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RFC 7603

Proposed STD
Pages: 28
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Energy Management (EMAN) Applicability Statement

 


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Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)                      B. Schoening
Request for Comments: 7603                        Independent Consultant
Category: Standards Track                                M. Chandramouli
ISSN: 2070-1721                                      Cisco Systems, Inc.
                                                              B. Nordman
                                          Lawrence Berkeley National Lab
                                                             August 2015


            Energy Management (EMAN) Applicability Statement

Abstract

   The objective of Energy Management (EMAN) is to provide an energy
   management framework for networked devices.  This document presents
   the applicability of the EMAN information model in a variety of
   scenarios with cases and target devices.  These use cases are useful
   for identifying requirements for the framework and MIBs.  Further, we
   describe the relationship of the EMAN framework to other relevant
   energy monitoring standards and architectures.

Status of This Memo

   This is an Internet Standards Track document.

   This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force
   (IETF).  It represents the consensus of the IETF community.  It has
   received public review and has been approved for publication by the
   Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG).  Further information on
   Internet Standards is available in Section 2 of RFC 5741.

   Information about the current status of this document, any errata,
   and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at
   http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7603.

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Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2015 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1. Introduction ................................................. 3
     1.1. Energy Management Overview ............................... 4
     1.2. EMAN Document Overview ................................... 4
     1.3. Energy Measurement ....................................... 5
     1.4. Energy Management ........................................ 5
     1.5. EMAN Framework Application ............................... 6
   2. Scenarios and Target Devices ................................. 6
     2.1. Network Infrastructure Energy Objects .................... 6
     2.2. Devices Powered and Connected by a Network Device ........ 7
     2.3. Devices Connected to a Network ........................... 8
     2.4. Power Meters ............................................. 9
     2.5. Mid-level Managers ...................................... 10
     2.6. Non-residential Building System Gateways ................ 10
     2.7. Home Energy Gateways .................................... 11
     2.8. Data Center Devices ..................................... 12
     2.9. Energy Storage Devices .................................. 13
     2.10. Industrial Automation Networks ......................... 14
     2.11. Printers ............................................... 14
     2.12. Demand Response ........................................ 15
   3. Use Case Patterns ........................................... 16
     3.1. Metering ................................................ 16
     3.2. Metering and Control .................................... 16
     3.3. Power Supply, Metering and Control ...................... 16
     3.4. Multiple Power Sources .................................. 16
   4. Relationship of EMAN to Other Standards ..................... 17
     4.1. Data Model and Reporting ................................ 17
           4.1.1. IEC - CIM........................................ 17
           4.1.2. DMTF............................................. 17
           4.1.3. ODVA............................................. 19
           4.1.4. Ecma SDC......................................... 19
           4.1.5. PWG.............................................. 19

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           4.1.6. ASHRAE........................................... 20
           4.1.7. ANSI/CEA......................................... 21
           4.1.8. ZigBee........................................... 21
     4.2. Measurement ............................................. 22
           4.2.1. ANSI C12......................................... 22
           4.2.2. IEC 62301........................................ 22
     4.3. Other ................................................... 22
           4.3.1. ISO.............................................. 22
           4.3.2. Energy Star...................................... 23
           4.3.3. Smart Grid....................................... 23
   5. Limitations ................................................. 24
   6. Security Considerations ..................................... 24
   7. References .................................................. 25
     7.1. Normative References .................................... 25
     7.2. Informative References .................................. 25
   Acknowledgements ............................................... 27
   Authors' Addresses ............................................. 28

1.  Introduction

   The focus of the Energy Management (EMAN) framework is energy
   monitoring and management of energy objects [RFC7326].  The scope of
   devices considered are network equipment and their components, and
   devices connected directly or indirectly to the network.  The EMAN
   framework enables monitoring of heterogeneous devices to report their
   energy consumption and, if permissible, control.  There are multiple
   scenarios where this is desirable, particularly considering the
   increased importance of limiting consumption of finite energy
   resources and reducing operational expenses.

   The EMAN framework [RFC7326] describes how energy information can be
   retrieved from IP-enabled devices using Simple Network Management
   Protocol (SNMP), specifically, Management Information Base (MIB)
   modules for SNMP.

   This document describes typical applications of the EMAN framework as
   well as its opportunities and limitations.  It also reviews other
   standards that are similar in part to EMAN but address different
   domains, describing how those other standards relate to the EMAN
   framework.

   The rest of the document is organized as follows.  Section 2 contains
   a list of use cases or network scenarios that EMAN addresses.
   Section 3 contains an abstraction of the use case scenarios to
   distinct patterns.  Section 4 deals with other standards related and
   applicable to EMAN.

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1.1.  Energy Management Overview

   EMAN addresses the electrical energy consumed by devices connected to
   a network.  A first step to increase the energy efficiency in
   networks and the devices attached to the network is to enable energy
   objects to report their energy usage over time.  The EMAN framework
   addresses this problem with an information model for electrical
   equipment: energy object identification, energy object context, power
   measurement, and power characteristics.

   The EMAN framework defines SNMP MIB modules based on the information
   model.  By implementing these SNMP MIB modules, an energy object can
   report its energy consumption according to the information model.
   Based on the information model, the MIB documents specify SNMP MIB
   modules, but it is equally possible to use other mechanisms such as
   YANG module, Network Conference Protocol (NETCONF), etc.

   In that context, it is important to distinguish energy objects that
   can only report their own energy usage from devices that can also
   collect and aggregate energy usage of other energy objects.

1.2.  EMAN Document Overview

   The EMAN work consists of the following Standard Track and
   Informational documents in the area of energy management.

      Applicability Statement (this document)

      Requirements [RFC6988]: This document presents requirements of
         energy management and the scope of the devices considered.

      Framework [RFC7326]: This document defines a framework for
         providing energy management for devices within or connected to
         communication networks and lists the definitions for the common
         terms used in these documents.

      Energy Object Context MIB [RFC7461]: This document defines a MIB
         module that characterizes a device's identity, context, and
         relationships to other entities.

      Monitoring and Control MIB [RFC7460]: This document defines a MIB
         module for monitoring the power and energy consumption of a
         device.

         The MIB module contains an optional module for metrics
         associated with power characteristics.

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      Battery MIB [RFC7577]: This document defines a MIB module for
         monitoring characteristics of an internal battery.

1.3.  Energy Measurement

   It is increasingly common for today's smart devices to measure and
   report their own energy consumption.  Intelligent power strips and
   some Power over Ethernet (PoE) switches can meter consumption of
   connected devices.  However, when managed and reported through
   proprietary means, this information is difficult to view at the
   enterprise level.

   The primary goal of the EMAN information model is to enable reporting
   and management within a standard framework that is applicable to a
   wide variety of end devices, meters, and proxies.  This enables a
   management system to know who's consuming what, when, and how by
   leveraging existing networks across various equipment in a unified
   and consistent manner.

   Because energy objects may both consume energy and provide energy to
   other devices, there are three types of energy measurement: energy
   input to a device, energy supplied to other devices, and net
   (resultant) energy consumed (the difference between energy input and
   supplied).

1.4.  Energy Management

   The EMAN framework provides mechanisms for energy control in addition
   to passive monitoring.  There are many cases where active energy
   control of devices is desirable, for example, during low device
   utilization or peak electrical price periods.

   Energy control can be as simple as controlling on/off states.  In
   many cases, however, energy control requires understanding the energy
   object context.  For instance, during non-business hours in a
   commercial building, some phones must remain available in case of
   emergency, and office cooling is not usually turned off completely,
   but the comfort level is reduced.

   Energy object control therefore requires flexibility and support for
   different policies and mechanisms: from centralized management by an
   energy management system to autonomous control by individual devices
   and alignment with dynamic demand-response mechanisms.

   The power states specified in the EMAN framework can be used in
   demand-response scenarios.  In response to time-of-day fluctuation of
   energy costs or grid power shortages, network devices can respond and
   reduce their energy consumption.

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1.5.  EMAN Framework Application

   A Network Management System (NMS) is an entity that requests
   information from compatible devices, typically using the SNMP
   protocol. An NMS may implement many network management functions,
   such as security or identity management.  An NMS that deals
   exclusively with energy is called an Energy Management System (EnMS).
   It may be limited to monitoring energy use, or it may also implement
   control functions.  An EnMS collects energy information for devices
   in the network.

   Energy management can be implemented by extending existing SNMP
   support with EMAN-specific MIBs.  SNMP provides an industry-proven
   and well-known mechanism to discover, secure, measure, and control
   SNMP-enabled end devices.  The EMAN framework provides an information
   and data model to unify access to a large range of devices.

2.  Scenarios and Target Devices

   This section presents energy management scenarios that the EMAN
   framework should solve.  Each scenario lists target devices for which
   the energy management framework can be applied, how the reported-on
   devices are powered, and how the reporting or control is
   accomplished.  While there is some overlap between some of the use
   cases, the use cases illustrate network scenarios that the EMAN
   framework supports.

2.1.  Network Infrastructure Energy Objects

   This scenario covers the key use case of network devices and their
   components.  For a device aware of one or more components, our
   information model supports monitoring and control at the component
   level.  Typically, the chassis draws power from one or more sources
   and feeds its internal components.  It is highly desirable to have
   monitoring available for individual components, such as line cards,
   processors, disk drives, and peripherals such as USB devices.

   As an illustrative example, consider a switch with the following
   grouping of subentities for which energy management could be useful.

      o  Physical view: chassis (or stack), line cards, and service
         modules of the switch.

      o  Component view: CPU, Application-Specific Integrated Circuits
         (ASICs), fans, power supply, ports (single port and port
         groups), storage, and memory.

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   The ENTITY-MIB [RFC6933] provides a containment model for uniquely
   identifying the physical subcomponents of network devices.  The
   containment information identifies whether one Energy Object belongs
   to another Energy Object (e.g., a line-card Energy Object contained
   in a chassis Energy Object).  The mapping table,
   entPhysicalContainsTable, has an index, entPhysicalChildIndex, and
   the table, entPhysicalTable, has a MIB object,
   entPhysicalContainedIn, that points to the containing entity.

   The essential properties of this use case are:

      o  Target devices: network devices such as routers and switches,
         as well as their components.

      o  How powered: typically by a Power Distribution Unit (PDU) on a
         rack or from a wall outlet.  The components of a device are
         powered by the device chassis.

      o  Reporting: Direct power measurement can be performed at a
         device level.  Components can report their power consumption
         directly, or the chassis/device can report on behalf of some
         components.

2.2.  Devices Powered and Connected by a Network Device

   This scenario covers Power Sourcing Equipment (PSE) devices.  A PSE
   device (e.g., a PoE switch) provides power to a Powered Device (PD)
   (e.g., a desktop phone) over a medium such as USB or Ethernet
   [RFC3621].  For each port, the PSE can control the power supply
   (switching it on and off) and usually meter actual power provided.
   PDs obtain network connectivity as well as power over a single
   connection so the PSE can determine which device is associated with
   each port.

   PoE ports on a switch are commonly connected to devices such as IP
   phones, wireless access points, and IP cameras.  The switch needs
   power for its internal use and to supply power to PoE ports.
   Monitoring the power consumption of the switch (supplying device) and
   the power consumption of the PoE endpoints (consuming devices) is a
   simple use case of this scenario.

   This scenario illustrates the relationships between entities.  The
   PoE IP phone is powered by the switch.  If there are many IP phones
   connected to the same switch, the power consumption of all the IP
   phones can be aggregated by the switch.

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   The essential properties of this use case are:

      Target devices: Power over Ethernet devices such as IP phones,
         wireless access points, and IP cameras.

      How powered: PoE devices are connected to the switch port that
         supplies power to those devices.

      Reporting: PoE device power consumption is measured and reported
         by the switch (PSE) that supplies power.  In addition, some
         edge devices can support the EMAN framework.

   This use case can be divided into two subcases:

      a) The endpoint device supports the EMAN framework, in which case
         this device is an EMAN Energy Object by itself with its own
         Universally Unique Identifier (UUID).  The device is
         responsible for its own power reporting and control.  See the
         related scenario "Devices Connected to a Network" below.

      b) The endpoint device does not have EMAN capabilities, and the
         power measurement may not be able to be performed independently
         and is therefore only performed by the supplying device.  This
         scenario is similar to the "Mid-level Manager" below.

   In subcase (a), note that two power usage reporting mechanisms for
   the same device are available: one performed by the PD itself and one
   performed by the PSE.  Device-specific implementations will dictate
   which one to use.

2.3.  Devices Connected to a Network

   This use case covers the metering relationship between an energy
   object and the parent energy object to which it is connected, while
   receiving power from a different source.

   An example is a PC that has a network connection to a switch but
   draws power from a wall outlet.  In this case, the PC can report
   power usage by itself, ideally through the EMAN framework.

   The wall outlet to which the PC is plugged in can be unmetered or
   metered, for example, by a Smart PDU.

      a) If metered, the PC has a powered-by relationship to the Smart
         PDU, and the Smart PDU acts as a "mid-level manager".

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      b) If unmetered, or operating on batteries, the PC will report its
         own energy usage as any other Energy Object to the switch, and
         the switch may possibly provide aggregation.

   These two cases are not mutually exclusive.

   In terms of relationships between entities, the PC has a powered-by
   relationship to the PDU, and if the power consumption of the PC is
   metered by the PDU, then there is a metered-by relation between the
   PC and the PDU.

   The essential properties of this use case are:

      o  Target devices: energy objects that have a network connection
         but receive power supply from another source.

      o  How powered: endpoint devices (e.g., PCs) receive power supply
         from the wall outlet (unmetered), a PDU (metered), or can be
         powered autonomously (batteries).

      o  Reporting: The power consumption can be reported via the EMAN
         framework
         -  by the device directly,
         -  by the switch with information provided to it by the device,
            or
         -  by the PDU from which the device obtains its power.

2.4.  Power Meters

   Some electrical devices are not equipped with instrumentation to
   measure their own power and accumulated energy consumption.  External
   meters can be used to measure the power consumption of such
   electrical devices as well as collections of devices.

   Three types of external metering are relevant to EMAN: PDUs,
   standalone meters, and utility meters.  External meters can measure
   consumption of a single device or a set of devices.

   Power Distribution Units (PDUs) can have built-in meters for each
   socket and can measure the power supplied to each device in an
   equipment rack.  PDUs typically have remote management capabilities
   that can report and possibly control the power supply of each outlet.

   Standalone meters can be placed anywhere in a power distribution tree
   and may measure all or part of the total.  Utility meters monitor and
   report accumulated power consumption of the entire building.  There
   can be submeters to measure the power consumption of a portion of the
   building.

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   The essential properties of this use case are:

      o  Target devices: PDUs and meters.

      o  How powered: from traditional mains power but supplied through
         a PDU or meter (where "mains power" is the standard AC power
         drawn from the wall outlet).

      o  Reporting: PDUs report power consumption of downstream devices,
         usually a single device per outlet.  Meters may report for one
         or more devices and may require knowledge of the topology to
         associate meters with metered devices.

   Meters have metered-by relationships with devices and may have
   aggregation relationships between the meters and the devices for
   which power consumption is accumulated and reported by the meter.

2.5.  Mid-level Managers

   This use case covers aggregation of energy management data at "mid-
   level managers" that can provide energy management functions for
   themselves and associated devices.

   A switch can provide energy management functions for all devices
   connected to its ports whether or not these devices are powered by
   the switch or whether the switch provides immediate network
   connectivity to the devices.  Such a switch is a mid-level manager,
   offering aggregation of power consumption data for other devices.
   Devices report their EMAN data to the switch and the switch
   aggregates the data for further reporting.

   The essential properties of this use case:

      o  Target devices: devices that can perform aggregation; commonly
         a switch or a proxy.

      o  How powered: mid-level managers are commonly powered by a PDU
         or from a wall outlet but can be powered by any method.

      o  Reporting: The mid-level manager aggregates the energy data and
         reports that data to an EnMS or higher mid-level manager.

2.6.  Non-residential Building System Gateways

   This use case describes energy management of non-residential
   buildings.  Building Management Systems (BMS) have been in place for
   many years using legacy protocols not based on IP.  In these
   buildings, a gateway can provide a proxy function between IP networks

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   and legacy building automation protocols.  The gateway provides an
   interface between the EMAN framework and relevant building management
   protocols.

   Due to the potential energy savings, energy management of buildings
   has received significant attention.  There are gateway network
   elements to manage the multiple components of a building energy
   management system such as Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning
   (HVAC), lighting, electrical, fire and emergency systems, elevators,
   etc.  The gateway device uses legacy building protocols to
   communicate with those devices, collects their energy usage, and
   reports the results.

   The gateway performs protocol conversion and communicates via
   RS-232/RS-485 interfaces, Ethernet interfaces, and protocols specific
   to building management such as BACnet (a protocol for building
   automation and control networks) [BACnet], Modbus [MODBUS], or ZigBee
   [ZIGBEE].

   The essential properties of this use case are:

      o  Target devices: building energy management devices -- HVAC
         systems, lighting, electrical, and fire and emergency systems.

      o  How powered: any method.

      o  Reporting: The gateway collects energy consumption of non-IP
         systems and communicates the data via the EMAN framework.

2.7.  Home Energy Gateways

   This use case describes the scenario of energy management of a home.
   The home energy gateway is another example of a proxy that interfaces
   with electrical appliances and other devices in a home.  This gateway
   can monitor and manage electrical equipment (e.g., refrigerator,
   heating/cooling, or washing machine) using one of the many protocols
   that are being developed for residential devices.

   Beyond simply metering, it's possible to implement energy saving
   policies based on time of day, occupancy, or energy pricing from the
   utility grid.  The EMAN information model can be applied to the
   energy management of a home.

   The essential properties of this use case are:

      o  Target devices: home energy gateway and smart meters in a home.

      o  How powered: any method.

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      o  Reporting: The home energy gateway can collect power
         consumption of device in a home and possibly report the meter
         reading to the utility.

2.8.  Data Center Devices

   This use case describes energy management of a data center.  Energy
   efficiency of data centers has become a fundamental challenge of data
   center operation, as data centers are big energy consumers and have
   an expensive infrastructure.  The equipment generates heat, and heat
   needs to be evacuated through an HVAC system.

   A typical data center network consists of a hierarchy of electrical
   energy objects.  At the bottom of the network hierarchy are servers
   mounted on a rack; these are connected to top-of-the-rack switches,
   which in turn are connected to aggregation switches and then to core
   switches.  Power consumption of all network elements, servers, and
   storage devices in the data center should be measured.  Energy
   management can be implemented on different aggregation levels, i.e.,
   at the network level, the Power Distribution Unit (PDU) level, and/or
   the server level.

   Beyond the network devices, storage devices, and servers, data
   centers contain Uninterruptable Power Systems (UPSs) to provide back-
   up power for the facility in the event of a power outage.  A UPS can
   provide backup power for many devices in a data center for a finite
   period of time.  Energy monitoring of energy storage capacity is
   vital from a data center network operations point of view.
   Presently, the UPS MIB can be useful in monitoring the battery
   capacity, the input load to the UPS, and the output load from the
   UPS.  Currently, there is no link between the UPS MIB and the ENTITY
   MIB.

   In addition to monitoring the power consumption of a data center,
   additional power characteristics should be monitored.  Some of these
   are dynamic variations in the input power supply from the grid,
   referred to as power quality metrics.  It can also be useful to
   monitor how efficiently the devices utilize power.

   Nameplate capacity of the data center can be estimated from the
   nameplate ratings (which indicate the maximum possible power draw) of
   IT equipment at a site.

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   The essential properties of this use case are:

      o  Target devices: IT devices in a data center, such as network
         equipment, servers, and storage devices, as well as power and
         cooling infrastructure.

      o  How powered: any method, but commonly by one or more PDUs.

      o  Reporting: Devices may report on their own behalf or for other
         connected devices as described in other use cases.

2.9.  Energy Storage Devices

   Energy storage devices can have two different roles: one type whose
   primary function is to provide power to another device (e.g., a UPS)
   and one type with a different primary function but that has energy
   storage as a component (e.g., a notebook).  This use case covers
   both.

   The energy storage can be a conventional battery or any other means
   to store electricity, such as a hydrogen cell.

   An internal battery can be a back-up or an alternative source of
   power to mains power.  As batteries have a finite capacity and
   lifetime, means for reporting the actual charge, age, and state of a
   battery are required.  An internal battery can be viewed as a
   component of a device and can be contained within the device from an
   ENTITY-MIB perspective.

   Battery systems are often used in remote locations such as mobile
   telecom towers.  For continuous operation, it is important to monitor
   the remaining battery life and raise an alarm when this falls below a
   threshold.

   The essential properties of this use case are:

      o  Target devices: devices that have an internal battery or
         external storage.

      o  How powered: from batteries or other storage devices.

      o  Reporting: The device reports on its power delivered and state.

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2.10. Industrial Automation Networks

   Energy consumption statistics in the industrial sector are
   staggering.  The industrial sector alone consumes about half of the
   world's total delivered energy and is a significant user of
   electricity.  Thus, the need for optimization of energy usage in this
   sector is natural.

   Industrial facilities consume energy in process loads and non-process
   loads.

   The essential properties of this use case are:

      o  Target devices: devices used in an industrial sector.

      o  How powered: any method.

      o  Reporting: The Common Industrial Protocol (CIP) is commonly
         used for reporting energy for these devices.

2.11.  Printers

   This use case describes the scenario of energy monitoring and
   management of printers.  Printers in this use case stand in for all
   imaging equipment, including Multi-function Devices (MFDs), scanners,
   fax machines, and mailing machines.

   Energy use of printers has been a long-standing industry concern, and
   sophisticated power management is common.  Printers often use a
   variety of low-power modes, particularly for managing energy-
   intensive thermo-mechanical components.  Printers also have long made
   extensive use of SNMP for end-user system interaction and for
   management generally, with cross-vendor management systems able to
   manage fleets of printers in enterprises.  Power consumption during
   active modes can vary widely, with high peak usage levels.

   Printers can expose detailed power state information, distinct from
   operational state information, with some printers reporting
   transition states between stable long-term states.  Many also support
   active setting of power states and policies, such as delay times,
   when inactivity automatically transitions the device to a lower power
   mode.  Other features include reporting on components, counters for
   state transitions, typical power levels by state, scheduling, and
   events/alarms.

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   Some large printers also have a "Digital Front End", which is a
   computer that performs functions on behalf of the physical imaging
   system.  These typically have their own presence on the network and
   are sometimes separately powered.

   There are some unique characteristics of printers from the point of
   view energy management.  While the printer is not in use, there are
   timer-based low power states, which consume little power.  On the
   other hand, while the printer is printing or copying, the cylinder is
   heated so that power consumption is quite high but only for a short
   period of time.  Given this work load, periodic polling of power
   levels alone would not suffice.

   The essential properties of this use case are:

      o  Target devices: all imaging equipment.

      o  How powered: typically, AC from a wall outlet.

      o  Reporting: The devices report for themselves.

2.12. Demand Response

   The theme of demand response from a utility grid spans across several
   use cases.  In some situations, in response to time-of-day
   fluctuation of energy costs or sudden energy shortages due power
   outages, it may be important to respond and reduce the energy
   consumption of the network.

   From the EMAN use case perspective, the demand-response scenario can
   apply to a data center, building, or home.  Real-time energy
   monitoring is usually a prerequisite so that during a potential
   energy shortfall the EnMS can provide an active response.  The EnMS
   could shut down selected devices that are considered lower priority
   or uniformly reduce the power supplied to a class of devices.  For
   multisite data centers, it may be possible to formulate policies such
   as the follow-the-sun type of approach by scheduling the mobility of
   Virtual Machines (VMs) across data centers in different geographical
   locations.

   The essential properties of this use case are:

      o  Target devices: any device.

      o  How powered: traditional mains AC power.

      o  Reporting: Devices report in real time.

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      o  Control: demand response based upon policy or priority.

3.  Use Case Patterns

   The use cases presented above can be abstracted to the following
   broad patterns for energy objects.

3.1.  Metering

   -  Energy objects that have the capability for internal metering

   -  Energy objects that are metered by an external device

3.2.  Metering and Control

   -  Energy objects that do not supply power but can perform power
      metering for other devices

   -  Energy objects that do not supply power but can perform both
      metering and control for other devices

3.3.  Power Supply, Metering, and Control

   -  Energy objects that supply power for other devices but do not
      perform power metering for those devices

   -  Energy objects that supply power for other devices and also
      perform power metering

   -  Energy objects that supply power for other devices and also
      perform power metering and control for other devices

3.4.  Multiple Power Sources

   -  Energy objects that have multiple power sources, with metering and
      control performed by the same power source

   -  Energy objects that have multiple power sources supplying power to
      the device with metering performed by one or more sources and
      control performed by another source

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4.  Relationship of EMAN to Other Standards

   The EMAN framework is tied to other standards and efforts that
   address energy monitoring and control.  EMAN leverages existing
   standards when possible, and it helps enable adjacent technologies
   such as Smart Grid.

   The standards most relevant and applicable to EMAN are listed below
   with a brief description of their objectives, the current state, and
   how that standard relates to EMAN.

4.1.  Data Model and Reporting

4.1.1.  IEC - CIM

   The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) has developed a
   broad set of standards for power management.  Among these, the most
   applicable to EMAN is IEC 61850, a standard for the design of
   electric utility automation.  The abstract data model defined in
   61850 is built upon and extends the Common Information Model (CIM).
   The complete 61850 CIM model includes over a hundred object classes
   and is widely used by utilities worldwide.

   This set of standards were originally conceived to automate control
   of a substation (a facility that transfers electricity from the
   transmission to the distribution system).  However, the extensive
   data model has been widely used in other domains, including Energy
   Management Systems (EnMS).

   IEC TC57 WG19 is an ongoing working group with the objective to
   harmonize the CIM data model and 61850 standards.

   Several concepts from IEC Standards have been reused in the EMAN
   documents.  In particular, AC Power Quality measurements have been
   reused from IEC 61850-7-4.  The concept of Accuracy Classes for
   measurement of power and energy has been adapted from ANSI C12.20 and
   IEC standards 62053-21 and 62053-22.

4.1.2.  DMTF

   The Distributed Management Task Force (DMTF) has defined a Power
   State Management profile [DMTF-DSP1027] for managing computer systems
   using the DMTF's Common Information Model (CIM).  These
   specifications provide physical, logical, and virtual system
   management requirements for power-state control services.  The DMTF
   standard does not include energy monitoring.

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   The Power State Management profile is used to describe and manage the
   Power State of computer systems.  This includes controlling the Power
   State of an entity for entering sleep mode, awakening, and rebooting.
   The EMAN framework references the DMTF Power Profile and Power State
   Set.

4.1.2.1.  Common Information Model Profiles

   The DMTF uses CIM-based 'Profiles' to represent and manage power
   utilization and configuration of managed elements (note that this is
   not the 61850 CIM).  Key profiles for energy management are 'Power
   Supply' (DSP 1015), 'Power State' (DSP 1027), and 'Power Utilization
   Management' (DSP 1085).  These profiles define many features for the
   monitoring and configuration of a Power Managed Element's static and
   dynamic power saving modes, power allocation limits, and power
   states.

   Reduced power modes can be established as static or dynamic.  Static
   modes are fixed policies that limit power use or utilization.
   Dynamic power saving modes rely upon internal feedback to control
   power consumption.

   Power states are eight named operational and non-operational levels.
   These are On, Sleep-Light, Sleep-Deep, Hibernate, Off-Soft, and Off-
   Hard.  Power change capabilities provide immediate, timed interval,
   and graceful transitions between on, off, and reset power states.
   Table 3 of the Power State Profile defines the correspondence between
   the Advanced Configuration and Power Interface [ACPI] and DMTF power
   state models, although it is not necessary for a managed element to
   support ACPI.  Optionally, a TransitioningToPowerState property can
   represent power state transitions in progress.

4.1.2.2.  DASH

   DMTF Desktop and Mobile Architecture for System Hardware [DASH]
   addresses managing heterogeneous desktop and mobile systems
   (including power) via in-band and out-of-band communications.  DASH
   uses the DMTF's Web Services for Management (WS-Management) and CIM
   data model to manage and control resources such as power, CPU, etc.

   Both in-service and out-of-service systems can be managed with the
   DASH specification in a fully secured remote environment.  Full power
   life-cycle management is possible using out-of-band management.

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4.1.3.  ODVA

   The Open DeviceNet Vendors Association (ODVA) is an association for
   industrial automation companies that defines the Common Industrial
   Protocol (CIP).  Within ODVA, there is a special interest group
   focused on energy and standardization and interoperability of energy-
   aware devices.

   The ODVA is developing an energy management framework for the
   industrial sector.  There are synergies and similar concepts between
   the ODVA and EMAN approaches to energy monitoring and management.

   ODVA defines a three-part approach towards energy management:
   awareness of energy usage, energy efficiency, and the exchange of
   energy with a utility or others.  Energy monitoring and management
   promote efficient consumption and enable automating actions that
   reduce energy consumption.

   The foundation of the approach is the information and communication
   model for entities.  An entity is a network-connected, energy-aware
   device that has the ability to either measure or derive its energy
   usage based on its native consumption or generation of energy, or
   report a nominal or static energy value.

4.1.4.  Ecma SDC

   The Ecma International standard on Smart Data Centre [Ecma-SDC]
   defines semantics for management of entities in a data center such as
   servers, storage, and network equipment.  It covers energy as one of
   many functional resources or attributes of systems for monitoring and
   control.  It only defines messages and properties and does not
   reference any specific protocol.  Its goal is to enable
   interoperability of such protocols as SNMP, BACnet, and HTTP by
   ensuring a common semantic model across them.  Four power states are
   defined, Off, Sleep, Idle, and Active.  The standard does not include
   actual energy or power measurements.

   When used with EMAN, the SDC standard will provide a thin abstraction
   on top of the more detailed data model available in EMAN.

4.1.5.  PWG

   The IEEE Industry Standards and Technology Organization (ISTO)
   Printer Working Group (PWG) defines open standards for printer-
   related protocols for the benefit of printer manufacturers and
   related software vendors.  The Printer WG covers power monitoring and
   management of network printers and imaging systems in the PWG Power
   Management Model for Imaging Systems [PWG5106.4].  Clearly, these

Top      ToC       Page 20 
   devices are within the scope of energy management since they receive
   power and are attached to the network.  In addition, there is ample
   scope for power management since printers and imaging systems are not
   used that often.

   The IEEE-ISTO Printer Working Group (PWG) defines SNMP MIB modules
   for printer management and, in particular, a "PWG Power Management
   Model for Imaging Systems v1.0" [PWG5106.4] and a companion SNMP
   binding in the "PWG Imaging System Power MIB v1.0" [PWG5106.5].  This
   PWG model and MIB are harmonized with the DMTF CIM Infrastructure
   [DMTF-DSP0004] and DMTF CIM Power State Management Profile
   [DMTF-DSP1027] for power states and alerts.

   These MIB modules can be useful for monitoring the power and Power
   State of printers.  The EMAN framework takes into account the
   standards defined in the Printer Working Group.  The PWG may
   harmonize its MIBs with those from EMAN.  The PWG covers many topics
   in greater detail than EMAN, including those specific to imaging
   equipment.  The PWG also provides for vendor-specific extension
   states (beyond the standard DMTF CIM states).

   The IETF Printer MIB [RFC3805] is on the Standards Track, but that
   MIB module does not address power management.

4.1.6.  ASHRAE

   In the U.S., there is an extensive effort to coordinate and develop
   standards related to the "Smart Grid".  The Smart Grid
   Interoperability Panel, coordinated by the government's National
   Institute of Standards and Technology, identified the need for a
   building side information model (as a counterpart to utility models)
   and specified this in Priority Action Plan (PAP) 17.  This was
   designated to be a joint effort by the American Society of Heating,
   Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) and the
   National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA), both ANSI-
   approved Standards Development Organizations (SDOs).  The result is
   to be an information model, not a protocol.

   The ASHRAE effort [ASHRAE] addresses data used only within a building
   as well as data that may be shared with the grid, particularly as it
   relates to coordinating future demand levels with the needs of the
   grid.  The model is intended to be applied to any building type, both
   residential and commercial.  It is expected that existing protocols
   will be adapted to comply with the new information model, as would
   new protocols.

Top      ToC       Page 21 
   There are four basic types of entities in the model: generators,
   loads, meters, and energy managers.  The metering part of the model
   overlaps to a large degree with the EMAN framework, though there are
   features unique to each.  The load part speaks to control
   capabilities well beyond what EMAN covers.  Details of generation and
   of the energy management function are outside of EMAN scope.

   A public review draft of the ASHRAE standard was released in July
   2012.  There are no apparent major conflicts between the two
   approaches, but there are areas where some harmonization is possible.

4.1.7.  ANSI/CEA

   The Consumer Electronics Association (CEA) has approved ANSI/CEA-2047
   [ANSICEA] as a standard data model for Energy Usage Information.  The
   primary purpose is to enable home appliances and electronics to
   communicate energy usage information over a wide range of
   technologies with pluggable modules that contain the physical-layer
   electronics.  The standard can be used by devices operating on any
   home network including Wi-Fi, Ethernet, ZigBee, Z-Wave, and
   Bluetooth.  The Introduction to ANSI/CEA-2047 states that "this
   standard provides an information model for other groups to develop
   implementations specific to their network, protocol and needs."  It
   covers device identification, current power level, cumulative energy
   consumption, and provides for reporting time-series data.

4.1.8.  ZigBee

   The ZigBee Smart Energy Profile 2.0 (SEP) effort [ZIGBEE] focuses on
   IP-based wireless communication to appliances and lighting.  It is
   intended to enable internal building energy management and provide
   for bidirectional communication with the power grid.

   ZigBee protocols are intended for use in embedded applications with
   low data rates and low power consumption.  ZigBee defines a general-
   purpose, inexpensive, self-organizing mesh network that can be used
   for industrial control, embedded sensing, medical data collection,
   smoke and intruder warning, building automation, home automation,
   etc.

   ZigBee is currently not an ANSI-recognized SDO.

   The EMAN framework addresses the needs of IP-enabled networks through
   the usage of SNMP, while ZigBee provides for completely integrated
   and inexpensive mesh solutions.

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4.2.  Measurement

4.2.1.  ANSI C12

   The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) has defined a
   collection of power meter standards under ANSI C12.  The primary
   standards include communication protocols (C12.18, 21 and 22), data
   and schema definitions (C12.19), and measurement accuracy (C12.20).
   European equivalent standards are provided by IEC 62053-22.

   These very specific standards are oriented to the meter itself and
   are used by electricity distributors and producers.

   The EMAN framework [RFC7326] references the Accuracy Classes
   specified in ANSI C12.20.

4.2.2.  IEC 62301

   IEC 62301, "Household electrical appliances - Measurement of standby
   power" [IEC62301], specifies a power-level measurement procedure.
   While nominally for appliances and low-power modes, its concepts
   apply to other device types and modes, and it is commonly referenced
   in test procedures for energy using products.

   While the standard is intended for laboratory measurements of devices
   in controlled conditions, aspects of it are informative to those
   implementing measurement in products that ultimately report via EMAN.

4.3.  Other

4.3.1.  ISO

   The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) [ISO] is
   developing an energy management standard, ISO 50001, to complement
   ISO 9001 for quality management and ISO 14001 for environmental
   management.  The intent is to facilitate the creation of energy
   management programs for industrial, commercial, and other entities.
   The standard defines a process for energy management at an
   organizational level.  It does not define the way in which devices
   report energy and consume energy.

   ISO 50001 is based on the common elements found in all of ISO's
   management system standards, assuring a high level of compatibility
   with ISO 9001 and ISO 14001.  ISO 50001 benefits include:

      o  Integrating energy efficiency into management practices and
         throughout the supply chain.

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      o  Using energy management best practices and good energy
         management behaviors.

      o  Benchmarking, measuring, documenting, and reporting energy
         intensity improvements and their projected impact on reductions
         in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.

      o  Evaluating and prioritizing the implementation of new energy-
         efficient technologies.

   ISO 50001 has been developed by ISO project committee ISO TC 242,
   Energy Management.  EMAN is complementary to ISO 9001.

4.3.2.  Energy Star

   The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and U.S. Department of
   Energy (DOE) jointly sponsor the Energy Star program [ESTAR].  The
   program promotes the development of energy efficient products and
   practices.

   To qualify as Energy Star, products must meet specific energy
   efficiency targets.  The Energy Star program also provides planning
   tools and technical documentation to encourage more energy-efficient
   building design.  Energy Star is a program; it is not a protocol or
   standard.

   For businesses and data centers, Energy Star offers technical support
   to help companies establish energy conservation practices.  Energy
   Star provides best practices for measuring current energy
   performance, goal setting, and tracking improvement.  The Energy Star
   tools offered include a rating system for building performance and
   comparative benchmarks.

   There is no immediate link between EMAN and Energy Star, one being a
   protocol and the other a set of recommendations to develop energy-
   efficient products.  However, Energy Star could include EMAN
   standards in specifications for future products, either as required
   or rewarded with some benefit.

4.3.3.  Smart Grid

   The Smart Grid standards efforts underway in the United States are
   overseen by the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology
   [NIST].  NIST is responsible for coordinating a public-private
   partnership with key energy and consumer stakeholders in order to
   facilitate the development of Smart Grid standards.  These activities
   are monitored and facilitated by the Smart Grid Interoperability
   Panel (SGIP).  This group has working groups for specific topics

Top      ToC       Page 24 
   including homes, commercial buildings, and industrial facilities as
   they relate to the grid.  A stated goal of the group is to harmonize
   any new standard with the IEC CIM and IEC 61850.

   When a working group detects a standard or technology gap, the team
   seeks approval from the SGIP for the creation of a Priority Action
   Plan (PAP), a private-public partnership to close the gap.  PAP 17 is
   discussed in Section 4.1.6.

   PAP 10 addresses "Standard Energy Usage Information".  Smart Grid
   standards will provide distributed intelligence in the network and
   allow enhanced load shedding.  For example, pricing signals will
   enable selective shutdown of non-critical activities during peak
   price periods.  Actions can be effected through both centralized and
   distributed management controls.

   There is an obvious functional link between Smart Grid and EMAN in
   the form of demand response even though the EMAN framework itself
   does not address any coordination with the grid.  As EMAN enables
   control, it can be used by an EnMS to accomplish demand response
   through translation of a signal from an outside entity.

5.  Limitations

   EMAN addresses the needs of energy monitoring in terms of measurement
   and considers limited control capabilities of energy monitoring of
   networks.

   EMAN does not create a new protocol stack, but rather defines a data
   and information model useful for measuring and reporting energy and
   other metrics over SNMP.

   EMAN does not address questions regarding Smart Grid, electricity
   producers, and distributors.

6.  Security Considerations

   EMAN uses SNMP and thus has the functionality of SNMP's security
   capabilities.  SNMPv3 [RFC3411] provides important security features
   such as confidentiality, integrity, and authentication.

   Section 10 of [RFC7460] and Section 6 of [RFC7461] mention that power
   monitoring and management MIBs may have certain privacy implications.
   These privacy implications are beyond the scope of this document.
   There may be additional privacy considerations specific to each use
   case; this document has not attempted to analyze these.

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7.  References

7.1.  Normative References

   [RFC3411]   Harrington, D., Presuhn, R., and B. Wijnen, "An
               Architecture for Describing Simple Network Management
               Protocol (SNMP) Management Frameworks", STD 62, RFC 3411,
               DOI 10.17487/RFC3411, December 2002,
               <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3411>.

   [RFC3621]   Berger, A. and D. Romascanu, "Power Ethernet MIB",
               RFC 3621, DOI 10.17487/RFC3621, December 2003,
               <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3621>.

7.2.  Informative References

   [ACPI]      ACPI, "Advanced Configuration and Power Interface
               Specification", Revision 5.0b, November 2013,
               <http://www.acpi.info/spec30b.htm>.

   [ANSICEA]   ANSI, "CEA 2047 CE Energy Usage Information (CE-EUI)",
               ANSI/CEA-2047, August 2014.

   [ASHRAE]    NIST, "ASHRAE SPC 201 P Information Page",
               <http://collaborate.nist.gov/twiki-sggrid/
               bin/view/SmartGrid/PAP17Information>.

   [BACnet]    "BACnet Webpage", <http://www.bacnet.org>.

   [DASH]      DMTF, "Desktop and Mobile Architecture for System
               Hardware", <http://www.dmtf.org/standards/mgmt/dash/>.

   [DMTF-DSP0004]
               DMTF, "Common Information Model (CIM) Infrastructure",
               DSP0004, Version 2.5.0, May 2009, <http://www.dmtf.org/
               standards/published_documents/DSP0004_2.5.0.pdf>.

   [DMTF-DSP1027]
               DMTF, "Power State Management Profile", DSP1027, Version
               2.0.0, December 2009, <http://www.dmtf.org/standards/
               published_documents/DSP1027_2.0.0.pdf>.

   [Ecma-SDC]  Ecma International, "Smart Data Centre Resource
               Monitoring and Control", Standard ECMA-400, Second
               Edition, June 2013, <http://www.ecma-international.org/
               publications/standards/Ecma-400.htm>.

   [ESTAR]     Energy Star, <http://www.energystar.gov/>.

Top      ToC       Page 26 
   [IEC62301]  IEC, "Household electrical appliances - Measurement of
               standby power", IEC 62301:2011, Edition 2.0, January
               2011.

   [ISO]       ISO, "ISO launches ISO 50001 energy management standard",
               June 2011,
               <http://www.iso.org/iso/news.htm?refid=Ref1434>.

   [MODBUS]    Modbus-IDA, "MODBUS Application Protocol Specification",
               Version 1.1b, December 2006, <http://www.modbus.org/docs/
               Modbus_Application_Protocol_V1_1b.pdf>.

   [NIST]      NIST, "Smart Grid Homepage", August 2010,
               <http://www.nist.gov/smartgrid/>.

   [PWG5106.4] IEEE-ISTO, "PWG Power Management Model for Imaging
               Systems 1.0", PWG Candidate Standard 5106.4-2011,
               February 2011, <ftp://ftp.pwg.org/pub/pwg/candidates/
               cs-wimspower10-20110214-5106.4.pdf>.

   [PWG5106.5] IEEE-ISTO, "PWG Imaging System Power MIB v1.0", PWG
               Candidate Standard 5106.5-2011, February 2011.

   [RFC3805]   Bergman, R., Lewis, H., and I. McDonald, "Printer MIB
               v2", RFC 3805, DOI 10.17487/RFC3805, June 2004,
               <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3805>.

   [RFC6933]   Bierman, A., Romascanu, D., Quittek, J., and M.
               Chandramouli, "Entity MIB (Version 4)", RFC 6933,
               DOI 10.17487/RFC6933, May 2013,
               <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6933>.

   [RFC6988]   Quittek, J., Ed., Chandramouli, M., Winter, R., Dietz,
               T., and B. Claise, "Requirements for Energy Management",
               RFC 6988, DOI 10.17487/RFC6988, September 2013,
               <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6988>.

   [RFC7326]   Parello, J., Claise, B., Schoening, B., and J. Quittek,
               "Energy Management Framework", RFC 7326,
               DOI 10.17487/RFC7326, September 2014,
               <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7326>.

   [RFC7460]   Chandramouli, M., Claise, B., Schoening, B., Quittek, J.,
               and T. Dietz, "Monitoring and Control MIB for Power and
               Energy", RFC 7460, DOI 10.17487/RFC7460, March 2015,
               <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7460>.

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   [RFC7461]   Parello, J., Claise, B., and M. Chandramouli, "Energy
               Object Context MIB", RFC 7461, DOI 10.17487/RFC7461,
               March 2015, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7461>.

   [RFC7577]   Quittek, J., Winter, R., and T. Dietz, "Definition of
               Managed Objects for Battery Monitoring", RFC 7577,
               DOI 10.17487/RFC7577, July 2015,
               <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7577>.

   [ZIGBEE]    "The ZigBee Alliance", <http://www.zigbee.org/>.

Acknowledgements

   Firstly, the authors thank Emmanuel Tychon for taking the lead on the
   initial draft and making substantial contributions to it.  The
   authors also thank Jeff Wheeler, Benoit Claise, Juergen Quittek,
   Chris Verges, John Parello, and Matt Laherty for their valuable
   contributions.  The authors also thank Kerry Lynn for the use case
   involving demand response.

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Authors' Addresses

   Brad Schoening
   Independent Consultant
   44 Rivers Edge Drive
   Little Silver, NJ 07739
   United States

   Phone: +1 917 304 7190
   Email: brad.schoening@verizon.net


   Mouli Chandramouli
   Cisco Systems, Inc.
   Sarjapur Outer Ring Road
   Bangalore 560103
   India

   Phone: +91 80 4429 2409
   Email: moulchan@cisco.com


   Bruce Nordman
   Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
   1 Cyclotron Road, 90-2000
   Berkeley, CA  94720-8130
   United States

   Phone: +1 510 486 7089
   Email: bnordman@lbl.gov