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RFC 6350

 Errata 
Proposed STD
Pages: 74
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vCard Format Specification

Part 1 of 3, p. 1 to 22
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Obsoletes:    2425    2426    4770
Updates:    2739
Updated by:    6868


Top       ToC       Page 1 
Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)                      S. Perreault
Request for Comments: 6350                                      Viagenie
Obsoletes: 2425, 2426, 4770                                  August 2011
Updates: 2739
Category: Standards Track
ISSN: 2070-1721


                       vCard Format Specification

Abstract

   This document defines the vCard data format for representing and
   exchanging a variety of information about individuals and other
   entities (e.g., formatted and structured name and delivery addresses,
   email address, multiple telephone numbers, photograph, logo, audio
   clips, etc.).  This document obsoletes RFCs 2425, 2426, and 4770, and
   updates RFC 2739.

Status of This Memo

   This is an Internet Standards Track document.

   This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force
   (IETF).  It represents the consensus of the IETF community.  It has
   received public review and has been approved for publication by the
   Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG).  Further information on
   Internet Standards is available in Section 2 of RFC 5741.

   Information about the current status of this document, any errata,
   and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at
   http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6350.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2011 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Page 2 
   This document may contain material from IETF Documents or IETF
   Contributions published or made publicly available before November
   10, 2008.  The person(s) controlling the copyright in some of this
   material may not have granted the IETF Trust the right to allow
   modifications of such material outside the IETF Standards Process.
   Without obtaining an adequate license from the person(s) controlling
   the copyright in such materials, this document may not be modified
   outside the IETF Standards Process, and derivative works of it may
   not be created outside the IETF Standards Process, except to format
   it for publication as an RFC or to translate it into languages other
   than English.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   2.  Conventions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   3.  vCard Format Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     3.1.  Charset  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     3.2.  Line Delimiting and Folding  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     3.3.  ABNF Format Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     3.4.  Property Value Escaping  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
   4.  Property Value Data Types  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     4.1.  TEXT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     4.2.  URI  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     4.3.  DATE, TIME, DATE-TIME, DATE-AND-OR-TIME, and TIMESTAMP . . 12
       4.3.1.  DATE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
       4.3.2.  TIME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
       4.3.3.  DATE-TIME  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
       4.3.4.  DATE-AND-OR-TIME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
       4.3.5.  TIMESTAMP  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
     4.4.  BOOLEAN  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
     4.5.  INTEGER  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
     4.6.  FLOAT  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
     4.7.  UTC-OFFSET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
     4.8.  LANGUAGE-TAG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
   5.  Property Parameters  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
     5.1.  LANGUAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
     5.2.  VALUE  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
     5.3.  PREF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
     5.4.  ALTID  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
     5.5.  PID  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
     5.6.  TYPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
     5.7.  MEDIATYPE  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
     5.8.  CALSCALE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
     5.9.  SORT-AS  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
     5.10. GEO  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
     5.11. TZ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

Top      ToC       Page 3 
   6.  vCard Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
     6.1.  General Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
       6.1.1.  BEGIN  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
       6.1.2.  END  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
       6.1.3.  SOURCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
       6.1.4.  KIND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
       6.1.5.  XML  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
     6.2.  Identification Properties  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
       6.2.1.  FN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
       6.2.2.  N  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
       6.2.3.  NICKNAME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
       6.2.4.  PHOTO  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
       6.2.5.  BDAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
       6.2.6.  ANNIVERSARY  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
       6.2.7.  GENDER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
     6.3.  Delivery Addressing Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
       6.3.1.  ADR  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
     6.4.  Communications Properties  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
       6.4.1.  TEL  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
       6.4.2.  EMAIL  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
       6.4.3.  IMPP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
       6.4.4.  LANG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
     6.5.  Geographical Properties  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
       6.5.1.  TZ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
       6.5.2.  GEO  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
     6.6.  Organizational Properties  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
       6.6.1.  TITLE  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
       6.6.2.  ROLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
       6.6.3.  LOGO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
       6.6.4.  ORG  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
       6.6.5.  MEMBER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
       6.6.6.  RELATED  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
     6.7.  Explanatory Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
       6.7.1.  CATEGORIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
       6.7.2.  NOTE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
       6.7.3.  PRODID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
       6.7.4.  REV  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
       6.7.5.  SOUND  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
       6.7.6.  UID  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
       6.7.7.  CLIENTPIDMAP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
       6.7.8.  URL  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
       6.7.9.  VERSION  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
     6.8.  Security Properties  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
       6.8.1.  KEY  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
     6.9.  Calendar Properties  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
       6.9.1.  FBURL  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
       6.9.2.  CALADRURI  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
       6.9.3.  CALURI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

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     6.10. Extended Properties and Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
   7.  Synchronization  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
     7.1.  Mechanisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
       7.1.1.  Matching vCard Instances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
       7.1.2.  Matching Property Instances  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
       7.1.3.  PID Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
     7.2.  Example  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
       7.2.1.  Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
       7.2.2.  Initial Sharing  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
       7.2.3.  Adding and Sharing a Property  . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
       7.2.4.  Simultaneous Editing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
       7.2.5.  Global Context Simplification  . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
   8.  Example: Author's vCard  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
   9.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
   10. IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
     10.1. Media Type Registration  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
     10.2. Registering New vCard Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
       10.2.1. Registration Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
       10.2.2. Vendor Namespace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
       10.2.3. Registration Template for Properties . . . . . . . . . 61
       10.2.4. Registration Template for Parameters . . . . . . . . . 61
       10.2.5. Registration Template for Value Data Types . . . . . . 62
       10.2.6. Registration Template for Values . . . . . . . . . . . 62
     10.3. Initial vCard Elements Registries  . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
       10.3.1. Properties Registry  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
       10.3.2. Parameters Registry  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
       10.3.3. Value Data Types Registry  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
       10.3.4. Values Registries  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
   11. Acknowledgments  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
   12. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
     12.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
     12.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
   Appendix A.  Differences from RFCs 2425 and 2426 . . . . . . . . . 73
     A.1.  New Structure  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
     A.2.  Removed Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
     A.3.  New Properties and Parameters  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73

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1.  Introduction

   Electronic address books have become ubiquitous.  Their increased
   presence on portable, connected devices as well as the diversity of
   platforms that exchange contact data call for a standard.  This memo
   defines the vCard format, which allows the capture and exchange of
   information normally stored within an address book or directory
   application.

   A high-level overview of the differences from RFCs 2425 and 2426 can
   be found in Appendix A.

2.  Conventions

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in
   [RFC2119].

3.  vCard Format Specification

   The text/vcard MIME content type (hereafter known as "vCard"; see
   Section 10.1) contains contact information, typically pertaining to a
   single contact or group of contacts.  The content consists of one or
   more lines in the format given below.

3.1.  Charset

   The charset (see [RFC3536] for internationalization terminology) for
   vCard is UTF-8 as defined in [RFC3629].  There is no way to override
   this.  It is invalid to specify a value other than "UTF-8" in the
   "charset" MIME parameter (see Section 10.1).

3.2.  Line Delimiting and Folding

   Individual lines within vCard are delimited by the [RFC5322] line
   break, which is a CRLF sequence (U+000D followed by U+000A).  Long
   logical lines of text can be split into a multiple-physical-line
   representation using the following folding technique.  Content lines
   SHOULD be folded to a maximum width of 75 octets, excluding the line
   break.  Multi-octet characters MUST remain contiguous.  The rationale
   for this folding process can be found in [RFC5322], Section 2.1.1.

   A logical line MAY be continued on the next physical line anywhere
   between two characters by inserting a CRLF immediately followed by a
   single white space character (space (U+0020) or horizontal tab
   (U+0009)).  The folded line MUST contain at least one character.  Any
   sequence of CRLF followed immediately by a single white space

Top      ToC       Page 6 
   character is ignored (removed) when processing the content type.  For
   example, the line:

     NOTE:This is a long description that exists on a long line.

   can be represented as:

     NOTE:This is a long description
       that exists on a long line.

   It could also be represented as:

     NOTE:This is a long descrip
      tion that exists o
      n a long line.

   The process of moving from this folded multiple-line representation
   of a property definition to its single-line representation is called
   unfolding.  Unfolding is accomplished by regarding CRLF immediately
   followed by a white space character (namely, HTAB (U+0009) or SPACE
   (U+0020)) as equivalent to no characters at all (i.e., the CRLF and
   single white space character are removed).

      Note: It is possible for very simple implementations to generate
      improperly folded lines in the middle of a UTF-8 multi-octet
      sequence.  For this reason, implementations SHOULD unfold lines in
      such a way as to properly restore the original sequence.

      Note: Unfolding is done differently than in [RFC5322].  Unfolding
      in [RFC5322] only removes the CRLF, not the space following it.

   Folding is done after any content encoding of a type value.
   Unfolding is done before any decoding of a type value in a content
   line.

3.3.  ABNF Format Definition

   The following ABNF uses the notation of [RFC5234], which also defines
   CRLF, WSP, DQUOTE, VCHAR, ALPHA, and DIGIT.

   vcard-entity = 1*vcard

   vcard = "BEGIN:VCARD" CRLF
           "VERSION:4.0" CRLF
           1*contentline
           "END:VCARD" CRLF
     ; A vCard object MUST include the VERSION and FN properties.
     ; VERSION MUST come immediately after BEGIN:VCARD.

Top      ToC       Page 7 
   contentline = [group "."] name *(";" param) ":" value CRLF
     ; When parsing a content line, folded lines must first
     ; be unfolded according to the unfolding procedure
     ; described in Section 3.2.
     ; When generating a content line, lines longer than 75
     ; characters SHOULD be folded according to the folding
     ; procedure described in Section 3.2.

   group = 1*(ALPHA / DIGIT / "-")
   name  = "SOURCE" / "KIND" / "FN" / "N" / "NICKNAME"
         / "PHOTO" / "BDAY" / "ANNIVERSARY" / "GENDER" / "ADR" / "TEL"
         / "EMAIL" / "IMPP" / "LANG" / "TZ" / "GEO" / "TITLE" / "ROLE"
         / "LOGO" / "ORG" / "MEMBER" / "RELATED" / "CATEGORIES"
         / "NOTE" / "PRODID" / "REV" / "SOUND" / "UID" / "CLIENTPIDMAP"
         / "URL" / "KEY" / "FBURL" / "CALADRURI" / "CALURI" / "XML"
         / iana-token / x-name
     ; Parsing of the param and value is based on the "name" as
     ; defined in ABNF sections below.
     ; Group and name are case-insensitive.

   iana-token = 1*(ALPHA / DIGIT / "-")
     ; identifier registered with IANA

   x-name = "x-" 1*(ALPHA / DIGIT / "-")
     ; Names that begin with "x-" or "X-" are
     ; reserved for experimental use, not intended for released
     ; products, or for use in bilateral agreements.

   param = language-param / value-param / pref-param / pid-param
         / type-param / geo-parameter / tz-parameter / sort-as-param
         / calscale-param / any-param
     ; Allowed parameters depend on property name.

   param-value = *SAFE-CHAR / DQUOTE *QSAFE-CHAR DQUOTE

   any-param  = (iana-token / x-name) "=" param-value *("," param-value)

   NON-ASCII = UTF8-2 / UTF8-3 / UTF8-4
     ; UTF8-{2,3,4} are defined in [RFC3629]

   QSAFE-CHAR = WSP / "!" / %x23-7E / NON-ASCII
     ; Any character except CTLs, DQUOTE

   SAFE-CHAR = WSP / "!" / %x23-39 / %x3C-7E / NON-ASCII
     ; Any character except CTLs, DQUOTE, ";", ":"

   VALUE-CHAR = WSP / VCHAR / NON-ASCII
     ; Any textual character

Top      ToC       Page 8 
   A line that begins with a white space character is a continuation of
   the previous line, as described in Section 3.2.  The white space
   character and immediately preceeding CRLF should be discarded when
   reconstructing the original line.  Note that this line-folding
   convention differs from that found in [RFC5322], in that the sequence
   <CRLF><WSP> found anywhere in the content indicates a continued line
   and should be removed.

   Property names and parameter names are case-insensitive (e.g., the
   property name "fn" is the same as "FN" and "Fn").  Parameter values
   MAY be case-sensitive or case-insensitive, depending on their
   definition.  Parameter values that are not explicitly defined as
   being case-sensitive are case-insensitive.  Based on experience with
   vCard 3 interoperability, it is RECOMMENDED that property and
   parameter names be upper-case on output.

   The group construct is used to group related properties together.
   The group name is a syntactic convention used to indicate that all
   property names prefaced with the same group name SHOULD be grouped
   together when displayed by an application.  It has no other
   significance.  Implementations that do not understand or support
   grouping MAY simply strip off any text before a "." to the left of
   the type name and present the types and values as normal.

   Property cardinalities are indicated using the following notation,
   which is based on ABNF (see [RFC5234], Section 3.6):

    +-------------+--------------------------------------------------+
    | Cardinality | Meaning                                          |
    +-------------+--------------------------------------------------+
    |      1      | Exactly one instance per vCard MUST be present.  |
    |      *1     | Exactly one instance per vCard MAY be present.   |
    |      1*     | One or more instances per vCard MUST be present. |
    |      *      | One or more instances per vCard MAY be present.  |
    +-------------+--------------------------------------------------+

   Properties defined in a vCard instance may have multiple values
   depending on the property cardinality.  The general rule for encoding
   multi-valued properties is to simply create a new content line for
   each value (including the property name).  However, it should be
   noted that some value types support encoding multiple values in a
   single content line by separating the values with a comma ",".  This
   approach has been taken for several of the content types defined
   below (date, time, integer, float).

Top      ToC       Page 9 
3.4.  Property Value Escaping

   Some properties may contain one or more values delimited by a COMMA
   character (U+002C).  Therefore, a COMMA character in a value MUST be
   escaped with a BACKSLASH character (U+005C), even for properties that
   don't allow multiple instances (for consistency).

   Some properties (e.g., N and ADR) comprise multiple fields delimited
   by a SEMICOLON character (U+003B).  Therefore, a SEMICOLON in a field
   of such a "compound" property MUST be escaped with a BACKSLASH
   character.  SEMICOLON characters in non-compound properties MAY be
   escaped.  On input, an escaped SEMICOLON character is never a field
   separator.  An unescaped SEMICOLON character may be a field
   separator, depending on the property in which it appears.

   Furthermore, some fields of compound properties may contain a list of
   values delimited by a COMMA character.  Therefore, a COMMA character
   in one of a field's values MUST be escaped with a BACKSLASH
   character, even for fields that don't allow multiple values (for
   consistency).  Compound properties allowing multiple instances MUST
   NOT be encoded in a single content line.

   Finally, BACKSLASH characters in values MUST be escaped with a
   BACKSLASH character.  NEWLINE (U+000A) characters in values MUST be
   encoded by two characters: a BACKSLASH followed by either an 'n'
   (U+006E) or an 'N' (U+004E).

   In all other cases, escaping MUST NOT be used.

4.  Property Value Data Types

   Standard value types are defined below.

     value = text
           / text-list
           / date-list
           / time-list
           / date-time-list
           / date-and-or-time-list
           / timestamp-list
           / boolean
           / integer-list
           / float-list
           / URI               ; from Section 3 of [RFC3986]
           / utc-offset
           / Language-Tag
           / iana-valuespec
       ; Actual value type depends on property name and VALUE parameter.

Top      ToC       Page 10 
     text = *TEXT-CHAR

     TEXT-CHAR = "\\" / "\," / "\n" / WSP / NON-ASCII
               / %x21-2B / %x2D-5B / %x5D-7E
        ; Backslashes, commas, and newlines must be encoded.

     component = "\\" / "\," / "\;" / "\n" / WSP / NON-ASCII
               / %x21-2B / %x2D-3A / %x3C-5B / %x5D-7E
     list-component = component *("," component)

     text-list             = text             *("," text)
     date-list             = date             *("," date)
     time-list             = time             *("," time)
     date-time-list        = date-time        *("," date-time)
     date-and-or-time-list = date-and-or-time *("," date-and-or-time)
     timestamp-list        = timestamp        *("," timestamp)
     integer-list          = integer          *("," integer)
     float-list            = float            *("," float)

     boolean = "TRUE" / "FALSE"
     integer = [sign] 1*DIGIT
     float   = [sign] 1*DIGIT ["." 1*DIGIT]

     sign = "+" / "-"

     year   = 4DIGIT  ; 0000-9999
     month  = 2DIGIT  ; 01-12
     day    = 2DIGIT  ; 01-28/29/30/31 depending on month and leap year
     hour   = 2DIGIT  ; 00-23
     minute = 2DIGIT  ; 00-59
     second = 2DIGIT  ; 00-58/59/60 depending on leap second
     zone   = utc-designator / utc-offset
     utc-designator = %x5A  ; uppercase "Z"

     date          = year    [month  day]
                   / year "-" month
                   / "--"     month [day]
                   / "--"      "-"   day
     date-noreduc  = year     month  day
                   / "--"     month  day
                   / "--"      "-"   day
     date-complete = year     month  day

     time          = hour [minute [second]] [zone]
                   /  "-"  minute [second]  [zone]
                   /  "-"   "-"    second   [zone]
     time-notrunc  = hour [minute [second]] [zone]
     time-complete = hour  minute  second   [zone]

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     time-designator = %x54  ; uppercase "T"
     date-time = date-noreduc  time-designator time-notrunc
     timestamp = date-complete time-designator time-complete

     date-and-or-time = date-time / date / time-designator time

     utc-offset = sign hour [minute]

     Language-Tag = <Language-Tag, defined in [RFC5646], Section 2.1>

     iana-valuespec = <value-spec, see Section 12>
                    ; a publicly defined valuetype format, registered
                    ; with IANA, as defined in Section 12 of this
                    ; document.

4.1.  TEXT

   "text": The "text" value type should be used to identify values that
   contain human-readable text.  As for the language, it is controlled
   by the LANGUAGE property parameter defined in Section 5.1.

   Examples for "text":

       this is a text value
       this is one value,this is another
       this is a single value\, with a comma encoded

   A formatted text line break in a text value type MUST be represented
   as the character sequence backslash (U+005C) followed by a Latin
   small letter n (U+006E) or a Latin capital letter N (U+004E), that
   is, "\n" or "\N".

   For example, a multiple line NOTE value of:

       Mythical Manager
       Hyjinx Software Division
       BabsCo, Inc.

   could be represented as:

       NOTE:Mythical Manager\nHyjinx Software Division\n
        BabsCo\, Inc.\n

   demonstrating the \n literal formatted line break technique, the
   CRLF-followed-by-space line folding technique, and the backslash
   escape technique.

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4.2.  URI

   "uri": The "uri" value type should be used to identify values that
   are referenced by a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) instead of
   encoded in-line.  These value references might be used if the value
   is too large, or otherwise undesirable to include directly.  The
   format for the URI is as defined in Section 3 of [RFC3986].  Note
   that the value of a property of type "uri" is what the URI points to,
   not the URI itself.

   Examples for "uri":

       http://www.example.com/my/picture.jpg
       ldap://ldap.example.com/cn=babs%20jensen

4.3.  DATE, TIME, DATE-TIME, DATE-AND-OR-TIME, and TIMESTAMP

   "date", "time", "date-time", "date-and-or-time", and "timestamp":
   Each of these value types is based on the definitions in
   [ISO.8601.2004].  Multiple such values can be specified using the
   comma-separated notation.

   Only the basic format is supported.

4.3.1.  DATE

   A calendar date as specified in [ISO.8601.2004], Section 4.1.2.

   Reduced accuracy, as specified in [ISO.8601.2004], Sections 4.1.2.3
   a) and b), but not c), is permitted.

   Expanded representation, as specified in [ISO.8601.2004], Section
   4.1.4, is forbidden.

   Truncated representation, as specified in [ISO.8601.2000], Sections
   5.2.1.3 d), e), and f), is permitted.

   Examples for "date":

             19850412
             1985-04
             1985
             --0412
             ---12

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   Note the use of YYYY-MM in the second example above.  YYYYMM is
   disallowed to prevent confusion with YYMMDD.  Note also that
   YYYY-MM-DD is disallowed since we are using the basic format instead
   of the extended format.

4.3.2.  TIME

   A time of day as specified in [ISO.8601.2004], Section 4.2.

   Reduced accuracy, as specified in [ISO.8601.2004], Section 4.2.2.3,
   is permitted.

   Representation with decimal fraction, as specified in
   [ISO.8601.2004], Section 4.2.2.4, is forbidden.

   The midnight hour is always represented by 00, never 24 (see
   [ISO.8601.2004], Section 4.2.3).

   Truncated representation, as specified in [ISO.8601.2000], Sections
   5.3.1.4 a), b), and c), is permitted.

   Examples for "time":

             102200
             1022
             10
             -2200
             --00
             102200Z
             102200-0800

4.3.3.  DATE-TIME

   A date and time of day combination as specified in [ISO.8601.2004],
   Section 4.3.

   Truncation of the date part, as specified in [ISO.8601.2000], Section
   5.4.2 c), is permitted.

   Examples for "date-time":

             19961022T140000
             --1022T1400
             ---22T14

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4.3.4.  DATE-AND-OR-TIME

   Either a DATE-TIME, a DATE, or a TIME value.  To allow unambiguous
   interpretation, a stand-alone TIME value is always preceded by a "T".

   Examples for "date-and-or-time":

             19961022T140000
             --1022T1400
             ---22T14
             19850412
             1985-04
             1985
             --0412
             ---12
             T102200
             T1022
             T10
             T-2200
             T--00
             T102200Z
             T102200-0800

4.3.5.  TIMESTAMP

   A complete date and time of day combination as specified in
   [ISO.8601.2004], Section 4.3.2.

   Examples for "timestamp":

             19961022T140000
             19961022T140000Z
             19961022T140000-05
             19961022T140000-0500

4.4.  BOOLEAN

   "boolean": The "boolean" value type is used to express boolean
   values.  These values are case-insensitive.

   Examples:

       TRUE
       false
       True

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4.5.  INTEGER

   "integer": The "integer" value type is used to express signed
   integers in decimal format.  If sign is not specified, the value is
   assumed positive "+".  Multiple "integer" values can be specified
   using the comma-separated notation.  The maximum value is
   9223372036854775807, and the minimum value is -9223372036854775808.
   These limits correspond to a signed 64-bit integer using two's-
   complement arithmetic.

   Examples:

       1234567890
       -1234556790
       +1234556790,432109876

4.6.  FLOAT

   "float": The "float" value type is used to express real numbers.  If
   sign is not specified, the value is assumed positive "+".  Multiple
   "float" values can be specified using the comma-separated notation.
   Implementations MUST support a precision equal or better than that of
   the IEEE "binary64" format [IEEE.754.2008].

      Note: Scientific notation is disallowed.  Implementers wishing to
      use their favorite language's %f formatting should be careful.

   Examples:

       20.30
       1000000.0000001
       1.333,3.14

4.7.  UTC-OFFSET

   "utc-offset": The "utc-offset" value type specifies that the property
   value is a signed offset from UTC.  This value type can be specified
   in the TZ property.

   The value type is an offset from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).
   It is specified as a positive or negative difference in units of
   hours and minutes (e.g., +hhmm).  The time is specified as a 24-hour
   clock.  Hour values are from 00 to 23, and minute values are from 00
   to 59.  Hour and minutes are 2 digits with high-order zeroes required
   to maintain digit count.  The basic format for ISO 8601 UTC offsets
   MUST be used.

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4.8.  LANGUAGE-TAG

   "language-tag": A single language tag, as defined in [RFC5646].

5.  Property Parameters

   A property can have attributes associated with it.  These "property
   parameters" contain meta-information about the property or the
   property value.  In some cases, the property parameter can be multi-
   valued in which case the property parameter value elements are
   separated by a COMMA (U+002C).

   Property parameter value elements that contain the COLON (U+003A),
   SEMICOLON (U+003B), or COMMA (U+002C) character separators MUST be
   specified as quoted-string text values.  Property parameter values
   MUST NOT contain the DQUOTE (U+0022) character.  The DQUOTE character
   is used as a delimiter for parameter values that contain restricted
   characters or URI text.

   Applications MUST ignore x-param and iana-param values they don't
   recognize.

5.1.  LANGUAGE

   The LANGUAGE property parameter is used to identify data in multiple
   languages.  There is no concept of "default" language, except as
   specified by any "Content-Language" MIME header parameter that is
   present [RFC3282].  The value of the LANGUAGE property parameter is a
   language tag as defined in Section 2 of [RFC5646].

   Examples:

     ROLE;LANGUAGE=tr:hoca

   ABNF:

           language-param = "LANGUAGE=" Language-Tag
             ; Language-Tag is defined in section 2.1 of RFC 5646

5.2.  VALUE

   The VALUE parameter is OPTIONAL, used to identify the value type
   (data type) and format of the value.  The use of these predefined
   formats is encouraged even if the value parameter is not explicitly
   used.  By defining a standard set of value types and their formats,
   existing parsing and processing code can be leveraged.  The

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   predefined data type values MUST NOT be repeated in COMMA-separated
   value lists except within the N, NICKNAME, ADR, and CATEGORIES
   properties.

   ABNF:

     value-param = "VALUE=" value-type

     value-type = "text"
                / "uri"
                / "date"
                / "time"
                / "date-time"
                / "date-and-or-time"
                / "timestamp"
                / "boolean"
                / "integer"
                / "float"
                / "utc-offset"
                / "language-tag"
                / iana-token  ; registered as described in section 12
                / x-name

5.3.  PREF

   The PREF parameter is OPTIONAL and is used to indicate that the
   corresponding instance of a property is preferred by the vCard
   author.  Its value MUST be an integer between 1 and 100 that
   quantifies the level of preference.  Lower values correspond to a
   higher level of preference, with 1 being most preferred.

   When the parameter is absent, the default MUST be to interpret the
   property instance as being least preferred.

   Note that the value of this parameter is to be interpreted only in
   relation to values assigned to other instances of the same property
   in the same vCard.  A given value, or the absence of a value, MUST
   NOT be interpreted on its own.

   This parameter MAY be applied to any property that allows multiple
   instances.

   ABNF:

           pref-param = "PREF=" (1*2DIGIT / "100")
                                ; An integer between 1 and 100.

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5.4.  ALTID

   The ALTID parameter is used to "tag" property instances as being
   alternative representations of the same logical property.  For
   example, translations of a property in multiple languages generates
   multiple property instances having different LANGUAGE (Section 5.1)
   parameter that are tagged with the same ALTID value.

   This parameter's value is treated as an opaque string.  Its sole
   purpose is to be compared for equality against other ALTID parameter
   values.

   Two property instances are considered alternative representations of
   the same logical property if and only if their names as well as the
   value of their ALTID parameters are identical.  Property instances
   without the ALTID parameter MUST NOT be considered an alternative
   representation of any other property instance.  Values for the ALTID
   parameter are not globally unique: they MAY be reused for different
   property names.

   Property instances having the same ALTID parameter value count as 1
   toward cardinality.  Therefore, since N (Section 6.2.2) has
   cardinality *1 and TITLE (Section 6.6.1) has cardinality *, these
   three examples would be legal:

     N;ALTID=1;LANGUAGE=jp:<U+5C71><U+7530>;<U+592A><U+90CE>;;;
     N;ALTID=1;LANGUAGE=en:Yamada;Taro;;;
     (<U+XXXX> denotes a UTF8-encoded Unicode character.)

     TITLE;ALTID=1;LANGUAGE=fr:Patron
     TITLE;ALTID=1;LANGUAGE=en:Boss

     TITLE;ALTID=1;LANGUAGE=fr:Patron
     TITLE;ALTID=1;LANGUAGE=en:Boss
     TITLE;ALTID=2;LANGUAGE=en:Chief vCard Evangelist

   while this one would not:

     N;ALTID=1;LANGUAGE=jp:<U+5C71><U+7530>;<U+592A><U+90CE>;;;
     N:Yamada;Taro;;;
     (Two instances of the N property.)

   and these three would be legal but questionable:

     TITLE;ALTID=1;LANGUAGE=fr:Patron
     TITLE;ALTID=2;LANGUAGE=en:Boss
     (Should probably have the same ALTID value.)

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     TITLE;ALTID=1;LANGUAGE=fr:Patron
     TITLE:LANGUAGE=en:Boss
     (Second line should probably have ALTID=1.)

     N;ALTID=1;LANGUAGE=jp:<U+5C71><U+7530>;<U+592A><U+90CE>;;;
     N;ALTID=1;LANGUAGE=en:Yamada;Taro;;;
     N;ALTID=1;LANGUAGE=en:Smith;John;;;
     (The last line should probably have ALTID=2.  But that would be
      illegal because N has cardinality *1.)

   The ALTID property MAY also be used in may contexts other than with
   the LANGUAGE parameter.  Here's an example with two representations
   of the same photo in different file formats:

     PHOTO;ALTID=1:data:image/jpeg;base64,...
     PHOTO;ALTID=1;data:image/jp2;base64,...

   ABNF:

           altid-param = "ALTID=" param-value

5.5.  PID

   The PID parameter is used to identify a specific property among
   multiple instances.  It plays a role analogous to the UID property
   (Section 6.7.6) on a per-property instead of per-vCard basis.  It MAY
   appear more than once in a given property.  It MUST NOT appear on
   properties that may have only one instance per vCard.  Its value is
   either a single small positive integer or a pair of small positive
   integers separated by a dot.  Multiple values may be encoded in a
   single PID parameter by separating the values with a comma ",".  See
   Section 7 for more details on its usage.

   ABNF:

           pid-param = "PID=" pid-value *("," pid-value)
           pid-value = 1*DIGIT ["." 1*DIGIT]

5.6.  TYPE

   The TYPE parameter has multiple, different uses.  In general, it is a
   way of specifying class characteristics of the associated property.
   Most of the time, its value is a comma-separated subset of a
   predefined enumeration.  In this document, the following properties
   make use of this parameter: FN, NICKNAME, PHOTO, ADR, TEL, EMAIL,
   IMPP, LANG, TZ, GEO, TITLE, ROLE, LOGO, ORG, RELATED, CATEGORIES,

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   NOTE, SOUND, URL, KEY, FBURL, CALADRURI, and CALURI.  The TYPE
   parameter MUST NOT be applied on other properties defined in this
   document.

   The "work" and "home" values act like tags.  The "work" value implies
   that the property is related to an individual's work place, while the
   "home" value implies that the property is related to an individual's
   personal life.  When neither "work" nor "home" is present, it is
   implied that the property is related to both an individual's work
   place and personal life in the case that the KIND property's value is
   "individual", or to none in other cases.

   ABNF:

           type-param = "TYPE=" type-value *("," type-value)

           type-value = "work" / "home" / type-param-tel
                      / type-param-related / iana-token / x-name
             ; This is further defined in individual property sections.

5.7.  MEDIATYPE

   The MEDIATYPE parameter is used with properties whose value is a URI.
   Its use is OPTIONAL.  It provides a hint to the vCard consumer
   application about the media type [RFC2046] of the resource identified
   by the URI.  Some URI schemes do not need this parameter.  For
   example, the "data" scheme allows the media type to be explicitly
   indicated as part of the URI [RFC2397].  Another scheme, "http",
   provides the media type as part of the URI resolution process, with
   the Content-Type HTTP header [RFC2616].  The MEDIATYPE parameter is
   intended to be used with URI schemes that do not provide such
   functionality (e.g., "ftp" [RFC1738]).

   ABNF:

     mediatype-param = "MEDIATYPE=" mediatype
     mediatype = type-name "/" subtype-name *( ";" attribute "=" value )
       ; "attribute" and "value" are from [RFC2045]
       ; "type-name" and "subtype-name" are from [RFC4288]

5.8.  CALSCALE

   The CALSCALE parameter is identical to the CALSCALE property in
   iCalendar (see [RFC5545], Section 3.7.1).  It is used to define the
   calendar system in which a date or date-time value is expressed.  The
   only value specified by iCalendar is "gregorian", which stands for
   the Gregorian system.  It is the default when the parameter is
   absent.  Additional values may be defined in extension documents and

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   registered with IANA (see Section 10.3.4).  A vCard implementation
   MUST ignore properties with a CALSCALE parameter value that it does
   not understand.

   ABNF:

           calscale-param = "CALSCALE=" calscale-value

           calscale-value = "gregorian" / iana-token / x-name

5.9.  SORT-AS

   The "sort-as" parameter is used to specify the string to be used for
   national-language-specific sorting.  Without this information,
   sorting algorithms could incorrectly sort this vCard within a
   sequence of sorted vCards.  When this property is present in a vCard,
   then the given strings are used for sorting the vCard.

   This parameter's value is a comma-separated list that MUST have as
   many or fewer elements as the corresponding property value has
   components.  This parameter's value is case-sensitive.

   ABNF:

     sort-as-param = "SORT-AS=" sort-as-value

     sort-as-value = param-value *("," param-value)

   Examples: For the case of surname and given name sorting, the
   following examples define common sort string usage with the N
   property.

           FN:Rene van der Harten
           N;SORT-AS="Harten,Rene":van der Harten;Rene,J.;Sir;R.D.O.N.

           FN:Robert Pau Shou Chang
           N;SORT-AS="Pau Shou Chang,Robert":Shou Chang;Robert,Pau;;

           FN:Osamu Koura
           N;SORT-AS="Koura,Osamu":Koura;Osamu;;

           FN:Oscar del Pozo
           N;SORT-AS="Pozo,Oscar":del Pozo Triscon;Oscar;;

           FN:Chistine d'Aboville
           N;SORT-AS="Aboville,Christine":d'Aboville;Christine;;

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           FN:H. James de Mann
           N;SORT-AS="Mann,James":de Mann;Henry,James;;

   If sorted by surname, the results would be:

           Christine d'Aboville
           Rene van der Harten
           Osamu Koura
           H. James de Mann
           Robert Pau Shou Chang
           Oscar del Pozo

   If sorted by given name, the results would be:

           Christine d'Aboville
           H. James de Mann
           Osamu Koura
           Oscar del Pozo
           Rene van der Harten
           Robert Pau Shou Chang

5.10.  GEO

   The GEO parameter can be used to indicate global positioning
   information that is specific to an address.  Its value is the same as
   that of the GEO property (see Section 6.5.2).

   ABNF:

     geo-parameter = "GEO=" DQUOTE URI DQUOTE

5.11.  TZ

   The TZ parameter can be used to indicate time zone information that
   is specific to an address.  Its value is the same as that of the TZ
   property.

   ABNF:

     tz-parameter = "TZ=" (param-value / DQUOTE URI DQUOTE)


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