Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) M. Phillips
Request for Comments: 6167 P. Adams
Category: Informational IBM
ISSN: 2070-1721 D. Rokicki
April 2011 URI Scheme for Java(tm) Message Service 1.0
This document defines the format of Uniform Resource Identifiers
(URIs) as defined in RFC 3986, for designating connections and
destination addresses used in the Java(tm) Messaging Service (JMS).
It was originally designed for particular uses, but applies generally
wherever a JMS URI is needed to describe the connection to a JMS
provider, and access to a JMS Destination. The syntax of this JMS
URI is not compatible with previously existing, but unregistered,
"jms" URI schemes. However, the expressiveness of the scheme
described herein should satisfy the requirements of all existing
Status of This Memo
This document is not an Internet Standards Track specification; it is
published for informational purposes.
This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force
(IETF). It represents the consensus of the IETF community. It has
received public review and has been approved for publication by the
Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG). Not all documents
approved by the IESG are a candidate for any level of Internet
Standard; see Section 2 of RFC 5741.
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Table of Contents
1. Introduction ....................................................31.1. Requirements Notation ......................................42. URI Scheme Name .................................................53. Syntax of a JMS URI .............................................54. URI Scheme Semantics ............................................54.1. Shared Parameters ..........................................64.2. "jndi" Variant .............................................74.3. Vendor Destination Names -- Variants "queue" and "topic" ..114.4. Custom Parameters .........................................125. Encoding Considerations ........................................136. Applications/Protocols That Use the JMS URI ....................137. Interoperability Considerations ................................138. Security Considerations ........................................148.1. Reliability and Consistency ...............................148.2. Malicious Construction ....................................148.3. Back-End Transcoding ......................................158.4. Semantic Attacks ..........................................158.5. Other Security Concerns ...................................169. IANA Considerations ............................................169.1. URI Scheme Registration ...................................169.2. "jms" URI Scheme Registries ...............................1710. Contributors ..................................................1811. Acknowledgements ..............................................1912. References ....................................................2012.1. Normative References .....................................2012.2. Informative References ...................................211. Introduction
The "jms" URI scheme is used to designate a javax.jms.Destination
object and an associated javax.jms.ConnectionFactory object [JMS],
and, optionally, to provide additional information concerning the way
that the Destination object is to be used. Probably the most common,
and certainly the most compatible, way in Java to retrieve such
Destinations is via Java Naming and Directory Information (JNDI)
[JNDI] methods. So as to extend compatibility to existing vendor
mechanisms beyond JNDI lookup, the JMS URI syntax allows variants on
the core syntax. The variant exists as an explicit part of the
syntax so that tools that are otherwise unfamiliar with the variant
can recognize the presence of a URI with an alternate interpretation.
In its simplest and most interoperable form, this URI scheme starts
with "jms:jndi:" plus a JNDI name for a Destination. Since
interaction with some resources might require JNDI contextual
information or JMS header fields and properties to be specified as
well, the "jndi" variant of the "jms" URI scheme includes support for
supplying this additional JNDI information as query parameters.
While the "jndi" variant provides compatibility, vendors can define
additional variants. This specification defines three variants:
"jndi", "queue", and "topic". Vendors defining additional variants
are strongly encouraged to register them with IANA as documented in
While the "jms" URI scheme allows the location of network resources,
it does not map to a single underlying protocol, unlike most other
URI schemes that do so. Instead, it achieves interoperability
through the use of a common Java-based API [JAVA] for messaging.
Because of this, interoperability is dependent upon the
implementation of the API and its capabilities; two implementations
of JMS might or might not interoperate in practice. Furthermore, it
might be impractical to use JMS URIs in non-Java environments.
As a consequence of building upon an API, rather than a protocol, the
utility of a JMS URI depends on the context in which it is used.
That context includes agreement on the same JMS provider or
underlying protocol; agreement on how to look up endpoints (JNDI);
and, when using serialized Java object messages, sufficiently similar
Java Class environments that serialized objects can be appropriately
read and written. Users of this scheme need to establish the
necessary shared-context parts as just enumerated -- a context that
can span the globe, or merely a small local network. With that
shared context, this URI scheme enables endpoint identification in a
uniform way, and the means to connect to those endpoints.
1.1. Requirements Notation
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].
All syntax descriptions use the ABNF specified by [RFC5234],
"Augmented BNF for Syntax Specifications: ABNF".
Note that some examples in this document wrap long JMS URIs for
readability. The line breaks are not part of the actual URIs.
2. URI Scheme Name
The name of the URI scheme is "jms".
3. Syntax of a JMS URI
The following ABNF describes the "jms" scheme URI syntax:
jms-uri = "jms:" jms-variant ":" jms-dest
[ "?" param *( "&" param ) ]
jms-variant = segment-nz-nc
jms-dest = segment-nz ; specific meaning per variant
param = param-name "=" param-value
param-name = 1*(unreserved / pct-encoded)
param-value = *(unreserved / pct-encoded)
segment-nz-nc = <as defined in RFC 3986>
path-rootless = <as defined in RFC 3986>
unreserved = <as defined in RFC 3986>
pct-encoded = <as defined in RFC 3986>
The URIs are percent-encoded UTF-8 [RFC3629]. Please see Section 5
of this document for encoding considerations.
4. URI Scheme Semantics
JMS URIs are used to locate JMS [JMS] Destination resources and do
not specify actions to be taken on those resources. Operations
available on JMS Destinations are fully and normatively defined by
the JMS specification and as such are out of scope for this URI
The required portions of the syntax include the terminal of "jms" for
the URI scheme name; the <jms-variant> element to indicate the
variant of the scheme; and the <jms-dest> element, which identifies
the Destination based on the chosen variant. For the <jms-variant>
element, this document defines three values: "jndi", "queue", and
"topic". All the terminals resulting from <jms-variant> and
<jms-dest> production rules are case-sensitive.
Parameters further refine how to locate and use the Destination. The
parameter names and values are case-sensitive. They can occur in any
order, and each parameter name SHOULD NOT appear more than once. In
the event that a parameter appears multiple times, all but the last
instance of the parameter MUST be ignored. For comparison purposes,
the absence of a parameter does not mean the same thing as a URI with
a parameter set to a default value, due to the potential variation in
default values as determined by the context of a specific use.
Each variant can have query parameters specific to that variation.
All such variant-specific parameters SHOULD use the name of the
variant as the prefix to the parameters. For example, a vendor-
specific variant of "vnd.example.ex" might also define a parameter
with a name like "vnd.example.exParameter". Parameters that apply
across multiple variants -- perhaps because they are generally
applicable, such as JMS settings -- MUST NOT have a name that starts
with the name of any known variant. This pattern enables tools that
are otherwise unfamiliar with a particular variant to distinguish
those parameters that are specific to a variant from those that are
more generally applicable.
Examples of the URI scheme include:
4.1. Shared Parameters
In addition to the required particles, the "jms" URI scheme supports
the following shared parameters, which are available to all variants.
These parameters correspond to headers and properties on the JMS
Messages to be sent. For the parameters deliveryMode, timeToLive,
and priority, the default values might be specified in the context of
a specific use, for example by environment variables, or in the
configuration of a particular network application. JMS also defines
default values for these properties. The context default is hereby
defined as the default value in the context of a specific use, or the
JMS default for a particular property if the context does not define
Indicates whether the request message is persistent or not. This
property corresponds to the JMS message header field
"JMSDeliveryMode" defined in Section 3.4.2 of the JMS 1.1
specification [JMS]. The value of this parameter MUST be
"PERSISTENT" or "NON_PERSISTENT". If this parameter is not
specified, then the context default MUST be used.
The lifetime, in milliseconds, of the request message, specified as a
decimal number. This property corresponds to the JMS Time-To-Live
value defined in Section 4.8 of the JMS 1.1 specification. If this
parameter is not specified, then the context default MUST be used.
The JMS priority associated with the request message. As per
Section 3.4.10 of the JMS 1.1 specification, this MUST be a value
between 0 and 9 inclusive, specified as a decimal number. This
corresponds to the JMS message header field "JMSPriority". If this
parameter is not specified, then the context default MUST be used.
This property corresponds to the JMS message header field
"JMSReplyTo" defined in Section 3.4.6 of the JMS 1.1 specification.
As interpreted by the particular variant, this property value
specifies the JMS Destination object to which a response message
ought to be sent.
4.2. "jndi" Variant
The "jndi" variant implies the use of JNDI for discovering the
Destination object. When this is specified as the variant, the
<jms-dest> portion of the syntax is the name for JNDI lookup
purposes. Additional JNDI-specific parameters can be specified. The
JNDI-specific parameters SHOULD only be processed when the URI
variant is "jndi".
4.2.1. JNDI Parameters
Specifies the JNDI name of the Java class (see Section 3.8,
"Identifiers", of [JLS] for the specification of a legal Java class
name) providing the connection factory.
Specifies the fully qualified Java class name of the
"InitialContextFactory" implementation class to use.
Specifies the JNDI provider URL, in a form consistent with
javax.naming.spi.NamingManager.getURLContext(String scheme, Hashtable
environment) as defined in the JNDI specification [JNDI].
188.8.131.52. Additional JNDI Parameters
It is possible that connecting to a JNDI provider requires additional
parameters. These parameters can be passed in as custom parameters
(see Section 4.4). To identify a custom parameter as JNDI specific,
the parameter name needs to start with the prefix "jndi-".
For example, if the JNDI provider requires a parameter named
"com.example.jndi.someParameter", you can supply the parameter in the
URI as: jndi-com.example.jndi.someParameter=someValue
4.2.2. Example of Performing a JNDI Lookup
To perform a lookup based on a "jndi" variant URI using Java APIs, an
application might start by creating a JNDI InitialContext object.
The InitialContext object can then be used to look up the JMS
ConnectionFactory object (using the "jndiConnectionFactoryName" URI
parameter), the target JMS Destination object (using the <jms-dest>
portion of the JMS URI), and the "replyToName" JMS Destination object
(if the "replyToName" parameter is specified on the URI). The
application creates the InitialContext object by first setting up two
properties: "Context.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY", with the value of the
jndiInitialContextFactory JMS URI parameter; and
"Context.PROVIDER_URL", with the value of the jndiURL URI parameter;
and then passing the two properties to the InitialContext
To locate a connection factory or Destination object, the application
passes the name of the object into the InitialContext.lookup()
For example, the JMS URI...
...would be used by the following (non-normative) code sample to
locate and retrieve a JMS ConnectionFactory called "CONNFACT", and
JMS Destinations called "REQ_QUEUE" and "RESP_QUEUE", from a file-
system JNDI context called "c:/JMSAdmin".
* Preconditions on URI:
* - portion <jms-dest> has been parsed into variable "jms_dest"
* - parameters "jndiConnectionFactoryName",
* "jndiInitialContextFactory", "replyToName", and "jndiURL" have
* been parsed into variables of the same name.
Hashtable environment = new Hashtable();
* Create File-System Initial Context
Context ctx = new InitialContext(environment);
* Now get the JMS ConnectionFactory and Destination. These will
* be used later on in the application to create the JMS
* Connection and send/receive messages.
ConnectionFactory jmsConnFact = (ConnectionFactory)
Destination requestDest = (Destination) ctx.lookup(jms_dest);
Destination replyDest = (Destination) ctx.lookup(replyToName);
The ConnectionFactory is used to create a Connection, which itself is
used to create a Session. The Session can then be used to create the
MessageProducer, which sends messages to the target Destination; and
the MessageConsumer, which receives messages from the replyToName
Destination (as shown in the following code extract).
* Create a producer to send a message to the request Destination
* that was specified in the URI, then create the message, setting
* the replyToName Destination in the message to the one specified
* in the URI, and send it.
MessageProducer producer = sess.createProducer(requestDest);
BytesMessage reqMsg = sess.createBytesMessage();
* Create a consumer to get a message from the replyToName
* Destination using a selector to get the specific response to
* this request. The responder sets the correlation ID of the
* response to the message ID of the request message.
MessageConsumer consumer = sess.createConsumer(replyDest,
"JMSCorrelationID = '" + reqMsg.getJMSMessageID() + "'");
Message respMsg = (Message) consumer.receive(300000);
184.108.40.206. Performing a JNDI Lookup with Custom Parameters
Any parameters with a prefix of "jndi-" MUST be used to set custom
properties when establishing a connection to the JNDI provider. The
name of the custom property is derived by removing the "jndi-" prefix
from the URI parameter name, and the value of the property is the
value of the parameter.
For example, the JMS URI...
...instructs the consumer to use the following properties to connect
to the JNDI provider:
4.3. Vendor Destination Names -- Variants "queue" and "topic"
The JMS Session object provides a means to directly access Queues and
Topics. Specifically, it has the methods Session.createQueue(String
name) and Session.createTopic(String name). These methods can be
used to "create" the Java representation of an existing JMS Topic or
Since the Session interface requires external knowledge about whether
a given name relates to a Queue or Topic, rather than introducing one
new variant, this section defines two variants. A JMS URI can
indicate which of these methods to use by specifying the appropriate
variant -- either "queue" or "topic". For example:
to identify a JMS Queue Destination, and
to identify a JMS Topic Destination.
JMS only specifies one way to obtain the names used by these APIs.
With a JMS Queue or Topic available, an implementation can call
Queue.getQueueName() or Topic.getTopicName(), respectively, both of
which return a String object. To create a correct corresponding URI,
the resulting string MUST use standard URI escape mechanisms so that
the resulting characters conform to the production <jms-dest>.
4.3.1. Treatment of replyToName Parameter
When used with the "queue" and "topic" variants, the replyToName
parameter, specified in Section 4.1.4, always refers to a name of a
JMS Queue to look up via the Session.createQueue() method, or its
equivalent. For either variant, if a JMS Topic is instead required
as a response Destination, a JMS URI can employ the
"topicReplyToName" parameter. This parameter defines a name to look
up with the Session.createTopic() method, or its equivalent.
A JMS URI MUST NOT specify both a "topicReplyToName" and a
4.3.2. Obtaining a Session via JNDI
Using the Session.createQueue() and Session.createTopic() methods
assumes that a client program has already obtained a Session object.
Where does that Session object come from -- how does a client get it?
One way to get a Session is simply to access vendor-specific APIs.
Another way to get a Session object is to simply revert to using
JNDI. That is, if a Session is not available to the client from some
other context, the "queue" and "topic" variants MAY reuse the URL
parameters specified in Section 4.2.1, "JNDI Parameters". Via JNDI,
those parameters will identify a ConnectionFactory, which can then be
used to obtain a Session object.
Combining the "queue" and "topic" variants with JNDI lookup for an
implementation of ConnectionFactory raises an important consideration
for JMS URI clients. Once clients employ JNDI for one part of
discovering a Destination, they almost certainly could use a vendor-
neutral JNDI lookup for a Destination object itself, rather than
using vendor-specific means. As a result, clients need to carefully
consider whether it makes sense to use JNDI for one part of this
problem, without using it for the other.
4.3.3. Limitations of "queue" and "topic"
The JMS specification clearly identifies the two methods on the
Session interface as returning vendor-specific names for
Destinations. Consequently, users of the "jms" URI scheme ought to
carefully consider when these two variants might be employed. If
users plan on switching between JMS vendors, they might also need to
plan on regenerating resources that contain URIs in this vendor-
A JMS vendor can provide alternate ways to obtain the names that can
be passed to Session.createQueue() and Session.createTopic(). When
using names derived from those alternate means, users of this URI
specification are encouraged to verify that the obtained names work
as expected in all circumstances.
4.4. Custom Parameters
The set of parameters is extensible. Any other vendor- or
application-defined parameter can be supplied, in the URI, by passing
it as <param-name>=<param-value>, just like the set of well-known
WARNING: Vendors and applications MUST NOT include sensitive
information (such as authorization tokens) in a URI. Other means of
authorization, authentication, and identification ought to be used.
Also see the security discussion below about properties that might be
duplicated as JMS message properties.
5. Encoding Considerations
The "jms" URI scheme distinguishes between <unreserved> characters
and <pct-encoded> characters, as defined in [RFC3986]. Apart from
these encoding considerations, the characters "?" and "&" MUST be
encoded when they appear within the <jms-dest> particle (for example,
a JNDI name) or in query parameters. The character ":" SHOULD be
escaped when appearing in the <jms-dest> portion of the syntax.
Conversions to and from Internationalized Resource Identifiers (IRIs)
follow the rules of RFC 3987, Sections 3.1 and 3.2. As per
Sections 1.2-c. and 6.4 of [RFC3987], all parts of the JMS URI MUST
use the UTF-8 encoding when converting to and from the IRI format.
6. Applications/Protocols That Use the JMS URI
A variety of vendors provide implementations of the JMS Service
Provider Interface (SPI). These products interoperate at the API
level, in the Java programming language.
Some vendors have provided additional products that interoperate with
their own SPI implementations. These extensions might also be able
to make use of this URI scheme.
The vendors working on this URI scheme are also working on a
specification for carrying SOAP messages over their respective
implementations of JMS [SOAP-JMS]. In addition, the Service
Component Architecture Bindings technical committee (TC) [SCA-TC] at
OASIS employs the "jms" URI scheme to identify JMS Destinations in
7. Interoperability Considerations
This "jms" URI scheme focuses on identifying a JMS Destination
object, and some characteristics of communication using that
Destination, and specifically excludes any notion of describing how
JMS itself is implemented and how it delivers messages. As a
consequence of this focus, interoperability concerns are limited to
how implementations obtain and use a Destination object.
This scheme definition describes three variants for obtaining a
Destination. These variants achieve their aims with the use of JNDI
and JMS APIs, with no new APIs or protocols defined here. As a
consequence of using JNDI and JMS, interoperability concerns might
arise if implementations do not conform to the specifications for
those APIs. Further, the use of Java, and JNDI in particular, means
that the configuration of the execution environment and the use of
Java ClassLoaders can affect the interpretation of any given URI.
Consumers of these URIs are urged to consider the scope and
consistency of the environment across which these URIs will be
As described in Section 4, others can define additional variants,
which provide the means to describe how to look up JMS Destination
objects in a manner specific to some environment. For any new
variant, the shared parameters defined in Section 4.1 MUST have the
same meaning in that variant as they do here. That way, tools and
people can safely copy these parameters between environments. Note
that while additional variants might seem more flexible, employing
variants not defined here might make it more difficult to switch to
an alternate JMS provider.
8. Security Considerations
Section 7 of [RFC3986] identifies some of the security concerns that
ought to be addressed by this specification.
8.1. Reliability and Consistency
This specification identifies only the variant (<jms-variant>) and
variant-specific details (<jms-dest>) as an essential part of the
URI. For reliability and consistency purposes, these variants are
the only part that can reasonably be expected to be stable. Other
optional JMS configuration and message properties indicated as URI
parameters, like "timeToLive", can reasonably be determined by the
sender of a message, without affecting the recipient. Insofar as a
recipient might wish to dictate certain parameters, such as the
"jndiConnectionFactoryName", those parameters can be specified.
8.2. Malicious Construction
8.2.1. Recipient Concerns
A malicious consumer of a service using a JMS URI could send, as part
of a JMS message, a URI with a parameter such as "timeToLive" with a
value specified in the URI that differs from the corresponding JMS
message property ("JMSExpiration" header field, in this example). In
the case of such messages with such URIs, recipients are strongly
cautioned to avoid applying processing logic based on particular URI
parameters. Discrepancies in the message could be used to exploit
differences in behavior between the selectors that a JMS-based
application might use to affect which messages it sees, and the
processing of the rest of the application. As defined in this
document, the parameters of concern include:
Message senders are strongly urged to remove from the URI extra
parameters like the above in environments where the data will be
redundant with information specified elsewhere in the JMS message.
Any use of additional parameters, either as a part of a definition of
a new variant or for more general use, SHOULD also specify whether
those parameters ought to be removed by a sender as specified here.
If a recipient is aware of the "jms" URI scheme, and it receives a
message containing a JMS URI, it MUST ignore or discard parameters
that it does not recognize.
8.2.2. Sender Concerns
A third party could intercept and replace a URI containing any of the
JMS/JNDI configuration parameters, such as
"jndiConnectionFactoryName", "jndiInitialContextFactory", or
"jndiURL". As these parameters can affect how an implementation
establishes an initial connection, such parameters could be used as a
means to subvert communications. This could possibly result in
re-routing communications to third parties, who could then monitor
sent messages. Clients SHOULD NOT use these URI parameters unless
assured of their validity in trusted environments.
8.3. Back-End Transcoding
This specification, in using the URI specification and building
around the JMS specification, has no particular transcoding issues.
Any such issues are problems with the underlying implementation of
Java and the Java Messaging Service being employed.
8.4. Semantic Attacks
A possible semantic attack on the "jndi" variant could be
accomplished by replacing characters of the JMS URI from one language
with equivalent-looking characters from another language, known as an
"Internationalized Domain Name (IDN) homograph attack" [HOMOGRAPH].
This kind of attack could occur in a variety of ways. For example,
if an environment allows for the automatic registration of JNDI
Destination names, a malicious actor could register and then
publicize an alternate of an existing Destination name. Such an
environment ought to prevent the use of homograph equivalents,
perhaps by restricting allowed characters, so that clients do not
accidentally send their requests to unintended Destinations.
The "queue" and "topic" variants are subject to the same concerns as
the "jndi" variant. In addition, because the Destination names are
vendor defined, URIs employing these two variants might employ
special characters that significantly change the meaning of the URI.
It is possible that the introduction of a single character --
difficult for a human to notice -- might dramatically change the
intended meaning of a URI. In situations where this might be an
issue, users of this URI are urged to strongly consider the "jndi"
8.5. Other Security Concerns
This specification does not define or anticipate any use for IP
addresses as part of the URI, so no issues around IP addresses, rare
or otherwise, are raised by this specification.
This specification does not define any characteristics of a "jms"
scheme URI that contain sensitive information.
9. IANA Considerations
9.1. URI Scheme Registration
IANA registered the Java Message Service URI scheme described in this
document, according to the following scheme registration request,
using the template from [RFC4395]:
o URI scheme name: jms
o Status: Provisional
o URI scheme syntax: See Section 3
o URI scheme semantics: See Section 4
o Encoding considerations: See Section 5
o Applications/protocols that use this URI scheme name: See
o Interoperability considerations: See Section 7
o Security considerations: See Section 8
o Contact: See the Authors' Addresses section
o References: See the References section
9.2. "jms" URI Scheme Registries
Per this URI scheme, IANA has created a registry for possible
"variants". IANA can reject obviously bogus registrations.
9.2.1. JMS URI Variants
This registry provides a listing of "jms" URI scheme variants.
Variant names beginning with "vnd." are reserved for vendor
extensions. Such variants should follow a pattern of
vnd.<vendorname>.<label>. The <vendorname> corresponds to the
iana-vendor-tag production from [RFC6075], and vendor.<vendorname>
must already be registered in the Application Configuration Access
Protocol (ACAP) Vendor Subtree. The <label> is chosen by said
All variant names are to be registered on a first come, first served
Variants must conform to the "jms-variant" production above. Since
variants occur in URIs, they ought to be short, and MUST NOT be more
than forty characters in length.
This document defines the "jndi", "queue", and "topic" variants
initially included in the registry.
9.2.2. "jms" URI Scheme Variant Registration Template
This template describes the fields that must be present to register a
new variant for use in a JMS URI.
Subject: Registration of JMS URI variant name
JMS URI variant name: Variants must conform to the "jms-variant"
production above. Since variants occur in URIs, they ought to be
short, and MUST NOT be more than forty characters in length.
Description: A description of the purpose of the variant being
Contact Information: Name(s) and email address(es) to contact for
more information about this registration.
Description URL: If available, a URL for a document describing the
details of how the variant works.
Comments: Any comments the requester thinks are relevant to this
Change Controller: Contact information for the person who controls
further changes to this variant definition.
9.2.3. Change Control
Once a JMS URI variant registration has been published by IANA, the
change controller can request a change to its definition. The change
request follows the same procedure as the registration request.
The change controller of a JMS URI variant can pass responsibility
for the JMS URI variant to another person or agency by informing
IANA; this can be done without discussion or review.
JMS URI variant registrations MUST NOT be deleted; mechanisms that
are no longer believed appropriate for use can be marked as obsolete
in the Comment field.
In exceptional circumstances, the IESG can reassign responsibility
for a JMS URI variant.
The IESG is considered to be the owner of all JMS URI variants that
are on the IETF Standards Track.
The authors gratefully acknowledge the contributions of:
International Business Machines Corporation
BEA Systems, Inc. until March 2007
TIBCO Software Inc.
BEA Systems, Inc. until May 2007
Amelia A. Lewis
TIBCO Software Inc.
International Business Machines Corporation until June 2009
International Business Machines Corporation
International Business Machines Corporation until April 2007
Oracle and Java are registered trademarks of Oracle and/or its
affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective
International Business Machines Corporation
Hursley House, Hursley Park
Winchester, Hampshire SO21 2JN
International Business Machines Corporation
11501 Burnet Rd.
Austin, TX 78758
11700 Plaza America Drive
Reston, VA 20190
TIBCO Software Inc.
3303 Hillview Avenue
Palo Alto, CA 94304