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RFC 6163

Informational
Pages: 51
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Framework for GMPLS and Path Computation Element (PCE) Control of Wavelength Switched Optical Networks (WSONs)

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Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)                       Y. Lee, Ed.
Request for Comments: 6163                                        Huawei
Category: Informational                                G. Bernstein, Ed.
ISSN: 2070-1721                                        Grotto Networking
                                                              W. Imajuku
                                                                     NTT
                                                              April 2011


     Framework for GMPLS and Path Computation Element (PCE) Control
            of Wavelength Switched Optical Networks (WSONs)

Abstract

   This document provides a framework for applying Generalized Multi-
   Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS) and the Path Computation Element
   (PCE) architecture to the control of Wavelength Switched Optical
   Networks (WSONs).  In particular, it examines Routing and Wavelength
   Assignment (RWA) of optical paths.

   This document focuses on topological elements and path selection
   constraints that are common across different WSON environments; as
   such, it does not address optical impairments in any depth.

Status of This Memo

   This document is not an Internet Standards Track specification; it is
   published for informational purposes.

   This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force
   (IETF).  It represents the consensus of the IETF community.  It has
   received public review and has been approved for publication by the
   Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG).  Not all documents
   approved by the IESG are a candidate for any level of Internet
   Standard; see Section 2 of RFC 5741.

   Information about the current status of this document, any errata,
   and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at
   http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6163.

Page 2 
Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2011 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1. Introduction ....................................................4
   2. Terminology .....................................................5
   3. Wavelength Switched Optical Networks ............................6
      3.1. WDM and CWDM Links .........................................6
      3.2. Optical Transmitters and Receivers .........................8
      3.3. Optical Signals in WSONs ...................................9
           3.3.1. Optical Tributary Signals ..........................10
           3.3.2. WSON Signal Characteristics ........................10
      3.4. ROADMs, OXCs, Splitters, Combiners, and FOADMs ............11
           3.4.1. Reconfigurable Optical Add/Drop
                  Multiplexers and OXCs ..............................11
           3.4.2. Splitters ..........................................14
           3.4.3. Combiners ..........................................15
           3.4.4. Fixed Optical Add/Drop Multiplexers ................15
      3.5. Electro-Optical Systems ...................................16
           3.5.1. Regenerators .......................................16
           3.5.2. OEO Switches .......................................19
      3.6. Wavelength Converters .....................................19
           3.6.1. Wavelength Converter Pool Modeling .................21
      3.7. Characterizing Electro-Optical Network Elements ...........24
           3.7.1. Input Constraints ..................................25
           3.7.2. Output Constraints .................................25
           3.7.3. Processing Capabilities ............................26
   4. Routing and Wavelength Assignment and the Control Plane ........26
      4.1. Architectural Approaches to RWA ...........................27
           4.1.1. Combined RWA (R&WA) ................................27
           4.1.2. Separated R and WA (R+WA) ..........................28
           4.1.3. Routing and Distributed WA (R+DWA) .................28
      4.2. Conveying Information Needed by RWA .......................29

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   5. Modeling Examples and Control Plane Use Cases ..................30
      5.1. Network Modeling for GMPLS/PCE Control ....................30
           5.1.1. Describing the WSON Nodes ..........................31
           5.1.2. Describing the Links ...............................34
      5.2. RWA Path Computation and Establishment ....................34
      5.3. Resource Optimization .....................................36
      5.4. Support for Rerouting .....................................36
      5.5. Electro-Optical Networking Scenarios ......................36
           5.5.1. Fixed Regeneration Points ..........................37
           5.5.2. Shared Regeneration Pools ..........................37
           5.5.3. Reconfigurable Regenerators ........................37
           5.5.4. Relation to Translucent Networks ...................38
   6. GMPLS and PCE Implications .....................................38
      6.1. Implications for GMPLS Signaling ..........................39
           6.1.1. Identifying Wavelengths and Signals ................39
           6.1.2. WSON Signals and Network Element Processing ........39
           6.1.3. Combined RWA/Separate Routing WA support ...........40
           6.1.4. Distributed Wavelength Assignment:
                  Unidirectional, No Converters ......................40
           6.1.5. Distributed Wavelength Assignment:
                  Unidirectional, Limited Converters .................40
           6.1.6. Distributed Wavelength Assignment:
                  Bidirectional, No Converters .......................40
      6.2. Implications for GMPLS Routing ............................41
           6.2.1. Electro-Optical Element Signal Compatibility .......41
           6.2.2. Wavelength-Specific Availability Information .......42
           6.2.3. WSON Routing Information Summary ...................43
      6.3. Optical Path Computation and Implications for PCE .........44
           6.3.1. Optical Path Constraints and Characteristics .......44
           6.3.2. Electro-Optical Element Signal Compatibility .......45
           6.3.3. Discovery of RWA-Capable PCEs ......................45
   7. Security Considerations ........................................46
   8. Acknowledgments ................................................46
   9. References .....................................................46
      9.1. Normative References ......................................46
      9.2. Informative References ....................................47

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1.  Introduction

   Wavelength Switched Optical Networks (WSONs) are constructed from
   subsystems that include Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) links,
   tunable transmitters and receivers, Reconfigurable Optical Add/Drop
   Multiplexers (ROADMs), wavelength converters, and electro-optical
   network elements.  A WSON is a WDM-based optical network in which
   switching is performed selectively based on the center wavelength of
   an optical signal.

   WSONs can differ from other types of GMPLS networks in that many
   types of WSON nodes are highly asymmetric with respect to their
   switching capabilities, compatibility of signal types and network
   elements may need to be considered, and label assignment can be non-
   local.  In order to provision an optical connection (an optical path)
   through a WSON certain wavelength continuity and resource
   availability constraints must be met to determine viable and optimal
   paths through the WSON.  The determination of paths is known as
   Routing and Wavelength Assignment (RWA).

   Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS) [RFC3945] includes
   an architecture and a set of control plane protocols that can be used
   to operate data networks ranging from packet-switch-capable networks,
   through those networks that use Time Division Multiplexing, to WDM
   networks.  The Path Computation Element (PCE) architecture [RFC4655]
   defines functional components that can be used to compute and suggest
   appropriate paths in connection-oriented traffic-engineered networks.

   This document provides a framework for applying the GMPLS
   architecture and protocols [RFC3945] and the PCE architecture
   [RFC4655] to the control and operation of WSONs.  To aid in this
   process, this document also provides an overview of the subsystems
   and processes that comprise WSONs and describes RWA so that the
   information requirements, both static and dynamic, can be identified
   to explain how the information can be modeled for use by GMPLS and
   PCE systems.  This work will facilitate the development of protocol
   solution models and protocol extensions within the GMPLS and PCE
   protocol families.

   Different WSONs such as access, metro, and long haul may apply
   different techniques for dealing with optical impairments; hence,
   this document does not address optical impairments in any depth.
   Note that this document focuses on the generic properties of links,
   switches, and path selection constraints that occur in many types of
   WSONs.  See [WSON-Imp] for more information on optical impairments
   and GMPLS.

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2.  Terminology

   Add/Drop Multiplexer (ADM): An optical device used in WDM networks
   and composed of one or more line side ports and typically many
   tributary ports.

   CWDM: Coarse Wavelength Division Multiplexing.

   DWDM: Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing.

   Degree: The degree of an optical device (e.g., ROADM) is given by a
   count of its line side ports.

   Drop and continue: A simple multicast feature of some ADMs where a
   selected wavelength can be switched out of both a tributary (drop)
   port and a line side port.

   FOADM: Fixed Optical Add/Drop Multiplexer.

   GMPLS: Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching.

   Line side: In a WDM system, line side ports and links can typically
   carry the full multiplex of wavelength signals, as compared to
   tributary (add or drop) ports that typically carry a few (usually
   one) wavelength signals.

   OXC: Optical Cross-Connect.  An optical switching element in which a
   signal on any input port can reach any output port.

   PCC: Path Computation Client.  Any client application requesting a
   path computation to be performed by the Path Computation Element.

   PCE: Path Computation Element.  An entity (component, application, or
   network node) that is capable of computing a network path or route
   based on a network graph and application of computational
   constraints.

   PCEP: PCE Communication Protocol.  The communication protocol between
   a Path Computation Client and Path Computation Element.

   ROADM: Reconfigurable Optical Add/Drop Multiplexer.  A wavelength-
   selective switching element featuring input and output line side
   ports as well as add/drop tributary ports.

   RWA: Routing and Wavelength Assignment.

   Transparent Network: A Wavelength Switched Optical Network that does
   not contain regenerators or wavelength converters.

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   Translucent Network:  A Wavelength Switched Optical Network that is
   predominantly transparent but may also contain limited numbers of
   regenerators and/or wavelength converters.

   Tributary: A link or port on a WDM system that can carry
   significantly less than the full multiplex of wavelength signals
   found on the line side links/ports.  Typical tributary ports are the
   add and drop ports on an ADM, and these support only a single
   wavelength channel.

   Wavelength Conversion/Converters: The process of converting an
   information-bearing optical signal centered at a given wavelength to
   one with "equivalent" content centered at a different wavelength.
   Wavelength conversion can be implemented via an optical-electronic-
   optical (OEO) process or via a strictly optical process.

   WDM: Wavelength Division Multiplexing.

   Wavelength Switched Optical Networks (WSONs): WDM-based optical
   networks in which switching is performed selectively based on the
   center wavelength of an optical signal.

3.  Wavelength Switched Optical Networks

   WSONs range in size from continent-spanning long-haul networks, to
   metropolitan networks, to residential access networks.  In all these
   cases, the main concern is those properties that constrain the choice
   of wavelengths that can be used, i.e., restrict the wavelength Label
   Set, impact the path selection process, and limit the topological
   connectivity.  In addition, if electro-optical network elements are
   used in the WSON, additional compatibility constraints may be imposed
   by the network elements on various optical signal parameters.  The
   subsequent sections review and model some of the major subsystems of
   a WSON with an emphasis on those aspects that are of relevance to the
   control plane.  In particular, WDM links, optical transmitters,
   ROADMs, and wavelength converters are examined.

3.1.  WDM and CWDM Links

   WDM and CWDM links run over optical fibers, and optical fibers come
   in a wide range of types that tend to be optimized for various
   applications.  Examples include access networks, metro, long haul,
   and submarine links.  International Telecommunication Union -
   Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) standards exist for
   various types of fibers.  Although fiber can be categorized into
   Single-Mode Fibers (SMFs) and Multi-Mode Fibers (MMFs), the latter
   are typically used for short-reach campus and premise applications.
   SMFs are used for longer-reach applications and are therefore the

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   primary concern of this document.  The following SMF types are
   typically encountered in optical networks:

      ITU-T Standard |  Common Name
      ------------------------------------------------------------
      G.652 [G.652]  |  Standard SMF                              |
      G.653 [G.653]  |  Dispersion shifted SMF                    |
      G.654 [G.654]  |  Cut-off shifted SMF                       |
      G.655 [G.655]  |  Non-zero dispersion shifted SMF           |
      G.656 [G.656]  |  Wideband non-zero dispersion shifted SMF  |
      ------------------------------------------------------------

   Typically, WDM links operate in one or more of the approximately
   defined optical bands [G.Sup39]:

      Band     Range (nm)     Common Name    Raw Bandwidth (THz)
      O-band   1260-1360      Original       17.5
      E-band   1360-1460      Extended       15.1
      S-band   1460-1530      Short          9.4
      C-band   1530-1565      Conventional   4.4
      L-band   1565-1625      Long           7.1
      U-band   1625-1675      Ultra-long     5.5

   Not all of a band may be usable; for example, in many fibers that
   support E-band, there is significant attenuation due to a water
   absorption peak at 1383 nm.  Hence, a discontinuous acceptable
   wavelength range for a particular link may be needed and is modeled.
   Also, some systems will utilize more than one band.  This is
   particularly true for CWDM systems.

   Current technology subdivides the bandwidth capacity of fibers into
   distinct channels based on either wavelength or frequency.  There are
   two standards covering wavelengths and channel spacing.  ITU-T
   Recommendation G.694.1, "Spectral grids for WDM applications: DWDM
   frequency grid" [G.694.1], describes a DWDM grid defined in terms of
   frequency grids of 12.5 GHz, 25 GHz, 50 GHz, 100 GHz, and other
   multiples of 100 GHz around a 193.1 THz center frequency.  At the
   narrowest channel spacing, this provides less than 4800 channels
   across the O through U bands.  ITU-T Recommendation G.694.2,
   "Spectral grids for WDM applications: CWDM wavelength grid"
   [G.694.2], describes a CWDM grid defined in terms of wavelength
   increments of 20 nm running from 1271 nm to 1611 nm for 18 or so
   channels.  The number of channels is significantly smaller than the
   32-bit GMPLS Label space defined for GMPLS (see [RFC3471]).  A label
   representation for these ITU-T grids is given in [RFC6205] and
   provides a common label format to be used in signaling optical paths.

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   Further, these ITU-T grid-based labels can also be used to describe
   WDM links, ROADM ports, and wavelength converters for the purposes of
   path selection.

   Many WDM links are designed to take advantage of particular fiber
   characteristics or to try to avoid undesirable properties.  For
   example, dispersion-shifted SMF [G.653] was originally designed for
   good long-distance performance in single-channel systems; however,
   putting WDM over this type of fiber requires significant system
   engineering and a fairly limited range of wavelengths.  Hence, the
   following information is needed as parameters to perform basic,
   impairment-unaware modeling of a WDM link:

   o  Wavelength range(s): Given a mapping between labels and the ITU-T
      grids, each range could be expressed in terms of a tuple,
      (lambda1, lambda2) or (freq1, freq2), where the lambdas or
      frequencies can be represented by 32-bit integers.

   o  Channel spacing: Currently, there are five channel spacings used
      in DWDM systems and a single channel spacing defined for CWDM
      systems.

   For a particular link, this information is relatively static, as
   changes to these properties generally require hardware upgrades.
   Such information may be used locally during wavelength assignment via
   signaling, similar to label restrictions in MPLS, or used by a PCE in
   providing combined RWA.

3.2.  Optical Transmitters and Receivers

   WDM optical systems make use of optical transmitters and receivers
   utilizing different wavelengths (frequencies).  Some transmitters are
   manufactured for a specific wavelength of operation; that is, the
   manufactured frequency cannot be changed.  First introduced to reduce
   inventory costs, tunable optical transmitters and receivers are
   deployed in some systems and allow flexibility in the wavelength used
   for optical transmission/reception.  Such tunable optics aid in path
   selection.

   Fundamental modeling parameters for optical transmitters and
   receivers from the control plane perspective are:

   o  Tunable: Do the transmitters and receivers operate at variable or
      fixed wavelength?

   o  Tuning range: This is the frequency or wavelength range over which
      the optics can be tuned.  With the fixed mapping of labels to
      lambdas as proposed in [RFC6205], this can be expressed as a

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      tuple, (lambda1, lambda2) or (freq1, freq2), where lambda1 and
      lambda2 or freq1 and freq2 are the labels representing the lower
      and upper bounds in wavelength.

   o  Tuning time: Tuning times highly depend on the technology used.
      Thermal-drift-based tuning may take seconds to stabilize, whilst
      electronic tuning might provide sub-ms tuning times.  Depending on
      the application, this might be critical.  For example, thermal
      drift might not be usable for fast protection applications.

   o  Spectral characteristics and stability: The spectral shape of a
      laser's emissions and its frequency stability put limits on
      various properties of the overall WDM system.  One constraint that
      is relatively easy to characterize is the closest channel spacing
      with which the transmitter can be used.

   Note that ITU-T recommendations specify many aspects of an optical
   transmitter.  Many of these parameters, such as spectral
   characteristics and stability, are used in the design of WDM
   subsystems consisting of transmitters, WDM links, and receivers.
   However, they do not furnish additional information that will
   influence the Label Switched Path (LSP) provisioning in a properly
   designed system.

   Also, note that optical components can degrade and fail over time.
   This presents the possibility of the failure of an LSP (optical path)
   without either a node or link failure.  Hence, additional mechanisms
   may be necessary to detect and differentiate this failure from the
   others; for example, one does not want to initiate mesh restoration
   if the source transmitter has failed since the optical transmitter
   will still be failed on the alternate optical path.

3.3.  Optical Signals in WSONs

   The fundamental unit of switching in WSONs is intuitively that of a
   "wavelength".  The transmitters and receivers in these networks will
   deal with one wavelength at a time, while the switching systems
   themselves can deal with multiple wavelengths at a time.  Hence,
   multi-channel DWDM networks with single-channel interfaces are the
   prime focus of this document as opposed to multi-channel interfaces.
   Interfaces of this type are defined in ITU-T Recommendations
   [G.698.1] and [G.698.2].  Key non-impairment-related parameters
   defined in [G.698.1] and [G.698.2] are:

   (a)  Minimum channel spacing (GHz)

   (b)  Minimum and maximum central frequency

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   (c)  Bitrate/Line coding (modulation) of optical tributary signals

   For the purposes of modeling the WSON in the control plane, (a) and
   (b) are considered properties of the link and restrictions on the
   GMPLS Labels while (c) is a property of the "signal".

3.3.1.  Optical Tributary Signals

   The optical interface specifications [G.698.1], [G.698.2], and
   [G.959.1] all use the concept of an optical tributary signal, which
   is defined as "a single channel signal that is placed within an
   optical channel for transport across the optical network".  Note the
   use of the qualifier "tributary" to indicate that this is a single-
   channel entity and not a multi-channel optical signal.

   There are currently a number of different types of optical tributary
   signals, which are known as "optical tributary signal classes".
   These are currently characterized by a modulation format and bitrate
   range [G.959.1]:

   (a)  Optical tributary signal class Non-Return-to-Zero (NRZ) 1.25G

   (b)  Optical tributary signal class NRZ 2.5G

   (c)  Optical tributary signal class NRZ 10G

   (d)  Optical tributary signal class NRZ 40G

   (e)  Optical tributary signal class Return-to-Zero (RZ) 40G

   Note that, with advances in technology, more optical tributary signal
   classes may be added and that this is currently an active area for
   development and standardization.  In particular, at the 40G rate,
   there are a number of non-standardized advanced modulation formats
   that have seen significant deployment, including Differential Phase
   Shift Keying (DPSK) and Phase Shaped Binary Transmission (PSBT).

   According to [G.698.2], it is important to fully specify the bitrate
   of the optical tributary signal.  Hence, modulation format (optical
   tributary signal class) and bitrate are key parameters in
   characterizing the optical tributary signal.

3.3.2.  WSON Signal Characteristics

   The optical tributary signal referenced in ITU-T Recommendations
   [G.698.1] and [G.698.2] is referred to as the "signal" in this
   document.  This corresponds to the "lambda" LSP in GMPLS.  For signal

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   compatibility purposes with electro-optical network elements, the
   following signal characteristics are considered:

   1.  Optical tributary signal class (modulation format)

   2.  Forward Error Correction (FEC): whether forward error correction
       is used in the digital stream and what type of error correcting
       code is used

   3.  Center frequency (wavelength)

   4.  Bitrate

   5.  General Protocol Identifier (G-PID) for the information format

   The first three items on this list can change as a WSON signal
   traverses the optical network with elements that include
   regenerators, OEO switches, or wavelength converters.

   Bitrate and G-PID would not change since they describe the encoded
   bitstream.  A set of G-PID values is already defined for lambda
   switching in [RFC3471] and [RFC4328].

   Note that a number of non-standard or proprietary modulation formats
   and FEC codes are commonly used in WSONs.  For some digital
   bitstreams, the presence of FEC can be detected; for example, in
   [G.707], this is indicated in the signal itself via the FEC Status
   Indication (FSI) byte while in [G.709], this can be inferred from
   whether or not the FEC field of the Optical Channel Transport Unit-k
   (OTUk) is all zeros.

3.4.  ROADMs, OXCs, Splitters, Combiners, and FOADMs

   Definitions of various optical devices such as ROADMs, Optical Cross-
   Connects (OXCs), splitters, combiners, and Fixed Optical Add/Drop
   Multiplexers (FOADMs) and their parameters can be found in [G.671].
   Only a subset of these relevant to the control plane and their non-
   impairment-related properties are considered in the following
   sections.

3.4.1.  Reconfigurable Optical Add/Drop Multiplexers and OXCs

   ROADMs are available in different forms and technologies.  This is a
   key technology that allows wavelength-based optical switching.  A
   classic degree-2 ROADM is shown in Figure 1.

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       Line side input    +---------------------+  Line side output
                      --->|                     |--->
                          |                     |
                          |        ROADM        |
                          |                     |
                          |                     |
                          +---------------------+
                              | | | |  o o o o
                              | | | |  | | | |
                              O O O O  | | | |
      Tributary Side:   Drop (output)  Add (input)

               Figure 1.  Degree-2 Unidirectional ROADM

   The key feature across all ROADM types is their highly asymmetric
   switching capability.  In the ROADM of Figure 1, signals introduced
   via the add ports can only be sent on the line side output port and
   not on any of the drop ports.  The term "degree" is used to refer to
   the number of line side ports (input and output) of a ROADM and does
   not include the number of "add" or "drop" ports.  The add and drop
   ports are sometimes also called tributary ports.  As the degree of
   the ROADM increases beyond two, it can have properties of both a
   switch (OXC) and a multiplexer; hence, it is necessary to know the
   switched connectivity offered by such a network element to
   effectively utilize it.  A straightforward way to represent this is
   via a "switched connectivity" matrix A where Amn = 0 or 1, depending
   upon whether a wavelength on input port m can be connected to output
   port n [Imajuku].  For the ROADM shown in Figure 1, the switched
   connectivity matrix can be expressed as:

             Input    Output Port
             Port     #1 #2 #3 #4 #5
                      --------------
             #1:      1  1  1  1  1
             #2       1  0  0  0  0
       A =   #3       1  0  0  0  0
             #4       1  0  0  0  0
             #5       1  0  0  0  0

   where input ports 2-5 are add ports, output ports 2-5 are drop ports,
   and input port #1 and output port #1 are the line side (WDM) ports.

   For ROADMs, this matrix will be very sparse, and for OXCs, the matrix
   will be very dense.  Compact encodings and examples, including high-
   degree ROADMs/OXCs, are given in [Gen-Encode].  A degree-4 ROADM is
   shown in Figure 2.

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                      +-----------------------+
   Line side-1    --->|                       |--->    Line side-2
   Input (I1)         |                       |        Output (E2)
   Line side-1    <---|                       |<---    Line side-2
   Output  (E1)       |                       |        Input (I2)
                      |         ROADM         |
   Line side-3    --->|                       |--->    Line side-4
   Input (I3)         |                       |        Output (E4)
   Line side-3    <---|                       |<---    Line side-4
   Output (E3)        |                       |        Input (I4)
                      |                       |
                      +-----------------------+
                      | O    | O    | O    | O
                      | |    | |    | |    | |
                      O |    O |    O |    O |
   Tributary Side:   E5 I5  E6 I6  E7 I7  E8 I8

                  Figure 2.  Degree-4 Bidirectional ROADM

   Note that this is a 4-degree example with one (potentially multi-
   channel) add/drop per line side port.

   Note also that the connectivity constraints for typical ROADM designs
   are "bidirectional"; that is, if input port X can be connected to
   output port Y, typically input port Y can be connected to output port
   X, assuming the numbering is done in such a way that input X and
   output X correspond to the same line side direction or the same
   add/drop port.  This makes the connectivity matrix symmetrical as
   shown below.

       Input     Output Port
        Port     E1 E2 E3 E4 E5 E6 E7 E8
                 -----------------------
           I1    0  1  1  1  0  1  0  0
           I2    1  0  1  1  0  0  1  0
       A = I3    1  1  0  1  1  0  0  0
           I4    1  1  1  0  0  0  0  1
           I5    0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0
           I6    1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0
           I7    0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0
           I8    0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0

   where I5/E5 are add/drop ports to/from line side-3, I6/E6 are
   add/drop ports to/from line side-1, I7/E7 are add/drop ports to/from
   line side-2, and I8/E8 are add/drop ports to/from line side-4.  Note
   that diagonal elements are zero since loopback is not supported in
   the example.  If ports support loopback, diagonal elements would be
   set to one.

Top      ToC       Page 14 
   Additional constraints may also apply to the various ports in a
   ROADM/OXC.  The following restrictions and terms may be used:

   o  Colored port: an input or, more typically, an output (drop) port
      restricted to a single channel of fixed wavelength

   o  Colorless port: an input or, more typically, an output (drop) port
      restricted to a single channel of arbitrary wavelength

   In general, a port on a ROADM could have any of the following
   wavelength restrictions:

   o  Multiple wavelengths, full range port

   o  Single wavelength, full range port

   o  Single wavelength, fixed lambda port

   o  Multiple wavelengths, reduced range port (for example wave band
      switching)

   To model these restrictions, it is necessary to have two pieces of
   information for each port: (a) the number of wavelengths and (b) the
   wavelength range and spacing.  Note that this information is
   relatively static.  More complicated wavelength constraints are
   modeled in [WSON-Info].

3.4.2.  Splitters

   An optical splitter consists of a single input port and two or more
   output ports.  The input optical signaled is essentially copied (with
   power loss) to all output ports.

   Using the modeling notions of Section 3.4.1, the input and output
   ports of a splitter would have the same wavelength restrictions.  In
   addition, a splitter is modeled by a connectivity matrix Amn as
   follows:

              Input    Output Port
              Port     #1 #2 #3 ...   #N
                       -----------------
        A =   #1       1  1  1  ...   1

   The difference from a simple ROADM is that this is not a switched
   connectivity matrix but the fixed connectivity matrix of the device.

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3.4.3.  Combiners

   An optical combiner is a device that combines the optical wavelengths
   carried by multiple input ports into a single multi-wavelength output
   port.  The various ports may have different wavelength restrictions.
   It is generally the responsibility of those using the combiner to
   ensure that wavelength collision does not occur on the output port.
   The fixed connectivity matrix Amn for a combiner would look like:

              Input    Output Port
              Port     #1
                       ---
              #1:      1
              #2       1
        A =   #3       1
              ...      1
              #N       1

3.4.4.  Fixed Optical Add/Drop Multiplexers

   A Fixed Optical Add/Drop Multiplexer can alter the course of an input
   wavelength in a preset way.  In particular, a given wavelength (or
   waveband) from a line side input port would be dropped to a fixed
   "tributary" output port.  Depending on the device's construction,
   that same wavelength may or may not also be sent out the line side
   output port.  This is commonly referred to as a "drop and continue"
   operation.  Tributary input ports ("add" ports) whose signals are
   combined with each other and other line side signals may also exist.

   In general, to represent the routing properties of an FOADM, it is
   necessary to have both a fixed connectivity matrix Amn, as previously
   discussed, and the precise wavelength restrictions for all input and
   output ports.  From the wavelength restrictions on the tributary
   output ports, the wavelengths that have been selected can be derived.
   From the wavelength restrictions on the tributary input ports, it can
   be seen which wavelengths have been added to the line side output
   port.  Finally, from the added wavelength information and the line
   side output wavelength restrictions, it can be inferred which
   wavelengths have been continued.

   To summarize, the modeling methodology introduced in Section 3.4.1,
   which consists of a connectivity matrix and port wavelength
   restrictions, can be used to describe a large set of fixed optical
   devices such as combiners, splitters, and FOADMs.  Hybrid devices
   consisting of both switched and fixed parts are modeled in
   [WSON-Info].

Top      ToC       Page 16 
3.5.  Electro-Optical Systems

   This section describes how Electro-Optical Systems (e.g., OEO
   switches, wavelength converters, and regenerators) interact with the
   WSON signal characteristics listed in Section 3.3.2.  OEO switches,
   wavelength converters, and regenerators all share a similar property:
   they can be more or less "transparent" to an "optical signal"
   depending on their functionality and/or implementation.  Regenerators
   have been fairly well characterized in this regard and hence their
   properties can be described first.

3.5.1.  Regenerators

   The various approaches to regeneration are discussed in ITU-T
   [G.872], Annex A.  They map a number of functions into the so-called
   1R, 2R, and 3R categories of regenerators as summarized in Table 1
   below:

   Table 1.  Regenerator Functionality Mapped to General Regenerator
             Classes from [G.872]

   --------------------------------------------------------------------
   1R | Equal amplification of all frequencies within the amplification
      | bandwidth.  There is no restriction upon information formats.
      +----------------------------------------------------------------
      | Amplification with different gain for frequencies within the
      | amplification bandwidth.  This could be applied to both single-
      | channel and multi-channel systems.
      +----------------------------------------------------------------
      | Dispersion compensation (phase distortion).  This analogue
      | process can be applied in either single-channel or multi-
      | channel systems.
   --------------------------------------------------------------------
   2R | Any or all 1R functions.  Noise suppression.
      +----------------------------------------------------------------
      | Digital reshaping (Schmitt Trigger function) with no clock
      | recovery.  This is applicable to individual channels and can be
      | used for different bitrates but is not transparent to line
      | coding (modulation).
   --------------------------------------------------------------------
   3R | Any or all 1R and 2R functions.  Complete regeneration of the
      | pulse shape including clock recovery and retiming within
      | required jitter limits.
   --------------------------------------------------------------------

   This table shows that 1R regenerators are generally independent of
   signal modulation format (also known as line coding) but may work
   over a limited range of wavelengths/frequencies.  2R regenerators are

Top      ToC       Page 17 
   generally applicable to a single digital stream and are dependent
   upon modulation format (line coding) and, to a lesser extent, are
   limited to a range of bitrates (but not a specific bitrate).
   Finally, 3R regenerators apply to a single channel, are dependent
   upon the modulation format, and are generally sensitive to the
   bitrate of digital signal, i.e., either are designed to only handle a
   specific bitrate or need to be programmed to accept and regenerate a
   specific bitrate.  In all these types of regenerators, the digital
   bitstream contained within the optical or electrical signal is not
   modified.

   It is common for regenerators to modify the digital bitstream for
   performance monitoring and fault management purposes.  Synchronous
   Optical Networking (SONET), Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH), and
   Interfaces for the Optical Transport Network [G.709] all have digital
   signal "envelopes" designed to be used between "regenerators" (in
   this case, 3R regenerators).  In SONET, this is known as the
   "section" signal; in SDH, this is known as the "regenerator section"
   signal; and, in G.709, this is known as an OTUk.  These signals
   reserve a portion of their frame structure (known as overhead) for
   use by regenerators.  The nature of this overhead is summarized in
   Table 2 below.

Top      ToC       Page 18 
     Table 2.  SONET, SDH, and G.709 Regenerator-Related Overhead

    +-----------------------------------------------------------------+
    |Function          |       SONET/SDH      |     G.709 OTUk        |
    |                  |       Regenerator    |                       |
    |                  |       Section        |                       |
    |------------------+----------------------+-----------------------|
    |Signal            |       J0 (section    |  Trail Trace          |
    |Identifier        |       trace)         |  Identifier (TTI)     |
    |------------------+----------------------+-----------------------|
    |Performance       |       BIP-8 (B1)     |  BIP-8 (within SM)    |
    |Monitoring        |                      |                       |
    |------------------+----------------------+-----------------------|
    |Management        |       D1-D3 bytes    |  GCC0 (general        |
    |Communications    |                      |  communications       |
    |                  |                      |  channel)             |
    |------------------+----------------------+-----------------------|
    |Fault Management  |       A1, A2 framing | FAS (frame alignment  |
    |                  |       bytes          | signal), BDI (backward|
    |                  |                      | defect indication),   |
    |                  |                      | BEI (backward error   |
    |                  |                      | indication)           |
    +------------------+----------------------+-----------------------|
    |Forward Error     |       P1,Q1 bytes    |  OTUk FEC             |
    |Correction (FEC)  |                      |                       |
    +-----------------------------------------------------------------+

   Table 2 shows that frame alignment, signal identification, and FEC
   are supported.  By omission, Table 2 also shows that no switching or
   multiplexing occurs at this layer.  This is a significant
   simplification for the control plane since control plane standards
   require a multi-layer approach when there are multiple switching
   layers but do not require the "layering" to provide the management
   functions shown in Table 2.  That is, many existing technologies
   covered by GMPLS contain extra management-related layers that are
   essentially ignored by the control plane (though not by the
   management plane).  Hence, the approach here is to include
   regenerators and other devices at the WSON layer unless they provide
   higher layer switching; then, a multi-layer or multi-region approach
   [RFC5212] is called for.  However, this can result in regenerators
   having a dependence on the client signal type.

   Hence, depending upon the regenerator technology, the constraints
   listed in Table 3 may be imposed by a regenerator device:

Top      ToC       Page 19 
     Table 3.  Regenerator Compatibility Constraints

     +--------------------------------------------------------+
     |      Constraints            |   1R   |   2R   |   3R   |
     +--------------------------------------------------------+
     | Limited Wavelength Range    |    x   |    x   |    x   |
     +--------------------------------------------------------+
     | Modulation Type Restriction |        |    x   |    x   |
     +--------------------------------------------------------+
     | Bitrate Range Restriction   |        |    x   |    x   |
     +--------------------------------------------------------+
     | Exact Bitrate Restriction   |        |        |    x   |
     +--------------------------------------------------------+
     | Client Signal Dependence    |        |        |    x   |
     +--------------------------------------------------------+

   Note that the limited wavelength range constraint can be modeled for
   GMPLS signaling with the Label Set defined in [RFC3471] and that the
   modulation type restriction constraint includes FEC.

3.5.2.  OEO Switches

   A common place where OEO processing may take place is within WSON
   switches that utilize (or contain) regenerators.  This may be to
   convert the signal to an electronic form for switching then reconvert
   to an optical signal prior to output from the switch.  Another common
   technique is to add regenerators to restore signal quality either
   before or after optical processing (switching).  In the former case,
   the regeneration is applied to adapt the signal to the switch fabric
   regardless of whether or not it is needed from a signal-quality
   perspective.

   In either case, these optical switches have essentially the same
   compatibility constraints as those described for regenerators in
   Table 3.

3.6.  Wavelength Converters

   Wavelength converters take an input optical signal at one wavelength
   and emit an equivalent content optical signal at another wavelength
   on output.  There are multiple approaches to building wavelength
   converters.  One approach is based on OEO conversion with fixed or
   tunable optics on output.  This approach can be dependent upon the
   signal rate and format; that is, this is basically an electrical
   regenerator combined with a laser/receiver.  Hence, this type of
   wavelength converter has signal-processing restrictions that are
   essentially the same as those described for regenerators in Table 3
   of Section 3.5.1.

Top      ToC       Page 20 
   Another approach performs the wavelength conversion optically via
   non-linear optical effects, similar in spirit to the familiar
   frequency mixing used in radio frequency systems but significantly
   harder to implement.  Such processes/effects may place limits on the
   range of achievable conversion.  These may depend on the wavelength
   of the input signal and the properties of the converter as opposed to
   only the properties of the converter in the OEO case.  Different WSON
   system designs may choose to utilize this component to varying
   degrees or not at all.

   Current or envisioned contexts for wavelength converters are:

   1.  Wavelength conversion associated with OEO switches and fixed or
       tunable optics.  In this case, there are typically multiple
       converters available since each use of an OEO switch can be
       thought of as a potential wavelength converter.

   2.  Wavelength conversion associated with ROADMs/OXCs.  In this case,
       there may be a limited pool of wavelength converters available.
       Conversion could be either all optical or via an OEO method.

   3.  Wavelength conversion associated with fixed devices such as
       FOADMs.  In this case, there may be a limited amount of
       conversion.  Also, the conversion may be used as part of optical
       path routing.

   Based on the above considerations, wavelength converters are modeled
   as follows:

   1.  Wavelength converters can always be modeled as associated with
       network elements.  This includes fixed wavelength routing
       elements.

   2.  A network element may have full wavelength conversion capability
       (i.e., any input port and wavelength) or a limited number of
       wavelengths and ports.  On a box with a limited number of
       converters, there also may exist restrictions on which ports can
       reach the converters.  Hence, regardless of where the converters
       actually are, they can be associated with input ports.

   3.  Wavelength converters have range restrictions that are either
       independent or dependent upon the input wavelength.

   In WSONs where wavelength converters are sparse, an optical path may
   appear to loop or "backtrack" upon itself in order to reach a
   wavelength converter prior to continuing on to its destination.  The
   lambda used on input to the wavelength converter would be different
   from the lambda coming back from the wavelength converter.

Top      ToC       Page 21 
   A model for an individual OEO wavelength converter would consist of:

   o  Input lambda or frequency range

   o  Output lambda or frequency range

3.6.1.  Wavelength Converter Pool Modeling

   A WSON node may include multiple wavelength converters.  These are
   usually arranged into some type of pool to promote resource sharing.
   There are a number of different approaches used in the design of
   switches with converter pools.  However, from the point of view of
   path computation, it is necessary to know the following:

   1.  The nodes that support wavelength conversion

   2.  The accessibility and availability of a wavelength converter to
       convert from a given input wavelength on a particular input port
       to a desired output wavelength on a particular output port

   3.  Limitations on the types of signals that can be converted and the
       conversions that can be performed

   To model point 2 above, a technique similar to that used to model
   ROADMs and optical switches can be used, i.e., matrices to indicate
   possible connectivity along with wavelength constraints for
   links/ports.  Since wavelength converters are considered a scarce
   resource, it is desirable to include, at a minimum, the usage state
   of individual wavelength converters in the pool.

   A three stage model is used as shown schematically in Figure 3.  This
   model represents N input ports (fibers), P wavelength converters, and
   M output ports (fibers).  Since not all input ports can necessarily
   reach the converter pool, the model starts with a wavelength pool
   input matrix WI(i,p) = {0,1}, where input port i can potentially
   reach wavelength converter p.

   Since not all wavelengths can necessarily reach all the converters or
   the converters may have a limited input wavelength range, there is a
   set of input port constraints for each wavelength converter.
   Currently, it is assumed that a wavelength converter can only take a
   single wavelength on input.  Each wavelength converter input port
   constraint can be modeled via a wavelength set mechanism.

   Next, there is a state vector WC(j) = {0,1} dependent upon whether
   wavelength converter j in the pool is in use.  This is the only state
   kept in the converter pool model.  This state is not necessary for
   modeling "fixed" transponder system, i.e., systems where there is no

Top      ToC       Page 22 
   sharing.  In addition, this state information may be encoded in a
   much more compact form depending on the overall connectivity
   structure [Gen-Encode].

   After that, a set of wavelength converter output wavelength
   constraints is used.  These constraints indicate what wavelengths a
   particular wavelength converter can generate or are restricted to
   generating due to internal switch structure.

   Finally, a wavelength pool output matrix WE(p,k) = {0,1} indicates
   whether the output from wavelength converter p can reach output port
   k.  Examples of this method being used to model wavelength converter
   pools for several switch architectures are given in [Gen-Encode].

      I1   +-------------+                       +-------------+ E1
     ----->|             |      +--------+       |             |----->
      I2   |             +------+ WC #1  +-------+             | E2
     ----->|             |      +--------+       |             |----->
           | Wavelength  |                       |  Wavelength |
           | Converter   |      +--------+       |  Converter  |
           | Pool        +------+ WC #2  +-------+  Pool       |
           |             |      +--------+       |             |
           | Input       |                       |  Output     |
           | Connection  |           .           |  Connection |
           | Matrix      |           .           |  Matrix     |
           |             |           .           |             |
           |             |                       |             |
      IN   |             |      +--------+       |             | EM
     ----->|             +------+ WC #P  +-------+             |----->
           |             |      +--------+       |             |
           +-------------+   ^               ^   +-------------+
                             |               |
                             |               |
                             |               |
                             |               |

                    Input wavelength    Output wavelength
                    constraints for     constraints for
                    each converter      each converter

      Figure 3.  Schematic Diagram of Wavelength Converter Pool Model

   Figure 4 shows a simple optical switch in a four-wavelength DWDM
   system sharing wavelength converters in a general shared "per-node"
   fashion.

Top      ToC       Page 23 
                 +-----------+ ___________                +------+
                 |           |--------------------------->|      |
                 |           |--------------------------->|  C   |
           /|    |           |--------------------------->|  o   | E1
     I1   /D+--->|           |--------------------------->|  m   |
         + e+--->|           |                            |  b   |====>
    ====>| M|    |  Optical  |    +-----------+  +----+   |  i   |
         + u+--->|   Switch  |    |  WC Pool  |  |O  S|-->|  n   |
          \x+--->|           |    |  +-----+  |  |p  w|-->|  e   |
           \|    |           +----+->|WC #1|--+->|t  i|   |  r   |
                 |           |    |  +-----+  |  |i  t|   +------+
                 |           |    |           |  |c  c|   +------+
           /|    |           |    |  +-----+  |  |a  h|-->|      |
     I2   /D+--->|           +----+->|WC #2|--+->|l   |-->|  C   | E2
         + e+--->|           |    |  +-----+  |  |    |   |  o   |
    ====>| M|    |           |    +-----------+  +----+   |  m   |====>
         + u+--->|           |                            |  b   |
          \x+--->|           |--------------------------->|  i   |
           \|    |           |--------------------------->|  n   |
                 |           |--------------------------->|  e   |
                 |___________|--------------------------->|  r   |
                 +-----------+                            +------+

     Figure 4.  An Optical Switch Featuring a Shared Per-Node Wavelength
                Converter Pool Architecture

   In this case, the input and output pool matrices are simply:

              +-----+       +-----+
              | 1 1 |       | 1 1 |
          WI =|     |,  WE =|     |
              | 1 1 |       | 1 1 |
              +-----+       +-----+

   Figure 5 shows a different wavelength pool architecture known as
   "shared per fiber".  In this case, the input and output pool matrices
   are simply:

               +-----+       +-----+
               | 1 1 |       | 1 0 |
           WI =|     |,  WE =|     |
               | 1 1 |       | 0 1 |
               +-----+       +-----+

Top      ToC       Page 24 
                 +-----------+                            +------+
                 |           |--------------------------->|      |
                 |           |--------------------------->|  C   |
           /|    |           |--------------------------->|  o   | E1
     I1   /D+--->|           |--------------------------->|  m   |
         + e+--->|           |                            |  b   |====>
    ====>| M|    |  Optical  |    +-----------+           |  i   |
         + u+--->|   Switch  |    |  WC Pool  |           |  n   |
          \x+--->|           |    |  +-----+  |           |  e   |
           \|    |           +----+->|WC #1|--+---------->|  r   |
                 |           |    |  +-----+  |           +------+
                 |           |    |           |           +------+
           /|    |           |    |  +-----+  |           |      |
     I2   /D+--->|           +----+->|WC #2|--+---------->|  C   | E2
         + e+--->|           |    |  +-----+  |           |  o   |
    ====>| M|    |           |    +-----------+           |  m   |====>
         + u+--->|           |                            |  b   |
          \x+--->|           |--------------------------->|  i   |
           \|    |           |--------------------------->|  n   |
                 |           |--------------------------->|  e   |
                 |___________|--------------------------->|  r   |
                 +-----------+                            +------+

    Figure 5.  An Optical Switch Featuring a Shared Per-Fiber Wavelength
               Converter Pool Architecture

3.7.  Characterizing Electro-Optical Network Elements

   In this section, electro-optical WSON network elements are
   characterized by the three key functional components: input
   constraints, output constraints, and processing capabilities.

                             WSON Network Element
                          +-----------------------+
          WSON Signal     |      |         |      |    WSON Signal
                          |      |         |      |
        --------------->  |      |         |      | ----------------->
                          |      |         |      |
                          +-----------------------+
                          <-----> <-------> <----->

                          Input   Processing Output

                      Figure 6.  WSON Network Element

Top      ToC       Page 25 
3.7.1.  Input Constraints

   Sections 3.5 and 3.6 discuss the basic properties of regenerators,
   OEO switches, and wavelength converters.  From these, the following
   possible types of input constraints and properties are derived:

   1.  Acceptable modulation formats

   2.  Client signal (G-PID) restrictions

   3.  Bitrate restrictions

   4.  FEC coding restrictions

   5.  Configurability: (a) none, (b) self-configuring, (c) required

   These constraints are represented via simple lists.  Note that the
   device may need to be "provisioned" via signaling or some other means
   to accept signals with some attributes versus others.  In other
   cases, the devices may be relatively transparent to some attributes,
   e.g., a 2R regenerator to bitrate.  Finally, some devices may be able
   to auto-detect some attributes and configure themselves, e.g., a 3R
   regenerator with bitrate detection mechanisms and flexible phase
   locking circuitry.  To account for these different cases, item 5 has
   been added, which describes the device's configurability.

   Note that such input constraints also apply to the termination of the
   WSON signal.

3.7.2.  Output Constraints

   None of the network elements considered here modifies either the
   bitrate or the basic type of the client signal.  However, they may
   modify the modulation format or the FEC code.  Typically, the
   following types of output constraints are seen:

   1.  Output modulation is the same as input modulation (default)

   2.  A limited set of output modulations is available

   3.  Output FEC is the same as input FEC code (default)

   4.  A limited set of output FEC codes is available

   Note that in cases 2 and 4 above, where there is more than one choice
   in the output modulation or FEC code, the network element will need
   to be configured on a per-LSP basis as to which choice to use.

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3.7.3.  Processing Capabilities

   A general WSON network element (NE) can perform a number of signal
   processing functions including:

   (A) Regeneration (possibly different types)

   (B) Fault and performance monitoring

   (C) Wavelength conversion

   (D) Switching

   An NE may or may not have the ability to perform regeneration (of one
   of the types previously discussed).  In addition, some nodes may have
   limited regeneration capability, i.e., a shared pool, which may be
   applied to selected signals traversing the NE.  Hence, to describe
   the regeneration capability of a link or node, it is necessary to
   have, at a minimum:

   1.  Regeneration capability: (a) fixed, (b) selective, (c) none

   2.  Regeneration type: 1R, 2R, 3R

   3.  Regeneration pool properties for the case of selective
       regeneration (input and output restrictions, availability)

   Note that the properties of shared regenerator pools would be
   essentially the same as that of wavelength converter pools modeled in
   Section 3.6.1.

   Item B (fault and performance monitoring) is typically outside the
   scope of the control plane.  However, when the operations are to be
   performed on an LSP basis or on part of an LSP, the control plane can
   be of assistance in their configuration.  Per-LSP, per-node, and
   fault and performance monitoring examples include setting up a
   "section trace" (a regenerator overhead identifier) between two nodes
   or intermediate optical performance monitoring at selected nodes
   along a path.



(page 26 continued on part 2)

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