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RFC 7596

Proposed STD
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Lightweight 4over6: An Extension to the Dual-Stack Lite Architecture

 


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Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)                            Y. Cui
Request for Comments: 7596                           Tsinghua University
Category: Standards Track                                         Q. Sun
ISSN: 2070-1721                                            China Telecom
                                                            M. Boucadair
                                                          France Telecom
                                                                 T. Tsou
                                                     Huawei Technologies
                                                                  Y. Lee
                                                                 Comcast
                                                               I. Farrer
                                                     Deutsche Telekom AG
                                                               July 2015


  Lightweight 4over6: An Extension to the Dual-Stack Lite Architecture

Abstract

   Dual-Stack Lite (DS-Lite) (RFC 6333) describes an architecture for
   transporting IPv4 packets over an IPv6 network.  This document
   specifies an extension to DS-Lite called "Lightweight 4over6", which
   moves the Network Address and Port Translation (NAPT) function from
   the centralized DS-Lite tunnel concentrator to the tunnel client
   located in the Customer Premises Equipment (CPE).  This removes the
   requirement for a Carrier Grade NAT function in the tunnel
   concentrator and reduces the amount of centralized state that must be
   held to a per-subscriber level.  In order to delegate the NAPT
   function and make IPv4 address sharing possible, port-restricted IPv4
   addresses are allocated to the CPEs.

Status of This Memo

   This is an Internet Standards Track document.

   This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force
   (IETF).  It represents the consensus of the IETF community.  It has
   received public review and has been approved for publication by the
   Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG).  Further information on
   Internet Standards is available in Section 2 of RFC 5741.

   Information about the current status of this document, any errata,
   and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at
   http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7596.

Page 2 
Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2015 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1. Introduction ....................................................3
   2. Conventions .....................................................4
   3. Terminology .....................................................5
   4. Lightweight 4over6 Architecture .................................6
   5. Lightweight B4 Behavior .........................................7
      5.1. Lightweight B4 Provisioning with DHCPv6 ....................7
      5.2. Lightweight B4 Data-Plane Behavior ........................10
           5.2.1. Fragmentation Behavior .............................11
   6. Lightweight AFTR Behavior ......................................12
      6.1. Binding Table Maintenance .................................12
      6.2. lwAFTR Data-Plane Behavior ................................13
   7. Additional IPv4 Address and Port-Set Provisioning Mechanisms ...14
   8. ICMP Processing ................................................14
      8.1. ICMPv4 Processing by the lwAFTR ...........................15
      8.2. ICMPv4 Processing by the lwB4 .............................15
   9. Security Considerations ........................................15
   10. References ....................................................16
      10.1. Normative References .....................................16
      10.2. Informative References ...................................17
   Acknowledgements ..................................................19
   Contributors ......................................................19
   Authors' Addresses ................................................21

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1.  Introduction

   Dual-Stack Lite (DS-Lite) [RFC6333] defines a model for providing
   IPv4 access over an IPv6 network using two well-known technologies:
   IP in IP [RFC2473] and Network Address Translation (NAT).  The
   DS-Lite architecture defines two major functional elements as
   follows:

   Basic Bridging BroadBand (B4) element:  A function implemented on a
      dual-stack-capable node (either a directly connected device or a
      CPE) that creates an IPv4-in-IPv6 tunnel to an AFTR.

   Address Family Transition Router (AFTR) element:  The combination of
      an IPv4-in-IPv6 tunnel endpoint and an IPv4-IPv4 NAT implemented
      on the same node.

   As the AFTR performs the centralized NAT44 function, it dynamically
   assigns public IPv4 addresses and ports to a requesting host's
   traffic (as described in [RFC3022]).  To achieve this, the AFTR must
   dynamically maintain per-flow state in the form of active NAPT
   sessions.  For service providers with a large number of B4 clients,
   the size and associated costs for scaling the AFTR can quickly become
   prohibitive.  Maintaining per-flow state can also place a large NAPT
   logging overhead on the service provider in countries where logging
   is a legal requirement.

   This document describes a mechanism called "Lightweight 4over6"
   (lw4o6), which provides a solution for these problems.  By relocating
   the NAPT functionality from the centralized AFTR to the distributed
   B4s, a number of benefits can be realized:

   o  NAPT44 functionality is already widely supported and used in
      today's CPE devices.  lw4o6 uses this to provide private<->public
      NAPT44, meaning that the service provider does not need a
      centralized NAT44 function.

   o  The amount of state that must be maintained centrally in the AFTR
      can be reduced from per-flow to per-subscriber.  This reduces
      the amount of resources (memory and processing power) necessary in
      the AFTR.

   o  The reduction of maintained state results in a greatly reduced
      logging overhead on the service provider.

   Operators' IPv6 and IPv4 addressing architectures remain independent
   of each other.  Therefore, flexible IPv4/IPv6 addressing schemes can
   be deployed.

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   Lightweight 4over6 is a solution designed specifically for complete
   independence between IPv6 subnet prefixes and IPv4 addresses with or
   without IPv4 address sharing.  This is accomplished by maintaining
   state for each softwire (per-subscriber state) in the central lwAFTR
   and a hub-and-spoke forwarding architecture.  "Mapping of Address and
   Port with Encapsulation (MAP-E)" [RFC7597] also offers these
   capabilities or, alternatively, allows for a reduction of the amount
   of centralized state using rules to express IPv4/IPv6 address
   mappings.  This introduces an algorithmic relationship between the
   IPv6 subnet and IPv4 address.  This relationship also allows the
   option of direct, meshed connectivity between users.

   The tunneling mechanism remains the same for DS-Lite and Lightweight
   4over6.  This document describes the changes to DS-Lite that are
   necessary to implement Lightweight 4over6.  These changes mainly
   concern the configuration parameters and provisioning method
   necessary for the functional elements.

   One of the features of Lightweight 4over6 is to keep per-subscriber
   state in the service provider's network.  This technique is
   categorized as a "binding approach" [Unified-v4-in-v6] that defines a
   unified IPv4-in-IPv6 softwire CPE.

   This document extends the mechanism defined in [RFC7040] by allowing
   address sharing.  The solution in this document is also a variant of
   Address plus Port (A+P) called "Binding Table Mode" (see Section 4.4
   of [RFC6346]).

   This document focuses on architectural considerations, particularly
   on the expected behavior of the involved functional elements and
   their interfaces.  Deployment-specific issues such as redundancy and
   provisioning policy are out of scope for this document.

2.  Conventions

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

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3.  Terminology

   This document defines the following terms:

   Lightweight 4over6 (lw4o6):   An IPv4-over-IPv6 hub-and-spoke
                                 mechanism that extends DS-Lite by
                                 moving the IPv4 translation (NAPT44)
                                 function from the AFTR to the B4.

   Lightweight B4 (lwB4):        A B4 element [RFC6333] that supports
                                 Lightweight 4over6 extensions.  An lwB4
                                 is a function implemented on a
                                 dual-stack-capable node -- either a
                                 directly connected device or a CPE --
                                 that supports port-restricted IPv4
                                 address allocation, implements NAPT44
                                 functionality, and creates a tunnel to
                                 an lwAFTR.

   Lightweight AFTR (lwAFTR):    An AFTR element [RFC6333] that supports
                                 the Lightweight 4over6 extension.  An
                                 lwAFTR is an IPv4-in-IPv6 tunnel
                                 endpoint that maintains per-subscriber
                                 address binding only and does not
                                 perform a NAPT44 function.

   Restricted port set:          A non-overlapping range of allowed
                                 external ports allocated to the lwB4 to
                                 use for NAPT44.  Source ports of IPv4
                                 packets sent by the B4 must belong to
                                 the assigned port set.  The port set is
                                 used for all port-aware IP protocols
                                 (TCP, UDP, the Stream Control
                                 Transmission Protocol (SCTP), etc.).

   Port-restricted IPv4 address: A public IPv4 address with a restricted
                                 port set.  In Lightweight 4over6,
                                 multiple B4s may share the same IPv4
                                 address; however, their port sets must
                                 be non-overlapping.

   Throughout the remainder of this document, the terms "B4" and "AFTR"
   should be understood to refer specifically to a DS-Lite
   implementation.  The terms "lwB4" and "lwAFTR" refer to a Lightweight
   4over6 implementation.

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4.  Lightweight 4over6 Architecture

   The Lightweight 4over6 architecture is functionally similar to
   DS-Lite.  lwB4s and an lwAFTR are connected through an IPv6-enabled
   network.  Both approaches use an IPv4-in-IPv6 encapsulation scheme to
   deliver IPv4 connectivity.  The following figure shows the data plane
   with the main functional change between DS-Lite and lw4o6:

   +--------+   +---------+  IPv4-in-IPv6  +---------+   +-------------+
   |IPv4 LAN|---|    B4   |================|AFTR/NAPT|---|IPv4 Internet|
   +--------+   +---------+                +---------+   +-------------+
                  DS-Lite NAPT model: all state in the AFTR


   +--------+   +---------+  IPv4-in-IPv6  +------+   +-------------+
   |IPv4 LAN|---|lwB4/NAPT|================|lwAFTR|---|IPv4 Internet|
   +--------+   +---------+                +------+   +-------------+
                           lw4o6 NAPT model:
           subscriber state in the lwAFTR, NAPT state in the lwB4

     Figure 1: Comparison of DS-Lite and Lightweight 4over6 Data Plane

   There are three main components in the Lightweight 4over6
   architecture:

   o  The lwB4, which performs the NAPT function and IPv4/IPv6
      encapsulation/decapsulation.

   o  The lwAFTR, which performs the IPv4/IPv6 encapsulation/
      decapsulation.

   o  The provisioning system, which tells the lwB4 which IPv4 address
      and port set to use.

   The lwB4 differs from a regular B4 in that it now performs the NAPT
   functionality.  This means that it needs to be provisioned with the
   public IPv4 address and port set it is allowed to use.  This
   information is provided through a provisioning mechanism such as
   DHCP, the Port Control Protocol (PCP) [RFC6887], or the Broadband
   Forum's TR-69 specification [TR069].

   The lwAFTR needs to know the binding between the IPv6 address of
   each subscriber as well as the IPv4 address and port set allocated to
   each subscriber.  This information is used to perform ingress
   filtering upstream and encapsulation downstream.  Note that this is
   per-subscriber state, as opposed to per-flow state in the regular
   AFTR case.

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   The consequence of this architecture is that the information
   maintained by the provisioning mechanism and the one maintained by
   the lwAFTR MUST be synchronized (see Figure 2).  The precise
   mechanism whereby this synchronization occurs is out of scope for
   this document.

   The solution specified in this document allows the assignment of
   either a full or a shared IPv4 address to requesting CPEs.  [RFC7040]
   provides a mechanism for assigning a full IPv4 address only.

                             +------------+
                     /-------|Provisioning|<-----\
                     |       +------------+      |
                     |                           |
                     V                           V
   +--------+   +---------+    IPv4/IPv6     +------+    +-------------+
   |IPv4 LAN|---|lwB4/NAPT|==================|lwAFTR|----|IPv4 Internet|
   +--------+   +---------+                  +------+    +-------------+

         Figure 2: Lightweight 4over6 Provisioning Synchronization

5.  Lightweight B4 Behavior

5.1.  Lightweight B4 Provisioning with DHCPv6

   With DS-Lite, the B4 element only needs to be configured with a
   single DS-Lite-specific parameter so that it can set up the softwire
   (the IPv6 address of the AFTR).  Its IPv4 address can be taken from
   the well-known range 192.0.0.0/29.

   In lw4o6, a number of lw4o6-specific configuration parameters must be
   provisioned to the lwB4.  These are:

   o  IPv6 address for the lwAFTR

   o  IPv4 external (public) address for NAPT44

   o  Restricted port set to use for NAPT44

   o  IPv6 binding prefix

   The lwB4 MUST implement DHCPv6-based configuration using
   OPTION_S46_CONT_LW as described in Section 5.3 of [RFC7598].  This
   means that the lifetime of the softwire and the derived configuration
   information (e.g., IPv4 shared address, IPv4 address) are bound to
   the lifetime of the DHCPv6 lease.  If stateful IPv4 configuration or
   additional IPv4 configuration information is required, DHCP 4o6
   [RFC7341] MUST be used.

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   Although it would be possible to extend lw4o6 to have more than one
   active lw4o6 tunnel configured simultaneously, this document is only
   concerned with the use of a single tunnel.

   The IPv6 binding prefix field is provisioned so that the Customer
   Edge (CE) can identify the correct prefix to use as the tunnel
   source.  On receipt of the necessary configuration parameters listed
   above, the lwB4 performs a longest-prefix match between the IPv6
   binding prefix and its currently active IPv6 prefixes.  The result
   forms the subnet to be used for sourcing the lw4o6 tunnel.  The full
   /128 address is then constructed in the same manner as [RFC7597].

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                  Operator Assigned Prefix                     |
   .                        (64 bits)                              .
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |         Zero Padding          |         IPv4 Address          |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |       IPv4 Addr cont.         |             PSID              |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

              Figure 3: Construction of the lw4o6 /128 Prefix

   Operator Assigned Prefix:
                 IPv6 prefix allocated to the client.  If the prefix
                 length is less than 64, it is right-padded with zeros
                 to 64 bits.

   Padding:      Padding (all zeros).

   IPv4 Address: Public IPv4 address allocated to the client.

   PSID:         Port Set ID.  Allocated to the client; left-padded with
                 zeros to 16 bits.  If no PSID is provisioned, all
                 zeros.

   In the event that the lwB4's IPv6 encapsulation source address is
   changed for any reason (such as the DHCPv6 lease expiring), the
   lwB4's dynamic provisioning process MUST be re-initiated.  When the
   lwB4's public IPv4 address or Port Set ID is changed for any reason,
   the lwB4 MUST flush its NAPT table.

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   An lwB4 MUST support dynamic port-restricted IPv4 address
   provisioning.  The port-set algorithm for provisioning this is
   described in Section 5.1 of [RFC7597].  For lw4o6, the number of
   a-bits SHOULD be 0, thus allocating a single contiguous port set to
   each lwB4.

   Provisioning of the lwB4 using DHCPv6 as described here allocates a
   single PSID to the client.  In the event that the client is
   concurrently using all of the provisioned L4 ports, it may be unable
   to initiate any additional outbound connections.  DHCPv6-based
   provisioning does not provide a mechanism for the client to request
   more L4 port numbers.  Other provisioning mechanisms (e.g., PCP-based
   provisioning [PCP-PORT_SET]) provide this function.  Issues relevant
   to IP address sharing are discussed in more detail in [RFC6269].

   Unless an lwB4 is being allocated a full IPv4 address, it is
   RECOMMENDED that PSIDs containing the system ports (0-1023) not be
   allocated to lwB4s.  The reserved ports are more likely to be
   reserved by middleware, and therefore we recommend that they not be
   issued to clients other than as a deliberate assignment.
   Section 5.2.2 of [RFC6269] provides analysis of allocating system
   ports to clients with IPv4 address sharing.

   In the event that the lwB4 receives an ICMPv6 error message (Type 1,
   Code 5) originating from the lwAFTR, the lwB4 interprets this to mean
   that no matching entry in the lwAFTR's binding table has been found,
   so the IPv4 payload is not being forwarded by the lwAFTR.  The lwB4
   MAY then re-initiate the dynamic port-restricted provisioning
   process.  The lwB4's re-initiation policy SHOULD be configurable.

   On receipt of such an ICMP error message, the lwB4 MUST validate the
   source address to be the same as the lwAFTR address that is
   configured.  In the event that these addresses do not match, the lwB4
   MUST discard the ICMP error message.

   In order to prevent forged ICMP messages (using the spoofed lwAFTR
   address as the source) from being sent to lwB4s, the operator can
   implement network ingress filtering as described in [RFC2827].

   The DNS considerations described in Sections 5.5 and 6.4 of [RFC6333]
   apply to Lightweight 4over6; lw4o6 implementations MUST comply with
   all requirements stated there.

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5.2.  Lightweight B4 Data-Plane Behavior

   Several sections of [RFC6333] provide background information on the
   B4's data-plane functionality and MUST be implemented by the lwB4, as
   they are common to both solutions.  The relevant sections are:

   5.2 Encapsulation                 Covering encapsulation and
                                     decapsulation of tunneled traffic

   5.3 Fragmentation and Reassembly  Covering MTU and fragmentation
                                     considerations (referencing
                                     [RFC2473])

   7.1 Tunneling                     Covering tunneling and Traffic
                                     Class mapping between IPv4 and IPv6
                                     (referencing [RFC2473]).  Also see
                                     [RFC2983]

   The lwB4 element performs IPv4 address translation (NAPT44) as well
   as encapsulation and decapsulation.  It runs standard NAPT44
   [RFC3022] using the allocated port-restricted address as its external
   IPv4 address and range of source ports.

   The working flow of the lwB4 is illustrated in Figure 4.

                        +-------------+
                        |     lwB4    |
      +--------+  IPv4  |------+------| IPv4-in-IPv6  +----------+
      |IPv4 LAN|------->|      |Encap.|-------------->|Configured|
      |        |<-------| NAPT |  or  |<--------------|  lwAFTR  |
      +--------+        |      |Decap.|               +----------+
                        +------+------+

                    Figure 4: Working Flow of the lwB4

   Hosts connected to the customer's network behind the lwB4 source IPv4
   packets with an [RFC1918] address.  When the lwB4 receives such an
   IPv4 packet, it performs a NAPT44 function on the source address and
   port by using the public IPv4 address and a port number from the
   allocated port set.  Then, it encapsulates the packet with an IPv6
   header.  The destination IPv6 address is the lwAFTR's IPv6 address,
   and the source IPv6 address is the lwB4's IPv6 tunnel endpoint
   address.  Finally, the lwB4 forwards the encapsulated packet to the
   configured lwAFTR.

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   When the lwB4 receives an IPv4-in-IPv6 packet from the lwAFTR, it
   decapsulates the IPv4 packet from the IPv6 packet.  Then, it performs
   NAPT44 translation on the destination address and port, based on the
   available information in its local NAPT44 table.

   If the IPv6 source address does not match the configured lwAFTR
   address, then the packet MUST be discarded.  If the decapsulated IPv4
   packet does not match the lwB4's configuration (i.e., invalid
   destination IPv4 address or port), then the packet MUST be dropped.
   An ICMPv4 error message (Type 3, Code 13 -- Destination Unreachable,
   Communication Administratively Prohibited) MAY be sent back to the
   lwAFTR.  The ICMP policy SHOULD be configurable.

   The lwB4 is responsible for performing Application Layer Gateway
   (ALG) functions (e.g., SIP, FTP) and other NAPT traversal mechanisms
   (e.g., Universal Plug and Play (UPnP) IGD (Internet Gateway Device),
   the NAT Port Mapping Protocol (NAT-PMP), manual binding
   configuration, PCP) for the internal hosts, if necessary.  This
   requirement is typical for NAPT44 gateways available today.

   It is possible that an lwB4 is co-located in a host.  In this case,
   the functions of NAPT44 and encapsulation/decapsulation are
   implemented inside the host.

5.2.1.  Fragmentation Behavior

   For TCP and UDP traffic, the NAPT44 implemented in the lwB4 MUST
   conform to the behavior and best current practices documented in
   [RFC4787], [RFC5508], and [RFC5382].  If the lwB4 supports the
   Datagram Congestion Control Protocol (DCCP), then the requirements in
   [RFC5597] MUST be implemented.

   The NAPT44 in the lwB4 MUST implement ICMP message handling behavior
   conforming to the best current practice documented in [RFC5508].  If
   the lwB4 receives an ICMP error (for errors detected inside the IPv6
   tunnel), the node relays the ICMP error message to the original
   source (the lwAFTR).  This behavior SHOULD be implemented conforming
   to Section 8 of [RFC2473].

   If IPv4 hosts behind different lwB4s sharing the same IPv4 address
   send fragments to the same IPv4 destination host outside the
   Lightweight 4over6 domain, those hosts may use the same IPv4
   fragmentation identifier, resulting in incorrect reassembly of the
   fragments at the destination host.  Given that the IPv4 fragmentation
   identifier is a 16-bit field, it could be used similarly to port
   ranges: An lwB4 could rewrite the IPv4 fragmentation identifier to be
   within its allocated port set, if the resulting fragment identifier
   space is large enough related to the rate at which fragments are

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   sent.  However, splitting the identifier space in this fashion would
   increase the probability of reassembly collision for all connections
   through the lwB4.  See also Section 5.3.1 of [RFC6864].

6.  Lightweight AFTR Behavior

6.1.  Binding Table Maintenance

   The lwAFTR maintains an address binding table containing the binding
   between the lwB4's IPv6 address, the allocated IPv4 address, and the
   restricted port set.  Unlike the DS-Lite extended binding table,
   which is a 5-tuple NAPT table and is defined in Section 6.6 of
   [RFC6333], each entry in the Lightweight 4over6 binding table
   contains the following 3-tuples:

   o  IPv6 address for a single lwB4

   o  Public IPv4 address

   o  Restricted port set

   The entry has two functions: the IPv6 encapsulation of inbound
   IPv4 packets destined to the lwB4 and the validation of outbound
   IPv4-in-IPv6 packets received from the lwB4 for decapsulation.

   The lwAFTR does not perform NAPT and so does not need session
   entries.

   The lwAFTR MUST synchronize the binding information with the
   port-restricted address provisioning process.  If the lwAFTR does not
   participate in the port-restricted address provisioning process, the
   binding MUST be synchronized through other methods (e.g., out-of-band
   static update).

   If the lwAFTR participates in the port-restricted provisioning
   process, then its binding table MUST be created as part of this
   process.

   For all provisioning processes, the lifetime of binding table entries
   MUST be synchronized with the lifetime of address allocations.

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6.2.  lwAFTR Data-Plane Behavior

   Several sections of [RFC6333] provide background information on
   the AFTR's data-plane functionality and MUST be implemented by the
   lwAFTR, as they are common to both solutions.  The relevant
   sections are:

   6.2 Encapsulation                 Covering encapsulation and
                                     decapsulation of tunneled traffic

   6.3 Fragmentation and Reassembly  Fragmentation and reassembly
                                     considerations (referencing
                                     [RFC2473])

   7.1 Tunneling                     Covering tunneling and Traffic
                                     Class mapping between IPv4 and IPv6
                                     (referencing [RFC2473]).  Also see
                                     [RFC2983]

   When the lwAFTR receives an IPv4-in-IPv6 packet from an lwB4, it
   decapsulates the IPv6 header and verifies the source addresses and
   port in the binding table.  If both the source IPv4 and IPv6
   addresses match a single entry in the binding table and the source
   port is in the allowed port set for that entry, the lwAFTR forwards
   the packet to the IPv4 destination.

   If no match is found (e.g., no matching IPv4 address entry, port out
   of range), the lwAFTR MUST discard or implement a policy (such as
   redirection) on the packet.  An ICMPv6 Type 1, Code 5 (Destination
   Unreachable, source address failed ingress/egress policy) error
   message MAY be sent back to the requesting lwB4.  The ICMP policy
   SHOULD be configurable.

   When the lwAFTR receives an inbound IPv4 packet, it uses the IPv4
   destination address and port to look up the destination lwB4's IPv6
   address in its binding table.  If a match is found, the lwAFTR
   encapsulates the IPv4 packet.  The source is the lwAFTR's IPv6
   address, and the destination is the lwB4's IPv6 address from the
   matched entry.  Then, the lwAFTR forwards the packet to the lwB4
   natively over the IPv6 network.

   If no match is found, the lwAFTR MUST discard the packet.  An ICMPv4
   Type 3, Code 1 (Destination Unreachable, Host Unreachable) error
   message MAY be sent back.  The ICMP policy SHOULD be configurable.

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   The lwAFTR MUST support hairpinning of traffic between two lwB4s, by
   performing decapsulation and re-encapsulation of packets from one
   lwB4 that need to be sent to another lwB4 associated with the same
   AFTR.  The hairpinning policy MUST be configurable.

7.  Additional IPv4 Address and Port-Set Provisioning Mechanisms

   In addition to the DHCPv6-based mechanism described in Section 5.1,
   several other IPv4 provisioning protocols have been suggested.  These
   protocols MAY be implemented.  These alternatives include:

   o  DHCPv4 over DHCPv6: [RFC7341] describes implementing DHCPv4
      messages over an IPv6-only service provider's network.  This
      enables leasing of IPv4 addresses and makes DHCPv4 options
      available to the DHCPv4-over-DHCPv6 client.  An lwB4 MAY implement
      [RFC7341] and [Dyn-Shared-v4Alloc] to retrieve a shared IPv4
      address with a set of ports.

   o  PCP [RFC6887]: an lwB4 MAY use [PCP-PORT_SET] to retrieve a
      restricted IPv4 address and a set of ports.

   In a Lightweight 4over6 domain, the binding information MUST be
   synchronized across the lwB4s, the lwAFTRs, and the provisioning
   server.

   To prevent interworking complexity, it is RECOMMENDED that an
   operator use a single provisioning mechanism / protocol for their
   implementation.  In the event that more than one provisioning
   mechanism / protocol needs to be used (for example, during a
   migration to a new provisioning mechanism), the operator SHOULD
   ensure that each provisioning mechanism has a discrete set of
   resources (e.g., IPv4 address/PSID pools, as well as lwAFTR tunnel
   addresses and binding tables).

8.  ICMP Processing

   For both the lwAFTR and the lwB4, ICMPv6 MUST be handled as described
   in [RFC2473].

   ICMPv4 does not work in an address-sharing environment without
   special handling [RFC6269].  Due to the port-set style of address
   sharing, Lightweight 4over6 requires specific ICMP message handling
   not required by DS-Lite.

Top      ToC       Page 15 
8.1.  ICMPv4 Processing by the lwAFTR

   For inbound ICMP messages, the following behavior SHOULD be
   implemented by the lwAFTR to provide ICMP error handling and basic
   remote IPv4 service diagnostics for a port-restricted CPE:

   1.  Check the ICMP Type field.

   2.  If the ICMP Type field is set to 0 or 8 (echo reply or request),
       then the lwAFTR MUST take the value of the ICMP Identifier field
       as the source port and use this value to look up the binding
       table for an encapsulation destination.  If a match is found, the
       lwAFTR forwards the ICMP packet to the IPv6 address stored in the
       entry; otherwise, it MUST discard the packet.

   3.  If the ICMP Type field is set to any other value, then the lwAFTR
       MUST use the method described in REQ-3 of [RFC5508] to locate the
       source port within the transport-layer header in the ICMP
       packet's data field.  The destination IPv4 address and source
       port extracted from the ICMP packet are then used to make a
       lookup in the binding table.  If a match is found, it MUST
       forward the ICMP reply packet to the IPv6 address stored in the
       entry; otherwise, it MUST discard the packet.

   Otherwise, the lwAFTR MUST discard all inbound ICMPv4 messages.

   The ICMP policy SHOULD be configurable.

8.2.  ICMPv4 Processing by the lwB4

   The lwB4 MUST implement the requirements defined in [RFC5508] for
   ICMP forwarding.  For ICMP echo request packets originating from the
   private IPv4 network, the lwB4 SHOULD implement the method described
   in [RFC6346] and use an available port from its port set as the ICMP
   identifier.

9.  Security Considerations

   As the port space for a subscriber shrinks due to address sharing,
   the randomness for the port numbers of the subscriber is decreased
   significantly.  This means that it is much easier for an attacker to
   guess the port number used, which could result in attacks ranging
   from throughput reduction to broken connections or data corruption.

   The port set for a subscriber can be a set of contiguous ports or
   non-contiguous ports.  Contiguous port sets do not reduce this
   threat.  However, with non-contiguous port sets (which may be
   generated in a pseudorandom way [RFC6431]), the randomness of the

Top      ToC       Page 16 
   port number is improved, provided that the attacker is outside the
   Lightweight 4over6 domain and hence does not know the port-set
   generation algorithm.

   The lwAFTR MUST rate-limit ICMPv6 error messages (see Section 5.1) to
   defend against DoS attacks generated by an abuse user.

   More considerations about IP address sharing are discussed in
   Section 13 of [RFC6269], which is applicable to this solution.

   This document describes a number of different protocols that may be
   used for the provisioning of lw4o6.  In each case, the security
   considerations relevant to the provisioning protocol are also
   relevant to the provisioning of lw4o6 using that protocol.  lw4o6
   does not add any other security considerations specific to these
   provisioning protocols.

10.  References

10.1.  Normative References

   [RFC1918]  Rekhter, Y., Moskowitz, B., Karrenberg, D., de Groot, G.,
              and E. Lear, "Address Allocation for Private Internets",
              BCP 5, RFC 1918, DOI 10.17487/RFC1918, February 1996,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc1918>.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC2473]  Conta, A. and S. Deering, "Generic Packet Tunneling in
              IPv6 Specification", RFC 2473, DOI 10.17487/RFC2473,
              December 1998, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2473>.

   [RFC4787]  Audet, F., Ed., and C. Jennings, "Network Address
              Translation (NAT) Behavioral Requirements for Unicast
              UDP", BCP 127, RFC 4787, DOI 10.17487/RFC4787,
              January 2007, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4787>.

   [RFC5382]  Guha, S., Ed., Biswas, K., Ford, B., Sivakumar, S., and P.
              Srisuresh, "NAT Behavioral Requirements for TCP", BCP 142,
              RFC 5382, DOI 10.17487/RFC5382, October 2008,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5382>.

Top      ToC       Page 17 
   [RFC5508]  Srisuresh, P., Ford, B., Sivakumar, S., and S. Guha, "NAT
              Behavioral Requirements for ICMP", BCP 148, RFC 5508,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5508, April 2009,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5508>.

   [RFC5597]  Denis-Courmont, R., "Network Address Translation (NAT)
              Behavioral Requirements for the Datagram Congestion
              Control Protocol", BCP 150, RFC 5597,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5597, September 2009,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5597>.

   [RFC6333]  Durand, A., Droms, R., Woodyatt, J., and Y. Lee,
              "Dual-Stack Lite Broadband Deployments Following IPv4
              Exhaustion", RFC 6333, DOI 10.17487/RFC6333, August 2011,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6333>.

   [RFC7598]  Mrugalski, T., Troan, O., Farrer, I., Perreault, S., Dec,
              W., Bao, C., Yeh, L., and X. Deng, "DHCPv6 Options for
              Configuration of Softwire Address and Port-Mapped
              Clients", RFC 7598, DOI 10.17487/RFC7598, July 2015,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7598>.

10.2.  Informative References

   [B4-Trans-DSLite]
              Cui, Y., Sun, Q., Boucadair, M., Tsou, T., Lee, Y., and
              I. Farrer, "Lightweight 4over6: An Extension to the
              DS-Lite Architecture", Work in Progress,
              draft-cui-softwire-b4-translated-ds-lite-11,
              February 2013.

   [DSLite-LW-Ext]
              Deng, X., Boucadair, M., and C. Zhou, "NAT offload
              extension to Dual-Stack lite", Work in Progress,
              draft-zhou-softwire-b4-nat-04, October 2011.

   [Dyn-Shared-v4Alloc]
              Cui, Y., Sun, Q., Farrer, I., Lee, Y., Sun, Q., and
              M. Boucadair, "Dynamic Allocation of Shared IPv4
              Addresses", Work in Progress,
              draft-ietf-dhc-dynamic-shared-v4allocation-09, May 2015.

   [PCP-PORT_SET]
              Sun, Q., Boucadair, M., Sivakumar, S., Zhou, C., Tsou, T.,
              and S. Perreault, "Port Control Protocol (PCP) Extension
              for Port Set Allocation", Work in Progress,
              draft-ietf-pcp-port-set-09, May 2015.

Top      ToC       Page 18 
   [RFC2827]  Ferguson, P. and D. Senie, "Network Ingress Filtering:
              Defeating Denial of Service Attacks which employ IP Source
              Address Spoofing", BCP 38, RFC 2827, DOI 10.17487/RFC2827,
              May 2000, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2827>.

   [RFC2983]  Black, D., "Differentiated Services and Tunnels",
              RFC 2983, DOI 10.17487/RFC2983, October 2000,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2983>.

   [RFC3022]  Srisuresh, P. and K. Egevang, "Traditional IP Network
              Address Translator (Traditional NAT)", RFC 3022,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC3022, January 2001,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3022>.

   [RFC6269]  Ford, M., Ed., Boucadair, M., Durand, A., Levis, P., and
              P. Roberts, "Issues with IP Address Sharing", RFC 6269,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6269, June 2011,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6269>.

   [RFC6346]  Bush, R., Ed., "The Address plus Port (A+P) Approach to
              the IPv4 Address Shortage", RFC 6346,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6346, August 2011,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6346>.

   [RFC6431]  Boucadair, M., Levis, P., Bajko, G., Savolainen, T., and
              T. Tsou, "Huawei Port Range Configuration Options for PPP
              IP Control Protocol (IPCP)", RFC 6431,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6431, November 2011,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6431>.

   [RFC6864]  Touch, J., "Updated Specification of the IPv4 ID Field",
              RFC 6864, DOI 10.17487/RFC6864, February 2013,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6864>.

   [RFC6887]  Wing, D., Ed., Cheshire, S., Boucadair, M., Penno, R., and
              P. Selkirk, "Port Control Protocol (PCP)", RFC 6887,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6887, April 2013,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6887>.

   [RFC7040]  Cui, Y., Wu, J., Wu, P., Vautrin, O., and Y. Lee, "Public
              IPv4-over-IPv6 Access Network", RFC 7040,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7040, November 2013,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7040>.

   [RFC7341]  Sun, Q., Cui, Y., Siodelski, M., Krishnan, S., and I.
              Farrer, "DHCPv4-over-DHCPv6 (DHCP 4o6) Transport",
              RFC 7341, DOI 10.17487/RFC7341, August 2014,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7341>.

Top      ToC       Page 19 
   [RFC7597]  Troan, O., Ed., Dec, W., Li, X., Bao, C., Matsushima, S.,
              Murakami, T., and T. Taylor, Ed., "Mapping of Address and
              Port with Encapsulation (MAP-E)", RFC 7597,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7597, July 2015,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7597>.

   [Stateless-DS-Lite]
              Penno, R., Durand, A., Clauberg, A., and L. Hoffmann,
              "Stateless DS-Lite", Work in Progress,
              draft-penno-softwire-sdnat-02, March 2012.

   [TR069]    Broadband Forum TR-069, "CPE WAN Management Protocol",
              Amendment 5, CWMP Version: 1.4, November 2013,
              <https://www.broadband-forum.org>.

   [Unified-v4-in-v6]
              Boucadair, M., Farrer, I., Perreault, S., Ed., and S.
              Sivakumar, Ed., "Unified IPv4-in-IPv6 Softwire CPE", Work
              in Progress, draft-ietf-softwire-unified-cpe-01, May 2013.

Acknowledgements

   The authors would like to thank Ole Troan, Ralph Droms, and Suresh
   Krishnan for their comments and feedback.

   This document is a merge of three documents: [B4-Trans-DSLite],
   [DSLite-LW-Ext], and [Stateless-DS-Lite].

Contributors

   The following individuals contributed to this effort:

   Jianping Wu
   Tsinghua University
   Department of Computer Science, Tsinghua University
   Beijing  100084
   China
   Phone: +86-10-62785983
   Email: jianping@cernet.edu.cn

   Peng Wu
   Tsinghua University
   Department of Computer Science, Tsinghua University
   Beijing  100084
   China
   Phone: +86-10-62785822
   Email: pengwu.thu@gmail.com

Top      ToC       Page 20 
   Qi Sun
   Tsinghua University
   Beijing  100084
   China
   Phone: +86-10-62785822
   Email: sunqi@csnet1.cs.tsinghua.edu.cn

   Chongfeng Xie
   China Telecom
   Room 708, No. 118, Xizhimennei Street
   Beijing  100035
   China
   Phone: +86-10-58552116
   Email: xiechf@ctbri.com.cn

   Xiaohong Deng
   The University of New South Wales
   Sydney  NSW 2052
   Australia
   Email: dxhbupt@gmail.com

   Cathy Zhou
   Huawei Technologies
   Section B, Huawei Industrial Base, Bantian Longgang
   Shenzhen  518129
   China
   Email: cathyzhou@huawei.com

   Alain Durand
   Juniper Networks
   1194 North Mathilda Avenue
   Sunnyvale, CA  94089-1206
   United States
   Email: adurand@juniper.net

   Reinaldo Penno
   Cisco Systems, Inc.
   170 West Tasman Drive
   San Jose, CA  95134
   United States
   Email: repenno@cisco.com

Top      ToC       Page 21 
   Axel Clauberg
   Deutsche Telekom AG
   CTO-ATI
   Landgrabenweg 151
   Bonn  53227
   Germany
   Email: axel.clauberg@telekom.de

   Lionel Hoffmann
   Bouygues Telecom
   TECHNOPOLE
   13/15 Avenue du Marechal Juin
   Meudon  92360
   France
   Email: lhoffman@bouyguestelecom.fr

   Maoke Chen (a.k.a. Noriyuki Arai)
   BBIX, Inc.
   Tokyo Shiodome Building, Higashi-Shimbashi 1-9-1
   Minato-ku, Tokyo  105-7310
   Japan
   Email: maoke@bbix.net

Authors' Addresses

   Yong Cui
   Tsinghua University
   Beijing  100084
   China

   Phone: +86-10-62603059
   Email: yong@csnet1.cs.tsinghua.edu.cn


   Qiong Sun
   China Telecom
   Room 708, No. 118, Xizhimennei Street
   Beijing  100035
   China

   Phone: +86-10-58552936
   Email: sunqiong@ctbri.com.cn

Top      ToC       Page 22 
   Mohamed Boucadair
   France Telecom
   Rennes  35000
   France

   Email: mohamed.boucadair@orange.com


   Tina Tsou
   Huawei Technologies
   2330 Central Expressway
   Santa Clara, CA  95050
   United States

   Phone: +1-408-330-4424
   Email: tena@huawei.com


   Yiu L. Lee
   Comcast
   One Comcast Center
   Philadelphia, PA  19103
   United States

   Email: yiu_lee@cable.comcast.com


   Ian Farrer
   Deutsche Telekom AG
   CTO-ATI, Landgrabenweg 151
   Bonn, NRW  53227
   Germany

   Email: ian.farrer@telekom.de