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RFC 6325


Routing Bridges (RBridges): Base Protocol Specification

Part 3 of 4, p. 45 to 71
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4.4.  TRILL-Hello Protocol

   The TRILL-Hello protocol is a little different from the Layer 3 IS-IS
   LAN Hello protocol and uses a new type of IS-IS message known as a

4.4.1.  TRILL-Hello Rationale

   The reason for defining this new type of link in TRILL is that in
   Layer 3 IS-IS, the LAN Hello protocol may elect multiple Designated
   Routers (DRs) since, when choosing a DR, routers ignore other routers
   with whom they do not have 2-way connectivity.  Also, Layer 3 IS-IS
   LAN Hellos are padded, to avoid forming adjacencies between neighbors
   that can't speak the maximum-sized packet to each other.  This means,
   in Layer 3 IS-IS, that neighbors that have connectivity to each
   other, but with an MTU on that connection less than what they
   perceive as maximum sized packets, will not see each other's Hellos.
   The result is that routers might form cliques, resulting in the link
   turning into multiple pseudonodes.

   This behavior is fine for Layer 3, but not for Layer 2, where loops
   may form if there are multiple DRBs.  Therefore, the TRILL-Hello
   protocol is a little different from Layer 3 IS-IS's LAN Hello

   One other issue with TRILL-Hellos is to ensure that subsets of the
   information can appear in any single message, and be processable, in
   the spirit of IS-IS LSPs and CSNPs.  TRILL-Hello frames, even though
   they are not padded, can become very large.  An example where this
   might be the case is when some sort of backbone technology
   interconnects hundreds of TRILL sites over what would appear to TRILL
   to be a giant Ethernet, where the RBridges connected to that cloud
   will perceive that backbone to be a single link with hundreds of

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   In TRILL (unlike in Layer 3 IS-IS), the DRB is selected based solely
   on priority and MAC address.  In other words, if RB2 receives a
   TRILL-Hello from RB1 with higher (priority, MAC), RB2 defers to RB1
   as DRB, regardless of whether RB1 lists RB2 in RB1's TRILL-Hello.

   Although the neighbor list in a TRILL-Hello does not influence the
   DRB election, it does determine what is announced in LSPs.  RB1 only
   reports links to RBridges with which it has two-way connectivity.  If
   RB1 is the DRB on a link, and for whatever reason (MTU mismatch, or
   one-way connectivity) RB1 and RB2 do not have two-way connectivity,
   then RB2 does not report a link to RB1 (or the pseudonode), and RB1
   (or RB1 on behalf of the pseudonode) does not report a link to RB2.

4.4.2.  TRILL-Hello Contents and Timing

   The TRILL-Hello has a new IS-IS message type.  It starts with the
   same fixed header as an IS-IS LAN Hello, which includes the 7-bit
   priority for the issuing RBridge to be DRB on that link.  TRILL-
   Hellos are sent with the same timing as IS-IS LAN Hellos.

   TRILL-Hello messages, including their Outer.MacDA and Outer.MacSA,
   but excluding any Outer.VLAN or other tags, MUST NOT exceed 1470
   octets in length and SHOULD NOT be padded.  The following information
   MUST appear in every TRILL-Hello.  References to "TLV" may actually
   be a "sub-TLV" as specified in separate documents [RFC6165]

   1. The VLAN ID of the Designated VLAN for the link.

   2. A copy of the Outer.VLAN ID with which the Hello was tagged on

   3. A 16-bit port ID assigned by the sending RBridge to the port the
      TRILL-Hello is sent on such that no two ports of that RBridge have
      the same port ID.

   4. A nickname of the sending RBridge.

   5. Two flags as follows:

      5.a. A flag that, if set, indicates that the sender has detected
           VLAN mapping on the link, within the past 2 of its Holding

      5.b. A flag that, if set, indicates that the sender believes it is
           appointed forwarder for the VLAN and port on which the TRILL-
           Hello was sent.

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   The following information MAY appear:

   1. The set of VLANs for which end-station service is enabled on the

   2. Several flags as follows:

      2.a. A flag that, if set, indicates that the sender's port was
           configured as an access port.

      2.b. A flag that, if set, indicates that the sender's port was
           configured as a trunk port.

      2.c. A bypass pseudonode flag, as described below in this section.

   3. If the sender is the DRB, the Rbridges (excluding itself) that it
      appoints as forwarders for that link and the VLANs for which it
      appoints them.  As described below, this TLV is designed so that
      not all the appointment information need be included in each
      Hello.  Its absence means that appointed forwarders should
      continue as previously assigned.

   4. The TRILL neighbor list.  This is a new TLV, not the same as the
      IS-IS Neighbor TLV, in order to accommodate fragmentation and
      reporting MTU on the link (see Section

   The Appointed Forwarders TLV specifies a range of VLANs and, within
   that range, specifies which Rbridge, if any, other than the DRB, is
   appointed forwarder for the VLANs in that range [RFC6326].
   Appointing an RBridge as forwarder on a port for a VLAN that is not
   enabled on that port has no effect.

   It is anticipated that many links between RBridges will be point-to-
   point, in which case using a pseudonode merely adds to the
   complexity.  If the DRB specifies the bypass pseudonode bit in its
   TRILL-Hellos, the RBridges on the link just report their adjacencies
   as point-to-point.  This has no effect on how LSPs are flooded on a
   link.  It only affects what LSPs are generated.

   For example, if RB1 and RB2 are the only RBridges on the link and RB1
   is the DRB, then if RB1 creates a pseudonode that is used, there are
   3 LSPs: for, say, RB1.25 (the pseudonode), RB1, and RB2, where RB1.25
   reports connectivity to RB1 and RB2, and RB1 and RB2 each just say
   they are connected to RB1.25.  Whereas if DRB RB1 sets the bypass
   pseudonode bit in its Hellos, then there will be only 2 LSPs: RB1 and
   RB2 each reporting connectivity to each other.

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   A DRB SHOULD set the bypass pseudonode bit for its links unless, for
   a particular link, it has seen at least two simultaneous adjacencies
   on the link at some point since it last rebooted.  TRILL Neighbor List

   The new TRILL Neighbor TLV includes the following information for
   each neighbor it lists:

   1.  The neighbor's MAC address.

   2.  MTU size to this neighbor as a 2-octet unsigned integer in units
      of 4-octet chunks.  The value zero indicates that the MTU is

   3.  A flag for "failed minimum MTU test".

   To allow partial reporting of neighbors, the neighbor IDs MUST be
   sorted by ID.  If a set of neighbors { X1, X2, X3, ...  Xn } is
   reported in RB1's Hello, then X1 < X2 < X3, ...  < Xn.  If RBridge
   RB2's ID is between X1 and Xn, and does not appear in RB1's Hello,
   then RB2 knows that RB1 has not heard RB2's Hello.

   Additionally there are two overall TRILL Neighbor List TLV flags:
   "the smallest ID I reported in this Hello is the smallest ID of any
   neighbor", and "the largest ID I reported in this Hello is the
   largest ID of any neighbor".  If all the neighbors fit in RB1's
   TRILL-Hello, both flags will be set.

   If RB1 reports { X1, ...  Xn } in its Hello, with the "smallest" flag
   set, and RB2's ID is smaller than X1, then RB2 knows that RB1 has not
   heard RB2's Hello.  Similarly, if RB2's ID is larger than Xn and the
   "largest" flag is set, then RB2 knows that RB1 has not heard RB2's

   To ensure that any RBridge RB2 can definitively determine whether RB1
   can hear RB2, RB1's neighbor list MUST eventually cover every
   possible range of IDs, that is, within a period that depends on RB1's
   policy and not necessarily within any specific period such as the
   holding time.  In other words, if X1 is the smallest ID reported in
   one of RB1's neighbor lists, and the "smallest" flag is not set, then
   X1 MUST also appear as the largest ID reported in a different TRILL-
   Hello neighbor list.  Or, fragments may overlap, as long as there is
   no gap, such that some range, say, between Xi and Xj, never appears
   in any fragment.

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4.4.3.  TRILL MTU-Probe and TRILL Hello VLAN Tagging

   The MTU-probe mechanism is designed to determine the MTU for
   transmissions between RBridges.  MTU-probes and probe
   acknowledgements are only sent on the Designated VLAN.

   An RBridge RBn maintains for each port the same VLAN information as a
   customer IEEE [802.1Q-2005] bridge, including the set of VLANs
   enabled for output through that port (see Section 4.9.2).  In
   addition, RBn maintains the following TRILL-specific VLAN parameters
   per port:

      a) Desired Designated VLAN: the VLAN that RBn, if it is the DRB,
         will specify in its TRILL-Hellos as the VLAN to be used by all
         RBridges on the link to communicate all TRILL frames, except
         some TRILL-Hellos.  This MUST be a VLAN enabled on RBn's port.
         It defaults to the numerically lowest enabled VLAN ID, which is
         VLAN 1 for a default configuration RBridge.

      b) Designated VLAN: the VLAN being used on the link for all TRILL
         frames except some TRILL Hellos.  This is RBn's Desired
         Designated VLAN if RBn believes it is the DRB or the Designated
         VLAN in the DRB's Hellos if RBn is not the DRB.

      c) Announcing VLANs set.  This defaults to the enabled VLANs set
         on the port but may be configured to be a subset of the enabled

      d) Forwarding VLANs set: the set of VLANs for which an RBridge
         port is appointed VLAN forwarder on the port.  This MUST
         contain only enabled VLANs for the port, possibly all enabled

   On each of its ports that is not configured to use P2P Hellos, an
   RBridge sends TRILL-Hellos Outer.VLAN tagged with each VLAN in a set
   of VLANs.  This set depends on the RBridge's DRB status and the above
   VLAN parameters.  RBridges send TRILL Hellos Outer.VLAN tagged with
   the Designated VLAN, unless that VLAN is not enabled on the port.  In
   addition, the DRB sends TRILL Hellos Outer.VLAN tagged with each
   enabled VLAN in its Announcing VLANs set.  All non-DRB RBridges send
   TRILL-Hellos Outer.VLAN tagged with all enabled VLANs that are in the
   intersection of their Forwarding VLANs set and their Announcing VLANs
   set.  More symbolically, TRILL-Hello frames, when sent, are sent as

   If sender is DRB
      intersection ( Enabled VLANs,
      union ( Designated VLAN, Announcing VLANs ) )

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   If sender is not DRB
      intersection ( Enabled VLANs,
      union ( Designated VLAN,
      intersection ( Forwarding VLANs, Announcing VLANs ) ) )

   Configuring the Announcing VLANs set to be null minimizes the number
   of TRILL-Hellos.  In that case, TRILL-Hellos are only tagged with the
   Designated VLAN.  Great care should be taken in configuring an
   RBridge to not send TRILL Hellos on any VLAN where that RBridge is
   appointed forwarder as, under some circumstances, failure to send
   such Hellos can lead to loops.

   The number of TRILL-Hellos is maximized, within this specification,
   by configuring the Announcing VLANs set to be the set of all enabled
   VLAN IDs, which is the default.  In that case, the DRB will send
   TRILL-Hello frames tagged with all its Enabled VLAN tags; in
   addition, any non-DRB RBridge RBn will send TRILL-Hello frames tagged
   with the Designated VLAN, if enabled, and tagged with all VLANs for
   which RBn is an appointed forwarder.  (It is possible to send even
   more TRILL-Hellos.  In particular, non-DRB RBridges could send TRILL-
   Hellos on enabled VLANs for which they are not an appointed forwarder
   and which are not the Designated VLAN.  This would cause no harm
   other than a further communications and processing burden.)

   When an RBridge port comes up, until it has heard a TRILL-Hello from
   a higher priority RBridge, it considers itself to be DRB on that port
   and sends TRILL-Hellos on that basis.  Similarly, even if it has at
   some time recognized some other RBridge on the link as DRB, if it
   receives no TRILL-Hellos on that port from an RBridge with higher
   priority as DRB for a long enough time, as specified by IS-IS, it
   will revert to believing itself DRB.

4.4.4.  Multiple Ports on the Same Link

   It is possible for an RBridge RB1 to have multiple ports to the same
   link.  It is important for RB1 to recognize which of its ports are on
   the same link, so, for instance, if RB1 is appointed forwarder for
   VLAN A, RB1 knows that only one of its ports acts as appointed
   forwarder for VLAN A on that link.

   RB1 detects this condition based on receiving TRILL-Hello messages
   with the same IS-IS pseudonode ID on multiple ports.  RB1 might have
   one set of ports, say, { p1, p2, p3 } on one link, and another set of
   ports { p4, p5 } on a second link, and yet other ports, say, p6, p7,
   p8, that are each on distinct links.  Let us call a set of ports on
   the same link a "port group".

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   If RB1 detects that a set of ports, say, { p1, p2, p3 }, is a port
   group on a link, then RB1 MUST ensure that it does not cause loops
   when it encapsulates and decapsulates traffic from/to that link.  If
   RB1 is appointed forwarder for VLAN A on that Ethernet link, RB1 MUST
   encapsulate/decapsulate VLAN A on only one of the ports.  However, if
   RB1 is appointed forwarder for more than one VLAN, RB1 MAY choose to
   load split among its ports, using one port for some set of VLANs, and
   another port for a disjoint set of VLANs.

   If RB1 detects VLAN mapping occurring (see Section 4.4.5), then RB1
   MUST NOT load split as appointed forwarder, and instead MUST act as
   appointed VLAN forwarder on that link on only one of its ports in the
   port group.

   When forwarding TRILL-encapsulated multi-destination frames to/from a
   link on which RB1 has a port group, RB1 MAY choose to load split
   among its ports, provided that it does not duplicate frames, and
   provided that it keeps frames for the same flow on the same port.  If
   RB1's neighbor on that link, RB2, accepts multi-destination frames on
   that tree on that link from RB1, RB2 MUST accept the frame from any
   of RB2's adjacencies to RB1 on that link.

   If an RBridge has more than one port connected to a link and those
   ports have the same MAC address, they can be distinguished by the
   port ID contained in TRILL-Hellos.

4.4.5.  VLAN Mapping within a Link

   IEEE [802.1Q-2005] does not provide for bridges changing the C-tag
   VLAN ID for a tagged frame they receive, that is, mapping VLANs.
   Nevertheless, some bridge products provide this capability and, in
   any case, bridged LANs can be configured to display this behavior.
   For example, a bridge port can be configured to strip VLAN tags on
   output and send the resulting untagged frames onto a link leading to
   another bridge's port configured to tag these frames with a different
   VLAN.  Although each port's configuration is legal under
   [802.1Q-2005], in the aggregate they perform manipulations not
   permitted on a single customer [802.1Q-2005] bridge.  Since RBridge
   ports have the same VLAN capabilities as customer [802.1Q-2005]
   bridges, this can occur even in the absence of bridges.  (VLAN
   mapping is referred to in IEEE 802.1 as "VLAN ID translation".)

   RBridges include the Outer.VLAN ID inside every TRILL-Hello message.
   When a TRILL-Hello is received, RBridges compare this saved copy with
   the Outer.VLAN ID information associated with the received frame.  If
   these differ and the VLAN ID inside the Hello is X and the Outer.VLAN
   is Y, it can be assumed that VLAN ID X is being mapped into VLAN ID

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   When non-DRB RB2 detects VLAN mapping, based on receiving a TRILL-
   Hello where the VLAN tag in the body of the Hello differs from the
   one in the outer header, it sets a flag in all of its TRILL-Hellos
   for a period of two of its Holding Times since the last time RB2
   detected VLAN mapping.  When DRB RB1 is informed of VLAN mapping,
   either because of receiving a TRILL-Hello that has been VLAN-mapped,
   or because of seeing the "VLAN mapping detected" flag in a neighbor's
   TRILL-Hello on the link, RB1 re-assigns VLAN forwarders to ensure
   there is only a single forwarder on the link for all VLANs.

4.5.  Distribution Trees

   RBridges use distribution trees to forward multi-destination frames
   (see Section 2.4.2).  Distribution trees are bidirectional.  Although
   a single tree is logically sufficient for the entire campus, the
   computation of additional distribution trees is warranted for the
   following reasons: it enables multipathing of multi-destination
   frames and enables the choice of a tree root closer to or, in the
   limit, identical with the ingress RBridge.  Such a closer tree root
   improves the efficiency of the delivery of multi-destination frames
   that are being delivered to a subset of the links in the campus and
   reduces out-of-order delivery when a unicast address transitions
   between unknown and known.  If applications are in use where
   occasional out-of-order unicast frames due to such transitions are a
   problem, the RBridge campus should be engineered to make sure they
   are of extremely low probability, such as by using the ESADI
   protocol, configuring addresses to eliminate unknown destination
   unicast frames, or using keep alive frames.

   An additional level of flexibility is the ability of an RBridge to
   acquire multiple nicknames, and therefore have multiple trees rooted
   at the same RBridge.  Since the tree number is used as a tiebreaker
   for equal cost paths, the different trees, even if rooted at the same
   RBridge, will likely utilize different equal cost paths.

   How an ingress RBridge chooses the distribution tree or trees that it
   uses for multi-destination frames is beyond the scope of this
   document.  However, for the reasons stated above, in the absence of
   other factors, a good choice is the tree whose root is least cost
   from the ingress RBridge and that is the default for an ingress
   RBridge that uses a single tree to distribute multi-destination

   RBridges will precompute all the trees that might be used, and keep
   state for Reverse Path Forwarding Check filters (see Section 4.5.2).
   Also, since the tree number is used as a tiebreaker, it is important
   for all RBridges to know:

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   o  how many trees to compute
   o  which trees to compute
   o  what the tree number for each tree is
   o  which trees each ingress RBridge might choose (for building
      Reverse Path Forwarding Check filters)

   Each RBridge advertises in its LSP a "tree root" priority for its
   nickname or for each of its nicknames if it has been configured to
   have more than one.  This is a 16-bit unsigned integer that defaults,
   for an unconfigured RBridge, to 0x8000.  Tree roots are ordered with
   highest numerical priority being highest priority, then with system
   ID of the RBridge (numerically higher = higher priority) as
   tiebreaker, and if that is equal, by the numerically higher nickname
   value, as an unsigned integer, having priority.

   Each RBridge advertises in its LSP the maximum number of distribution
   trees that it can compute and the number of trees that it wants all
   RBridges in the campus to compute.  The number of trees, k, that are
   computed for the campus is the number wanted by the RBridge RB1,
   which has the nickname with the highest "tree root" priority, but no
   more than the number of trees supported by the RBridge in the campus
   that supports the fewest trees.  If RB1 does not specify the specific
   distribution tree roots as described below, then the k highest
   priority trees are the trees that will be computed by all RBridges.
   Note that some of these k highest priority trees might be rooted at
   the same RBridge, if that RBridge has multiple nicknames.

   If an RBridge specifies the number of trees it can compute, or the
   number of trees it wants computed for the campus, as 0, it is treated
   as specifying them as 1.  Thus, k defaults to 1.

   In addition, the RBridge RB1 having the highest root priority
   nickname might explicitly advertise a set of s trees by providing a
   list of s nicknames.  In that case, the first k of those s trees will
   be computed.  If s is less than k, or if any of the s nicknames
   associated with the trees RB1 is advertising does not exist within
   the LSP database, then the RBridges still compute k trees, but the
   remaining trees they select are the highest priority trees, such that
   k trees are computed.

   There are two exceptions to the above, which can cause fewer
   distribution trees to be computed, as follows:

   o  A nickname whose tree root priority is zero is not selected as a
      tree root based on priority, although it may be selected by being
      listed by the RBridge holding the highest priority tree root
      nickname.  The one exception to this is that if all nicknames have
      priority zero, then the highest priority among them as determined

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      by the tiebreakers is used as a tree root so that there is always
      guaranteed to be at least one distribution tree.

   o  As a transient condition, two or more identical nicknames can
      appear in the list of roots for trees to be computed.  In such a
      case, it is useless to compute a tree for the nickname(s) that are
      about to be lost by the RBridges holding them.  So a distribution
      tree is only computed for the instance of the nickname where the
      priority to hold that nickname value is highest, reducing the
      total number of trees computed.  (It would also be of little use
      to go further down the priority ordered list of possible tree root
      nicknames to maintain the number of trees as the additional tree
      roots found this way would only be valid for a very brief nickname
      transition period.)

   The k trees calculated for a campus are ordered and numbered from 1
   to k.  In addition to advertising the number k, RB1 might explicitly
   advertise a set of s trees by providing a list of s nicknames as
   described above.

   - If s == k, then the trees are numbered in the order that RB1
     advertises them.

   - If s == 0, then the trees are numbered in order of decreasing
     priority.  For example, if RB1 advertises only that k=2, then the
     highest priority tree is number 1 and the 2nd highest priority tree
     is number 2.

   - If s < k, then those advertised by RB1 are numbered from 1 in the
     order advertised.  Then the remainder are chosen by priority order
     from among the remaining possible trees with the numbering
     continuing.  For example, if RB1 advertises k=4, advertises
     { Tx, Ty } as the nicknames of the root of the trees, and the
     campus-wide priority ordering of trees in decreasing order is Ty >
     Ta > Tc > Tb > Tx, the numbering will be as follows: Tx is 1 and Ty
     is 2 since that is the order they are advertised in by RB1.  Then
     Ta is 3 and Tc is 4 because they are the highest priority trees
     that have not already been numbered.

4.5.1.  Distribution Tree Calculation

   RBridges do not use spanning tree to calculate distribution trees.
   Instead, distribution trees are calculated based on the link state
   information, selecting a particular RBridge nickname as the root.
   Each RBridge RBn independently calculates a tree rooted at RBi by
   performing the SPF (Shortest Path First) calculation with RBi as the
   root without requiring any additional exchange of information.

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   It is important, when building a distribution tree, that all RBridges
   choose the same links for that tree.  Therefore, when there are equal
   cost paths for a particular tree, all RBridges need to use the same
   tiebreakers.  It is also desirable to allow splitting of traffic on
   as many links as possible.  For this reason, a simple tiebreaker such
   as "always choose the parent with lower ID" would not be desirable.
   Instead, TRILL uses the tree number as a parameter in the tiebreaking

   When building the tree number j, remember all possible equal cost
   parents for node N.  After calculating the entire "tree" (actually,
   directed graph), for each node N, if N has "p" parents, then order
   the parents in ascending order according to the 7-octet IS-IS ID
   considered as an unsigned integer, and number them starting at zero.
   For tree j, choose N's parent as choice j mod p.

   Note that there might be multiple equal cost links between N and
   potential parent P that have no pseudonodes, because they are either
   point-to-point links or pseudonode-suppressed links.  Such links will
   be treated as a single link for the purpose of tree building, because
   they all have the same parent P, whose IS-IS ID is "P.0".

   In other words, the set of potential parents for N, for the tree
   rooted at R, consists of those that give equally minimal cost paths
   from N to R and that have distinct IS-IS IDs, based on what is
   reported in LSPs.

4.5.2.  Multi-Destination Frame Checks

   When a multi-destination TRILL-encapsulated frame is received by an
   RBridge, there are four checks performed, each of which may cause the
   frame to be discarded:

   1. Tree Adjacency Check: Each RBridge RBn keeps a set of adjacencies
      ( { port, neighbor } pairs ) for each distribution tree it is
      calculating.  One of these adjacencies is toward the tree root
      RBi, and the others are toward the leaves.  Once the adjacencies
      are chosen, it is irrelevant which ones are towards the root RBi
      and which are away from RBi.  RBridges MUST drop a multi-
      destination frame that arrives at a port from an RBridge that is
      not an adjacency for the tree on which the frame is being
      distributed.  Let's suppose that RBn has calculated that
      adjacencies a, c, and f are in the RBi tree.  A multi-destination
      frame for the distribution tree RBi is received only from one of
      the adjacencies a, c, or f (otherwise it is discarded) and
      forwarded to the other two adjacencies.  Should RBn have multiple

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      ports on a link, a multi-destination frame it sends on one of
      these ports will be received by the others but will be discarded
      as an RBridge is not adjacent to itself.

   2. RPF Check: Another technique used by RBridges for avoiding
      temporary multicast loops during topology changes is the Reverse
      Path Forwarding Check.  It involves checking that a multi-
      destination frame, based on the tree and the ingress RBridge,
      arrives from the expected link.  RBridges MUST drop multi-
      destination frames that fail the RPF check.

      To limit the amount of state necessary to perform the RPF check,
      each RBridge RB2 MUST announce which trees RB2 may choose when RB2
      ingresses a multi-destination packet.  When any RBridge, say, RB3,
      is computing the tree from nickname X, RB3 computes, for each
      RBridge RB2 that might act as ingress for tree X, the link on
      which RB3 should receive a packet from ingress RB2 on tree X, and
      note for that link that RB2 is a legal ingress RBridge for tree X.

      The information to determine which trees RB2 might choose is
      included in RB2's LSP.  Similarly to how the highest priority
      RBridge RB1 specifies the k trees that will be computed by all
      RBridges, RB2 specifies a number j, which is the total number of
      different trees RB2 might specify, and the specific trees RB2
      might specify are a combination of specified trees and trees
      selected from highest priority trees.  If RB2 specifies any trees
      that are not in the k trees as specified by RB1, they are ignored.

      The j potential ingress trees for RB2 are the ones with nicknames
      that RB2 has explicitly specified in "specified ingress tree
      nicknames" (and that are included in the k campus-wide trees
      selected by highest priority RBridge RB1), with the remainder (up
      to the maximum of {j,k}) being the highest priority of the k
      campus-wide trees.

      The default value for j is 1.  The value 0 for j is special and
      means that RB2 can pick any of the k trees being computed for the

   3. Parallel Links Check: If the tree-building and tiebreaking for a
      particular multi-destination frame distribution tree selects a
      non-pseudonode link between RB1 and RB2, that "RB1-RB2 link" might
      actually consist of multiple links.  These parallel links would be
      visible to RB1 and RB2, but not to the rest of the campus (because
      the links are not represented by pseudonodes).  If this bundle of
      parallel links is included in a tree, it is important for RB1 and
      RB2 to decide which link to use, but is irrelevant to other
      RBridges, and therefore, the tiebreaking algorithm need not be

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      visible to any RBridges other than RB1 and RB2.  In this case,
      RB1-RB2 adjacencies are ordered as follows, with the one "most
      preferred" adjacency being the one on which RB1 and RB2 transmit
      to and receive multi-destination frames from each other.

      a) Most preferred are those established by P2P Hellos.
         Tiebreaking among those is based on preferring the one with the
         numerically highest Extended Circuit ID as associated with the
         adjacency by the RBridge with the highest System ID.

      b) Next considered are those established through TRILL-Hello
         frames, with suppressed pseudonodes.  Note that the pseudonode
         is suppressed in LSPs, but still appears in the TRILL-Hello,
         and therefore is available for this tiebreaking.  Among these
         links, the one with the numerically largest pseudonode ID is

   4. Port Group Check: If an RBridge has multiple ports attached to the
      same link, a multi-destination frame it is receiving will arrive
      on all of them.  All but one received copy of such a frame MUST be
      discarded to avoid duplication.  All such frames that are part of
      the same flow must be accepted on the same port to avoid re-

   When a topology change occurs (including apparent changes during
   start up), an RBridge MUST adjust its input distribution tree filters
   no later than it adjusts its output forwarding.

4.5.3.  Pruning the Distribution Tree

   Each distribution tree SHOULD be pruned per VLAN, eliminating
   branches that have no potential receivers downstream.  Multi-
   destination TRILL Data frames SHOULD only be forwarded on branches
   that are not pruned.

   Further pruning SHOULD be done in two cases: (1) IGMP [RFC3376], MLD
   [RFC2710], and MRD [RFC4286] messages, where these are to be
   delivered only to links with IP multicast routers; and (2) other
   multicast frames derived from an IP multicast address that should be
   delivered only to links that have registered listeners, plus links
   that have IP multicast routers, except for IP multicast addresses
   that must be broadcast.  Each of these cases is scoped per VLAN.

   Let's assume that RBridge RBn knows that adjacencies (a, c, and f)
   are in the nickname1 distribution tree.  RBn marks pruning
   information for each of the adjacencies in the nickname1-tree.  For
   each adjacency and for each tree, RBn marks:

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   o  the set of VLANs reachable downstream,

   o  for each one of those VLANs, flags indicating whether there are
      IPv4 or IPv6 multicast routers downstream, and

   o  the set of Layer 2 multicast addresses derived from IP multicast
      groups for which there are receivers downstream.

4.5.4.  Tree Distribution Optimization

   RBridges MUST determine the VLAN associated with all native frames
   they ingress and properly enforce VLAN rules on the emission of
   native frames at egress RBridge ports according to how those ports
   are configured and designated as appointed forwarders.  RBridges
   SHOULD also prune the distribution tree of multi-destination frames
   according to VLAN.  But, since they are not required to do such
   pruning, they may receive TRILL data or ESADI frames that should have
   been VLAN pruned earlier in the tree distribution.  They silently
   discard such frames.  A campus may contain some Rbridges that prune
   distribution trees on VLAN and some that do not.

   The situation is more complex for multicast.  RBridges SHOULD analyze
   IP-derived native multicast frames, and learn and announce listeners
   and IP multicast routers for such frames as discussed in Section 4.7
   below.  And they SHOULD prune the distribution of IP-derived
   multicast frames based on such learning and announcements.  But, they
   are not required to prune based on IP multicast listener and router
   attachment state.  And, unlike VLANs, where VLAN attachment state of
   ports MUST be maintained and honored, RBridges are not required to
   maintain IP multicast listener and router attachment state.

   An RBridge that does not examine native IGMP [RFC3376], MLD
   [RFC2710], or MRD [RFC4286] frames that it ingresses MUST advertise
   that it has IPv4 and IPv6 IP multicast routers attached for all the
   VLANs for which it is an appointed forwarder.  It need not advertise
   any IP-derived multicast listeners.  This will cause all IP-derived
   multicast traffic to be sent to this RBridge for those VLANs.  It
   then egresses that traffic onto the links for which it is appointed
   forwarder where the VLAN of the traffic matches the VLAN for which it
   is appointed forwarder on that link.  (This may cause the suppression
   of certain IGMP membership report messages from end stations, but
   that is not significant because any multicast traffic that such
   reports would be requesting will be sent to such end stations under
   these circumstances.)

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   A campus may contain a mixture of Rbridges with different levels of
   IP-derived multicast optimization.  An RBridge may receive IP-derived
   multicast frames that should have been pruned earlier in the tree
   distribution.  It silently discards such frames.

   See also "Considerations for Internet Group Management Protocol
   (IGMP) and Multicast Listener Discovery (MLD) Snooping Switches"

4.5.5.  Forwarding Using a Distribution Tree

   With full optimization, forwarding a multi-destination data frame is
   done as follows.  References to adjacencies below do not include the
   adjacency on which a frame was received.

   o  The RBridge RBn receives a multi-destination TRILL Data frame with
      inner VLAN-x and a TRILL header indicating that the selected tree
      is the nickname1 tree;

   o  if the source from which the frame was received is not one of the
      adjacencies in the nickname1 tree for the specified ingress
      RBridge, the frame is dropped (see Section 4.5.1);

   o  else, if the frame is an IGMP or MLD announcement message or an
      MRD query message, then the encapsulated frame is forwarded onto
      adjacencies in the nickname1 tree that indicate there are
      downstream VLAN-x IPv4 or IPv6 multicast routers as appropriate;

   o  else, if the frame is for a Layer 2 multicast address derived from
      an IP multicast group, but its IP address is not the range of IP
      multicast addresses that must be treated as broadcast, the frame
      is forwarded onto adjacencies in the nickname1 tree that indicate
      there are downstream VLAN-x IP multicast routers of the
      corresponding type (IPv4 or IPv6), as well as adjacencies that
      indicate there are downstream VLAN-x receivers for that group

   o  else (the inner frame is for a Layer 2 multicast address not
      derived from an IP multicast group or an unknown destination or
      broadcast or an IP multicast address that is required to be
      treated as broadcast), the frame is forwarded onto an adjacency if
      and only if that adjacency is in the nickname1 tree, and marked as
      reaching VLAN-x links.

   For each link for which RBn is appointed forwarder, RBn additionally
   checks to see if it should decapsulate the frame and send it to the
   link in native form, or process the frame locally.

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   TRILL ESADI frames will be delivered only to RBridges that are
   appointed forwarders for their VLAN.  Such frames will be multicast
   throughout the campus, like other non-IP-derived multicast data
   frames, on the distribution tree chosen by the RBridge that created
   the TRILL ESADI frame, and pruned according to the Inner.VLAN ID.
   Thus, all the RBridges that are appointed forwarders for a link in
   that VLAN receive them.

4.6.  Frame Processing Behavior

   This section describes RBridge behavior for all varieties of received
   frames, including how they are forwarded when appropriate.  Section
   4.6.1 covers native frames, Section 4.6.2 covers TRILL frames, and
   Section 4.6.3 covers Layer 2 control frames.  Processing may be
   organized or sequenced in a different way than described here as long
   as the result is the same.  See Section 1.4 for frame type

   Corrupt frames, for example, frames that are not a multiple of 8
   bits, are too short or long for the link protocol/hardware in use, or
   have a bad FCS are discarded on receipt by an RBridge port as they
   are discarded on receipt at an IEEE 802.1 bridge port.

   Source address information ( { VLAN, Outer.MacSA, port } ) is learned
   by default from any frame with a unicast source address (see Section

4.6.1.  Receipt of a Native Frame

   If the port is configured as disabled or if end-station service is
   disabled on the port by configuring it as a trunk port or configuring
   it to use P2P Hellos, the frame is discarded.

   The ingress Rbridge RB1 determines the VLAN ID for a native frame
   according to the same rules as IEEE [802.1Q-2005] bridges do (see
   Appendix D and Section 4.9.2).  Once the VLAN is determined, if RB1
   is not the appointed forwarder for that VLAN on the port where the
   frame was received or is inhibited, the frame is discarded.  If it is
   appointed forwarder for that VLAN and is not inhibited (see Section, then the native frame is forwarded according to Section if it is unicast and according to Section if it is
   multicast or broadcast.  Native Unicast Case

   If the destination MAC address of the native frame is a unicast
   address, the following steps are performed.

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   The Layer 2 destination address and VLAN are looked up in the ingress
   RBridge's database of MAC addresses and VLANs to find the egress
   RBridge RBm or the local egress port or to discover that the
   destination is the receiving RBridge or is unknown.  One of the
   following four cases will apply:

   1. If the destination is the receiving RBridge, the frame is locally

   2. If the destination is known to be on the same link from which the
      native frame was received but is not the receiving RBridge, the
      RBridge silently discards the frame, since the destination should
      already have received it.

   3. If the destination is known to be on a different local link for
      which RBm is the appointed forwarder, then RB1 converts the native
      frame to a TRILL Data frame with an Outer.MacDA of the next hop
      RBridge towards RBm, a TRILL header with M = 0, an ingress
      nickname for RB1, and the egress nickname for RBm.  If ingress RB1
      has multiple nicknames, it SHOULD use the same nickname in the
      ingress nickname field whenever it encapsulates a native frame
      from any particular source MAC address and VLAN.  This simplifies
      end node learning.  If RBm is RB1, processing then proceeds as in
      Section; otherwise, the Outer.MacSA is set to the MAC
      address of the RB1 port on the path to the next hop RBridge
      towards RBm and the frame is queued for transmission out of that

   4. If a unicast destination MAC is unknown in the frame's VLAN, RB1
      handles the frame as described in Section for a broadcast
      frame except that the Inner.MacDA is the original native frame's
      unicast destination address.  Native Multicast and Broadcast Frames

   If the RBridge has multiple ports attached to the same link, all but
   one received copy of a native multicast or broadcast frame is
   discarded to avoid duplication.  All such frames that are part of the
   same flow must be accepted on the same port to avoid re-ordering.

   If the frame is a native IGMP [RFC3376], MLD [RFC2710], or MRD
   [RFC4286] frame, then RB1 SHOULD analyze it, learn any group
   membership or IP multicast router presence indicated, and announce
   that information for the appropriate VLAN in its LSP (see Section

   For all multi-destination native frames, RB1 forwards the frame in
   native form to its links where it is appointed forwarder for the

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   frame's VLAN, subject to further pruning and inhibition.  In
   addition, it converts the native frame to a TRILL Data frame with the
   All-RBridges multicast address as Outer.MacDA, a TRILL header with
   the multi-destination bit M = 1, the ingress nickname for RB1, and
   the egress nickname for the distribution tree it decides to use.  It
   then forwards the frame on the pruned distribution tree (see Section
   4.5) setting the Outer.MacSA of each copy sent to the MAC address of
   the RB1 port on which it is sent.

   The default is for RB1 to write into the egress nickname field the
   nickname for a distribution tree, from the set of distribution trees
   RB1 has announced it might use, whose root is least cost from RB1.
   RB1 MAY choose different distribution trees for different frames if
   RB1 has been configured to path-split multicast.  In that case, RB1
   MUST select a tree by specifying a nickname that is a distribution
   tree root (see Section 4.5).  Also, RB1 MUST select a nickname that
   RB1 has announced (in RB1's own LSP) to be one of those that RB1
   might use.  The strategy RB1 uses to select distribution trees in
   multipathing multi-destination frames is beyond the scope of this

4.6.2.  Receipt of a TRILL Frame

   A TRILL frame either has the TRILL or L2-IS-IS Ethertype or has a
   multicast Outer.MacDA allocated to TRILL (see Section 7.2).  The
   following tests are performed sequentially, and the first that
   matches controls the handling of the frame:

   1. If the Outer.MacDA is All-IS-IS-RBridges and the Ethertype is
      L2-IS-IS, the frame is handled as described in Section

   2. If the Outer.MacDA is a multicast address allocated to TRILL other
      than All-RBridges, the frame is discarded.

   3. If the Outer.MacDA is a unicast address other than the receiving
      Rbridge port MAC address, the frame is discarded.  (Such discarded
      frames are most likely addressed to another RBridge on a multi-
      access link and that other Rbridge will handle them.)

   4. If the Ethertype is not TRILL, the frame is discarded.

   5. If the Version field in the TRILL header is greater than 0, the
      frame is discarded.

   6. If the hop count is 0, the frame is discarded.

   7. If the Outer.MacDA is multicast and the M bit is zero or if the
      Outer.MacDA is unicast and M bit is one, the frame is discarded.

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   8. By default, an RBridge MUST NOT forward TRILL-encapsulated frames
      from a neighbor with which it does not have a TRILL IS-IS
      adjacency.  RBridges MAY be configured per port to accept these
      frames for forwarding in cases where it is known that a non-
      peering device (such as an end station) is configured to originate
      TRILL-encapsulated frames that can be safely forwarded.

   9. The Inner.MacDA is then tested.  If it is the All-ESADI-RBridges
      multicast address and RBn implements the ESADI protocol,
      processing proceeds as in Section below.  If it is any
      other address or RBn does not implement ESADI, processing proceeds
      as in Section  TRILL Control Frames

   The frame is processed by the TRILL IS-IS instance on RBn and is not
   forwarded.  TRILL ESADI Frames

   If M == 0, the frame is silently discarded.

   The egress nickname designates the distribution tree.  The frame is
   forwarded as described in Section  In addition, if the
   forwarding Rbridge is an appointed forwarder for a link in the
   specified VLAN and implements the TRILL ESADI protocol and ESADI is
   enabled at the forwarding Rbridge for that VLAN, the inner frame is
   decapsulated and provided to that local ESADI protocol.  TRILL Data Frames

   The M flag is then checked.  If it is zero, processing continues as
   described in Section, if it is one, processing continues as
   described in Section  Known Unicast TRILL Data Frames

   The egress nickname in the TRILL header is examined, and if it is
   unknown or reserved, the frame is discarded.

   If RBn is a transit RBridge, the hop count is decremented by one and
   the frame is forwarded to the next hop RBridge towards the egress
   RBridge.  (The provision permitting RBridges to decrease the hop
   count by more than one under some circumstances (see Section 3.6)
   applies only to multi-destination frames, not to the known unicast
   frames considered in this subsection.)  The Inner.VLAN is not
   examined by a transit RBridge when it forwards a known unicast TRILL
   Data frame.  For the forwarded frame, the Outer.MacSA is the MAC

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   address of the transmitting port, the Outer.MacDA is the unicast
   address of the next hop RBridge, and the VLAN is the Designated VLAN
   on the link onto which the frame is being transmitted.

   If RBn is not a transit RBridge, that is, if the egress RBridge
   indicated is the RBridge performing the processing, the Inner.MacSA
   and Inner.VLAN ID are, by default, learned as associated with the
   ingress nickname unless that nickname is unknown or reserved or the
   Inner.MacSA is not unicast.  Then the frame being forwarded is
   decapsulated to native form, and the following checks are performed:

   o  The Inner.MacDA is checked.  If it is not unicast, the frame is

   o  If the Inner.MacDA corresponds to the RBridge doing the
      processing, the frame is locally delivered.

   o  The Inner.VLAN ID is checked.  If it is 0x0 or 0xFFF, the frame is

   o  The Inner.MacDA and Inner.VLAN ID are looked up in RBn's local
      address cache and the frame is then either sent onto the link
      containing the destination, if the RBridge is appointed forwarder
      for that link for the frame's VLAN and is not inhibited (or
      discarded if it is inhibited), or processed as in one of the
      following two paragraphs.

   A known unicast TRILL Data frame can arrive at the egress Rbridge
   only to find that the combination of Inner.MacDA and Inner.VLAN is
   not actually known by that RBridge.  One way this can happen is that
   the address information may have timed out in the egress RBridge MAC
   address cache.  In this case, the egress RBridge sends the native
   frame out on all links that are in the frame's VLAN for which the
   RBridge is appointed forwarder and has not been inhibited, except
   that it MAY refrain from sending the frame on links where it knows
   there cannot be an end station with the destination MAC address, for
   example, the link port is configured as a trunk (see Section 4.9.1).

   If, due to manual configuration or learning from Layer 2
   registration, the destination MAC and VLAN appear in RBn's local
   address cache for two or more links for which RBn is an uninhibited
   appointed forwarder for the frame's VLAN, RBn sends the native frame
   on all such links.  Multi-Destination TRILL Data Frames

   The egress and ingress nicknames in the TRILL header are examined
   and, if either is unknown or reserved, the frame is discarded.

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   The Outer.MacSA is checked and the frame discarded if it is not a
   tree adjacency for the tree indicated by the egress RBridge nickname
   on the port where the frame was received.  The Reverse Path
   Forwarding Check is performed on the ingress and egress nicknames and
   the frame discarded if it fails.  If there are multiple TRILL-Hello
   pseudonode suppressed parallel links to the previous hop RBridge, the
   frame is discarded if it has been received on the wrong one.  If the
   RBridge has multiple ports connected to the link, the frame is
   discarded unless it was received on the right one.  For more
   information on the checks in this paragraph, see Section 4.5.2.

   If the Inner.VLAN ID of the frame is 0x0 or 0xFFF, the frame is

   If the RBridge is an appointed forwarder for the Inner.VLAN ID of the
   frame, the Inner.MacSA and Inner.VLAN ID are, by default, learned as
   associated with the ingress nickname unless that nickname is unknown
   or reserved or the Inner.MacSA is not unicast.  A copy of the frame
   is then decapsulated, sent in native form on those links in its VLAN
   for which the RBridge is appointed forwarder subject to additional
   pruning and inhibition as described in Section, and/or
   locally processed as appropriate.

   The hop count is decreased (possibly by more than one; see Section
   3.6), and the frame is forwarded down the tree specified by the
   egress RBridge nickname pruned as described in Section 4.5.

   For the forwarded frame, the Outer.MacSA is set to that of the port
   on which the frame is being transmitted, the Outer.MacDA is the
   All-RBridges multicast address, and the VLAN is the Designated VLAN
   of the link on which the frame is being transmitted.

4.6.3.  Receipt of a Layer 2 Control Frame

   Low-level control frames received by an RBridge are handled within
   the port where they are received as described in Section 4.9.

   There are two types of high-level control frames, distinguished by
   their destination address, which are handled as described in the
   sections referenced below.

      Name   Section   Destination Address

      BPDU   4.9.3     01-80-C2-00-00-00
      VRP    4.9.4     01-80-C2-00-00-21

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4.7.  IGMP, MLD, and MRD Learning

   Ingress RBridges SHOULD learn, based on native IGMP [RFC3376], MLD
   [RFC2710], and MRD [RFC4286] frames they receive in VLANs for which
   they are an uninhibited appointed forwarder, which IP-derived
   multicast messages should be forwarded onto which links.  Such frames
   are also, in general, encapsulated as TRILL Data frames and
   distributed as described below and in Section 4.5.

   An IGMP or MLD membership report received in native form from a link
   indicates a multicast group listener for that group on that link.  An
   IGMP or MLD query or an MRD advertisement received in native form
   from a link indicates the presence of an IP multicast router on that

   IP multicast group membership reports have to be sent throughout the
   campus and delivered to all IP multicast routers, distinguishing IPv4
   and IPv6.  All IP-derived multicast traffic must also be sent to all
   IP multicast routers for the same version of IP.

   IP multicast data SHOULD only be sent on links where there is either
   an IP multicast router for that IP type (IPv4 or IPv6) or an IP
   multicast group listener for that IP-derived multicast MAC address,
   unless the IP multicast address is in the range required to be
   treated as broadcast.

   RBridges do not need to announce themselves as listeners to the IPv4
   All-Snoopers multicast group (the group used for MRD reports
   [RFC4286]), because the IPv4 multicast address for that group is in
   the range where all frames sent to that IP multicast address must be
   broadcast (see [RFC4541], Section 2.1.2).  However, RBridges that are
   performing IPv6-derived multicast optimization MUST announce
   themselves as listeners to the IPv6 All-Snoopers multicast group.

   See also "Considerations for Internet Group Management Protocol
   (IGMP) and Multicast Listener Discovery (MLD) Snooping Switches"

4.8.  End-Station Address Details

   RBridges have to learn the MAC addresses and VLANs of their locally
   attached end stations for link/VLAN pairs for which they are the
   appointed forwarder.  Learning this enables them to do the following:

   o  Forward the native form of incoming known unicast TRILL Data
      frames onto the correct link.

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   o  Decide, for an incoming native unicast frame from a link, where
      the RBridge is the appointed forwarder for the frame's VLAN,
      whether the frame is

      -  known to have been destined for another end station on the same
         link, so the RBridge need do nothing, or

      -  has to be converted to a TRILL Data frame and forwarded.

   RBridges need to learn the MAC addresses, VLANs, and remote RBridges
   of remotely attached end stations for VLANs for which they and the
   remote RBridge are an appointed forwarder, so they can efficiently
   direct native frames they receive that are unicast to those addresses
   and VLANs.

4.8.1.  Learning End-Station Addresses

   There are five independent ways an RBridge can learn end-station
   addresses as follows:

   1. From the observation of VLAN-x frames received on ports where it
      is appointed VLAN-x forwarder, learning the { source MAC, VLAN,
      port } triplet of received frames.

   2. The { source MAC, VLAN, ingress RBridge nickname } triplet of any
      native frames that it decapsulates.

   3. By Layer 2 registration protocols learning the { source MAC, VLAN,
      port } of end stations registering at a local port.

   4. By running the TRILL ESADI protocol for one or more VLANs and
      thereby receiving remote address information and/or transmitting
      local address information.

   5. By management configuration.

   RBridges MUST implement capabilities 1 and 2 above.  RBridges use
   these capabilities unless configured, for one or more particular
   VLANs and/or ports, not to learn from either received frames or from
   decapsulating native frames to be transmitted or both.

   RBridges MAY implement capabilities 3 and 4 above.  If capability 4
   is implemented, the ESADI protocol is run only when the RBridge is
   configured to do so on a per-VLAN basis.

   RBridges SHOULD implement capability 5.

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   Entries in the table of learned MAC and VLAN addresses and associated
   information also have a one-octet unsigned confidence level
   associated with each entry whose rationale is given below.  Such
   information learned from the observation of data has a confidence of
   0x20 unless configured to have a different confidence.  This
   confidence level can be configured on a per-RBridge basis separately
   for information learned from local native frames and that learned
   from remotely originated encapsulated frames.  Such information
   received via the TRILL ESADI protocol is accompanied by a confidence
   level in the range 0 to 254.  Such information configured by
   management defaults to a confidence level of 255 but may be
   configured to have another value.

   The table of learned MAC addresses includes (1) { confidence, VLAN,
   MAC address, local port } for addresses learned from local native
   frames and local registration protocols, (2) { confidence, VLAN, MAC
   address, egress RBridge nickname } for addresses learned from remote
   encapsulated frames and ESADI link state databases, and (3)
   additional information to implement timeout of learned addresses,
   statically configured addresses, and the like.

   When a new address and related information learned from observing
   data frames are to be entered into the local database, there are
   three possibilities:

   A. If this is a new { address, VLAN } pair, the information is
      entered accompanied by the confidence level.

   B. If there is already an entry for this { address, VLAN } pair with
      the same accompanying delivery information, the confidence level
      in the local database is set to the maximum of its existing
      confidence level and the confidence level with which it is being
      learned.  In addition, if the information is being learned with
      the same or a higher confidence level than its existing confidence
      level, timer information is reset.

   C. If there is already an entry for this { address, VLAN } pair with
      different information, the learned information replaces the older
      information only if it is being learned with higher or equal
      confidence than that in the database entry.  If it replaces older
      information, timer information is also reset.

4.8.2.  Learning Confidence Level Rationale

   The confidence level mechanism allows an RBridge campus manager to
   cause certain address learning sources to prevail over others.  In a
   default configuration, without the optional ESADI protocol, addresses
   are only learned from observing local native frames and the

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   decapsulation of received TRILL Data frames.  Both of these sources
   default to confidence level 0x20 so, since learning at an equal or
   high confidence overrides previous learning, the learning in such a
   default case mimics default 802.1 bridge learning.

   While RBridge campus management policies are beyond the scope of this
   document, here are some example types of policies that can be
   implemented with the confidence mechanism and the rationale for each:

   o  Locally received native frames might be considered more reliable
      than decapsulated frames received from remote parts of the campus.
      To stop MAC addresses learned from such local frames from being
      usurped by remotely received forged frames, the confidence in
      locally learned addresses could be increased or that in addresses
      learned from remotely sourced decapsulated frames decreased.

   o  MAC address information learned through a cryptographically
      authenticated Layer 2 registration protocol, such as 802.1X with a
      cryptographically based EAP method, might be considered more
      reliable than information learned through the mere observation of
      data frames.  When such authenticated learned address information
      is transmitted via the ESADI protocol, the use of authentication
      in the TRILL ESADI LSP frames could make tampering with it in
      transit very difficult.  As a result, it might be reasonable to
      announce such authenticated information via the ESADI protocol
      with a high confidence, so it would override any alternative
      learning from data observation.

   Manually configured address information is generally considered
   static and so defaults to a confidence of 0xFF while no other source
   of such information can be configured to a confidence any higher than
   0xFE.  However, for other cases, such as where the manual
   configuration is just a starting point that the Rbridge campus
   manager wishes to be dynamically overridable, the confidence of such
   manually configured information may be configured to a lower value.

4.8.3.  Forgetting End-Station Addresses

   While RBridges need to learn end-station addresses as described
   above, it is equally important that they be able to forget such
   information.  Otherwise, frames for end stations that have moved to a
   different part of the campus could be indefinitely black-holed by
   RBridges with stale information as to the link to which the end
   station is attached.

   For end-station address information locally learned from frames
   received, the time out from the last time a native frame was received
   or decapsulated with the information conforms to the recommendations

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   of [802.1D].  It is referred to as the "Ageing Time" and is
   configurable per RBridge with a range of from 10 seconds to 1,000,000
   seconds and a default value of 300 seconds.

   The situation is different for end-station address information
   acquired via the TRILL ESADI protocol.  It is up to the originating
   RBridge to decide when to remove such information from its ESADI LSPs
   (or up to ESADI protocol timeouts if the originating RBridge becomes

   When an RBridge ceases to be appointed forwarder for VLAN-x on a
   port, it forgets all end-station address information learned from the
   observation of VLAN-x native frames received on that port.  It also
   increments a per-VLAN counter of the number of times it lost
   appointed forwarder status on one of its ports for that VLAN.

   When, for all of its ports, RBridge RBn is no longer appointed
   forwarder for VLAN-x, it forgets all end-station address information
   learned from decapsulating VLAN-x native frames.  Also, if RBn is
   participating in the TRILL ESADI protocol for VLAN-x, it ceases to so
   participate after sending a final LSP nulling out the end-station
   address information for the VLAN that it had been originating.  In
   addition, all other RBridges that are VLAN-x forwarder on at least
   one of their ports notice that the link state data for RBn has
   changed to show that it no longer has a link on VLAN-x.  In response,
   they forget all end-station address information they have learned
   from decapsulating VLAN-x frames that show RBn as the ingress

   When the appointed forwarder lost counter for RBridge RBn for VLAN-x
   is observed to increase via the TRILL IS-IS link state database but
   RBn continues to be an appointed forwarder for VLAN-x on at least one
   of its ports, every other RBridge that is an appointed forwarder for
   VLAN-x modifies the aging of all the addresses it has learned by
   decapsulating native frames in VLAN-x from ingress RBridge RBn as
   follows: the time remaining for each entry is adjusted to be no
   larger than a per-RBridge configuration parameter called (to
   correspond to [802.1D]) "Forward Delay".  This parameter is in the
   range of 4 to 30 seconds with a default value of 15 seconds.

4.8.4.  Shared VLAN Learning

   RBridges can map VLAN IDs into a smaller number of identifiers for
   purposes of address learning, as [802.1Q-2005] bridges can.  Then,
   when a lookup is done in learned address information, this identifier
   is used for matching in place of the VLAN ID.  If the ID of the VLAN
   on which the address was learned is not retained, then there are the
   following consequences:

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   o  The RBridge no longer has the information needed to participate in
      the TRILL ESADI protocol for the VLANs whose ID is not being

   o  In cases where Section 4.8.3 above requires the discarding of
      learned address information based on a particular VLAN, when the
      VLAN ID is not available for entries under a shared VLAN
      identifier, instead the time remaining for each entry under that
      shared VLAN identifier is adjusted to be no longer than the
      RBridge's "Forward Delay".

   Although outside the scope of this specification, there are some
   Layer 2 features in which a set of VLANs has shared learning, where
   one of the VLANs is the "primary" and the other VLANs in the group
   are "secondaries".  An example of this is where traffic from
   different communities is separated using VLAN tags, and yet some
   resource (such as an IP router or DHCP server) is to be shared by all
   the communities.  A method of implementing this feature is to give a
   VLAN tag, say, Z, to a link containing the shared resource, and have
   the other VLANs, say, A, C, and D, be part of the group { primary =
   Z, secondaries = A, C, D }.  An RBridge, aware of this grouping,
   attached to one of the secondary VLANs in the group also claims to be
   attached to the primary VLAN.  So an RBridge attached to A would
   claim to also be attached to Z.  An RBridge attached to the primary
   would claim to be attached to all the VLANs in the group.

   This document does not specify how VLAN groups might be used.  Only
   RBridges that participate in a VLAN group will be configured to know
   about the VLAN group.  However, to detect misconfiguration, an
   RBridge configured to know about a VLAN group SHOULD report the VLAN
   group in its LSP.

(page 71 continued on part 4)

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