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RFC 7476


Information-Centric Networking: Baseline Scenarios

Part 3 of 3, p. 27 to 45
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3.  Cross-Scenario Considerations

   This section discusses considerations that span multiple scenarios.

3.1.  Multiply Connected Nodes and Economics

   The evolution of, in particular, wireless networking technologies has
   resulted in a convergence of the bandwidth and capabilities of
   various different types of network.  Today, a leading-edge mobile
   telephone or tablet computer will typically be able to access a Wi-Fi
   access point, a 4G cellular network, and the latest generation of
   Bluetooth local networking.  Until recently, a node would usually
   have a clear favorite network technology appropriate to any given
   environment.  The choice would, for example, be primarily determined
   by the available bandwidth with cost as a secondary determinant.
   Furthermore, it is normally the case that a device only uses one of
   the technologies at a time for any particular application.

   It seems likely that this situation will change so that nodes are
   able to use all of the available technologies in parallel.  This will
   be further encouraged by the development of new capabilities in
   cellular networks including Small Cell Networks [SCN] and
   Heterogeneous Networks [HetNet].  Consequently, mobile devices will
   have similar choices to wired nodes attached to multiple service
   providers allowing "multihoming" via the various different
   infrastructure networks as well as potential direct access to other
   mobile nodes via Bluetooth or a more capable form of ad hoc Wi-Fi.

   Infrastructure networks are generally under the control of separate
   economic entities that may have different policies about the
   information of an ICN deployed within their network caches.  As ICN
   shifts the focus from nodes to information objects, the interaction

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   between networks will likely evolve to capitalize on data location
   independence, efficient and scalable in-network named object
   availability, and access via multiple paths.  These interactions
   become critical in evaluating the technical and economic impact of
   ICN architectural choices, as noted in [ArgICN].  Beyond simply
   adding diversity in deployment options, these networks have the
   potential to alter the incentives among existing (and future, we may
   add) network players, as noted in [EconICN].

   Moreover, such networks enable more numerous internetwork
   relationships where exchange of information may be conditioned on a
   set of multilateral policies.  For example, shared SCNs are emerging
   as a cost-effective way to address coverage of complex environments
   such as sports stadiums, large office buildings, malls, etc.  Such
   networks are likely to be a complex mix of different cellular and
   WLAN access technologies (such as HSPA, LTE, and Wi-Fi) as well as
   ownership models.  It is reasonable to assume that access to content
   generated in such networks may depend on contextual information such
   as the subscription type, timing, and location of both the owner and
   requester of the content.  The availability of such contextual
   information across diverse networks can lead to network
   inefficiencies unless data management can benefit from an
   information-centric approach.  The "Event with Large Crowds"
   demonstrator created by the SAIL project investigated this kind of
   scenario; more details are available in [SAIL-B3].

   Jacobson et al. [CCN] include interactions between networks in their
   overall system design and mention both "an edge-driven, bottom-up
   incentive structure" and techniques based on evolutions of existing
   mechanisms both for ICN router discovery by the end-user and for
   interconnecting between Autonomous Systems (ASes).  For example, a
   BGP extension for domain-level content prefix advertisement can be
   used to enable efficient interconnection between ASes.  Liu et al.
   [MLDHT] proposed to address the "suffix-hole" issue found in prefix-
   based name aggregation through the use of a combination of Bloom-
   filter-based aggregation and multi-level DHT.

   Name aggregation has been discussed for a flat naming design, for
   example, in [NCOA], in which the authors note that based on
   estimations in [DONA] flat naming may not require aggregation.  This
   is a point that calls for further study.  Scenarios evaluating name
   aggregation, or lack thereof, should take into account the amount of
   state (e.g., size of routing tables) maintained in edge routers as
   well as network efficiency (e.g., amount of traffic generated).

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     +---------->| Popular Video |
     |           +---------------+
     |             ^           ^
     |             |           |
     |           +-+-+ $0/MB +-+-+
     |           | A +-------+ B |
     |           ++--+       +-+-+
     |            | ^         ^ |
     |      $8/MB | |         | | $10/MB
     |            v |         | v
   +-+-+  $0/MB  +--+---------+--+
   | D +---------+       C       |
   +---+         +---------------+

   Figure 5.  Relationships and Transit Costs between Networks A to D

   DiBenedetto et al. [RP-NDN] study policy knobs made available by NDN
   to network operators.  New policies that are not feasible in the
   current Internet are described, including a "cache sharing peers"
   policy, where two peers have an incentive to share content cached in,
   but not originating from, their respective network.  The simple
   example used in the investigation considers several networks and
   associated transit costs, as shown in Figure 5 (based on Figure 1 of
   [RP-NDN]).  Agyapong and Sirbu [EconICN] further establish that ICN
   approaches should incorporate features that foster (new) business
   relationships.  For example, publishers should be able to indicate
   their willingness to partake in the caching market, proper reporting
   should be enabled to avoid fraud, and content should be made
   cacheable as much as possible to increase cache hit ratios.

   Kutscher et al. [SAIL-B3] enable network interactions in the NetInf
   architecture using a name resolution service at domain edge routers
   and a BGP-like routing system in the NetInf Default-Free Zone.
   Business models and incentives are studied in [SAIL-A7] and
   [SAIL-A8], including scenarios where the access network provider (or
   a virtual CDN) guarantees QoS to end users using ICN.  Figure 6
   illustrates a typical scenario topology from this work that involves
   an interconnectivity provider.

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   +----------+     +-----------------+     +------+
   | Content  |     | Access Network/ |     | End  |
   | Provider +---->|  ICN Provider   +---->| User |
   +----------+     +-+-------------+-+     +------+
                      |             |
                      |             |
                      v             v
   +-------------------+     +----------------+       +------+
   | Interconnectivity |     | Access Network |       | End  |
   |     Provider      +---->|     Provider   +------>| User |
   +-------------------+     +----------------+       +------+

   Figure 6.  Setup and Operating Costs of Network Entities

   Jokela et al. [LIPSIN] propose a two-layer approach where additional
   rendezvous systems and topology formation functions are placed
   logically above multiple networks and enable advertising and routing
   content between them.  Visala et al. [LANES] further describe an ICN
   architecture based on similar principles, which, notably, relies on a
   hierarchical DHT-based rendezvous interconnect.  Rajahalme et al.
   [PSIRP1] describe a rendezvous system using both a BGP-like routing
   protocol at the edge and a DHT-based overlay at the core.  Their
   evaluation model is centered around policy-compliant path stretch,
   latency introduced by overlay routing, caching efficacy, and load

   Rajahalme et al. [ICCP] point out that ICN architectural changes may
   conflict with the current tier-based peering model.  For example,
   changes leading to shorter paths between ISPs are likely to meet
   resistance from Tier-1 ISPs.  Rajahalme [IDMcast] shows how
   incentives can help shape the design of specific ICN aspects, and in
   [IDArch] he presents a modeling approach to exploit these incentives.
   This includes a network model that describes the relationship between
   Autonomous Systems based on data inferred from the current Internet,
   a traffic model taking into account business factors for each AS, and
   a routing model integrating the valley-free model and policy
   compliance.  A typical scenario topology is illustrated in Figure 7,
   which is redrawn here based on Figure 1 of [ICCP].  Note that it
   relates well with the topology illustrated in Figure 1 of this

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                  +-----+  J  +-----+
                  |     o--*--o     |
                  |        *        |
               o--+--o     *     o--+--o
               |  H  +-----------+  I  |
               o-*-*-o     *     o-*-*-o
                 * *       *       * *
            ****** ******* * ******* *******
            *            * * *             *
         o--*--o        o*-*-*o         o--*--o
         |  E  +--------+  F  +---------+  G  +
         o-*-*-o        o-----o         o-*-*-o
           * *                            * *
      ****** *******                 ****** ******
      *            *                 *           *
   o--*--o      o--*--o           o--*--o     o--*--o
   |  A  |      |  B  +-----------+  C  |     |  D  |
   o-----o      o--+--o           o--+--o     o----+o
                   |                 |         ^^  | route
             data  |            data |    data ||  | to
                   |                 |         ||  | data
               o---v--o          o---v--o     o++--v-o
               | User |          | User |     | Data |
               o------o          o------o     o------o

   *****  Transit link
   +---+  Peering link
   +--->  Data delivery or route to data

   Figure 7.  Tier-Based Set of Interconnections between AS A to J

   To sum up, the evaluation of ICN architectures across multiple
   network types should include a combination of technical and economic
   aspects, capturing their various interactions.  These scenarios aim
   to illustrate scalability, efficiency, and manageability, as well as
   traditional and novel network policies.  Moreover, scenarios in this
   category should specifically address how different actors have proper
   incentives, not only in a pure ICN realm, but also during the
   migration phase towards this final state.

3.2.  Energy Efficiency

   ICN has prominent features that can be taken advantage of in order to
   significantly reduce the energy footprint of future communication
   networks.  Of course, one can argue that specific ICN network
   elements may consume more energy than today's conventional network

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   equipment due to the potentially higher energy demands for named-data
   processing en route.  On balance, however, ICN introduces an
   architectural approach that may compensate on the whole and can even
   achieve higher energy efficiency rates when compared to the host-
   centric paradigm.

   We elaborate on the energy efficiency potential of ICN based on three
   categories of ICN characteristics.  Namely, we point out that a) ICN
   does not rely solely on end-to-end communication, b) ICN enables
   ubiquitous caching, and c) ICN brings awareness of user requests (as
   well as their corresponding responses) at the network layer thus
   permitting network elements to better schedule their transmission

   First, ICN does not mandate perpetual end-to-end communication, which
   introduces a whole range of energy consumption inefficiencies due to
   the extensive signaling, especially in the case of mobile and
   wirelessly connected devices.  This opens up new opportunities for
   accommodating sporadically connected nodes and could be one of the
   keys to an order-of-magnitude decrease in energy consumption compared
   to the potential contributions of other technological advances.  For
   example, web applications often need to maintain state at both ends
   of a connection in order to verify that the authenticated peer is up
   and running.  This introduces keep-alive timers and polling behavior
   with a high toll on energy consumption.  Pentikousis [EEMN] discusses
   several related scenarios and explains why the current host-centric
   paradigm, which employs perpetual end-to-end connections, introduces
   built-in energy inefficiencies, and argues that patches to make
   currently deployed protocols energy-aware cannot provide for an
   order-of-magnitude increase in energy efficiency.

   Second, ICN network elements come with built-in caching capabilities,
   which is often referred to as "ubiquitous caching".  Pushing data
   objects to caches closer to end-user devices, for example, could
   significantly reduce the amount of transit traffic in the core
   network, thereby reducing the energy used for data transport.  Guan
   et al. [EECCN] study the energy efficiency of a CCNx architecture
   (based on their proposed energy model) and compare it with
   conventional content dissemination systems such as CDNs and P2P.
   Their model is based on the analysis of the topological structure and
   the average hop length from all consumers to the nearest cache
   location.  Their results show that an information-centric approach
   can be more energy efficient in delivering popular and small-size
   content.  In particular, they also note that different network-
   element design choices (e.g., the optical bypass approach) can be
   more energy efficient in delivering infrequently accessed content.

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   Lee et al. [EECD] investigate the energy efficiency of various
   network devices deployed in access, metro, and core networks for both
   CDNs and ICN.  They use trace-based simulations to show that an ICN
   approach can substantially improve the network energy efficiency for
   content dissemination mainly due to the reduction in the number of
   hops required to obtain a data object, which can be served by
   intermediate nodes in ICN.  They also emphasize that the impact of
   cache placement (in incremental deployment scenarios) and
   local/cooperative content replacement strategies needs to be
   carefully investigated in order to better quantify the energy
   efficiencies arising from adopting an ICN paradigm.

   Third, ICN elements are aware of the user request and its
   corresponding data response; due to the nature of name-based routing,
   they can employ power consumption optimization processes for
   determining their transmission schedule or powering down inactive
   network interfaces.  For example, network coding [NCICN] or adaptive
   video streaming [COAST] can be used in individual ICN elements so
   that redundant transmissions, possibly passing through intermediary
   networks, could be significantly reduced, thereby saving energy by
   avoiding carrying redundant traffic.

   Alternatively, approaches that aim to simplify routers, such as
   [PURSUIT], could also reduce energy consumption by pushing routing
   decisions to a more energy-efficient entity.  Along these lines, Ko
   et al. [ICNDC] design a data center network architecture based on ICN
   principles and decouple the router control-plane and data-plane
   functionalities.  Thus, data forwarding is performed by simplified
   network entities, while the complicated routing computation is
   carried out in more energy-efficient data centers.

   To summarize, energy efficiency has been discussed in ICN evaluation
   studies, but most published work is preliminary in nature.  Thus, we
   suggest that more work is needed in this front.  Evaluating energy
   efficiency does not require the definition of new scenarios or
   baseline topologies, but does require the establishment of clear
   guidelines so that different ICN approaches can be compared not only
   in terms of scalability, for example, but also in terms of power

3.3.  Operation across Multiple Network Paradigms

   Today the overwhelming majority of networks are integrated with the
   well-connected Internet with IP at the "waist" of the technology
   hourglass.  However, there is a large amount of ongoing research into
   alternative paradigms that can cope with conditions other than the
   standard set assumed by the Internet.  Perhaps the most advanced of
   these is Delay- and Disruption-Tolerant Networking (DTN).  DTN is

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   considered as one of the scenarios for the deployment in Section 2.7,
   but here we consider how ICN can operate in an integrated network
   that has essentially disjoint "domains" (a highly overloaded term!)
   or regions that use different network paradigms and technologies, but
   with gateways that allow interoperation.

   ICN operates in terms of named data objects so that requests and
   deliveries of information objects can be independent of the
   networking paradigm.  Some researchers have contemplated some form of
   ICN becoming the new waist of the hourglass as the basis of a future
   reincarnation of the Internet, e.g., [ArgICN], but there are a large
   number of problems to resolve, including authorization, access
   control, and transactional operation for applications such as
   banking, before some form of ICN can be considered as ready to take
   over from IP as the dominant networking technology.  In the meantime,
   ICN architectures will operate in conjunction with existing network
   technologies as an overlay or in cooperation with the lower layers of
   the "native" technology.

   It seems likely that as the reach of the "Internet" is extended,
   other technologies such as DTN will be needed to handle scenarios
   such as space communications where inherent delays are too large for
   TCP/IP to cope with effectively.  Thus, demonstrating that ICN
   architectures can work effectively in and across the boundaries of
   different networking technologies will be important.

   The NetInf architecture, in particular, targets the inter-domain
   scenario by the use of a convergence-layer architecture [SAIL-B3],
   and Publish-Subscribe Internet Routing Paradigm (PSIRP) and/or
   Publish-Subscribe Internet Technology (PURSUIT) is envisaged as a
   candidate for an IP replacement.

   The key items for evaluation over and above the satisfactory
   operation of the architecture in each constituent domain will be to
   ensure that requests and responses can be carried across the network
   boundaries with adequate performance and do not cause malfunctions in
   applications or infrastructure because of the differing
   characteristics of the gatewayed domains.

4.  Summary

   This document presents a wide range of different application areas in
   which the use of information-centric network designs have been
   evaluated in the peer-reviewed literature.  Evidently, this broad
   range of scenarios illustrates the capability of ICN to potentially
   address today's problems in an alternative and better way than host-
   centric approaches as well as to point to future scenarios where ICN
   may be applicable.  We believe that by putting different ICN systems

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   to the test in diverse application areas, the community will be
   better equipped to judge the potential of a given ICN proposal and
   therefore subsequently invest more effort in developing it further.
   It is worth noting that this document collected different kinds of
   considerations, as a result of our ongoing survey of the literature
   and the discussion within ICNRG, which we believe would have
   otherwise remained unnoticed in the wider community.  As a result, we
   expect that this document can assist in fostering the applicability
   and future deployment of ICN over a broader set of operations, as
   well as possibly influencing and enhancing the base ICN proposals
   that are currently available and possibly assist in defining new
   scenarios where ICN would be applicable.

   We conclude this document with a brief summary of the evaluation
   aspects we have seen across a range of scenarios.

   The scalability of different mechanisms in an ICN architecture stands
   out as an important concern (cf. Sections 2.1, 2.2, 2.5, 2.6, 2.8,
   2.9, and 3.1) as does network, resource, and energy efficiency (cf.
   Sections 2.1, 2.3, 2.4, 3.1, and 3.2).  Operational aspects such as
   network planing, manageability, reduced complexity and overhead (cf.
   Sections 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.8, and 3.1) should not be neglected
   especially as ICN architectures are evaluated with respect to their
   potential for deployment in the real world.  Accordingly, further
   research in economic aspects as well as in the communication,
   computation, and storage tradeoffs entailed in each ICN architecture
   is needed.

   With respect to purely technical requirements, support for multicast,
   mobility, and caching lie at the core of many scenarios (cf. Sections
   2.1, 2.3, 2.5, and 2.6).  ICN must also be able to cope when the
   Internet expands to incorporate additional network paradigms (cf.
   Section 3.3).  We have also seen that being able to address stringent
   QoS requirements and increase reliability and resilience should also
   be evaluated following well-established methods (cf. Sections 2.2,
   2.8, and 2.9).

   Finally, we note that new applications that significantly improve the
   end-user experience and forge a migration path from today's host-
   centric paradigm could be the key to a sustained and increasing
   deployment of the ICN paradigm in the real world (cf. Sections 2.2,
   2.3, 2.6, 2.8, and 2.9).

5.  Security Considerations

   This document does not impact the security of the Internet.

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6.  Informative References

   [RFC5743]  Falk, A., "Definition of an Internet Research Task Force
              (IRTF) Document Stream", RFC 5743, December 2009,

   [RFC5050]  Scott, K. and S. Burleigh, "Bundle Protocol
              Specification", RFC 5050, November 2007,

   [RFC4838]  Cerf, V., Burleigh, S., Hooke, A., Torgerson, L., Durst,
              R., Scott, K., Fall, K., and H. Weiss, "Delay-Tolerant
              Networking Architecture", RFC 4838, April 2007,

   [RFC5568]  Koodli, R., Ed., "Mobile IPv6 Fast Handovers", RFC 5568,
              July 2009, <>.

   [RFC6920]  Farrell, S., Kutscher, D., Dannewitz, C., Ohlman, B.,
              Keranen, A., and P. Hallam-Baker, "Naming Things with
              Hashes", RFC 6920, April 2013,

   [NetInf]   Ahlgren, B. et al., "Design considerations for a network
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              CoNEXT, ACM, 2009.

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              Architecture", Project CCNx documentation, Xerox Palo Alto
              Research Center, 2013,

   [NDNP]     Zhang, L., et al., "Named Data Networking (NDN) Project",
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   [DONA]     Koponen, T., et al., "A Data-Oriented (and Beyond) Network
              Architecture", Proc. SIGCOMM, ACM, 2007.

   [SoA1]     Ahlgren, B., et al., "A survey of information-centric
              networking", IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 50, no. 7, July 2012.

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   [SoA2]     Xylomenos, G., et al. "A survey of information-centric
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   [CCR]      Arianfar, S., et al., "On content-centric router design
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   [VoCCN]    Jacobson, V., et al., "VoCCN: Voice-over Content-Centric
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   [ACT]      Zhu, Z., et al., "ACT: Audio Conference Tool Over Named
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   [G-COPSS]  Chen, J., et al., "G-COPSS: A Content Centric
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   [MMIN]     Pentikousis, K., and P. Bertin., "Mobility Management in
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   [EEMN]     Pentikousis, K., "In Search of Energy-Efficient Mobile
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   [MOBSURV]  Tyson, G., et al., "A Survey of Mobility in Information-
              Centric Networks: Challenges and Research Directions",
              Proc. MobiHoc Workshop on Emerging Name-Oriented Mobile
              Networking Design, ACM, 2012.

   [N-Scen]   Dannewitz, C., et al., "Scenarios and research issues for
              a Network of Information", Proc. MobiMedia, ICST, 2012.

   [DTI]      Ott, J. and D. Kutscher, "Drive-thru Internet: IEEE
              802.11b for 'automobile' users", Proc. INFOCOM, IEEE,

   [PSIMob]   Xylomenos, G., et al., "Caching and Mobility Support in a
              Publish-Subscribe Internet Architecture", IEEE Commun.
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   [mNetInf]  Pentikousis, K. and T. Rautio, "A Multiaccess Network of
              Information", Proc. WoWMoM, IEEE, 2010.

   [HybICN]   Lindgren, A., "Efficient content distribution in an
              information-centric hybrid mobile networks", Proc. CCNC,
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   [E-CHANET] M. Amadeo, et al., "E-CHANET: Routing, Forwarding and
              Transport in Information-Centric Multihop Wireless
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   [MobiA]    Meisel, M., et al., "Ad Hoc Networking via Named Data",
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   [CCNMANET] Oh, S. Y., et al., "Content Centric Networking in Tactical
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   [SHARE]    Muscariello, L., et al., "Bandwidth and storage sharing
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   [CL4M]     Chai, W. K., et al., "Cache 'Less for More' in
              Information-centric Networks", Proc. Networking, IFIP,

   [CCNCT]    Psaras, I., et al., "Modelling and Evaluation of CCN-
              Caching Trees", In Proc. of the 10th international IFIP
              conference on Networking, Valencia, Spain, May 2011.

   [BTCACHE]  Tyson, G., et al., "A Trace-Driven Analysis of Caching in
              Content-Centric Networks", Proc. ICCCN, IEEE, 2012.

   [CURLING]  Chai, W. K., et al., "CURLING: Content-Ubiquitous
              Resolution and Delivery Infrastructure for Next-Generation
              Services", IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 49, no. 3, Mar. 2011.

   [ACDICN]   Fotiou, N., et al., "Access control enforcement delegation
              for information-centric networking architectures", Proc.
              SIGCOMM ICN Workshop, ACM, 2012.

   [EWC]      Bai, F. and B. Krishnamachari, "Exploiting the wisdom of
              the crowd: localized, distributed information-centric
              VANETs", IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 48, no. 5, May 2010.

   [DMND]     Wang, J., R. Wakikawa, and L. Zhang, "DMND: Collecting
              data from mobiles using Named Data", Proc. Vehicular
              Networking Conference (VNC), IEEE, 2010.

   [DNV2V]    Wang, L., et al., "Data Naming in Vehicle-to-Vehicle
              Communications", Proc. INFOCOM NOMEN workshop, IEEE, 2012.

   [CCNHV]    Arnould, G., et al., "A Self-Organizing Content Centric
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   Dorothy Gellert contributed to an earlier draft version of this

   This document has benefited from reviews, pointers to the growing ICN
   literature, suggestions, comments, and proposed text provided by the
   following members of the IRTF Information-Centric Networking Research
   Group (ICNRG), listed in alphabetical order: Marica Amadeo, Hitoshi
   Asaeda, Claudia Campolo, Luigi Alfredo Grieco, Myeong-Wuk Jang, Ren
   Jing, Will Liu, Hongbin Luo, Priya Mahadevan, Ioannis Psaras, Spiros
   Spirou, Dirk Trossen, Jianping Wang, Yuanzhe Xuan, and Xinwen Zhang.

   The authors would like to thank Mark Stapp, Juan Carlos Zuniga, and
   G.Q. Wang for their comments and suggestions as part of their open
   and independent review of this document within ICNRG.

Authors' Addresses

   Kostas Pentikousis (editor)
   EICT GmbH
   Torgauer Strasse 12-15
   10829 Berlin


   Borje Ohlman
   Ericsson Research
   S-16480 Stockholm


   Daniel Corujo
   Instituto de Telecomunicacoes
   Campus Universitario de Santiago
   P-3810-193 Aveiro


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   Gennaro Boggia
   Dep. of Electrical and Information Engineering
   Politecnico di Bari
   Via Orabona 4
   70125 Bari


   Gareth Tyson
   School and Electronic Engineering and Computer Science
   Queen Mary, University of London
   United Kingdom


   Elwyn Davies
   Trinity College Dublin/Folly Consulting Ltd
   Dublin, 2


   Antonella Molinaro
   Dep. of Information, Infrastructures, and Sustainable
   Energy Engineering
   Universita' Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria
   Via Graziella 1
   89100 Reggio Calabria


   Suyong Eum
   National Institute of Information and Communications Technology
   4-2-1, Nukui Kitamachi, Koganei
   Tokyo  184-8795

   Phone: +81-42-327-6582