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RFC 7517

 
 
 

JSON Web Key (JWK)

Part 2 of 2, p. 21 to 40
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10.  References

10.1.  Normative References

   [ECMAScript]
              Ecma International, "ECMAScript Language Specification,
              5.1 Edition", ECMA Standard 262, June 2011,
              <http://www.ecma-international.org/ecma-262/5.1/
              ECMA-262.pdf>.

   [IANA.MediaTypes]
              Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA), "Media Types",
              <http://www.iana.org/assignments/media-types>.

   [ITU.X690.1994]
              International Telecommunications Union, "Information
              Technology - ASN.1 encoding rules: Specification of Basic
              Encoding Rules (BER), Canonical Encoding Rules (CER) and
              Distinguished Encoding Rules (DER)", ITU-T Recommendation
              X.690, 1994.

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   [JWA]      Jones, M., "JSON Web Algorithms (JWA)", RFC 7518,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7518, May 2015,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7518>.

   [JWE]      Jones, M. and J. Hildebrand, "JSON Web Encryption (JWE)",
              RFC 7516, DOI 10.17487/RFC7516, May 2015,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7516>.

   [JWS]      Jones, M., Bradley, J., and N. Sakimura, "JSON Web
              Signature (JWS)", RFC 7515, DOI 10.17487/RFC7515, May
              2015, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7515>.

   [RFC20]    Cerf, V., "ASCII format for Network Interchange", STD 80,
              RFC 20, DOI 10.17487/RFC0020, October 1969,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc20>.

   [RFC2046]  Freed, N. and N. Borenstein, "Multipurpose Internet Mail
              Extensions (MIME) Part Two: Media Types", RFC 2046,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2046, November 1996,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2046>.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC2818]  Rescorla, E., "HTTP Over TLS", RFC 2818,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2818, May 2000,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2818>.

   [RFC3629]  Yergeau, F., "UTF-8, a transformation format of ISO
              10646", STD 63, RFC 3629, DOI 10.17487/RFC3629, November
              2003, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3629>.

   [RFC3986]  Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., and L. Masinter, "Uniform
              Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax", STD 66,
              RFC 3986, DOI 10.17487/RFC3986, January 2005,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3986>.

   [RFC4648]  Josefsson, S., "The Base16, Base32, and Base64 Data
              Encodings", RFC 4648, DOI 10.17487/RFC4648, October 2006,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4648>.

   [RFC4945]  Korver, B., "The Internet IP Security PKI Profile of
              IKEv1/ISAKMP, IKEv2, and PKIX", RFC 4945,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC4945, August 2007,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4945>.

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   [RFC4949]  Shirey, R., "Internet Security Glossary, Version 2",
              FYI 36, RFC 4949, DOI 10.17487/RFC4949, August 2007,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4949>.

   [RFC5246]  Dierks, T. and E. Rescorla, "The Transport Layer Security
              (TLS) Protocol Version 1.2", RFC 5246,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5246, August 2008,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5246>.

   [RFC5280]  Cooper, D., Santesson, S., Farrell, S., Boeyen, S.,
              Housley, R., and W. Polk, "Internet X.509 Public Key
              Infrastructure Certificate and Certificate Revocation List
              (CRL) Profile", RFC 5280, DOI 10.17487/RFC5280, May 2008,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5280>.

   [RFC6125]  Saint-Andre, P. and J. Hodges, "Representation and
              Verification of Domain-Based Application Service Identity
              within Internet Public Key Infrastructure Using X.509
              (PKIX) Certificates in the Context of Transport Layer
              Security (TLS)", RFC 6125, DOI 10.17487/RFC6125, March
              2011, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6125>.

   [RFC7159]  Bray, T., Ed., "The JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) Data
              Interchange Format", RFC 7159, DOI 10.17487/RFC7159, March
              2014, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7159>.

   [UNICODE]  The Unicode Consortium, "The Unicode Standard",
              <http://www.unicode.org/versions/latest/>.

10.2.  Informative References

   [DSS]      National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST),
              "Digital Signature Standard (DSS)", FIPS PUB 186-4, July
              2013, <http://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/FIPS/
              NIST.FIPS.186-4.pdf>.

   [HAC]      Menezes, A., van Oorschot, P., and S. Vanstone, "Handbook
              of Applied Cryptography", CRC Press, October 1996,
              <http://cacr.uwaterloo.ca/hac/>.

   [JWT]      Jones, M., Bradley, J., and N. Sakimura, "JSON Web Token
              (JWT)", RFC 7519, DOI 10.17487/RFC7519, May 2015,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7519>.

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   [Kocher]   Kocher, P., "Timing Attacks on Implementations of
              Diffe-Hellman, RSA, DSS, and Other Systems", In
              Proceedings of the 16th Annual International Cryptology
              Conference Advances in Cryptology, Springer-Verlag, pp.
              104-113, 1996.

   [MagicSignatures]
              Panzer, J., Ed., Laurie, B., and D. Balfanz, "Magic
              Signatures", January 2011,
              <http://salmon-protocol.googlecode.com/svn/trunk/
              draft-panzer-magicsig-01.html>.

   [RFC3447]  Jonsson, J. and B. Kaliski, "Public-Key Cryptography
              Standards (PKCS) #1: RSA Cryptography Specifications
              Version 2.1", RFC 3447, DOI 10.17487/RFC3447, February
              2003, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3447>.

   [RFC5226]  Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an
              IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 5226,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5226, May 2008,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5226>.

   [RFC6030]  Hoyer, P., Pei, M., and S. Machani, "Portable Symmetric
              Key Container (PSKC)", RFC 6030, DOI 10.17487/RFC6030,
              October 2010, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6030>.

   [RFC6838]  Freed, N., Klensin, J., and T. Hansen, "Media Type
              Specifications and Registration Procedures", BCP 13,
              RFC 6838, DOI 10.17487/RFC6838, January 2013,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6838>.

   [W3C.CR-WebCryptoAPI-20141211]
              Sleevi, R. and M. Watson, "Web Cryptography API", World
              Wide Web Consortium Candidate Recommendation
              CR-WebCryptoAPI-20141211, December 2014,
              <http://www.w3.org/TR/2014/CR-WebCryptoAPI-20141211/>.

   [W3C.NOTE-xmldsig-core2-20130411]
              Eastlake, D., Reagle, J., Solo, D., Hirsch, F., Roessler,
              T., Yiu, K., Datta, P., and S. Cantor, "XML Signature
              Syntax and Processing Version 2.0", World Wide Web
              Consortium Note NOTE-xmldsig-core2-20130411, April 2013,
              <http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/NOTE-xmldsig-core2-20130411/>.

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Appendix A.  Example JSON Web Key Sets

A.1.  Example Public Keys

   The following example JWK Set contains two public keys represented as
   JWKs: one using an Elliptic Curve algorithm and a second one using an
   RSA algorithm.  The first specifies that the key is to be used for
   encryption.  The second specifies that the key is to be used with the
   "RS256" algorithm.  Both provide a key ID for key matching purposes.
   In both cases, integers are represented using the base64url encoding
   of their big-endian representations.  (Line breaks within values are
   for display purposes only.)

     {"keys":
       [
         {"kty":"EC",
          "crv":"P-256",
          "x":"MKBCTNIcKUSDii11ySs3526iDZ8AiTo7Tu6KPAqv7D4",
          "y":"4Etl6SRW2YiLUrN5vfvVHuhp7x8PxltmWWlbbM4IFyM",
          "use":"enc",
          "kid":"1"},

         {"kty":"RSA",
          "n": "0vx7agoebGcQSuuPiLJXZptN9nndrQmbXEps2aiAFbWhM78LhWx
     4cbbfAAtVT86zwu1RK7aPFFxuhDR1L6tSoc_BJECPebWKRXjBZCiFV4n3oknjhMs
     tn64tZ_2W-5JsGY4Hc5n9yBXArwl93lqt7_RN5w6Cf0h4QyQ5v-65YGjQR0_FDW2
     QvzqY368QQMicAtaSqzs8KJZgnYb9c7d0zgdAZHzu6qMQvRL5hajrn1n91CbOpbI
     SD08qNLyrdkt-bFTWhAI4vMQFh6WeZu0fM4lFd2NcRwr3XPksINHaQ-G_xBniIqb
     w0Ls1jF44-csFCur-kEgU8awapJzKnqDKgw",
          "e":"AQAB",
          "alg":"RS256",
          "kid":"2011-04-29"}
       ]
     }

A.2.  Example Private Keys

   The following example JWK Set contains two keys represented as JWKs
   containing both public and private key values: one using an Elliptic
   Curve algorithm and a second one using an RSA algorithm.  This
   example extends the example in the previous section, adding private
   key values.  (Line breaks within values are for display purposes
   only.)

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     {"keys":
       [
         {"kty":"EC",
          "crv":"P-256",
          "x":"MKBCTNIcKUSDii11ySs3526iDZ8AiTo7Tu6KPAqv7D4",
          "y":"4Etl6SRW2YiLUrN5vfvVHuhp7x8PxltmWWlbbM4IFyM",
          "d":"870MB6gfuTJ4HtUnUvYMyJpr5eUZNP4Bk43bVdj3eAE",
          "use":"enc",
          "kid":"1"},

         {"kty":"RSA",
          "n":"0vx7agoebGcQSuuPiLJXZptN9nndrQmbXEps2aiAFbWhM78LhWx4
     cbbfAAtVT86zwu1RK7aPFFxuhDR1L6tSoc_BJECPebWKRXjBZCiFV4n3oknjhMst
     n64tZ_2W-5JsGY4Hc5n9yBXArwl93lqt7_RN5w6Cf0h4QyQ5v-65YGjQR0_FDW2Q
     vzqY368QQMicAtaSqzs8KJZgnYb9c7d0zgdAZHzu6qMQvRL5hajrn1n91CbOpbIS
     D08qNLyrdkt-bFTWhAI4vMQFh6WeZu0fM4lFd2NcRwr3XPksINHaQ-G_xBniIqbw
     0Ls1jF44-csFCur-kEgU8awapJzKnqDKgw",
          "e":"AQAB",
          "d":"X4cTteJY_gn4FYPsXB8rdXix5vwsg1FLN5E3EaG6RJoVH-HLLKD9
     M7dx5oo7GURknchnrRweUkC7hT5fJLM0WbFAKNLWY2vv7B6NqXSzUvxT0_YSfqij
     wp3RTzlBaCxWp4doFk5N2o8Gy_nHNKroADIkJ46pRUohsXywbReAdYaMwFs9tv8d
     _cPVY3i07a3t8MN6TNwm0dSawm9v47UiCl3Sk5ZiG7xojPLu4sbg1U2jx4IBTNBz
     nbJSzFHK66jT8bgkuqsk0GjskDJk19Z4qwjwbsnn4j2WBii3RL-Us2lGVkY8fkFz
     me1z0HbIkfz0Y6mqnOYtqc0X4jfcKoAC8Q",
          "p":"83i-7IvMGXoMXCskv73TKr8637FiO7Z27zv8oj6pbWUQyLPQBQxtPV
     nwD20R-60eTDmD2ujnMt5PoqMrm8RfmNhVWDtjjMmCMjOpSXicFHj7XOuVIYQyqV
     WlWEh6dN36GVZYk93N8Bc9vY41xy8B9RzzOGVQzXvNEvn7O0nVbfs",
          "q":"3dfOR9cuYq-0S-mkFLzgItgMEfFzB2q3hWehMuG0oCuqnb3vobLyum
     qjVZQO1dIrdwgTnCdpYzBcOfW5r370AFXjiWft_NGEiovonizhKpo9VVS78TzFgx
     kIdrecRezsZ-1kYd_s1qDbxtkDEgfAITAG9LUnADun4vIcb6yelxk",
          "dp":"G4sPXkc6Ya9y8oJW9_ILj4xuppu0lzi_H7VTkS8xj5SdX3coE0oim
     YwxIi2emTAue0UOa5dpgFGyBJ4c8tQ2VF402XRugKDTP8akYhFo5tAA77Qe_Nmtu
     YZc3C3m3I24G2GvR5sSDxUyAN2zq8Lfn9EUms6rY3Ob8YeiKkTiBj0",
          "dq":"s9lAH9fggBsoFR8Oac2R_E2gw282rT2kGOAhvIllETE1efrA6huUU
     vMfBcMpn8lqeW6vzznYY5SSQF7pMdC_agI3nG8Ibp1BUb0JUiraRNqUfLhcQb_d9
     GF4Dh7e74WbRsobRonujTYN1xCaP6TO61jvWrX-L18txXw494Q_cgk",
          "qi":"GyM_p6JrXySiz1toFgKbWV-JdI3jQ4ypu9rbMWx3rQJBfmt0FoYzg
     UIZEVFEcOqwemRN81zoDAaa-Bk0KWNGDjJHZDdDmFhW3AN7lI-puxk_mHZGJ11rx
     yR8O55XLSe3SPmRfKwZI6yU24ZxvQKFYItdldUKGzO6Ia6zTKhAVRU",
          "alg":"RS256",
          "kid":"2011-04-29"}
       ]
     }

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A.3.  Example Symmetric Keys

   The following example JWK Set contains two symmetric keys represented
   as JWKs: one designated as being for use with the AES Key Wrap
   algorithm and a second one that is an HMAC key.  (Line breaks within
   values are for display purposes only.)

     {"keys":
       [
         {"kty":"oct",
          "alg":"A128KW",
          "k":"GawgguFyGrWKav7AX4VKUg"},

         {"kty":"oct",
          "k":"AyM1SysPpbyDfgZld3umj1qzKObwVMkoqQ-EstJQLr_T-1qS0gZH75
     aKtMN3Yj0iPS4hcgUuTwjAzZr1Z9CAow",
          "kid":"HMAC key used in JWS spec Appendix A.1 example"}
       ]
     }

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Appendix B.  Example Use of "x5c" (X.509 Certificate Chain) Parameter

   The following is an example of a JWK with a RSA signing key
   represented both as an RSA public key and as an X.509 certificate
   using the "x5c" parameter (with line breaks within values for display
   purposes only):

     {"kty":"RSA",
      "use":"sig",
      "kid":"1b94c",
      "n":"vrjOfz9Ccdgx5nQudyhdoR17V-IubWMeOZCwX_jj0hgAsz2J_pqYW08
      PLbK_PdiVGKPrqzmDIsLI7sA25VEnHU1uCLNwBuUiCO11_-7dYbsr4iJmG0Q
      u2j8DsVyT1azpJC_NG84Ty5KKthuCaPod7iI7w0LK9orSMhBEwwZDCxTWq4a
      YWAchc8t-emd9qOvWtVMDC2BXksRngh6X5bUYLy6AyHKvj-nUy1wgzjYQDwH
      MTplCoLtU-o-8SNnZ1tmRoGE9uJkBLdh5gFENabWnU5m1ZqZPdwS-qo-meMv
      VfJb6jJVWRpl2SUtCnYG2C32qvbWbjZ_jBPD5eunqsIo1vQ",
      "e":"AQAB",
      "x5c":
       ["MIIDQjCCAiqgAwIBAgIGATz/FuLiMA0GCSqGSIb3DQEBBQUAMGIxCzAJB
       gNVBAYTAlVTMQswCQYDVQQIEwJDTzEPMA0GA1UEBxMGRGVudmVyMRwwGgYD
       VQQKExNQaW5nIElkZW50aXR5IENvcnAuMRcwFQYDVQQDEw5CcmlhbiBDYW1
       wYmVsbDAeFw0xMzAyMjEyMzI5MTVaFw0xODA4MTQyMjI5MTVaMGIxCzAJBg
       NVBAYTAlVTMQswCQYDVQQIEwJDTzEPMA0GA1UEBxMGRGVudmVyMRwwGgYDV
       QQKExNQaW5nIElkZW50aXR5IENvcnAuMRcwFQYDVQQDEw5CcmlhbiBDYW1w
       YmVsbDCCASIwDQYJKoZIhvcNAQEBBQADggEPADCCAQoCggEBAL64zn8/QnH
       YMeZ0LncoXaEde1fiLm1jHjmQsF/449IYALM9if6amFtPDy2yvz3YlRij66
       s5gyLCyO7ANuVRJx1NbgizcAblIgjtdf/u3WG7K+IiZhtELto/A7Fck9Ws6
       SQvzRvOE8uSirYbgmj6He4iO8NCyvaK0jIQRMMGQwsU1quGmFgHIXPLfnpn
       fajr1rVTAwtgV5LEZ4Iel+W1GC8ugMhyr4/p1MtcIM42EA8BzE6ZQqC7VPq
       PvEjZ2dbZkaBhPbiZAS3YeYBRDWm1p1OZtWamT3cEvqqPpnjL1XyW+oyVVk
       aZdklLQp2Btgt9qr21m42f4wTw+Xrp6rCKNb0CAwEAATANBgkqhkiG9w0BA
       QUFAAOCAQEAh8zGlfSlcI0o3rYDPBB07aXNswb4ECNIKG0CETTUxmXl9KUL
       +9gGlqCz5iWLOgWsnrcKcY0vXPG9J1r9AqBNTqNgHq2G03X09266X5CpOe1
       zFo+Owb1zxtp3PehFdfQJ610CDLEaS9V9Rqp17hCyybEpOGVwe8fnk+fbEL
       2Bo3UPGrpsHzUoaGpDftmWssZkhpBJKVMJyf/RuP2SmmaIzmnw9JiSlYhzo
       4tpzd5rFXhjRbg4zW9C+2qok+2+qDM1iJ684gPHMIY8aLWrdgQTxkumGmTq
       gawR+N5MDtdPTEQ0XfIBc2cJEUyMTY5MPvACWpkA6SdS4xSvdXK3IVfOWA=="]
     }

Appendix C.  Example Encrypted RSA Private Key

   This example encrypts an RSA private key to the recipient using
   "PBES2-HS256+A128KW" for key encryption and "A128CBC+HS256" for
   content encryption.

   NOTE: Unless otherwise indicated, all line breaks are included solely
   for readability.

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C.1.  Plaintext RSA Private Key

   The following RSA key is the plaintext for the authenticated
   encryption operation, formatted as a JWK (with line breaks within
   values for display purposes only):

     {
      "kty":"RSA",
      "kid":"juliet@capulet.lit",
      "use":"enc",
      "n":"t6Q8PWSi1dkJj9hTP8hNYFlvadM7DflW9mWepOJhJ66w7nyoK1gPNqFMSQRy
           O125Gp-TEkodhWr0iujjHVx7BcV0llS4w5ACGgPrcAd6ZcSR0-Iqom-QFcNP
           8Sjg086MwoqQU_LYywlAGZ21WSdS_PERyGFiNnj3QQlO8Yns5jCtLCRwLHL0
           Pb1fEv45AuRIuUfVcPySBWYnDyGxvjYGDSM-AqWS9zIQ2ZilgT-GqUmipg0X
           OC0Cc20rgLe2ymLHjpHciCKVAbY5-L32-lSeZO-Os6U15_aXrk9Gw8cPUaX1
           _I8sLGuSiVdt3C_Fn2PZ3Z8i744FPFGGcG1qs2Wz-Q",
      "e":"AQAB",
      "d":"GRtbIQmhOZtyszfgKdg4u_N-R_mZGU_9k7JQ_jn1DnfTuMdSNprTeaSTyWfS
           NkuaAwnOEbIQVy1IQbWVV25NY3ybc_IhUJtfri7bAXYEReWaCl3hdlPKXy9U
           vqPYGR0kIXTQRqns-dVJ7jahlI7LyckrpTmrM8dWBo4_PMaenNnPiQgO0xnu
           ToxutRZJfJvG4Ox4ka3GORQd9CsCZ2vsUDmsXOfUENOyMqADC6p1M3h33tsu
           rY15k9qMSpG9OX_IJAXmxzAh_tWiZOwk2K4yxH9tS3Lq1yX8C1EWmeRDkK2a
           hecG85-oLKQt5VEpWHKmjOi_gJSdSgqcN96X52esAQ",
      "p":"2rnSOV4hKSN8sS4CgcQHFbs08XboFDqKum3sc4h3GRxrTmQdl1ZK9uw-PIHf
           QP0FkxXVrx-WE-ZEbrqivH_2iCLUS7wAl6XvARt1KkIaUxPPSYB9yk31s0Q8
           UK96E3_OrADAYtAJs-M3JxCLfNgqh56HDnETTQhH3rCT5T3yJws",
      "q":"1u_RiFDP7LBYh3N4GXLT9OpSKYP0uQZyiaZwBtOCBNJgQxaj10RWjsZu0c6I
           edis4S7B_coSKB0Kj9PaPaBzg-IySRvvcQuPamQu66riMhjVtG6TlV8CLCYK
           rYl52ziqK0E_ym2QnkwsUX7eYTB7LbAHRK9GqocDE5B0f808I4s",
      "dp":"KkMTWqBUefVwZ2_Dbj1pPQqyHSHjj90L5x_MOzqYAJMcLMZtbUtwKqvVDq3
           tbEo3ZIcohbDtt6SbfmWzggabpQxNxuBpoOOf_a_HgMXK_lhqigI4y_kqS1w
           Y52IwjUn5rgRrJ-yYo1h41KR-vz2pYhEAeYrhttWtxVqLCRViD6c",
      "dq":"AvfS0-gRxvn0bwJoMSnFxYcK1WnuEjQFluMGfwGitQBWtfZ1Er7t1xDkbN9
           GQTB9yqpDoYaN06H7CFtrkxhJIBQaj6nkF5KKS3TQtQ5qCzkOkmxIe3KRbBy
           mXxkb5qwUpX5ELD5xFc6FeiafWYY63TmmEAu_lRFCOJ3xDea-ots",
      "qi":"lSQi-w9CpyUReMErP1RsBLk7wNtOvs5EQpPqmuMvqW57NBUczScEoPwmUqq
           abu9V0-Py4dQ57_bapoKRu1R90bvuFnU63SHWEFglZQvJDMeAvmj4sm-Fp0o
           Yu_neotgQ0hzbI5gry7ajdYy9-2lNx_76aBZoOUu9HCJ-UsfSOI8"
     }

   The octets representing the plaintext used in this example (using
   JSON array notation) are:

   [123, 34, 107, 116, 121, 34, 58, 34, 82, 83, 65, 34, 44, 34, 107,
   105, 100, 34, 58, 34, 106, 117, 108, 105, 101, 116, 64, 99, 97, 112,
   117, 108, 101, 116, 46, 108, 105, 116, 34, 44, 34, 117, 115, 101, 34,
   58, 34, 101, 110, 99, 34, 44, 34, 110, 34, 58, 34, 116, 54, 81, 56,
   80, 87, 83, 105, 49, 100, 107, 74, 106, 57, 104, 84, 80, 56, 104, 78,

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   89, 70, 108, 118, 97, 100, 77, 55, 68, 102, 108, 87, 57, 109, 87,
   101, 112, 79, 74, 104, 74, 54, 54, 119, 55, 110, 121, 111, 75, 49,
   103, 80, 78, 113, 70, 77, 83, 81, 82, 121, 79, 49, 50, 53, 71, 112,
   45, 84, 69, 107, 111, 100, 104, 87, 114, 48, 105, 117, 106, 106, 72,
   86, 120, 55, 66, 99, 86, 48, 108, 108, 83, 52, 119, 53, 65, 67, 71,
   103, 80, 114, 99, 65, 100, 54, 90, 99, 83, 82, 48, 45, 73, 113, 111,
   109, 45, 81, 70, 99, 78, 80, 56, 83, 106, 103, 48, 56, 54, 77, 119,
   111, 113, 81, 85, 95, 76, 89, 121, 119, 108, 65, 71, 90, 50, 49, 87,
   83, 100, 83, 95, 80, 69, 82, 121, 71, 70, 105, 78, 110, 106, 51, 81,
   81, 108, 79, 56, 89, 110, 115, 53, 106, 67, 116, 76, 67, 82, 119, 76,
   72, 76, 48, 80, 98, 49, 102, 69, 118, 52, 53, 65, 117, 82, 73, 117,
   85, 102, 86, 99, 80, 121, 83, 66, 87, 89, 110, 68, 121, 71, 120, 118,
   106, 89, 71, 68, 83, 77, 45, 65, 113, 87, 83, 57, 122, 73, 81, 50,
   90, 105, 108, 103, 84, 45, 71, 113, 85, 109, 105, 112, 103, 48, 88,
   79, 67, 48, 67, 99, 50, 48, 114, 103, 76, 101, 50, 121, 109, 76, 72,
   106, 112, 72, 99, 105, 67, 75, 86, 65, 98, 89, 53, 45, 76, 51, 50,
   45, 108, 83, 101, 90, 79, 45, 79, 115, 54, 85, 49, 53, 95, 97, 88,
   114, 107, 57, 71, 119, 56, 99, 80, 85, 97, 88, 49, 95, 73, 56, 115,
   76, 71, 117, 83, 105, 86, 100, 116, 51, 67, 95, 70, 110, 50, 80, 90,
   51, 90, 56, 105, 55, 52, 52, 70, 80, 70, 71, 71, 99, 71, 49, 113,
   115, 50, 87, 122, 45, 81, 34, 44, 34, 101, 34, 58, 34, 65, 81, 65,
   66, 34, 44, 34, 100, 34, 58, 34, 71, 82, 116, 98, 73, 81, 109, 104,
   79, 90, 116, 121, 115, 122, 102, 103, 75, 100, 103, 52, 117, 95, 78,
   45, 82, 95, 109, 90, 71, 85, 95, 57, 107, 55, 74, 81, 95, 106, 110,
   49, 68, 110, 102, 84, 117, 77, 100, 83, 78, 112, 114, 84, 101, 97,
   83, 84, 121, 87, 102, 83, 78, 107, 117, 97, 65, 119, 110, 79, 69, 98,
   73, 81, 86, 121, 49, 73, 81, 98, 87, 86, 86, 50, 53, 78, 89, 51, 121,
   98, 99, 95, 73, 104, 85, 74, 116, 102, 114, 105, 55, 98, 65, 88, 89,
   69, 82, 101, 87, 97, 67, 108, 51, 104, 100, 108, 80, 75, 88, 121, 57,
   85, 118, 113, 80, 89, 71, 82, 48, 107, 73, 88, 84, 81, 82, 113, 110,
   115, 45, 100, 86, 74, 55, 106, 97, 104, 108, 73, 55, 76, 121, 99,
   107, 114, 112, 84, 109, 114, 77, 56, 100, 87, 66, 111, 52, 95, 80,
   77, 97, 101, 110, 78, 110, 80, 105, 81, 103, 79, 48, 120, 110, 117,
   84, 111, 120, 117, 116, 82, 90, 74, 102, 74, 118, 71, 52, 79, 120,
   52, 107, 97, 51, 71, 79, 82, 81, 100, 57, 67, 115, 67, 90, 50, 118,
   115, 85, 68, 109, 115, 88, 79, 102, 85, 69, 78, 79, 121, 77, 113, 65,
   68, 67, 54, 112, 49, 77, 51, 104, 51, 51, 116, 115, 117, 114, 89, 49,
   53, 107, 57, 113, 77, 83, 112, 71, 57, 79, 88, 95, 73, 74, 65, 88,
   109, 120, 122, 65, 104, 95, 116, 87, 105, 90, 79, 119, 107, 50, 75,
   52, 121, 120, 72, 57, 116, 83, 51, 76, 113, 49, 121, 88, 56, 67, 49,
   69, 87, 109, 101, 82, 68, 107, 75, 50, 97, 104, 101, 99, 71, 56, 53,
   45, 111, 76, 75, 81, 116, 53, 86, 69, 112, 87, 72, 75, 109, 106, 79,
   105, 95, 103, 74, 83, 100, 83, 103, 113, 99, 78, 57, 54, 88, 53, 50,
   101, 115, 65, 81, 34, 44, 34, 112, 34, 58, 34, 50, 114, 110, 83, 79,
   86, 52, 104, 75, 83, 78, 56, 115, 83, 52, 67, 103, 99, 81, 72, 70,
   98, 115, 48, 56, 88, 98, 111, 70, 68, 113, 75, 117, 109, 51, 115, 99,
   52, 104, 51, 71, 82, 120, 114, 84, 109, 81, 100, 108, 49, 90, 75, 57,
   117, 119, 45, 80, 73, 72, 102, 81, 80, 48, 70, 107, 120, 88, 86, 114,

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   120, 45, 87, 69, 45, 90, 69, 98, 114, 113, 105, 118, 72, 95, 50, 105,
   67, 76, 85, 83, 55, 119, 65, 108, 54, 88, 118, 65, 82, 116, 49, 75,
   107, 73, 97, 85, 120, 80, 80, 83, 89, 66, 57, 121, 107, 51, 49, 115,
   48, 81, 56, 85, 75, 57, 54, 69, 51, 95, 79, 114, 65, 68, 65, 89, 116,
   65, 74, 115, 45, 77, 51, 74, 120, 67, 76, 102, 78, 103, 113, 104, 53,
   54, 72, 68, 110, 69, 84, 84, 81, 104, 72, 51, 114, 67, 84, 53, 84,
   51, 121, 74, 119, 115, 34, 44, 34, 113, 34, 58, 34, 49, 117, 95, 82,
   105, 70, 68, 80, 55, 76, 66, 89, 104, 51, 78, 52, 71, 88, 76, 84, 57,
   79, 112, 83, 75, 89, 80, 48, 117, 81, 90, 121, 105, 97, 90, 119, 66,
   116, 79, 67, 66, 78, 74, 103, 81, 120, 97, 106, 49, 48, 82, 87, 106,
   115, 90, 117, 48, 99, 54, 73, 101, 100, 105, 115, 52, 83, 55, 66, 95,
   99, 111, 83, 75, 66, 48, 75, 106, 57, 80, 97, 80, 97, 66, 122, 103,
   45, 73, 121, 83, 82, 118, 118, 99, 81, 117, 80, 97, 109, 81, 117, 54,
   54, 114, 105, 77, 104, 106, 86, 116, 71, 54, 84, 108, 86, 56, 67, 76,
   67, 89, 75, 114, 89, 108, 53, 50, 122, 105, 113, 75, 48, 69, 95, 121,
   109, 50, 81, 110, 107, 119, 115, 85, 88, 55, 101, 89, 84, 66, 55, 76,
   98, 65, 72, 82, 75, 57, 71, 113, 111, 99, 68, 69, 53, 66, 48, 102,
   56, 48, 56, 73, 52, 115, 34, 44, 34, 100, 112, 34, 58, 34, 75, 107,
   77, 84, 87, 113, 66, 85, 101, 102, 86, 119, 90, 50, 95, 68, 98, 106,
   49, 112, 80, 81, 113, 121, 72, 83, 72, 106, 106, 57, 48, 76, 53, 120,
   95, 77, 79, 122, 113, 89, 65, 74, 77, 99, 76, 77, 90, 116, 98, 85,
   116, 119, 75, 113, 118, 86, 68, 113, 51, 116, 98, 69, 111, 51, 90,
   73, 99, 111, 104, 98, 68, 116, 116, 54, 83, 98, 102, 109, 87, 122,
   103, 103, 97, 98, 112, 81, 120, 78, 120, 117, 66, 112, 111, 79, 79,
   102, 95, 97, 95, 72, 103, 77, 88, 75, 95, 108, 104, 113, 105, 103,
   73, 52, 121, 95, 107, 113, 83, 49, 119, 89, 53, 50, 73, 119, 106, 85,
   110, 53, 114, 103, 82, 114, 74, 45, 121, 89, 111, 49, 104, 52, 49,
   75, 82, 45, 118, 122, 50, 112, 89, 104, 69, 65, 101, 89, 114, 104,
   116, 116, 87, 116, 120, 86, 113, 76, 67, 82, 86, 105, 68, 54, 99, 34,
   44, 34, 100, 113, 34, 58, 34, 65, 118, 102, 83, 48, 45, 103, 82, 120,
   118, 110, 48, 98, 119, 74, 111, 77, 83, 110, 70, 120, 89, 99, 75, 49,
   87, 110, 117, 69, 106, 81, 70, 108, 117, 77, 71, 102, 119, 71, 105,
   116, 81, 66, 87, 116, 102, 90, 49, 69, 114, 55, 116, 49, 120, 68,
   107, 98, 78, 57, 71, 81, 84, 66, 57, 121, 113, 112, 68, 111, 89, 97,
   78, 48, 54, 72, 55, 67, 70, 116, 114, 107, 120, 104, 74, 73, 66, 81,
   97, 106, 54, 110, 107, 70, 53, 75, 75, 83, 51, 84, 81, 116, 81, 53,
   113, 67, 122, 107, 79, 107, 109, 120, 73, 101, 51, 75, 82, 98, 66,
   121, 109, 88, 120, 107, 98, 53, 113, 119, 85, 112, 88, 53, 69, 76,
   68, 53, 120, 70, 99, 54, 70, 101, 105, 97, 102, 87, 89, 89, 54, 51,
   84, 109, 109, 69, 65, 117, 95, 108, 82, 70, 67, 79, 74, 51, 120, 68,
   101, 97, 45, 111, 116, 115, 34, 44, 34, 113, 105, 34, 58, 34, 108,
   83, 81, 105, 45, 119, 57, 67, 112, 121, 85, 82, 101, 77, 69, 114, 80,
   49, 82, 115, 66, 76, 107, 55, 119, 78, 116, 79, 118, 115, 53, 69, 81,
   112, 80, 113, 109, 117, 77, 118, 113, 87, 53, 55, 78, 66, 85, 99,
   122, 83, 99, 69, 111, 80, 119, 109, 85, 113, 113, 97, 98, 117, 57,
   86, 48, 45, 80, 121, 52, 100, 81, 53, 55, 95, 98, 97, 112, 111, 75,
   82, 117, 49, 82, 57, 48, 98, 118, 117, 70, 110, 85, 54, 51, 83, 72,
   87, 69, 70, 103, 108, 90, 81, 118, 74, 68, 77, 101, 65, 118, 109,

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   106, 52, 115, 109, 45, 70, 112, 48, 111, 89, 117, 95, 110, 101, 111,
   116, 103, 81, 48, 104, 122, 98, 73, 53, 103, 114, 121, 55, 97, 106,
   100, 89, 121, 57, 45, 50, 108, 78, 120, 95, 55, 54, 97, 66, 90, 111,
   79, 85, 117, 57, 72, 67, 74, 45, 85, 115, 102, 83, 79, 73, 56, 34,
   125]

C.2.  JOSE Header

   The following example JWE Protected Header declares that:

   o  the Content Encryption Key is encrypted to the recipient using the
      PSE2-HS256+A128KW algorithm to produce the JWE Encrypted Key,

   o  the Salt Input ("p2s") value is [217, 96, 147, 112, 150, 117, 70,
      247, 127, 8, 155, 137, 174, 42, 80, 215],

   o  the Iteration Count ("p2c") value is 4096,

   o  authenticated encryption is performed on the plaintext using the
      AES_128_CBC_HMAC_SHA_256 algorithm to produce the ciphertext and
      the Authentication Tag, and

   o  the content type is application/jwk+json.

     {
      "alg":"PBES2-HS256+A128KW",
      "p2s":"2WCTcJZ1Rvd_CJuJripQ1w",
      "p2c":4096,
      "enc":"A128CBC-HS256",
      "cty":"jwk+json"
     }

   Encoding this JWE Protected Header as BASE64URL(UTF8(JWE Protected
   Header)) gives this value (with line breaks for display purposes
   only):

     eyJhbGciOiJQQkVTMi1IUzI1NitBMTI4S1ciLCJwMnMiOiIyV0NUY0paMVJ2ZF9DSn
     VKcmlwUTF3IiwicDJjIjo0MDk2LCJlbmMiOiJBMTI4Q0JDLUhTMjU2IiwiY3R5Ijoi
     andrK2pzb24ifQ

C.3.  Content Encryption Key (CEK)

   Generate a 256-bit random Content Encryption Key (CEK).  In this
   example, the value (using JSON array notation) is:

   [111, 27, 25, 52, 66, 29, 20, 78, 92, 176, 56, 240, 65, 208, 82, 112,
   161, 131, 36, 55, 202, 236, 185, 172, 129, 23, 153, 194, 195, 48,
   253, 182]

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C.4.  Key Derivation

   Derive a key from a shared passphrase using the PBKDF2 algorithm with
   HMAC SHA-256 and the specified Salt and Iteration Count values and a
   128-bit requested output key size to produce the PBKDF2 Derived Key.
   This example uses the following passphrase:

     Thus from my lips, by yours, my sin is purged.

   The octets representing the passphrase are:

   [84, 104, 117, 115, 32, 102, 114, 111, 109, 32, 109, 121, 32, 108,
   105, 112, 115, 44, 32, 98, 121, 32, 121, 111, 117, 114, 115, 44, 32,
   109, 121, 32, 115, 105, 110, 32, 105, 115, 32, 112, 117, 114, 103,
   101, 100, 46]

   The Salt value (UTF8(Alg) || 0x00 || Salt Input) is:

   [80, 66, 69, 83, 50, 45, 72, 83, 50, 53, 54, 43, 65, 49, 50, 56, 75,
   87, 0, 217, 96, 147, 112, 150, 117, 70, 247, 127, 8, 155, 137, 174,
   42, 80, 215].

   The resulting PBKDF2 Derived Key value is:

   [110, 171, 169, 92, 129, 92, 109, 117, 233, 242, 116, 233, 170, 14,
   24, 75]

C.5.  Key Encryption

   Encrypt the CEK with the "A128KW" algorithm using the PBKDF2 Derived
   Key.  The resulting JWE Encrypted Key value is:

   [78, 186, 151, 59, 11, 141, 81, 240, 213, 245, 83, 211, 53, 188, 134,
   188, 66, 125, 36, 200, 222, 124, 5, 103, 249, 52, 117, 184, 140, 81,
   246, 158, 161, 177, 20, 33, 245, 57, 59, 4]

   Encoding this JWE Encrypted Key as BASE64URL(JWE Encrypted Key) gives
   this value:

     TrqXOwuNUfDV9VPTNbyGvEJ9JMjefAVn-TR1uIxR9p6hsRQh9Tk7BA

C.6.  Initialization Vector

   Generate a random 128-bit JWE Initialization Vector.  In this
   example, the value is:

   [97, 239, 99, 214, 171, 54, 216, 57, 145, 72, 7, 93, 34, 31, 149,
   156]

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   Encoding this JWE Initialization Vector as BASE64URL(JWE
   Initialization Vector) gives this value:

     Ye9j1qs22DmRSAddIh-VnA

C.7.  Additional Authenticated Data

   Let the Additional Authenticated Data encryption parameter be
   ASCII(BASE64URL(UTF8(JWE Protected Header))).  This value is:

   [123, 34, 97, 108, 103, 34, 58, 34, 80, 66, 69, 83, 50, 45, 72, 83,
   50, 53, 54, 43, 65, 49, 50, 56, 75, 87, 34, 44, 34, 112, 50, 115, 34,
   58, 34, 50, 87, 67, 84, 99, 74, 90, 49, 82, 118, 100, 95, 67, 74,
   117, 74, 114, 105, 112, 81, 49, 119, 34, 44, 34, 112, 50, 99, 34, 58,
   52, 48, 57, 54, 44, 34, 101, 110, 99, 34, 58, 34, 65, 49, 50, 56, 67,
   66, 67, 45, 72, 83, 50, 53, 54, 34, 44, 34, 99, 116, 121, 34, 58, 34,
   106, 119, 107, 43, 106, 115, 111, 110, 34, 125]

C.8.  Content Encryption

   Perform authenticated encryption on the plaintext with the
   AES_128_CBC_HMAC_SHA_256 algorithm using the CEK as the encryption
   key, the JWE Initialization Vector, and the Additional Authenticated
   Data value above.  The resulting ciphertext is:

   [3, 8, 65, 242, 92, 107, 148, 168, 197, 159, 77, 139, 25, 97, 42,
   131, 110, 199, 225, 56, 61, 127, 38, 64, 108, 91, 247, 167, 150, 98,
   112, 122, 99, 235, 132, 50, 28, 46, 56, 170, 169, 89, 220, 145, 38,
   157, 148, 224, 66, 140, 8, 169, 146, 117, 222, 54, 242, 28, 31, 11,
   129, 227, 226, 169, 66, 117, 133, 254, 140, 216, 115, 203, 131, 60,
   60, 47, 233, 132, 121, 13, 35, 188, 53, 19, 172, 77, 59, 54, 211,
   158, 172, 25, 60, 111, 0, 80, 201, 158, 160, 210, 68, 55, 12, 67,
   136, 130, 87, 216, 197, 95, 62, 20, 155, 205, 5, 140, 27, 168, 221,
   65, 114, 78, 157, 254, 46, 206, 182, 52, 135, 87, 239, 3, 34, 186,
   126, 220, 151, 17, 33, 237, 57, 96, 172, 183, 58, 45, 248, 103, 241,
   142, 136, 7, 53, 16, 173, 181, 7, 93, 92, 252, 1, 53, 212, 242, 8,
   255, 11, 239, 181, 24, 148, 136, 111, 24, 161, 244, 23, 106, 69, 157,
   215, 243, 189, 240, 166, 169, 249, 72, 38, 201, 99, 223, 173, 229, 9,
   222, 82, 79, 157, 176, 248, 85, 239, 121, 163, 1, 31, 48, 98, 206,
   61, 249, 104, 216, 201, 227, 105, 48, 194, 193, 10, 36, 160, 159,
   241, 166, 84, 54, 188, 211, 243, 242, 40, 46, 45, 193, 193, 160, 169,
   101, 201, 1, 73, 47, 105, 142, 88, 28, 42, 132, 26, 61, 58, 63, 142,
   243, 77, 26, 179, 153, 166, 46, 203, 208, 49, 55, 229, 34, 178, 4,
   109, 180, 204, 204, 115, 1, 103, 193, 5, 91, 215, 214, 195, 1, 110,
   208, 53, 144, 36, 105, 12, 54, 25, 129, 101, 15, 183, 150, 250, 147,
   115, 227, 58, 250, 5, 128, 232, 63, 15, 14, 19, 141, 124, 253, 142,
   137, 189, 135, 26, 44, 240, 27, 88, 132, 105, 127, 6, 71, 37, 41,
   124, 187, 165, 140, 34, 200, 123, 80, 228, 24, 231, 176, 132, 171,

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   138, 145, 152, 116, 224, 50, 141, 51, 147, 91, 186, 7, 246, 106, 217,
   148, 244, 227, 244, 45, 220, 121, 165, 224, 148, 181, 17, 181, 128,
   197, 101, 237, 11, 169, 229, 149, 199, 78, 56, 15, 14, 190, 91, 216,
   222, 247, 213, 74, 40, 8, 96, 20, 168, 119, 96, 26, 24, 52, 37, 82,
   127, 57, 176, 147, 118, 59, 7, 224, 33, 117, 72, 155, 29, 82, 26,
   215, 189, 140, 119, 28, 152, 118, 93, 222, 194, 192, 148, 115, 83,
   253, 216, 212, 108, 88, 83, 175, 172, 220, 97, 79, 110, 42, 223, 170,
   161, 34, 164, 144, 193, 76, 122, 92, 160, 41, 178, 175, 6, 35, 96,
   113, 96, 158, 90, 129, 101, 26, 45, 70, 180, 189, 230, 15, 5, 247,
   150, 209, 94, 171, 26, 13, 142, 212, 129, 1, 176, 5, 0, 112, 203,
   174, 185, 119, 76, 233, 189, 54, 172, 189, 245, 223, 253, 205, 12,
   88, 9, 126, 157, 225, 90, 40, 229, 191, 63, 30, 160, 224, 69, 3, 140,
   109, 70, 89, 37, 213, 245, 194, 210, 180, 188, 63, 210, 139, 221, 2,
   144, 200, 20, 177, 216, 29, 227, 242, 106, 12, 135, 142, 139, 144,
   82, 225, 162, 171, 176, 108, 99, 6, 43, 193, 161, 116, 234, 216, 1,
   242, 21, 124, 162, 98, 205, 124, 193, 38, 12, 242, 90, 101, 76, 204,
   184, 124, 58, 180, 16, 240, 26, 76, 195, 250, 212, 191, 185, 191, 97,
   198, 186, 73, 225, 75, 14, 90, 123, 121, 172, 101, 50, 160, 221, 141,
   253, 205, 126, 77, 9, 87, 198, 110, 104, 182, 141, 120, 51, 25, 232,
   3, 32, 80, 6, 156, 8, 18, 4, 135, 221, 142, 25, 135, 2, 129, 132,
   115, 227, 74, 141, 28, 119, 11, 141, 117, 134, 198, 62, 150, 254, 97,
   75, 197, 251, 99, 89, 204, 224, 226, 67, 83, 175, 89, 0, 81, 29, 38,
   207, 89, 140, 255, 197, 177, 164, 128, 62, 116, 224, 180, 109, 169,
   28, 2, 59, 176, 130, 252, 44, 178, 81, 24, 181, 176, 75, 44, 61, 91,
   12, 37, 21, 255, 83, 130, 197, 16, 231, 60, 217, 56, 131, 118, 168,
   202, 58, 52, 84, 124, 162, 185, 174, 162, 226, 242, 112, 68, 246,
   202, 16, 208, 52, 154, 58, 129, 80, 102, 33, 171, 6, 186, 177, 14,
   195, 88, 136, 6, 0, 155, 28, 100, 162, 207, 162, 222, 117, 248, 170,
   208, 114, 87, 31, 57, 176, 33, 57, 83, 253, 12, 168, 110, 194, 59,
   22, 86, 48, 227, 196, 22, 176, 218, 122, 149, 21, 249, 195, 178, 174,
   250, 20, 34, 120, 60, 139, 201, 99, 40, 18, 177, 17, 54, 54, 6, 3,
   222, 128, 160, 88, 11, 27, 0, 81, 192, 36, 41, 169, 146, 8, 47, 64,
   136, 28, 64, 209, 67, 135, 202, 20, 234, 182, 91, 204, 146, 195, 187,
   0, 72, 77, 11, 111, 152, 204, 252, 177, 212, 89, 33, 50, 132, 184,
   44, 183, 186, 19, 250, 69, 176, 201, 102, 140, 14, 143, 212, 212,
   160, 123, 208, 185, 27, 155, 68, 77, 133, 198, 2, 126, 155, 215, 22,
   91, 30, 217, 176, 172, 244, 156, 174, 143, 75, 90, 21, 102, 1, 160,
   59, 253, 188, 88, 57, 185, 197, 83, 24, 22, 180, 174, 47, 207, 52, 1,
   141, 146, 119, 233, 68, 228, 224, 228, 193, 248, 155, 202, 90, 7,
   213, 88, 33, 108, 107, 14, 86, 8, 120, 250, 58, 142, 35, 164, 238,
   221, 219, 35, 123, 88, 199, 192, 143, 104, 83, 17, 166, 243, 247, 11,
   166, 67, 68, 204, 132, 23, 110, 103, 228, 14, 55, 122, 88, 57, 180,
   178, 237, 52, 130, 214, 245, 102, 123, 67, 73, 175, 1, 127, 112, 148,
   94, 132, 164, 197, 153, 217, 87, 25, 89, 93, 63, 22, 66, 166, 90,
   251, 101, 10, 145, 66, 17, 124, 36, 255, 165, 226, 97, 16, 86, 112,
   154, 88, 105, 253, 56, 209, 229, 122, 103, 51, 24, 228, 190, 3, 236,
   48, 182, 121, 176, 140, 128, 117, 87, 251, 224, 37, 23, 248, 21, 218,
   85, 251, 136, 84, 147, 143, 144, 46, 155, 183, 251, 89, 86, 23, 26,

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   237, 100, 167, 32, 130, 173, 237, 89, 55, 110, 70, 142, 127, 65, 230,
   208, 109, 69, 19, 253, 84, 130, 130, 193, 92, 58, 108, 150, 42, 136,
   249, 234, 86, 241, 182, 19, 117, 246, 26, 181, 92, 101, 155, 44, 103,
   235, 173, 30, 140, 90, 29, 183, 190, 77, 53, 206, 127, 5, 87, 8, 187,
   184, 92, 4, 157, 22, 18, 105, 251, 39, 88, 182, 181, 103, 148, 233,
   6, 63, 70, 188, 7, 101, 216, 127, 77, 31, 12, 233, 7, 147, 106, 30,
   150, 77, 145, 13, 205, 48, 56, 245, 220, 89, 252, 127, 51, 180, 36,
   31, 55, 18, 214, 230, 254, 217, 197, 65, 247, 27, 215, 117, 247, 108,
   157, 121, 11, 63, 150, 195, 83, 6, 134, 242, 41, 24, 105, 204, 5, 63,
   192, 14, 159, 113, 72, 140, 128, 51, 215, 80, 215, 39, 149, 94, 79,
   128, 34, 5, 129, 82, 83, 121, 187, 37, 146, 27, 32, 177, 167, 71, 9,
   195, 30, 199, 196, 205, 252, 207, 69, 8, 120, 27, 190, 51, 43, 75,
   249, 234, 167, 116, 206, 203, 199, 43, 108, 87, 48, 155, 140, 228,
   210, 85, 25, 161, 96, 67, 8, 205, 64, 39, 75, 88, 44, 238, 227, 16,
   0, 100, 93, 129, 18, 4, 149, 50, 68, 72, 99, 35, 111, 254, 27, 102,
   175, 108, 233, 87, 181, 44, 169, 18, 139, 79, 208, 14, 202, 192, 5,
   162, 222, 231, 149, 24, 211, 49, 120, 101, 39, 206, 87, 147, 204,
   200, 251, 104, 115, 5, 127, 117, 195, 79, 151, 18, 224, 52, 0, 245,
   4, 85, 255, 103, 217, 0, 116, 198, 80, 91, 167, 192, 154, 199, 197,
   149, 237, 51, 2, 131, 30, 226, 95, 105, 48, 68, 135, 208, 144, 120,
   176, 145, 157, 8, 171, 80, 94, 61, 92, 92, 220, 157, 13, 138, 51, 23,
   185, 124, 31, 77, 1, 87, 241, 43, 239, 55, 122, 86, 210, 48, 208,
   204, 112, 144, 80, 147, 106, 219, 47, 253, 31, 134, 176, 16, 135,
   219, 95, 17, 129, 83, 236, 125, 136, 112, 86, 228, 252, 71, 129, 218,
   174, 156, 236, 12, 27, 159, 11, 138, 252, 253, 207, 31, 115, 214,
   118, 239, 203, 16, 211, 205, 99, 22, 51, 163, 107, 162, 246, 199, 67,
   127, 34, 108, 197, 53, 117, 58, 199, 3, 190, 74, 70, 190, 65, 235,
   175, 97, 157, 215, 252, 189, 245, 100, 229, 248, 46, 90, 126, 237, 4,
   159, 128, 58, 7, 156, 236, 69, 191, 85, 240, 179, 224, 249, 152, 49,
   195, 223, 60, 78, 186, 157, 155, 217, 58, 105, 116, 164, 217, 111,
   215, 150, 218, 252, 84, 86, 248, 140, 240, 226, 61, 106, 208, 95, 60,
   163, 6, 0, 235, 253, 162, 96, 62, 234, 251, 249, 35, 21, 7, 211, 233,
   86, 50, 33, 203, 67, 248, 60, 190, 123, 48, 167, 226, 90, 191, 71,
   56, 183, 165, 17, 85, 76, 238, 140, 211, 168, 53, 223, 194, 4, 97,
   149, 156, 120, 137, 76, 33, 229, 243, 194, 208, 198, 202, 139, 28,
   114, 46, 224, 92, 254, 83, 100, 134, 158, 92, 70, 78, 61, 62, 138,
   24, 173, 216, 66, 198, 70, 254, 47, 59, 193, 53, 6, 139, 19, 153,
   253, 28, 199, 122, 160, 27, 67, 234, 209, 227, 139, 4, 50, 7, 178,
   183, 89, 252, 32, 128, 137, 55, 52, 29, 89, 12, 111, 42, 181, 51,
   170, 132, 132, 207, 170, 228, 254, 178, 213, 0, 136, 175, 8]

   The resulting Authentication Tag value is:

   [208, 113, 102, 132, 236, 236, 67, 223, 39, 53, 98, 99, 32, 121, 17,
   236]

Top      Up      ToC       Page 37 
   Encoding this JWE Ciphertext as BASE64URL(JWE Ciphertext) gives this
   value (with line breaks for display purposes only):

     AwhB8lxrlKjFn02LGWEqg27H4Tg9fyZAbFv3p5ZicHpj64QyHC44qqlZ3JEmnZTgQo
     wIqZJ13jbyHB8LgePiqUJ1hf6M2HPLgzw8L-mEeQ0jvDUTrE07NtOerBk8bwBQyZ6g
     0kQ3DEOIglfYxV8-FJvNBYwbqN1Bck6d_i7OtjSHV-8DIrp-3JcRIe05YKy3Oi34Z_
     GOiAc1EK21B11c_AE11PII_wvvtRiUiG8YofQXakWd1_O98Kap-UgmyWPfreUJ3lJP
     nbD4Ve95owEfMGLOPflo2MnjaTDCwQokoJ_xplQ2vNPz8iguLcHBoKllyQFJL2mOWB
     wqhBo9Oj-O800as5mmLsvQMTflIrIEbbTMzHMBZ8EFW9fWwwFu0DWQJGkMNhmBZQ-3
     lvqTc-M6-gWA6D8PDhONfP2Oib2HGizwG1iEaX8GRyUpfLuljCLIe1DkGOewhKuKkZ
     h04DKNM5Nbugf2atmU9OP0Ldx5peCUtRG1gMVl7Qup5ZXHTjgPDr5b2N731UooCGAU
     qHdgGhg0JVJ_ObCTdjsH4CF1SJsdUhrXvYx3HJh2Xd7CwJRzU_3Y1GxYU6-s3GFPbi
     rfqqEipJDBTHpcoCmyrwYjYHFgnlqBZRotRrS95g8F95bRXqsaDY7UgQGwBQBwy665
     d0zpvTasvfXf_c0MWAl-neFaKOW_Px6g4EUDjG1GWSXV9cLStLw_0ovdApDIFLHYHe
     PyagyHjouQUuGiq7BsYwYrwaF06tgB8hV8omLNfMEmDPJaZUzMuHw6tBDwGkzD-tS_
     ub9hxrpJ4UsOWnt5rGUyoN2N_c1-TQlXxm5oto14MxnoAyBQBpwIEgSH3Y4ZhwKBhH
     PjSo0cdwuNdYbGPpb-YUvF-2NZzODiQ1OvWQBRHSbPWYz_xbGkgD504LRtqRwCO7CC
     _CyyURi1sEssPVsMJRX_U4LFEOc82TiDdqjKOjRUfKK5rqLi8nBE9soQ0DSaOoFQZi
     GrBrqxDsNYiAYAmxxkos-i3nX4qtByVx85sCE5U_0MqG7COxZWMOPEFrDaepUV-cOy
     rvoUIng8i8ljKBKxETY2BgPegKBYCxsAUcAkKamSCC9AiBxA0UOHyhTqtlvMksO7AE
     hNC2-YzPyx1FkhMoS4LLe6E_pFsMlmjA6P1NSge9C5G5tETYXGAn6b1xZbHtmwrPSc
     ro9LWhVmAaA7_bxYObnFUxgWtK4vzzQBjZJ36UTk4OTB-JvKWgfVWCFsaw5WCHj6Oo
     4jpO7d2yN7WMfAj2hTEabz9wumQ0TMhBduZ-QON3pYObSy7TSC1vVme0NJrwF_cJRe
     hKTFmdlXGVldPxZCplr7ZQqRQhF8JP-l4mEQVnCaWGn9ONHlemczGOS-A-wwtnmwjI
     B1V_vgJRf4FdpV-4hUk4-QLpu3-1lWFxrtZKcggq3tWTduRo5_QebQbUUT_VSCgsFc
     OmyWKoj56lbxthN19hq1XGWbLGfrrR6MWh23vk01zn8FVwi7uFwEnRYSafsnWLa1Z5
     TpBj9GvAdl2H9NHwzpB5NqHpZNkQ3NMDj13Fn8fzO0JB83Etbm_tnFQfcb13X3bJ15
     Cz-Ww1MGhvIpGGnMBT_ADp9xSIyAM9dQ1yeVXk-AIgWBUlN5uyWSGyCxp0cJwx7HxM
     38z0UIeBu-MytL-eqndM7LxytsVzCbjOTSVRmhYEMIzUAnS1gs7uMQAGRdgRIElTJE
     SGMjb_4bZq9s6Ve1LKkSi0_QDsrABaLe55UY0zF4ZSfOV5PMyPtocwV_dcNPlxLgNA
     D1BFX_Z9kAdMZQW6fAmsfFle0zAoMe4l9pMESH0JB4sJGdCKtQXj1cXNydDYozF7l8
     H00BV_Er7zd6VtIw0MxwkFCTatsv_R-GsBCH218RgVPsfYhwVuT8R4HarpzsDBufC4
     r8_c8fc9Z278sQ081jFjOja6L2x0N_ImzFNXU6xwO-Ska-QeuvYZ3X_L31ZOX4Llp-
     7QSfgDoHnOxFv1Xws-D5mDHD3zxOup2b2TppdKTZb9eW2vxUVviM8OI9atBfPKMGAO
     v9omA-6vv5IxUH0-lWMiHLQ_g8vnswp-Jav0c4t6URVUzujNOoNd_CBGGVnHiJTCHl
     88LQxsqLHHIu4Fz-U2SGnlxGTj0-ihit2ELGRv4vO8E1BosTmf0cx3qgG0Pq0eOLBD
     IHsrdZ_CCAiTc0HVkMbyq1M6qEhM-q5P6y1QCIrwg

   Encoding this JWE Authentication Tag as BASE64URL(JWE Authentication
   Tag) gives this value:

     0HFmhOzsQ98nNWJjIHkR7A

Top      Up      ToC       Page 38 
C.9.  Complete Representation

   Assemble the final representation: The JWE Compact Serialization of
   this result, as defined in Section 7.1 of [JWE], is the string
   BASE64URL(UTF8(JWE Protected Header)) || '.' || BASE64URL(JWE
   Encrypted Key) || '.' || BASE64URL(JWE Initialization Vector) || '.'
   || BASE64URL(JWE Ciphertext) || '.' || BASE64URL(JWE Authentication
   Tag).

Top      Up      ToC       Page 39 
   The final result in this example (with line breaks for display
   purposes only) is:

     eyJhbGciOiJQQkVTMi1IUzI1NitBMTI4S1ciLCJwMnMiOiIyV0NUY0paMVJ2ZF9DSn
     VKcmlwUTF3IiwicDJjIjo0MDk2LCJlbmMiOiJBMTI4Q0JDLUhTMjU2IiwiY3R5Ijoi
     andrK2pzb24ifQ.
     TrqXOwuNUfDV9VPTNbyGvEJ9JMjefAVn-TR1uIxR9p6hsRQh9Tk7BA.
     Ye9j1qs22DmRSAddIh-VnA.
     AwhB8lxrlKjFn02LGWEqg27H4Tg9fyZAbFv3p5ZicHpj64QyHC44qqlZ3JEmnZTgQo
     wIqZJ13jbyHB8LgePiqUJ1hf6M2HPLgzw8L-mEeQ0jvDUTrE07NtOerBk8bwBQyZ6g
     0kQ3DEOIglfYxV8-FJvNBYwbqN1Bck6d_i7OtjSHV-8DIrp-3JcRIe05YKy3Oi34Z_
     GOiAc1EK21B11c_AE11PII_wvvtRiUiG8YofQXakWd1_O98Kap-UgmyWPfreUJ3lJP
     nbD4Ve95owEfMGLOPflo2MnjaTDCwQokoJ_xplQ2vNPz8iguLcHBoKllyQFJL2mOWB
     wqhBo9Oj-O800as5mmLsvQMTflIrIEbbTMzHMBZ8EFW9fWwwFu0DWQJGkMNhmBZQ-3
     lvqTc-M6-gWA6D8PDhONfP2Oib2HGizwG1iEaX8GRyUpfLuljCLIe1DkGOewhKuKkZ
     h04DKNM5Nbugf2atmU9OP0Ldx5peCUtRG1gMVl7Qup5ZXHTjgPDr5b2N731UooCGAU
     qHdgGhg0JVJ_ObCTdjsH4CF1SJsdUhrXvYx3HJh2Xd7CwJRzU_3Y1GxYU6-s3GFPbi
     rfqqEipJDBTHpcoCmyrwYjYHFgnlqBZRotRrS95g8F95bRXqsaDY7UgQGwBQBwy665
     d0zpvTasvfXf_c0MWAl-neFaKOW_Px6g4EUDjG1GWSXV9cLStLw_0ovdApDIFLHYHe
     PyagyHjouQUuGiq7BsYwYrwaF06tgB8hV8omLNfMEmDPJaZUzMuHw6tBDwGkzD-tS_
     ub9hxrpJ4UsOWnt5rGUyoN2N_c1-TQlXxm5oto14MxnoAyBQBpwIEgSH3Y4ZhwKBhH
     PjSo0cdwuNdYbGPpb-YUvF-2NZzODiQ1OvWQBRHSbPWYz_xbGkgD504LRtqRwCO7CC
     _CyyURi1sEssPVsMJRX_U4LFEOc82TiDdqjKOjRUfKK5rqLi8nBE9soQ0DSaOoFQZi
     GrBrqxDsNYiAYAmxxkos-i3nX4qtByVx85sCE5U_0MqG7COxZWMOPEFrDaepUV-cOy
     rvoUIng8i8ljKBKxETY2BgPegKBYCxsAUcAkKamSCC9AiBxA0UOHyhTqtlvMksO7AE
     hNC2-YzPyx1FkhMoS4LLe6E_pFsMlmjA6P1NSge9C5G5tETYXGAn6b1xZbHtmwrPSc
     ro9LWhVmAaA7_bxYObnFUxgWtK4vzzQBjZJ36UTk4OTB-JvKWgfVWCFsaw5WCHj6Oo
     4jpO7d2yN7WMfAj2hTEabz9wumQ0TMhBduZ-QON3pYObSy7TSC1vVme0NJrwF_cJRe
     hKTFmdlXGVldPxZCplr7ZQqRQhF8JP-l4mEQVnCaWGn9ONHlemczGOS-A-wwtnmwjI
     B1V_vgJRf4FdpV-4hUk4-QLpu3-1lWFxrtZKcggq3tWTduRo5_QebQbUUT_VSCgsFc
     OmyWKoj56lbxthN19hq1XGWbLGfrrR6MWh23vk01zn8FVwi7uFwEnRYSafsnWLa1Z5
     TpBj9GvAdl2H9NHwzpB5NqHpZNkQ3NMDj13Fn8fzO0JB83Etbm_tnFQfcb13X3bJ15
     Cz-Ww1MGhvIpGGnMBT_ADp9xSIyAM9dQ1yeVXk-AIgWBUlN5uyWSGyCxp0cJwx7HxM
     38z0UIeBu-MytL-eqndM7LxytsVzCbjOTSVRmhYEMIzUAnS1gs7uMQAGRdgRIElTJE
     SGMjb_4bZq9s6Ve1LKkSi0_QDsrABaLe55UY0zF4ZSfOV5PMyPtocwV_dcNPlxLgNA
     D1BFX_Z9kAdMZQW6fAmsfFle0zAoMe4l9pMESH0JB4sJGdCKtQXj1cXNydDYozF7l8
     H00BV_Er7zd6VtIw0MxwkFCTatsv_R-GsBCH218RgVPsfYhwVuT8R4HarpzsDBufC4
     r8_c8fc9Z278sQ081jFjOja6L2x0N_ImzFNXU6xwO-Ska-QeuvYZ3X_L31ZOX4Llp-
     7QSfgDoHnOxFv1Xws-D5mDHD3zxOup2b2TppdKTZb9eW2vxUVviM8OI9atBfPKMGAO
     v9omA-6vv5IxUH0-lWMiHLQ_g8vnswp-Jav0c4t6URVUzujNOoNd_CBGGVnHiJTCHl
     88LQxsqLHHIu4Fz-U2SGnlxGTj0-ihit2ELGRv4vO8E1BosTmf0cx3qgG0Pq0eOLBD
     IHsrdZ_CCAiTc0HVkMbyq1M6qEhM-q5P6y1QCIrwg.
     0HFmhOzsQ98nNWJjIHkR7A

Top      Up      ToC       Page 40 
Acknowledgements

   A JSON representation for RSA public keys was previously introduced
   by John Panzer, Ben Laurie, and Dirk Balfanz in Magic Signatures
   [MagicSignatures].

   Thanks to Matt Miller for creating the encrypted key example and to
   Edmund Jay and Brian Campbell for validating the example.

   This specification is the work of the JOSE working group, which
   includes dozens of active and dedicated participants.  In particular,
   the following individuals contributed ideas, feedback, and wording
   that influenced this specification:

   Dirk Balfanz, Richard Barnes, John Bradley, Brian Campbell, Breno de
   Medeiros, Stephen Farrell, Joe Hildebrand, Edmund Jay, Stephen Kent,
   Ben Laurie, James Manger, Matt Miller, Kathleen Moriarty, Chuck
   Mortimore, Tony Nadalin, Axel Nennker, John Panzer, Eric Rescorla,
   Pete Resnick, Nat Sakimura, Jim Schaad, Ryan Sleevi, Paul Tarjan,
   Hannes Tschofenig, and Sean Turner.

   Jim Schaad and Karen O'Donoghue chaired the JOSE working group and
   Sean Turner, Stephen Farrell, and Kathleen Moriarty served as
   Security Area Directors during the creation of this specification.

Author's Address

   Michael B. Jones
   Microsoft

   EMail: mbj@microsoft.com
   URI:   http://self-issued.info/