8. State Management
Integrating locking into the NFS protocol necessarily causes it to be
stateful. With the inclusion of such features as share reservations,
file and directory delegations, recallable layouts, and support for
mandatory byte-range locking, the protocol becomes substantially more
dependent on proper management of state than the traditional
combination of NFS and NLM (Network Lock Manager) . These
features include expanded locking facilities, which provide some
measure of inter-client exclusion, but the state also offers features
not readily providable using a stateless model. There are three
components to making this state manageable:
o clear division between client and server
o ability to reliably detect inconsistency in state between client
o simple and robust recovery mechanisms
In this model, the server owns the state information. The client
requests changes in locks and the server responds with the changes
made. Non-client-initiated changes in locking state are infrequent.
The client receives prompt notification of such changes and can
adjust its view of the locking state to reflect the server's changes.
Individual pieces of state created by the server and passed to the
client at its request are represented by 128-bit stateids. These
stateids may represent a particular open file, a set of byte-range
locks held by a particular owner, or a recallable delegation of
privileges to access a file in particular ways or at a particular
In all cases, there is a transition from the most general information
that represents a client as a whole to the eventual lightweight
stateid used for most client and server locking interactions. The
details of this transition will vary with the type of object but it
always starts with a client ID.
8.1. Client and Session ID
A client must establish a client ID (see Section 2.4) and then one or
more sessionids (see Section 2.10) before performing any operations
to open, byte-range lock, delegate, or obtain a layout for a file
object. Each session ID is associated with a specific client ID, and
thus serves as a shorthand reference to an NFSv4.1 client.
For some types of locking interactions, the client will represent
some number of internal locking entities called "owners", which
normally correspond to processes internal to the client. For other
types of locking-related objects, such as delegations and layouts, no
such intermediate entities are provided for, and the locking-related
objects are considered to be transferred directly between the server
and a unitary client.
8.2. Stateid Definition
When the server grants a lock of any type (including opens, byte-
range locks, delegations, and layouts), it responds with a unique
stateid that represents a set of locks (often a single lock) for the
same file, of the same type, and sharing the same ownership
characteristics. Thus, opens of the same file by different open-
owners each have an identifying stateid. Similarly, each set of
byte-range locks on a file owned by a specific lock-owner has its own
identifying stateid. Delegations and layouts also have associated
stateids by which they may be referenced. The stateid is used as a
shorthand reference to a lock or set of locks, and given a stateid,
the server can determine the associated state-owner or state-owners
(in the case of an open-owner/lock-owner pair) and the associated
filehandle. When stateids are used, the current filehandle must be
the one associated with that stateid.
All stateids associated with a given client ID are associated with a
common lease that represents the claim of those stateids and the
objects they represent to be maintained by the server. See
Section 8.3 for a discussion of the lease.
The server may assign stateids independently for different clients.
A stateid with the same bit pattern for one client may designate an
entirely different set of locks for a different client. The stateid
is always interpreted with respect to the client ID associated with
the current session. Stateids apply to all sessions associated with
the given client ID, and the client may use a stateid obtained from
one session on another session associated with the same client ID.
8.2.1. Stateid Types
With the exception of special stateids (see Section 8.2.3), each
stateid represents locking objects of one of a set of types defined
by the NFSv4.1 protocol. Note that in all these cases, where we
speak of guarantee, it is understood there are situations such as a
client restart, or lock revocation, that allow the guarantee to be
o Stateids may represent opens of files.
Each stateid in this case represents the OPEN state for a given
client ID/open-owner/filehandle triple. Such stateids are subject
to change (with consequent incrementing of the stateid's seqid) in
response to OPENs that result in upgrade and OPEN_DOWNGRADE
o Stateids may represent sets of byte-range locks.
All locks held on a particular file by a particular owner and
gotten under the aegis of a particular open file are associated
with a single stateid with the seqid being incremented whenever
LOCK and LOCKU operations affect that set of locks.
o Stateids may represent file delegations, which are recallable
guarantees by the server to the client that other clients will not
reference or modify a particular file, until the delegation is
returned. In NFSv4.1, file delegations may be obtained on both
regular and non-regular files.
A stateid represents a single delegation held by a client for a
o Stateids may represent directory delegations, which are recallable
guarantees by the server to the client that other clients will not
modify the directory, until the delegation is returned.
A stateid represents a single delegation held by a client for a
particular directory filehandle.
o Stateids may represent layouts, which are recallable guarantees by
the server to the client that particular files may be accessed via
an alternate data access protocol at specific locations. Such
access is limited to particular sets of byte-ranges and may
proceed until those byte-ranges are reduced or the layout is
A stateid represents the set of all layouts held by a particular
client for a particular filehandle with a given layout type. The
seqid is updated as the layouts of that set of byte-ranges change,
via layout stateid changing operations such as LAYOUTGET and
8.2.2. Stateid Structure
Stateids are divided into two fields, a 96-bit "other" field
identifying the specific set of locks and a 32-bit "seqid" sequence
value. Except in the case of special stateids (see Section 8.2.3), a
particular value of the "other" field denotes a set of locks of the
same type (for example, byte-range locks, opens, delegations, or
layouts), for a specific file or directory, and sharing the same
ownership characteristics. The seqid designates a specific instance
of such a set of locks, and is incremented to indicate changes in
such a set of locks, either by the addition or deletion of locks from
the set, a change in the byte-range they apply to, or an upgrade or
downgrade in the type of one or more locks.
When such a set of locks is first created, the server returns a
stateid with seqid value of one. On subsequent operations that
modify the set of locks, the server is required to increment the
"seqid" field by one whenever it returns a stateid for the same
state-owner/file/type combination and there is some change in the set
of locks actually designated. In this case, the server will return a
stateid with an "other" field the same as previously used for that
state-owner/file/type combination, with an incremented "seqid" field.
This pattern continues until the seqid is incremented past
NFS4_UINT32_MAX, and one (not zero) is the next seqid value.
The purpose of the incrementing of the seqid is to allow the server
to communicate to the client the order in which operations that
modified locking state associated with a stateid have been processed
and to make it possible for the client to send requests that are
conditional on the set of locks not having changed since the stateid
in question was returned.
Except for layout stateids (Section 12.5.3), when a client sends a
stateid to the server, it has two choices with regard to the seqid
sent. It may set the seqid to zero to indicate to the server that it
wishes the most up-to-date seqid for that stateid's "other" field to
be used. This would be the common choice in the case of a stateid
sent with a READ or WRITE operation. It also may set a non-zero
value, in which case the server checks if that seqid is the correct
one. In that case, the server is required to return
NFS4ERR_OLD_STATEID if the seqid is lower than the most current value
and NFS4ERR_BAD_STATEID if the seqid is greater than the most current
value. This would be the common choice in the case of stateids sent
with a CLOSE or OPEN_DOWNGRADE. Because OPENs may be sent in
parallel for the same owner, a client might close a file without
knowing that an OPEN upgrade had been done by the server, changing
the lock in question. If CLOSE were sent with a zero seqid, the OPEN
upgrade would be cancelled before the client even received an
indication that an upgrade had happened.
When a stateid is sent by the server to the client as part of a
callback operation, it is not subject to checking for a current seqid
and returning NFS4ERR_OLD_STATEID. This is because the client is not
in a position to know the most up-to-date seqid and thus cannot
verify it. Unless specially noted, the seqid value for a stateid
sent by the server to the client as part of a callback is required to
be zero with NFS4ERR_BAD_STATEID returned if it is not.
In making comparisons between seqids, both by the client in
determining the order of operations and by the server in determining
whether the NFS4ERR_OLD_STATEID is to be returned, the possibility of
the seqid being swapped around past the NFS4_UINT32_MAX value needs
to be taken into account. When two seqid values are being compared,
the total count of slots for all sessions associated with the current
client is used to do this. When one seqid value is less than this
total slot count and another seqid value is greater than
NFS4_UINT32_MAX minus the total slot count, the former is to be
treated as lower than the latter, despite the fact that it is
8.2.3. Special Stateids
Stateid values whose "other" field is either all zeros or all ones
are reserved. They may not be assigned by the server but have
special meanings defined by the protocol. The particular meaning
depends on whether the "other" field is all zeros or all ones and the
specific value of the "seqid" field.
The following combinations of "other" and "seqid" are defined in
o When "other" and "seqid" are both zero, the stateid is treated as
a special anonymous stateid, which can be used in READ, WRITE, and
SETATTR requests to indicate the absence of any OPEN state
associated with the request. When an anonymous stateid value is
used and an existing open denies the form of access requested,
then access will be denied to the request. This stateid MUST NOT
be used on operations to data servers (Section 13.6).
o When "other" and "seqid" are both all ones, the stateid is a
special READ bypass stateid. When this value is used in WRITE or
SETATTR, it is treated like the anonymous value. When used in
READ, the server MAY grant access, even if access would normally
be denied to READ operations. This stateid MUST NOT be used on
operations to data servers.
o When "other" is zero and "seqid" is one, the stateid represents
the current stateid, which is whatever value is the last stateid
returned by an operation within the COMPOUND. In the case of an
OPEN, the stateid returned for the open file and not the
delegation is used. The stateid passed to the operation in place
of the special value has its "seqid" value set to zero, except
when the current stateid is used by the operation CLOSE or
OPEN_DOWNGRADE. If there is no operation in the COMPOUND that has
returned a stateid value, the server MUST return the error
NFS4ERR_BAD_STATEID. As illustrated in Figure 6, if the value of
a current stateid is a special stateid and the stateid of an
operation's arguments has "other" set to zero and "seqid" set to
one, then the server MUST return the error NFS4ERR_BAD_STATEID.
o When "other" is zero and "seqid" is NFS4_UINT32_MAX, the stateid
represents a reserved stateid value defined to be invalid. When
this stateid is used, the server MUST return the error
If a stateid value is used that has all zeros or all ones in the
"other" field but does not match one of the cases above, the server
MUST return the error NFS4ERR_BAD_STATEID.
Special stateids, unlike other stateids, are not associated with
individual client IDs or filehandles and can be used with all valid
client IDs and filehandles. In the case of a special stateid
designating the current stateid, the current stateid value
substituted for the special stateid is associated with a particular
client ID and filehandle, and so, if it is used where the current
filehandle does not match that associated with the current stateid,
the operation to which the stateid is passed will return
8.2.4. Stateid Lifetime and Validation
Stateids must remain valid until either a client restart or a server
restart or until the client returns all of the locks associated with
the stateid by means of an operation such as CLOSE or DELEGRETURN.
If the locks are lost due to revocation, as long as the client ID is
valid, the stateid remains a valid designation of that revoked state
until the client frees it by using FREE_STATEID. Stateids associated
with byte-range locks are an exception. They remain valid even if a
LOCKU frees all remaining locks, so long as the open file with which
they are associated remains open, unless the client frees the
stateids via the FREE_STATEID operation.
It should be noted that there are situations in which the client's
locks become invalid, without the client requesting they be returned.
These include lease expiration and a number of forms of lock
revocation within the lease period. It is important to note that in
these situations, the stateid remains valid and the client can use it
to determine the disposition of the associated lost locks.
An "other" value must never be reused for a different purpose (i.e.,
different filehandle, owner, or type of locks) within the context of
a single client ID. A server may retain the "other" value for the
same purpose beyond the point where it may otherwise be freed, but if
it does so, it must maintain "seqid" continuity with previous values.
One mechanism that may be used to satisfy the requirement that the
server recognize invalid and out-of-date stateids is for the server
to divide the "other" field of the stateid into two fields.
o an index into a table of locking-state structures.
o a generation number that is incremented on each allocation of a
table entry for a particular use.
And then store in each table entry,
o the client ID with which the stateid is associated.
o the current generation number for the (at most one) valid stateid
sharing this index value.
o the filehandle of the file on which the locks are taken.
o an indication of the type of stateid (open, byte-range lock, file
delegation, directory delegation, layout).
o the last "seqid" value returned corresponding to the current
o an indication of the current status of the locks associated with
this stateid, in particular, whether these have been revoked and
if so, for what reason.
With this information, an incoming stateid can be validated and the
appropriate error returned when necessary. Special and non-special
stateids are handled separately. (See Section 8.2.3 for a discussion
of special stateids.)
Note that stateids are implicitly qualified by the current client ID,
as derived from the client ID associated with the current session.
Note, however, that the semantics of the session will prevent
stateids associated with a previous client or server instance from
being analyzed by this procedure.
If server restart has resulted in an invalid client ID or a session
ID that is invalid, SEQUENCE will return an error and the operation
that takes a stateid as an argument will never be processed.
If there has been a server restart where there is a persistent
session and all leased state has been lost, then the session in
question will, although valid, be marked as dead, and any operation
not satisfied by means of the reply cache will receive the error
NFS4ERR_DEADSESSION, and thus not be processed as indicated below.
When a stateid is being tested and the "other" field is all zeros or
all ones, a check that the "other" and "seqid" fields match a defined
combination for a special stateid is done and the results determined
o If the "other" and "seqid" fields do not match a defined
combination associated with a special stateid, the error
NFS4ERR_BAD_STATEID is returned.
o If the special stateid is one designating the current stateid and
there is a current stateid, then the current stateid is
substituted for the special stateid and the checks appropriate to
non-special stateids are performed.
o If the combination is valid in general but is not appropriate to
the context in which the stateid is used (e.g., an all-zero
stateid is used when an OPEN stateid is required in a LOCK
operation), the error NFS4ERR_BAD_STATEID is also returned.
o Otherwise, the check is completed and the special stateid is
accepted as valid.
When a stateid is being tested, and the "other" field is neither all
zeros nor all ones, the following procedure could be used to validate
an incoming stateid and return an appropriate error, when necessary,
assuming that the "other" field would be divided into a table index
and an entry generation.
o If the table index field is outside the range of the associated
table, return NFS4ERR_BAD_STATEID.
o If the selected table entry is of a different generation than that
specified in the incoming stateid, return NFS4ERR_BAD_STATEID.
o If the selected table entry does not match the current filehandle,
o If the client ID in the table entry does not match the client ID
associated with the current session, return NFS4ERR_BAD_STATEID.
o If the stateid represents revoked state, then return
NFS4ERR_EXPIRED, NFS4ERR_ADMIN_REVOKED, or NFS4ERR_DELEG_REVOKED,
o If the stateid type is not valid for the context in which the
stateid appears, return NFS4ERR_BAD_STATEID. Note that a stateid
may be valid in general, as would be reported by the TEST_STATEID
operation, but be invalid for a particular operation, as, for
example, when a stateid that doesn't represent byte-range locks is
passed to the non-from_open case of LOCK or to LOCKU, or when a
stateid that does not represent an open is passed to CLOSE or
OPEN_DOWNGRADE. In such cases, the server MUST return
o If the "seqid" field is not zero and it is greater than the
current sequence value corresponding to the current "other" field,
o If the "seqid" field is not zero and it is less than the current
sequence value corresponding to the current "other" field, return
o Otherwise, the stateid is valid and the table entry should contain
any additional information about the type of stateid and
information associated with that particular type of stateid, such
as the associated set of locks, e.g., open-owner and lock-owner
information, as well as information on the specific locks, e.g.,
open modes and byte-ranges.
8.2.5. Stateid Use for I/O Operations
Clients performing I/O operations need to select an appropriate
stateid based on the locks (including opens and delegations) held by
the client and the various types of state-owners sending the I/O
requests. SETATTR operations that change the file size are treated
like I/O operations in this regard.
The following rules, applied in order of decreasing priority, govern
the selection of the appropriate stateid. In following these rules,
the client will only consider locks of which it has actually received
notification by an appropriate operation response or callback. Note
that the rules are slightly different in the case of I/O to data
servers when file layouts are being used (see Section 13.9.1).
o If the client holds a delegation for the file in question, the
delegation stateid SHOULD be used.
o Otherwise, if the entity corresponding to the lock-owner (e.g., a
process) sending the I/O has a byte-range lock stateid for the
associated open file, then the byte-range lock stateid for that
lock-owner and open file SHOULD be used.
o If there is no byte-range lock stateid, then the OPEN stateid for
the open file in question SHOULD be used.
o Finally, if none of the above apply, then a special stateid SHOULD
Ignoring these rules may result in situations in which the server
does not have information necessary to properly process the request.
For example, when mandatory byte-range locks are in effect, if the
stateid does not indicate the proper lock-owner, via a lock stateid,
a request might be avoidably rejected.
The server however should not try to enforce these ordering rules and
should use whatever information is available to properly process I/O
requests. In particular, when a client has a delegation for a given
file, it SHOULD take note of this fact in processing a request, even
if it is sent with a special stateid.
8.2.6. Stateid Use for SETATTR Operations
Because each operation is associated with a session ID and from that
the clientid can be determined, operations do not need to include a
stateid for the server to be able to determine whether they should
cause a delegation to be recalled or are to be treated as done within
the scope of the delegation.
In the case of SETATTR operations, a stateid is present. In cases
other than those that set the file size, the client may send either a
special stateid or, when a delegation is held for the file in
question, a delegation stateid. While the server SHOULD validate the
stateid and may use the stateid to optimize the determination as to
whether a delegation is held, it SHOULD note the presence of a
delegation even when a special stateid is sent, and MUST accept a
valid delegation stateid when sent.
8.3. Lease Renewal
Each client/server pair, as represented by a client ID, has a single
lease. The purpose of the lease is to allow the client to indicate
to the server, in a low-overhead way, that it is active, and thus
that the server is to retain the client's locks. This arrangement
allows the server to remove stale locking-related objects that are
held by a client that has crashed or is otherwise unreachable, once
the relevant lease expires. This in turn allows other clients to
obtain conflicting locks without being delayed indefinitely by
inactive or unreachable clients. It is not a mechanism for cache
consistency and lease renewals may not be denied if the lease
interval has not expired.
Since each session is associated with a specific client (identified
by the client's client ID), any operation sent on that session is an
indication that the associated client is reachable. When a request
is sent for a given session, successful execution of a SEQUENCE
operation (or successful retrieval of the result of SEQUENCE from the
reply cache) on an unexpired lease will result in the lease being
implicitly renewed, for the standard renewal period (equal to the
If the client ID's lease has not expired when the server receives a
SEQUENCE operation, then the server MUST renew the lease. If the
client ID's lease has expired when the server receives a SEQUENCE
operation, the server MAY renew the lease; this depends on whether
any state was revoked as a result of the client's failure to renew
the lease before expiration.
Absent other activity that would renew the lease, a COMPOUND
consisting of a single SEQUENCE operation will suffice. The client
should also take communication-related delays into account and take
steps to ensure that the renewal messages actually reach the server
in good time. For example:
o When trunking is in effect, the client should consider sending
multiple requests on different connections, in order to ensure
that renewal occurs, even in the event of blockage in the path
used for one of those connections.
o Transport retransmission delays might become so large as to
approach or exceed the length of the lease period. This may be
particularly likely when the server is unresponsive due to a
restart; see Section 188.8.131.52. If the client implementation is not
careful, transport retransmission delays can result in the client
failing to detect a server restart before the grace period ends.
The scenario is that the client is using a transport with
exponential backoff, such that the maximum retransmission timeout
exceeds both the grace period and the lease_time attribute. A
network partition causes the client's connection's retransmission
interval to back off, and even after the partition heals, the next
transport-level retransmission is sent after the server has
restarted and its grace period ends.
The client MUST either recover from the ensuing NFS4ERR_NO_GRACE
errors or it MUST ensure that, despite transport-level
retransmission intervals that exceed the lease_time, a SEQUENCE
operation is sent that renews the lease before expiration. The
client can achieve this by associating a new connection with the
session, and sending a SEQUENCE operation on it. However, if the
attempt to establish a new connection is delayed for some reason
(e.g., exponential backoff of the connection establishment
packets), the client will have to abort the connection
establishment attempt before the lease expires, and attempt to
If the server renews the lease upon receiving a SEQUENCE operation,
the server MUST NOT allow the lease to expire while the rest of the
operations in the COMPOUND procedure's request are still executing.
Once the last operation has finished, and the response to COMPOUND
has been sent, the server MUST set the lease to expire no sooner than
the sum of current time and the value of the lease_time attribute.
A client ID's lease can expire when it has been at least the lease
interval (lease_time) since the last lease-renewing SEQUENCE
operation was sent on any of the client ID's sessions and there are
no active COMPOUND operations on any such sessions.
Because the SEQUENCE operation is the basic mechanism to renew a
lease, and because it must be done at least once for each lease
period, it is the natural mechanism whereby the server will inform
the client of changes in the lease status that the client needs to be
informed of. The client should inspect the status flags
(sr_status_flags) returned by sequence and take the appropriate
action (see Section 18.46.3 for details).
o The status bits SEQ4_STATUS_CB_PATH_DOWN and
SEQ4_STATUS_CB_PATH_DOWN_SESSION indicate problems with the
backchannel that the client may need to address in order to
receive callback requests.
o The status bits SEQ4_STATUS_CB_GSS_CONTEXTS_EXPIRING and
SEQ4_STATUS_CB_GSS_CONTEXTS_EXPIRED indicate problems with GSS
contexts or RPCSEC_GSS handles for the backchannel that the client
might have to address in order to allow callback requests to be
o The status bits SEQ4_STATUS_EXPIRED_ALL_STATE_REVOKED,
SEQ4_STATUS_RECALLABLE_STATE_REVOKED notify the client of lock
revocation events. When these bits are set, the client should use
TEST_STATEID to find what stateids have been revoked and use
FREE_STATEID to acknowledge loss of the associated state.
o The status bit SEQ4_STATUS_LEASE_MOVE indicates that
responsibility for lease renewal has been transferred to one or
more new servers.
o The status bit SEQ4_STATUS_RESTART_RECLAIM_NEEDED indicates that
due to server restart the client must reclaim locking state.
o The status bit SEQ4_STATUS_BACKCHANNEL_FAULT indicates that the
server has encountered an unrecoverable fault with the backchannel
(e.g., it has lost track of a sequence ID for a slot in the
8.4. Crash Recovery
A critical requirement in crash recovery is that both the client and
the server know when the other has failed. Additionally, it is
required that a client sees a consistent view of data across server
restarts. All READ and WRITE operations that may have been queued
within the client or network buffers must wait until the client has
successfully recovered the locks protecting the READ and WRITE
operations. Any that reach the server before the server can safely
determine that the client has recovered enough locking state to be
sure that such operations can be safely processed must be rejected.
This will happen because either:
o The state presented is no longer valid since it is associated with
a now invalid client ID. In this case, the client will receive
either an NFS4ERR_BADSESSION or NFS4ERR_DEADSESSION error, and any
attempt to attach a new session to that invalid client ID will
result in an NFS4ERR_STALE_CLIENTID error.
o Subsequent recovery of locks may make execution of the operation
8.4.1. Client Failure and Recovery
In the event that a client fails, the server may release the client's
locks when the associated lease has expired. Conflicting locks from
another client may only be granted after this lease expiration. As
discussed in Section 8.3, when a client has not failed and re-
establishes its lease before expiration occurs, requests for
conflicting locks will not be granted.
To minimize client delay upon restart, lock requests are associated
with an instance of the client by a client-supplied verifier. This
verifier is part of the client_owner4 sent in the initial EXCHANGE_ID
call made by the client. The server returns a client ID as a result
of the EXCHANGE_ID operation. The client then confirms the use of
the client ID by establishing a session associated with that client
ID (see Section 18.36.3 for a description of how this is done). All
locks, including opens, byte-range locks, delegations, and layouts
obtained by sessions using that client ID, are associated with that
Since the verifier will be changed by the client upon each
initialization, the server can compare a new verifier to the verifier
associated with currently held locks and determine that they do not
match. This signifies the client's new instantiation and subsequent
loss (upon confirmation of the new client ID) of locking state. As a
result, the server is free to release all locks held that are
associated with the old client ID that was derived from the old
verifier. At this point, conflicting locks from other clients, kept
waiting while the lease had not yet expired, can be granted. In
addition, all stateids associated with the old client ID can also be
freed, as they are no longer reference-able.
Note that the verifier must have the same uniqueness properties as
the verifier for the COMMIT operation.
8.4.2. Server Failure and Recovery
If the server loses locking state (usually as a result of a restart),
it must allow clients time to discover this fact and re-establish the
lost locking state. The client must be able to re-establish the
locking state without having the server deny valid requests because
the server has granted conflicting access to another client.
Likewise, if there is a possibility that clients have not yet re-
established their locking state for a file and that such locking
state might make it invalid to perform READ or WRITE operations. For
example, if mandatory locks are a possibility, the server must
disallow READ and WRITE operations for that file.
A client can determine that loss of locking state has occurred via
1. When a SEQUENCE (most common) or other operation returns
NFS4ERR_BADSESSION, this may mean that the session has been
destroyed but the client ID is still valid. The client sends a
CREATE_SESSION request with the client ID to re-establish the
session. If CREATE_SESSION fails with NFS4ERR_STALE_CLIENTID,
the client must establish a new client ID (see Section 8.1) and
re-establish its lock state with the new client ID, after the
CREATE_SESSION operation succeeds (see Section 184.108.40.206).
2. When a SEQUENCE (most common) or other operation on a persistent
session returns NFS4ERR_DEADSESSION, this indicates that a
session is no longer usable for new, i.e., not satisfied from the
reply cache, operations. Once all pending operations are
determined to be either performed before the retry or not
performed, the client sends a CREATE_SESSION request with the
client ID to re-establish the session. If CREATE_SESSION fails
with NFS4ERR_STALE_CLIENTID, the client must establish a new
client ID (see Section 8.1) and re-establish its lock state after
the CREATE_SESSION, with the new client ID, succeeds
3. When an operation, neither SEQUENCE nor preceded by SEQUENCE (for
example, CREATE_SESSION, DESTROY_SESSION), returns
NFS4ERR_STALE_CLIENTID, the client MUST establish a new client ID
(Section 8.1) and re-establish its lock state (Section 220.127.116.11).
18.104.22.168. State Reclaim
When state information and the associated locks are lost as a result
of a server restart, the protocol must provide a way to cause that
state to be re-established. The approach used is to define, for most
types of locking state (layouts are an exception), a request whose
function is to allow the client to re-establish on the server a lock
first obtained from a previous instance. Generally, these requests
are variants of the requests normally used to create locks of that
type and are referred to as "reclaim-type" requests, and the process
of re-establishing such locks is referred to as "reclaiming" them.
Because each client must have an opportunity to reclaim all of the
locks that it has without the possibility that some other client will
be granted a conflicting lock, a "grace period" is devoted to the
reclaim process. During this period, requests creating client IDs
and sessions are handled normally, but locking requests are subject
to special restrictions. Only reclaim-type locking requests are
allowed, unless the server can reliably determine (through state
persistently maintained across restart instances) that granting any
such lock cannot possibly conflict with a subsequent reclaim. When a
request is made to obtain a new lock (i.e., not a reclaim-type
request) during the grace period and such a determination cannot be
made, the server must return the error NFS4ERR_GRACE.
Once a session is established using the new client ID, the client
will use reclaim-type locking requests (e.g., LOCK operations with
reclaim set to TRUE and OPEN operations with a claim type of
CLAIM_PREVIOUS; see Section 9.11) to re-establish its locking state.
Once this is done, or if there is no such locking state to reclaim,
the client sends a global RECLAIM_COMPLETE operation, i.e., one with
the rca_one_fs argument set to FALSE, to indicate that it has
reclaimed all of the locking state that it will reclaim. Once a
client sends such a RECLAIM_COMPLETE operation, it may attempt non-
reclaim locking operations, although it might get an NFS4ERR_GRACE
status result from each such operation until the period of special
handling is over. See Section 11.7.7 for a discussion of the
analogous handling lock reclamation in the case of file systems
transitioning from server to server.
During the grace period, the server must reject READ and WRITE
operations and non-reclaim locking requests (i.e., other LOCK and
OPEN operations) with an error of NFS4ERR_GRACE, unless it can
guarantee that these may be done safely, as described below.
The grace period may last until all clients that are known to
possibly have had locks have done a global RECLAIM_COMPLETE
operation, indicating that they have finished reclaiming the locks
they held before the server restart. This means that a client that
has done a RECLAIM_COMPLETE must be prepared to receive an
NFS4ERR_GRACE when attempting to acquire new locks. In order for the
server to know that all clients with possible prior lock state have
done a RECLAIM_COMPLETE, the server must maintain in stable storage a
list clients that may have such locks. The server may also terminate
the grace period before all clients have done a global
RECLAIM_COMPLETE. The server SHOULD NOT terminate the grace period
before a time equal to the lease period in order to give clients an
opportunity to find out about the server restart, as a result of
sending requests on associated sessions with a frequency governed by
the lease time. Note that when a client does not send such requests
(or they are sent by the client but not received by the server), it
is possible for the grace period to expire before the client finds
out that the server restart has occurred.
Some additional time in order to allow a client to establish a new
client ID and session and to effect lock reclaims may be added to the
lease time. Note that analogous rules apply to file system-specific
grace periods discussed in Section 11.7.7.
If the server can reliably determine that granting a non-reclaim
request will not conflict with reclamation of locks by other clients,
the NFS4ERR_GRACE error does not have to be returned even within the
grace period, although NFS4ERR_GRACE must always be returned to
clients attempting a non-reclaim lock request before doing their own
global RECLAIM_COMPLETE. For the server to be able to service READ
and WRITE operations during the grace period, it must again be able
to guarantee that no possible conflict could arise between a
potential reclaim locking request and the READ or WRITE operation.
If the server is unable to offer that guarantee, the NFS4ERR_GRACE
error must be returned to the client.
For a server to provide simple, valid handling during the grace
period, the easiest method is to simply reject all non-reclaim
locking requests and READ and WRITE operations by returning the
NFS4ERR_GRACE error. However, a server may keep information about
granted locks in stable storage. With this information, the server
could determine if a locking, READ or WRITE operation can be safely
For example, if the server maintained on stable storage summary
information on whether mandatory locks exist, either mandatory byte-
range locks, or share reservations specifying deny modes, many
requests could be allowed during the grace period. If it is known
that no such share reservations exist, OPEN request that do not
specify deny modes may be safely granted. If, in addition, it is
known that no mandatory byte-range locks exist, either through
information stored on stable storage or simply because the server
does not support such locks, READ and WRITE operations may be safely
processed during the grace period. Another important case is where
it is known that no mandatory byte-range locks exist, either because
the server does not provide support for them or because their absence
is known from persistently recorded data. In this case, READ and
WRITE operations specifying stateids derived from reclaim-type
operations may be validly processed during the grace period because
of the fact that the valid reclaim ensures that no lock subsequently
granted can prevent the I/O.
To reiterate, for a server that allows non-reclaim lock and I/O
requests to be processed during the grace period, it MUST determine
that no lock subsequently reclaimed will be rejected and that no lock
subsequently reclaimed would have prevented any I/O operation
processed during the grace period.
Clients should be prepared for the return of NFS4ERR_GRACE errors for
non-reclaim lock and I/O requests. In this case, the client should
employ a retry mechanism for the request. A delay (on the order of
several seconds) between retries should be used to avoid overwhelming
the server. Further discussion of the general issue is included in
. The client must account for the server that can perform I/O
and non-reclaim locking requests within the grace period as well as
those that cannot do so.
A reclaim-type locking request outside the server's grace period can
only succeed if the server can guarantee that no conflicting lock or
I/O request has been granted since restart.
A server may, upon restart, establish a new value for the lease
period. Therefore, clients should, once a new client ID is
established, refetch the lease_time attribute and use it as the basis
for lease renewal for the lease associated with that server.
However, the server must establish, for this restart event, a grace
period at least as long as the lease period for the previous server
instantiation. This allows the client state obtained during the
previous server instance to be reliably re-established.
The possibility exists that, because of server configuration events,
the client will be communicating with a server different than the one
on which the locks were obtained, as shown by the combination of
eir_server_scope and eir_server_owner. This leads to the issue of if
and when the client should attempt to reclaim locks previously
obtained on what is being reported as a different server. The rules
to resolve this question are as follows:
o If the server scope is different, the client should not attempt to
reclaim locks. In this situation, no lock reclaim is possible.
Any attempt to re-obtain the locks with non-reclaim operations is
problematic since there is no guarantee that the existing
filehandles will be recognized by the new server, or that if
recognized, they denote the same objects. It is best to treat the
locks as having been revoked by the reconfiguration event.
o If the server scope is the same, the client should attempt to
reclaim locks, even if the eir_server_owner value is different.
In this situation, it is the responsibility of the server to
return NFS4ERR_NO_GRACE if it cannot provide correct support for
lock reclaim operations, including the prevention of edge
The eir_server_owner field is not used in making this determination.
Its function is to specify trunking possibilities for the client (see
Section 2.10.5) and not to control lock reclaim.
22.214.171.124.1. Security Considerations for State Reclaim
During the grace period, a client can reclaim state that it believes
or asserts it had before the server restarted. Unless the server
maintained a complete record of all the state the client had, the
server has little choice but to trust the client. (Of course, if the
server maintained a complete record, then it would not have to force
the client to reclaim state after server restart.) While the server
has to trust the client to tell the truth, such trust does not have
any negative consequences for security. The fundamental rule for the
server when processing reclaim requests is that it MUST NOT grant the
reclaim if an equivalent non-reclaim request would not be granted
during steady state due to access control or access conflict issues.
For example, an OPEN request during a reclaim will be refused with
NFS4ERR_ACCESS if the principal making the request does not have
access to open the file according to the discretionary ACL
(Section 6.2.2) on the file.
Nonetheless, it is possible that a client operating in error or
maliciously could, during reclaim, prevent another client from
reclaiming access to state. For example, an attacker could send an
OPEN reclaim operation with a deny mode that prevents another client
from reclaiming the OPEN state it had before the server restarted.
The attacker could perform the same denial of service during steady
state prior to server restart, as long as the attacker had
permissions. Given that the attack vectors are equivalent, the grace
period does not offer any additional opportunity for denial of
service, and any concerns about this attack vector, whether during
grace or steady state, are addressed the same way: use RPCSEC_GSS for
authentication and limit access to the file only to principals that
the owner of the file trusts.
Note that if prior to restart the server had client IDs with the
EXCHGID4_FLAG_BIND_PRINC_STATEID (Section 18.35) capability set, then
the server SHOULD record in stable storage the client owner and the
principal that established the client ID via EXCHANGE_ID. If the
server does not, then there is a risk a client will be unable to
reclaim state if it does not have a credential for a principal that
was originally authorized to establish the state.
8.4.3. Network Partitions and Recovery
If the duration of a network partition is greater than the lease
period provided by the server, the server will not have received a
lease renewal from the client. If this occurs, the server may free
all locks held for the client or it may allow the lock state to
remain for a considerable period, subject to the constraint that if a
request for a conflicting lock is made, locks associated with an
expired lease do not prevent such a conflicting lock from being
granted but MUST be revoked as necessary so as to avoid interfering
with such conflicting requests.
If the server chooses to delay freeing of lock state until there is a
conflict, it may either free all of the client's locks once there is
a conflict or it may only revoke the minimum set of locks necessary
to allow conflicting requests. When it adopts the finer-grained
approach, it must revoke all locks associated with a given stateid,
even if the conflict is with only a subset of locks.
When the server chooses to free all of a client's lock state, either
immediately upon lease expiration or as a result of the first attempt
to obtain a conflicting a lock, the server may report the loss of
lock state in a number of ways.
The server may choose to invalidate the session and the associated
client ID. In this case, once the client can communicate with the
server, it will receive an NFS4ERR_BADSESSION error. Upon attempting
to create a new session, it would get an NFS4ERR_STALE_CLIENTID.
Upon creating the new client ID and new session, the client will
attempt to reclaim locks. Normally, the server will not allow the
client to reclaim locks, because the server will not be in its
recovery grace period.
Another possibility is for the server to maintain the session and
client ID but for all stateids held by the client to become invalid
or stale. Once the client can reach the server after such a network
partition, the status returned by the SEQUENCE operation will
indicate a loss of locking state; i.e., the flag
SEQ4_STATUS_EXPIRED_ALL_STATE_REVOKED will be set in sr_status_flags.
In addition, all I/O submitted by the client with the now invalid
stateids will fail with the server returning the error
NFS4ERR_EXPIRED. Once the client learns of the loss of locking
state, it will suitably notify the applications that held the
invalidated locks. The client should then take action to free
invalidated stateids, either by establishing a new client ID using a
new verifier or by doing a FREE_STATEID operation to release each of
the invalidated stateids.
When the server adopts a finer-grained approach to revocation of
locks when a client's lease has expired, only a subset of stateids
will normally become invalid during a network partition. When the
client can communicate with the server after such a network partition
heals, the status returned by the SEQUENCE operation will indicate a
partial loss of locking state
(SEQ4_STATUS_EXPIRED_SOME_STATE_REVOKED). In addition, operations,
including I/O submitted by the client, with the now invalid stateids
will fail with the server returning the error NFS4ERR_EXPIRED. Once
the client learns of the loss of locking state, it will use the
TEST_STATEID operation on all of its stateids to determine which
locks have been lost and then suitably notify the applications that
held the invalidated locks. The client can then release the
invalidated locking state and acknowledge the revocation of the
associated locks by doing a FREE_STATEID operation on each of the
When a network partition is combined with a server restart, there are
edge conditions that place requirements on the server in order to
avoid silent data corruption following the server restart. Two of
these edge conditions are known, and are discussed below.
The first edge condition arises as a result of the scenarios such as
1. Client A acquires a lock.
2. Client A and server experience mutual network partition, such
that client A is unable to renew its lease.
3. Client A's lease expires, and the server releases the lock.
4. Client B acquires a lock that would have conflicted with that of
5. Client B releases its lock.
6. Server restarts.
7. Network partition between client A and server heals.
8. Client A connects to a new server instance and finds out about
9. Client A reclaims its lock within the server's grace period.
Thus, at the final step, the server has erroneously granted client
A's lock reclaim. If client B modified the object the lock was
protecting, client A will experience object corruption.
The second known edge condition arises in situations such as the
1. Client A acquires one or more locks.
2. Server restarts.
3. Client A and server experience mutual network partition, such
that client A is unable to reclaim all of its locks within the
4. Server's reclaim grace period ends. Client A has either no
locks or an incomplete set of locks known to the server.
5. Client B acquires a lock that would have conflicted with a lock
of client A that was not reclaimed.
6. Client B releases the lock.
7. Server restarts a second time.
8. Network partition between client A and server heals.
9. Client A connects to new server instance and finds out about
10. Client A reclaims its lock within the server's grace period.
As with the first edge condition, the final step of the scenario of
the second edge condition has the server erroneously granting client
A's lock reclaim.
Solving the first and second edge conditions requires either that the
server always assumes after it restarts that some edge condition
occurs, and thus returns NFS4ERR_NO_GRACE for all reclaim attempts,
or that the server record some information in stable storage. The
amount of information the server records in stable storage is in
inverse proportion to how harsh the server intends to be whenever
edge conditions arise. The server that is completely tolerant of all
edge conditions will record in stable storage every lock that is
acquired, removing the lock record from stable storage only when the
lock is released. For the two edge conditions discussed above, the
harshest a server can be, and still support a grace period for
reclaims, requires that the server record in stable storage some
minimal information. For example, a server implementation could, for
each client, save in stable storage a record containing:
o the co_ownerid field from the client_owner4 presented in the
o a boolean that indicates if the client's lease expired or if there
was administrative intervention (see Section 8.5) to revoke a
byte-range lock, share reservation, or delegation and there has
been no acknowledgment, via FREE_STATEID, of such revocation.
o a boolean that indicates whether the client may have locks that it
believes to be reclaimable in situations in which the grace period
was terminated, making the server's view of lock reclaimability
suspect. The server will set this for any client record in stable
storage where the client has not done a suitable RECLAIM_COMPLETE
(global or file system-specific depending on the target of the
lock request) before it grants any new (i.e., not reclaimed) lock
to any client.
Assuming the above record keeping, for the first edge condition,
after the server restarts, the record that client A's lease expired
means that another client could have acquired a conflicting byte-
range lock, share reservation, or delegation. Hence, the server must
reject a reclaim from client A with the error NFS4ERR_NO_GRACE.
For the second edge condition, after the server restarts for a second
time, the indication that the client had not completed its reclaims
at the time at which the grace period ended means that the server
must reject a reclaim from client A with the error NFS4ERR_NO_GRACE.
When either edge condition occurs, the client's attempt to reclaim
locks will result in the error NFS4ERR_NO_GRACE. When this is
received, or after the client restarts with no lock state, the client
will send a global RECLAIM_COMPLETE. When the RECLAIM_COMPLETE is
received, the server and client are again in agreement regarding
reclaimable locks and both booleans in persistent storage can be
reset, to be set again only when there is a subsequent event that
causes lock reclaim operations to be questionable.
Regardless of the level and approach to record keeping, the server
MUST implement one of the following strategies (which apply to
reclaims of share reservations, byte-range locks, and delegations):
1. Reject all reclaims with NFS4ERR_NO_GRACE. This is extremely
unforgiving, but necessary if the server does not record lock
state in stable storage.
2. Record sufficient state in stable storage such that all known
edge conditions involving server restart, including the two noted
in this section, are detected. It is acceptable to erroneously
recognize an edge condition and not allow a reclaim, when, with
sufficient knowledge, it would be allowed. The error the server
would return in this case is NFS4ERR_NO_GRACE. Note that it is
not known if there are other edge conditions.
In the event that, after a server restart, the server determines
there is unrecoverable damage or corruption to the information in
stable storage, then for all clients and/or locks that may be
affected, the server MUST return NFS4ERR_NO_GRACE.
A mandate for the client's handling of the NFS4ERR_NO_GRACE error is
outside the scope of this specification, since the strategies for
such handling are very dependent on the client's operating
environment. However, one potential approach is described below.
When the client receives NFS4ERR_NO_GRACE, it could examine the
change attribute of the objects for which the client is trying to
reclaim state, and use that to determine whether to re-establish the
state via normal OPEN or LOCK operations. This is acceptable
provided that the client's operating environment allows it. In other
words, the client implementor is advised to document for his users
the behavior. The client could also inform the application that its
byte-range lock or share reservations (whether or not they were
delegated) have been lost, such as via a UNIX signal, a Graphical
User Interface (GUI) pop-up window, etc. See Section 10.5 for a
discussion of what the client should do for dealing with unreclaimed
delegations on client state.
For further discussion of revocation of locks, see Section 8.5.
8.5. Server Revocation of Locks
At any point, the server can revoke locks held by a client, and the
client must be prepared for this event. When the client detects that
its locks have been or may have been revoked, the client is
responsible for validating the state information between itself and
the server. Validating locking state for the client means that it
must verify or reclaim state for each lock currently held.
The first occasion of lock revocation is upon server restart. Note
that this includes situations in which sessions are persistent and
locking state is lost. In this class of instances, the client will
receive an error (NFS4ERR_STALE_CLIENTID) on an operation that takes
client ID, usually as part of recovery in response to a problem with
the current session), and the client will proceed with normal crash
recovery as described in the Section 126.96.36.199.
The second occasion of lock revocation is the inability to renew the
lease before expiration, as discussed in Section 8.4.3. While this
is considered a rare or unusual event, the client must be prepared to
recover. The server is responsible for determining the precise
consequences of the lease expiration, informing the client of the
scope of the lock revocation decided upon. The client then uses the
status information provided by the server in the SEQUENCE results
(field sr_status_flags, see Section 18.46.3) to synchronize its
locking state with that of the server, in order to recover.
The third occasion of lock revocation can occur as a result of
revocation of locks within the lease period, either because of
administrative intervention or because a recallable lock (a
delegation or layout) was not returned within the lease period after
having been recalled. While these are considered rare events, they
are possible, and the client must be prepared to deal with them.
When either of these events occurs, the client finds out about the
situation through the status returned by the SEQUENCE operation. Any
use of stateids associated with locks revoked during the lease period
will receive the error NFS4ERR_ADMIN_REVOKED or
NFS4ERR_DELEG_REVOKED, as appropriate.
In all situations in which a subset of locking state may have been
revoked, which include all cases in which locking state is revoked
within the lease period, it is up to the client to determine which
locks have been revoked and which have not. It does this by using
the TEST_STATEID operation on the appropriate set of stateids. Once
the set of revoked locks has been determined, the applications can be
notified, and the invalidated stateids can be freed and lock
revocation acknowledged by using FREE_STATEID.
8.6. Short and Long Leases
When determining the time period for the server lease, the usual
lease tradeoffs apply. A short lease is good for fast server
recovery at a cost of increased operations to effect lease renewal
(when there are no other operations during the period to effect lease
renewal as a side effect). A long lease is certainly kinder and
gentler to servers trying to handle very large numbers of clients.
The number of extra requests to effect lock renewal drops in inverse
proportion to the lease time. The disadvantages of a long lease
include the possibility of slower recovery after certain failures.
After server failure, a longer grace period may be required when some
clients do not promptly reclaim their locks and do a global
RECLAIM_COMPLETE. In the event of client failure, the longer period
for a lease to expire will force conflicting requests to wait longer.
A long lease is practical if the server can store lease state in
stable storage. Upon recovery, the server can reconstruct the lease
state from its stable storage and continue operation with its
8.7. Clocks, Propagation Delay, and Calculating Lease Expiration
To avoid the need for synchronized clocks, lease times are granted by
the server as a time delta. However, there is a requirement that the
client and server clocks do not drift excessively over the duration
of the lease. There is also the issue of propagation delay across
the network, which could easily be several hundred milliseconds, as
well as the possibility that requests will be lost and need to be
To take propagation delay into account, the client should subtract it
from lease times (e.g., if the client estimates the one-way
propagation delay as 200 milliseconds, then it can assume that the
lease is already 200 milliseconds old when it gets it). In addition,
it will take another 200 milliseconds to get a response back to the
server. So the client must send a lease renewal or write data back
to the server at least 400 milliseconds before the lease would
expire. If the propagation delay varies over the life of the lease
(e.g., the client is on a mobile host), the client will need to
continuously subtract the increase in propagation delay from the
The server's lease period configuration should take into account the
network distance of the clients that will be accessing the server's
resources. It is expected that the lease period will take into
account the network propagation delays and other network delay
factors for the client population. Since the protocol does not allow
for an automatic method to determine an appropriate lease period, the
server's administrator may have to tune the lease period.
8.8. Obsolete Locking Infrastructure from NFSv4.0
There are a number of operations and fields within existing
operations that no longer have a function in NFSv4.1. In one way or
another, these changes are all due to the implementation of sessions
that provide client context and exactly once semantics as a base
feature of the protocol, separate from locking itself.
The following NFSv4.0 operations MUST NOT be implemented in NFSv4.1.
The server MUST return NFS4ERR_NOTSUPP if these operations are found
in an NFSv4.1 COMPOUND.
o SETCLIENTID since its function has been replaced by EXCHANGE_ID.
o SETCLIENTID_CONFIRM since client ID confirmation now happens by
means of CREATE_SESSION.
o OPEN_CONFIRM because state-owner-based seqids have been replaced
by the sequence ID in the SEQUENCE operation.
o RELEASE_LOCKOWNER because lock-owners with no associated locks do
not have any sequence-related state and so can be deleted by the
server at will.
o RENEW because every SEQUENCE operation for a session causes lease
renewal, making a separate operation superfluous.
Also, there are a number of fields, present in existing operations,
related to locking that have no use in minor version 1. They were
used in minor version 0 to perform functions now provided in a
o Sequence ids used to sequence requests for a given state-owner and
to provide retry protection, now provided via sessions.
o Client IDs used to identify the client associated with a given
request. Client identification is now available using the client
ID associated with the current session, without needing an
explicit client ID field.
Such vestigial fields in existing operations have no function in
NFSv4.1 and are ignored by the server. Note that client IDs in
operations new to NFSv4.1 (such as CREATE_SESSION and
DESTROY_CLIENTID) are not ignored.