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RFC 5388

 
 
 

Information Model and XML Data Model for Traceroute Measurements

Part 3 of 3, p. 47 to 75
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Appendix B.  Known Problems with Traceroute

B.1.  Compatibility between Traceroute Measurement Results and IPPM
      Metrics

   Because of implementation choices, a known inconsistency exists
   between the round-trip delay metric defined by the IPPM working group
   in RFC 2681 and the results returned by the current traceroute tool
   implementations.  Unfortunately, it is unlikely that the traceroute
   tool implementations will implement the standard definition in the
   near future.  The only possibility is therefore to compare results of
   different traceroute measurements with each other; in order to do
   this, specifications both of the operating system (name and version)
   and of the traceroute tool version used were added to the metadata
   elements in order to help in comparing metrics between two different
   traceroute measurement results (if run using the same operating
   system and the same version of the tool).  Moreover, the traceroute
   tool has built-in configurable mechanisms like timeouts and can
   experience problems related to the crossing of firewalls; therefore,
   some of the packets that traceroute sends out end up being timeout or
   filtered.  As a consequence, it might not be possible to trace the
   path to a node or there might not be a complete enough set of probes
   describing the RTT to reach it.

Appendix C.  Differences to DISMAN-TRACEROUTE-MIB

   For performing remote traceroute operations at managed node, the IETF
   has standardized the DISMAN-TRACEROUTE-MIB module in [RFC4560].  This
   module allows:

   o  retrieving capability information of the traceroute tool
      implementation at the managed node;

   o  configuring traceroute measurements to be performed;

   o  retrieving information about ongoing and completed traceroute
      measurements;

   o  retrieving traceroute measurement statistics.

   The traceroute storage format described in this document has
   significant overlaps with this MIB module.  Particularly, the models
   for the traceroute measurement configuration and for the results from
   completed measurements are almost identical.  But for other parts of
   the DISMAN-TRACEROUTE MIB module there is no need to model them in a
   traceroute measurement storage format.  Particularly, the capability
   information, information about ongoing measurements, and measurement
   statistics are not covered by the DISMAN traceroute storage model.

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   Concerning traceroute measurements and their results, there are
   structural differences between the two models caused by the different
   choices for the encoding of the specification.  For DISMAN-
   TRACEROUTE-MIB, the Structure of Management Information (SMIv2, STD
   58, RFC 2578 [RFC2578]) was used, while the IPPM traceroute
   measurement data model is encoded using XML.

   This difference in structure implies that the DISMAN-TRACEROUTE-MIB
   module contains SMI-specific information elements (managed objects)
   that concern tables of managed objects (specification, entry creation
   and deletion, status retrieval) that are not required for the XML-
   encoded traceroute measurement data model.

   But for most of the remaining information elements that concern
   configuration of traceroute measurements and results of completed
   measurements, the semantics are identical between the DISMAN-
   TRACEROUTE-MIB module and the traceroute measurement data model.
   There are very few exceptions to this; these are listed below.  Also,
   naming of information elements is identical between both models with
   a few exceptions.  For the traceroute measurement data model, a few
   information elements have been added, some because of the different
   structure and some to provide additional information on completed
   measurements.

C.1.  Scope

   There are some basic differences in nature and application between
   MIB modules and XML documents.  This results in two major differences
   of scope between the DISMAN-TRACEROUTE-MIB module and the traceroute
   measurement data model.

   The first difference is the "traceRouteResultsTable" contained in the
   DISMAN-TRACEROUTE-MIB module.  This table allows online observation
   of status and progress of an ongoing traceroute measurement.  This
   highly dynamic information is not included in the traceroute
   measurement data model because it has not been envisioned to use the
   model for dynamically reporting progress of individual traceroute
   measurements.  The traceroute measurement data model is rather
   intended to be used for reporting completed traceroute measurements.

   The second difference is due to the fact that information in a MIB is
   typically tied to a local node hosting the MIB instance.  The
   "RequestMetadata" element specified in the traceroute measurement
   data model can be used for specifying a measurement request that may
   be applied to several probes in a network.  This concept does not
   exist in the DISMAN-TRACEROUTE-MIB module.

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   For the remaining elements in the DISMAN-TRACEROUTE-MIB module and in
   the traceroute measurement data model, there is a very good match
   between the two worlds.  The "traceRouteCtlTable" corresponds to the
   "MeasurementMetadata" element, and the combination of the
   "traceRouteProbeHistoryTable" and the "traceRouteHopsTable"
   corresponds to a collection of "MeasurementResult" elements.

C.2.  Naming

   Basically, names in both models are chosen using the same naming
   conventions.

   For the traceroute measurement configuration information, all names,
   such as "CtlProbesPerHop", are identical in both models except for
   the traceRoute prefix that was removed to avoid unnecessary
   redundancy in the XML file and for "CtlDataSize", which was renamed
   to "CtlProbeDataSize" for clarification in the traceroute measurement
   data model.

   Results of measurements in the DISMAN-TRACEROUTE-MIB modules are
   distributed over two tables, the "traceRouteResultsTable" contains
   mainly information about ongoing measurements and the
   "traceRouteProbeHistoryTable" contains only information about
   completed measurements.  According to the SMIv2 naming conventions,
   names of information elements in these tables have different prefixes
   ("traceRouteResults" and "traceRouteProbeHistory").  Since the
   traceroute measurement data model only reports on completed
   measurements, this separation is not needed anymore and the prefix
   "Results" is used for all related information elements.

   Beyond that, there are only a few changes in element names.  The
   renaming actions include:

   o  "traceRouteProbeHistoryResponse" to "ProbeRoundTripTime";

   o  "traceRouteProbeHistoryHAddr" to "HopAddr";

   o  "traceRouteProbeHistoryTime" to "ResultsEndDateAndTime";

   o  "traceRouteProbeHistoryLastRC" to "ResultsHopRawOutputData".

C.3.  Semantics

   The semantics were changed for two information elements only.

   For "traceRouteProbeHistoryResponse" in the DISMAN-TRACEROUTE-MIB, a
   value of 0 indicates that it is not possible to transmit a probe.
   For the traceroute measurement data model, a value of 0 for element

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   "RoundTripTime" indicates that the measured time was less than one
   millisecond.  For the case that it was not possible to transmit a
   probe, a string is used that indicates the problem.

   For "traceRouteCtlIfIndex" in the DISMAN-TRACEROUTE-MIB, a value of 0
   indicates that the option to set the index is not available.  This
   was translated to the traceroute measurement data model, such that a
   value of 0 for this element indicates that the used interface is
   unknown.

   The element "traceRouteProbeHistoryLastRC" in the DISMAN-TRACEROUTE-
   MIB was replaced by element "ResultsHopRawOutputData".  While
   "traceRouteProbeHistoryLastRC" just reports a reply code,
   "ResultsHopRawOutputData" reports the full raw output data (per hop)
   produced by the traceroute measurement that was used.

C.4.  Additional Information Elements

   Only a few information elements have been added to the model of the
   DISMAN-TRACEROUTE-MIB module.

   o  For providing information on the MPLS label stack entries of a
      probe in the traceroute measurement path, "MPLSLabelStackEntry"
      was added.

   o  For providing additional timestamp beyond "ResultsEndDateAndTime",
      "ResultsStartDateAndTime" and "Time" were added.

   o  For providing DNS names at the time of the execution of the
      traceroute for each "HopAddr" (which may change over time),
      "HopName" was added.

Appendix D.  Traceroute Examples with XML Representation

   This section shows some examples of traceroute applications.  In
   addition, the encoding of requests and results is shown for some of
   those examples.  Also, note that in these XML examples some lines
   appear wrapped due to the limited length of line.

   A typical traceroute on a LINUX system looks like the following:
   # traceroute  -f 4 www.example 1500
   traceroute to ww.example (192.0.2.42), 30 hops max, 1500-byte packets
    5  out.host1.example (192.0.2.254)  6.066 ms   5.625 ms   6.095 ms
    6  rtr4.host6.example (192.0.2.142)  6.979 ms   6.221 ms   7.368 ms
    7  hop7.rtr9.example (192.0.2.11)  16.165 ms   15.347 ms   15.514 ms
    8  192.0.2.222 (192.0.2.222)  32.796 ms   28.723 ms   26.988 ms
    9  in.example (192.0.2.123)  15.861 ms   16.262 ms   17.610 ms
   10  in.example (192.0.2.123)(N!)  17.391 ms * *

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   This traceroute ignores the first 4 hops and uses 1500-byte packets
   including the header.  It does not reach its goal since the last
   listed hop says that the network is not reachable (N!).  The XML
   representation for this trace follows:
   <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
   <traceRoute xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:traceroute-1.0">
     <RequestMetadata>
       <TestName>Example 1</TestName>
       <OSName/>
       <OSVersion/>
       <ToolVersion/>
       <ToolName/>
       <CtlTargetAddress>
         <inetAddressDns>www.example</inetAddressDns>
       </CtlTargetAddress>
       <CtlBypassRouteTable/>
       <CtlProbeDataSize>1472</CtlProbeDataSize>
       <CtlTimeOut/>
       <CtlProbesPerHop/>
       <CtlPort/>
       <CtlMaxTtl/>
       <CtlDSField/>
       <CtlSourceAddress>
         <inetAddressUnknown/>
       </CtlSourceAddress>
       <CtlIfIndex/>
       <CtlMiscOptions/>
       <CtlMaxFailures/>
       <CtlDontFragment/>
       <CtlInitialTtl>4</CtlInitialTtl>
       <CtlDescr>Show how it encodes in XML</CtlDescr>
       <CtlType><UDP/></CtlType>
     </RequestMetadata>
     <Measurement>
       <MeasurementMetadata>
         <TestName>Example 1</TestName>
         <OSName>Linux</OSName>
         <OSVersion>2.6.16.54-0.2.5-smp i386</OSVersion>
         <ToolVersion>1.0</ToolVersion>
         <ToolName>traceroute</ToolName>
         <CtlTargetAddress>
           <inetAddressDns>www.example</inetAddressDns>
         </CtlTargetAddress>
         <CtlBypassRouteTable/>
         <CtlProbeDataSize>1472</CtlProbeDataSize>
         <CtlTimeOut/>
         <CtlProbesPerHop/>
         <CtlPort/>

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         <CtlMaxTtl/>
         <CtlDSField/>
         <CtlSourceAddress>
           <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.1</inetAddressIpv4>
         </CtlSourceAddress>
         <CtlIfIndex>2</CtlIfIndex>
         <CtlMiscOptions/>
         <CtlMaxFailures/>
         <CtlDontFragment/>
         <CtlInitialTtl>4</CtlInitialTtl>
         <CtlDescr>Show how it encodes in XML</CtlDescr>
         <CtlType><UDP/></CtlType>
       </MeasurementMetadata>
       <MeasurementResult>
         <TestName>Example 1</TestName>
         <ResultsStartDateAndTime>2008-05-16T14:22:34+02:00</ResultsStar
   tDateAndTime>
         <ResultsIpTgtAddr>
           <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.42</inetAddressIpv4>
         </ResultsIpTgtAddr>
         <ProbeResults>
           <hop>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.254</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>out.host1.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>6</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-16T14:22:35+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.254</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>out.host1.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime><roundTripTime>5</roundTripTime></Pro
   beRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-16T14:22:35+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.254</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>out.host1.example</HopName>

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               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>6</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-16T14:22:35+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <HopRawOutputData> 5  out.host1.example (192.0.2.254)  6.06
   6 ms   5.625 ms   6.095 ms</HopRawOutputData>
           </hop>
           <hop>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.142</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>rtr4.host6.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>6</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-16T14:22:36+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.142</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>rtr4.host6.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>6</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-16T14:22:36+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.142</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>rtr4.host6.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>7</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-16T14:22:37+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <HopRawOutputData> 6  rtr4.host6.example (192.0.2.142)  6.9
   79 ms   6.221 ms   7.368 ms</HopRawOutputData>
           </hop>
           <hop>
             <probe>

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               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.11</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>hop7.rtr9.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>16</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-16T14:22:37+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.11</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>hop7.rtr9.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>15</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-16T14:22:38+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.11</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>hop7.rtr9.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>15</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-16T14:22:38+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <HopRawOutputData> 7  hop7.rtr9.example (192.0.2.11)  16.16
   5 ms   15.347 ms   15.514 ms</HopRawOutputData>
           </hop>
           <hop>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.222</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>32</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-16T14:22:39+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>

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                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.222</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>38</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-16T14:22:39+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.222</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>26</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-16T14:22:39+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <HopRawOutputData> 8  192.0.2.222 (192.0.2.222)  32.796 ms
     28.723 ms   26.988 ms</HopRawOutputData>
           </hop>
           <hop>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.123</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>in.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>15</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-16T14:22:40+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.123</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>in.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>16</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-16T14:22:40+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.123</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>

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               <HopName>in.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>17</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-16T14:22:40+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <HopRawOutputData> 9  in.example (192.0.2.123)  15.861 ms
    16.262 ms   17.610 ms</HopRawOutputData>
           </hop>
           <hop>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.123</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>in.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>17</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>noRouteToTarget</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-16T14:22:41+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.123</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>in.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTimeNotAvailable/>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>requestTimedOut</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-16T14:22:44+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.123</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>in.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTimeNotAvailable/>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>requestTimedOut</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-16T14:22:44+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <HopRawOutputData>10  in.example (192.0.2.123)(N!)  17.391
   ms * *</HopRawOutputData>
           </hop>
         </ProbeResults>

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         <ResultsEndDateAndTime>2008-05-16T14:22:44+02:00</ResultsEndDat
   eAndTime>
       </MeasurementResult>
     </Measurement>
   </traceRoute>

   The second example was generated on an OpenBSD system.  On that
   system, the traceroute looks like the following:
   # traceroute -P tcp w2.example 128

   traceroute to w2.example (192.0.2.254), 64 hops max, 160-byte packets
    1  router1.example.org (192.0.2.22)  0.486 ms  0.486 ms  0.482 ms
    2  router7.example.org (192.0.2.1)  3.27 ms  1.420 ms  1.873 ms
    3  hop0.c.example (192.0.2.105)  3.177 ms  3.258 ms  3.859 ms
    4  hop6.c.example (192.0.2.107)  5.994 ms  4.607 ms  5.678 ms
    5  hop3.c.example (192.0.2.111)  20.341 ms  20.732 ms  19.505 ms
    6  in.example.net (192.0.2.222)  20.333 ms  19.174 ms  19.856 ms
    7  egress.example.net (192.0.2.227)  20.268 ms  21.79 ms  19.992 ms
    8  routerin.example (192.0.2.253)  19.983 ms  19.931 ms  19.894 ms
    9  routerdmz.example (192.0.2.249)  20.943 ms !X *  19.829 ms !X

   It was executed with the TCP protocol and 128-byte packets (plus
   header).  The traceroute ended at hop 9 because the packets are
   administratively filtered (!X).  A corresponding XML representation
   follows:
   <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
   <traceRoute xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:traceroute-1.0">
     <RequestMetadata>
       <TestName>Example 2</TestName>
       <OSName/>
       <OSVersion/>
       <ToolVersion/>
       <ToolName/>
       <CtlTargetAddress>
         <inetAddressDns>w2.example</inetAddressDns>
       </CtlTargetAddress>
       <CtlBypassRouteTable/>
       <CtlProbeDataSize>128</CtlProbeDataSize>
       <CtlTimeOut/>
       <CtlProbesPerHop/>
       <CtlPort/>
       <CtlMaxTtl/>
       <CtlDSField/>
       <CtlSourceAddress>
         <inetAddressUnknown/>
       </CtlSourceAddress>
       <CtlIfIndex/>
       <CtlMiscOptions/>

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       <CtlMaxFailures/>
       <CtlDontFragment/>
       <CtlInitialTtl/>
       <CtlDescr>Show how it encodes in XML</CtlDescr>
       <CtlType><TCP/></CtlType>
     </RequestMetadata>
     <Measurement>
       <MeasurementMetadata>
         <TestName>Example 2</TestName>
         <OSName>OpenBSD</OSName>
         <OSVersion>4.1 i386</OSVersion>
         <ToolVersion></ToolVersion>
         <ToolName>traceroute</ToolName>
         <CtlTargetAddress>
           <inetAddressDns>w2.example</inetAddressDns>
         </CtlTargetAddress>
         <CtlBypassRouteTable/>
         <CtlProbeDataSize>128</CtlProbeDataSize>
         <CtlTimeOut/>
         <CtlProbesPerHop/>
         <CtlPort/>
         <CtlMaxTtl/>
         <CtlDSField/>
         <CtlSourceAddress>
           <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.42</inetAddressIpv4>
         </CtlSourceAddress>
         <CtlIfIndex>1</CtlIfIndex>
         <CtlMiscOptions/>
         <CtlMaxFailures/>
         <CtlDontFragment/>
         <CtlInitialTtl/>
         <CtlDescr>Show how it encodes in XML</CtlDescr>
         <CtlType><TCP/></CtlType>
       </MeasurementMetadata>
       <MeasurementResult>
         <TestName>Example 2</TestName>
         <ResultsStartDateAndTime>2008-05-14T09:57:11+02:00</ResultsStar
   tDateAndTime>
         <ResultsIpTgtAddr>
           <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.254</inetAddressIpv4>
         </ResultsIpTgtAddr>
         <ProbeResults>
           <hop>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.22</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>router1.example.org</HopName>

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               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>0</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T09:57:13+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.22</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>router1.example.org</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>0</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T09:57:13+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.22</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>router1.example.org</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>0</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T09:57:13+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
           </hop>
           <hop>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.1</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>router7.example.org</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>3</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T09:57:13+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.1</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>router7.example.org</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>1</roundTripTime>

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               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T09:57:13+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.1</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>router7.example.org</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>1</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T09:57:14+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
           </hop>
           <hop>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.105</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>hop0.c.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>3</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T09:57:14+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.105</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>hop0.c.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>3</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T09:57:14+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.105</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>hop0.c.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>3</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>

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               <Time>2008-05-14T09:57:14+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
           </hop>
           <hop>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.107</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>hop6.c.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>5</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T09:57:15+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.107</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>hop6.c.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>4</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T09:57:16+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.107</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>hop6.c.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>5</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T09:57:16+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
           </hop>
           <hop>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.111</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>hop3.c.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>20</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>

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               <Time>2008-05-14T09:57:17+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.111</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>hop3.c.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>20</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T09:57:18+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.111</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>hop3.c.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>19</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T09:57:19+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
           </hop>
           <hop>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.222</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>in.example.net</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>20</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T09:57:20+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.222</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>in.example.net</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>19</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T09:57:20+02:00</Time>
             </probe>

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             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.222</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>in.example.net</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>19</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T09:57:21+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
           </hop>
           <hop>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.227</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>egress.example.net</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>20</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T09:57:22+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.227</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>egress.example.net</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>21</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T09:57:22+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.227</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>egress.example.net</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>19</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T09:57:23+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
           </hop>
           <hop>

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             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.253</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>routerin.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>19</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T09:57:24+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.253</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>routerin.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>19</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T09:57:24+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.253</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>routerin.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>19</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T09:57:25+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
           </hop>
           <hop>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.249</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>routerdmz.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>20</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>unknown</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T09:57:26+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>

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                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.249</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>routerdmz.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTimeNotAvailable/>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>requestTimedOut</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T09:57:26+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.249</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>routerdmz.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>19</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>unknown</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T09:57:30+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
           </hop>
         </ProbeResults>
         <ResultsEndDateAndTime>2008-05-14T09:57:30+02:00</ResultsEndDat
   eAndTime>
       </MeasurementResult>
     </Measurement>
   </traceRoute>

   The third and last example is based on the Microsoft Windows pendant
   of traceroute.  On an MS Windows system, the command is called
   "tracert" and typically looks as follows:

   # tracert -h 10 www.example.org

   Tracing route to www.example.org [192.0.2.11]
   over a maximum of 10 hops:

     1     1 ms     1 ms     8 ms  192.0.2.99
     2    <1 ms    <1 ms    <1 ms  r1.provider4.example [192.0.2.102]
     3    <1 ms    <1 ms    <1 ms  rtr8.provider8.example [192.0.2.254]
     4     1 ms     1 ms     1 ms  hop11.hoster7.example [192.0.2.4]
     5     2 ms     3 ms     1 ms  sw6.provider2.example [192.0.2.201]
     6     3 ms     3 ms     3 ms  out.provider2.example [192.0.2.111]
     7     *        6 ms     5 ms  192.0.2.123
     8     5 ms     5 ms     5 ms  192.0.2.42
     9    94 ms    95 ms    95 ms  ingress.example.org [192.0.2.199]
    10   168 ms   169 ms   169 ms  192.0.2.44

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   Trace complete.

   In this example, the trace was limited to 10 hops, so the tenth and
   last hop of this example was not the final destination.  Applying the
   XML schema defined in this document, the trace could look as follows:
   <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
   <traceRoute xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:traceroute-1.0">
     <RequestMetadata>
       <TestName>Example 3</TestName>
       <OSName/>
       <OSVersion/>
       <ToolVersion/>
       <ToolName/>
       <CtlTargetAddress>
         <inetAddressDns>www.example.org</inetAddressDns>
       </CtlTargetAddress>
       <CtlBypassRouteTable/>
       <CtlProbeDataSize/>
       <CtlTimeOut/>
       <CtlProbesPerHop/>
       <CtlPort/>
       <CtlMaxTtl>10</CtlMaxTtl>
       <CtlDSField/>
       <CtlSourceAddress>
         <inetAddressUnknown/>
       </CtlSourceAddress>
       <CtlIfIndex/>
       <CtlMiscOptions/>
       <CtlMaxFailures/>
       <CtlDontFragment/>
       <CtlInitialTtl/>
       <CtlDescr>Show how it encodes in XML</CtlDescr>
       <CtlType><TCP/></CtlType>
     </RequestMetadata>
     <Measurement>
       <MeasurementMetadata>
         <TestName>Example 3</TestName>
         <OSName>Windows</OSName>
         <OSVersion>XP SP2 32-bit</OSVersion>
         <ToolVersion></ToolVersion>
         <ToolName>tracert</ToolName>
         <CtlTargetAddress>
           <inetAddressDns>www.example.org</inetAddressDns>
         </CtlTargetAddress>
         <CtlBypassRouteTable/>
         <CtlProbeDataSize/>
         <CtlTimeOut/>
         <CtlProbesPerHop/>

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         <CtlPort/>
         <CtlMaxTtl>10</CtlMaxTtl>
         <CtlDSField/>
         <CtlSourceAddress>
           <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.142</inetAddressIpv4>
         </CtlSourceAddress>
         <CtlIfIndex>3</CtlIfIndex>
         <CtlMiscOptions/>
         <CtlMaxFailures/>
         <CtlDontFragment/>
         <CtlInitialTtl/>
         <CtlDescr>Show how it encodes in XML</CtlDescr>
         <CtlType><TCP/></CtlType>
       </MeasurementMetadata>
       <MeasurementResult>
         <TestName>Example 3</TestName>
         <ResultsStartDateAndTime>2008-05-14T11:03:09+02:00</ResultsStar
   tDateAndTime>
         <ResultsIpTgtAddr>
           <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.11</inetAddressIpv4>
         </ResultsIpTgtAddr>
         <ProbeResults>
           <hop>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.99</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>1</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T11:03:09+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.99</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>1</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T11:03:09+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.99</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>

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                 <roundTripTime>8</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T11:03:09+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
           </hop>
           <hop>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.102</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>r1.provider4.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>0</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T11:03:09+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.102</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>r1.provider4.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>0</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T11:03:09+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.102</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>r1.provider4.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>0</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T11:03:09+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
           </hop>
           <hop>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.254</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>rtr8.provider8.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>

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                 <roundTripTime>0</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T11:03:09+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.254</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>rtr8.provider8.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>0</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T11:03:09+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.254</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>rtr8.provider8.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>0</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T11:03:09+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
           </hop>
           <hop>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.4</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>hop11.hoster7.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>1</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T11:03:09+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.4</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>hop11.hoster7.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>1</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>

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               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T11:03:10+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.4</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>hop11.hoster7.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>1</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T11:03:10+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
           </hop>
           <hop>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.201</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>sw6.provider2.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>2</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T11:03:10+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.201</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>sw6.provider2.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>3</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T11:03:11+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.201</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>sw6.provider2.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>1</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T11:03:11+02:00</Time>

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             </probe>
           </hop>
           <hop>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.111</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>out.provider2.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>3</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T11:03:11+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.111</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>out.provider2.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>3</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T11:03:11+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.111</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>out.provider2.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>3</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T11:03:12+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
           </hop>
           <hop>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.123</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTimeNotAvailable/>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>requestTimedOut</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T11:03:14+02:00</Time>
             </probe>

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             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.123</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>6</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T11:03:15+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.123</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>5</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T11:03:16+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
           </hop>
           <hop>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.42</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>5</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T11:03:17+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.42</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>5</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T11:03:17+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.42</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>5</roundTripTime>

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               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T11:03:17+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
           </hop>
           <hop>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.199</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>ingress.example.org</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>94</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T11:03:19+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.199</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>ingress.example.org</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>95</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T11:03:19+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.199</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>ingress.example.org</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>95</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T11:03:19+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
           </hop>
           <hop>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.44</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>168</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>

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               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T11:03:20+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.44</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>169</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T11:03:21+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.44</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>169</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T11:03:23+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
           </hop>
         </ProbeResults>
         <ResultsEndDateAndTime>2008-05-14T11:03:23+02:00</ResultsEndDat
   eAndTime>
       </MeasurementResult>
     </Measurement>
   </traceRoute>

   The three examples given in this section are intended to give an
   impression of how a trace could be represented in XML.  The
   representation generated by an implementation may differ from the
   examples here depending on the system and the capabilities of the
   traceroute implementation.

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Authors' Addresses

   Saverio Niccolini
   NEC Laboratories Europe, NEC Europe Ltd.
   Kurfuersten-Anlage 36
   Heidelberg  69115
   Germany
   Phone: +49 (0) 6221 4342 118
   EMail: saverio.niccolini@nw.neclab.eu
   URI:   http://www.nw.neclab.eu


   Sandra Tartarelli
   NEC Laboratories Europe, NEC Europe Ltd.
   Kurfuersten-Anlage 36
   Heidelberg  69115
   Germany
   Phone: +49 (0) 6221 4342 132
   EMail: sandra.tartarelli@nw.neclab.eu
   URI:   http://www.nw.neclab.eu


   Juergen Quittek
   NEC Laboratories Europe, NEC Europe Ltd.
   Kurfuersten-Anlage 36
   Heidelberg  69115
   Germany
   Phone: +49 (0) 6221 4342 115
   EMail: quittek@nw.neclab.eu
   URI:   http://www.nw.neclab.eu


   Thomas Dietz
   NEC Laboratories Europe, NEC Europe Ltd.
   Kurfuersten-Anlage 36
   Heidelberg  69115
   Germany
   Phone: +49 (0) 6221 4342 128
   EMail: thomas.dietz@nw.neclab.eu
   URI:   http://www.nw.neclab.eu


   Martin Swany
   Dept. of Computer and Information Sciences
   University of Delaware
   Newark  DE 19716
   U.S.A.
   EMail: swany@UDel.Edu