doesn't succeed.

   The testing was run with the version 1.1 of the MAP-T software
   developed by CERNET.  In this version, the MAP-T CPE uses a NAT44, so
   it is not possible to receive incoming connections even on the ports
   assigned to the host by the address plus port division.  Because of
   that, it is not possible to configure a server on the host.  We
   provided this feedback to the CERNET team and they developed a new
   version of the software (2.2c) that is capable of receiving incoming
   connections on specific ports in each CPE.

6.  Future Testing Considerations

   Future tests should consider testing Mapping of Address and Port with
   Encapsulation (MAP-E) [RFC7597] as well (currently supported in the
   new version of CERNET's MAP software).  Other operating systems (Mac
   OS, Android, IOS, etc.), devices (mobile phones, tablets, video
   games, etc.), and programs (mail and instant messaging clients and
   servers) could be tested, too.  Another consideration is the port
   sharing ratio and if it affects performance and functionalities.  The
   results of the testing made in MAP Interoperability Testing Results
   [MAP-TESTING] are also relevant for future tests.  Impact on other
   protocols, like DNS and DNSSEC, could also be verified.

Top      ToC       Page 13 
7.  Security Considerations

   There are no new security considerations pertaining to this document.

8.  References

8.1.  Normative References

   [RFC959]   Postel, J. and J. Reynolds, "File Transfer Protocol",
              STD 9, RFC 959, DOI 10.17487/RFC0959, October 1985,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc959>.

   [RFC6555]  Wing, D. and A. Yourtchenko, "Happy Eyeballs: Success with
              Dual-Stack Hosts", RFC 6555, DOI 10.17487/RFC6555, April
              2012, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6555>.

   [RFC6791]  Li, X., Bao, C., Wing, D., Vaithianathan, R., and G.
              Huston, "Stateless Source Address Mapping for ICMPv6
              Packets", RFC 6791, DOI 10.17487/RFC6791, November 2012,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6791>.

8.2.  Informative References

   [MAP-TESTING]
              Li, X., Bao, C., Han, G., and W. Dec, "MAP
              Interoperability Testing Results", Work in Progress,
              draft-xli-softwire-map-testing-06, July 2015.

   [PCP-BITTORRENT]
              Boucadair, M., Zheng, T., Deng, X., and J. Queiroz,
              "Behavior of BitTorrent service in PCP-enabled networks
              with Address Sharing", Work in Progress,
              draft-boucadair-pcp-bittorrent-00, May 2012.

   [RFC7597]  Troan, O., Ed., Dec, W., Li, X., Bao, C., Matsushima, S.,
              Murakami, T., and T. Taylor, Ed., "Mapping of Address and
              Port with Encapsulation (MAP-E)", RFC 7597,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7597, July 2015,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7597>.

   [RFC7599]  Li, X., Bao, C., Dec, W., Ed., Troan, O., Matsushima, S.,
              and T. Murakami, "Mapping of Address and Port using
              Translation (MAP-T)", RFC 7599, DOI 10.17487/RFC7599, July
              2015, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7599>.


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