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RFC 5102

 
 
 

Information Model for IP Flow Information Export

Part 4 of 7, p. 67 to 87
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5.9.  Flow Timestamps

   Information Elements in this section are timestamps of events.

   Timestamps flowStartSeconds, flowEndSeconds, flowStartMilliseconds,
   flowEndMilliseconds, flowStartMicroseconds, flowEndMicroseconds,
   flowStartNanoseconds, flowEndNanoseconds, and
   systemInitTimeMilliseconds are absolute and have a well-defined fixed
   time base, such as, for example, the number of seconds since 0000 UTC
   Jan 1st 1970.

   Timestamps flowStartDeltaMicroseconds and flowEndDeltaMicroseconds
   are relative timestamps only valid within the scope of a single IPFIX
   Message.  They contain the negative time offsets relative to the
   export time specified in the IPFIX Message Header.  The maximum time
   offset that can be encoded by these delta counters is 1 hour, 11
   minutes, and 34.967295 seconds.

   Timestamps flowStartSysUpTime and flowEndSysUpTime are relative
   timestamps indicating the time relative to the last (re-
   )initialization of the IPFIX Device.  For reporting the time of the
   last (re-)initialization, systemInitTimeMilliseconds can be reported,
   for example, in Data Records defined by Option Templates.

   +-----+---------------------------+-----+---------------------------+
   |  ID | Name                      |  ID | Name                      |
   +-----+---------------------------+-----+---------------------------+
   | 150 | flowStartSeconds          | 156 | flowStartNanoseconds      |
   | 151 | flowEndSeconds            | 157 | flowEndNanoseconds        |
   | 152 | flowStartMilliseconds     | 158 | flowStartDeltaMicroseconds|
   | 153 | flowEndMilliseconds       | 159 | flowEndDeltaMicroseconds  |
   | 154 | flowStartMicroseconds     | 160 | systemInitTimeMilliseconds|
   | 155 | flowEndMicroseconds       |  22 | flowStartSysUpTime        |
   |     |                           |  21 | flowEndSysUpTime          |
   +-----+---------------------------+-----+---------------------------+

5.9.1.  flowStartSeconds

   Description:
      The absolute timestamp of the first packet of this Flow.
   Abstract Data Type: dateTimeSeconds
   ElementId: 150
   Status: current
   Units: seconds

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5.9.2.  flowEndSeconds

   Description:
      The absolute timestamp of the last packet of this Flow.
   Abstract Data Type: dateTimeSeconds
   ElementId: 151
   Status: current
   Units: seconds

5.9.3.  flowStartMilliseconds

   Description:
      The absolute timestamp of the first packet of this Flow.
   Abstract Data Type: dateTimeMilliseconds
   ElementId: 152
   Status: current
   Units: milliseconds

5.9.4.  flowEndMilliseconds

   Description:
      The absolute timestamp of the last packet of this Flow.
   Abstract Data Type: dateTimeMilliseconds
   ElementId: 153
   Status: current
   Units: milliseconds

5.9.5.  flowStartMicroseconds

   Description:
      The absolute timestamp of the first packet of this Flow.
   Abstract Data Type: dateTimeMicroseconds
   ElementId: 154
   Status: current
   Units: microseconds

5.9.6.  flowEndMicroseconds

   Description:
      The absolute timestamp of the last packet of this Flow.
   Abstract Data Type: dateTimeMicroseconds
   ElementId: 155
   Status: current
   Units: microseconds

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5.9.7.  flowStartNanoseconds

   Description:
      The absolute timestamp of the first packet of this Flow.
   Abstract Data Type: dateTimeNanoseconds
   ElementId: 156
   Status: current
   Units: nanoseconds

5.9.8.  flowEndNanoseconds

   Description:
      The absolute timestamp of the last packet of this Flow.
   Abstract Data Type: dateTimeNanoseconds
   ElementId: 157
   Status: current
   Units: nanoseconds

5.9.9.  flowStartDeltaMicroseconds

   Description:
      This is a relative timestamp only valid within the scope of a
      single IPFIX Message.  It contains the negative time offset of the
      first observed packet of this Flow relative to the export time
      specified in the IPFIX Message Header.
   Abstract Data Type: unsigned32
   ElementId: 158
   Status: current
   Units: microseconds
   Reference:
      See the IPFIX protocol specification [RFC5101] for the definition
      of the IPFIX Message Header.

5.9.10.  flowEndDeltaMicroseconds

   Description:
      This is a relative timestamp only valid within the scope of a
      single IPFIX Message.  It contains the negative time offset of the
      last observed packet of this Flow relative to the export time
      specified in the IPFIX Message Header.
   Abstract Data Type: unsigned32
   ElementId: 159
   Status: current
   Units: microseconds
   Reference:
      See the IPFIX protocol specification [RFC5101] for the
      definition of the IPFIX Message Header.

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5.9.11.  systemInitTimeMilliseconds

   Description:
      The absolute timestamp of the last (re-)initialization of the
      IPFIX Device.
   Abstract Data Type: dateTimeMilliseconds
   ElementId: 160
   Status: current
   Units: milliseconds

5.9.12.  flowStartSysUpTime

   Description:
      The relative timestamp of the first packet of this Flow.  It
      indicates the number of milliseconds since the last
      (re-)initialization of the IPFIX Device (sysUpTime).
   Abstract Data Type: unsigned32
   ElementId: 22
   Status: current
   Units: milliseconds

5.9.13.  flowEndSysUpTime

   Description:
      The relative timestamp of the last packet of this Flow.  It
      indicates the number of milliseconds since the last
      (re-)initialization of the IPFIX Device (sysUpTime).
   Abstract Data Type: unsigned32
   ElementId: 21
   Status: current
   Units: milliseconds

5.10.  Per-Flow Counters

   Information Elements in this section are counters all having integer
   values.  Their values may change for every report they are used in.
   They cannot serve as part of a Flow Key used for mapping packets to
   Flows.  However, potentially they can be used for selecting exported
   Flows, for example, by only exporting Flows with more than a
   threshold number of observed octets.

   There are running counters and delta counters.  Delta counters are
   reset to zero each time their values are exported.  Running counters
   continue counting independently of the Exporting Process.

   There are per-Flow counters and counters related to the Metering
   Process and/or the Exporting Process.  Per-Flow counters are Flow
   properties that potentially change each time a packet belonging to

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   the Flow is observed.  The set of per-Flow counters includes the
   Information Elements listed in the table below.  Counters related to
   the Metering Process and/or the Exporting Process are described in
   Section 5.3.

   +-----+---------------------------+-----+---------------------------+
   |  ID | Name                      |  ID | Name                      |
   +-----+---------------------------+-----+---------------------------+
   |   1 | octetDeltaCount           | 134 | droppedOctetTotalCount    |
   |  23 | postOctetDeltaCount       | 135 | droppedPacketTotalCount   |
   | 198 | octetDeltaSumOfSquares    |  19 | postMCastPacketDeltaCount |
   |  85 | octetTotalCount           |  20 | postMCastOctetDeltaCount  |
   | 171 | postOctetTotalCount       | 174 | postMCastPacketTotalCount |
   | 199 | octetTotalSumOfSquares    | 175 | postMCastOctetTotalCount  |
   |   2 | packetDeltaCount          | 218 | tcpSynTotalCount          |
   |  24 | postPacketDeltaCount      | 219 | tcpFinTotalCount          |
   |  86 | packetTotalCount          | 220 | tcpRstTotalCount          |
   | 172 | postPacketTotalCount      | 221 | tcpPshTotalCount          |
   | 132 | droppedOctetDeltaCount    | 222 | tcpAckTotalCount          |
   | 133 | droppedPacketDeltaCount   | 223 | tcpUrgTotalCount          |
   +-----+---------------------------+-----+---------------------------+

5.10.1.  octetDeltaCount

   Description:
      The number of octets since the previous report (if any) in
      incoming packets for this Flow at the Observation Point.  The
      number of octets includes IP header(s) and IP payload.
   Abstract Data Type: unsigned64
   Data Type Semantics: deltaCounter
   ElementId: 1
   Status: current
   Units: octets

5.10.2.  postOctetDeltaCount

   Description:
      The definition of this Information Element is identical to the
      definition of Information Element 'octetDeltaCount', except that
      it reports a potentially modified value caused by a middlebox
      function after the packet passed the Observation Point.
   Abstract Data Type: unsigned64
   Data Type Semantics: deltaCounter
   ElementId: 23
   Status: current
   Units: octets

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5.10.3.  octetDeltaSumOfSquares

   Description:
      The sum of the squared numbers of octets per incoming packet since
      the previous report (if any) for this Flow at the Observation
      Point.  The number of octets includes IP header(s) and IP payload.
   Abstract Data Type: unsigned64
   ElementId: 198
   Status: current

5.10.4.  octetTotalCount

   Description:
      The total number of octets in incoming packets for this Flow at
      the Observation Point since the Metering Process
      (re-)initialization for this Observation Point.  The number
      of octets includes IP header(s) and IP payload.
   Abstract Data Type: unsigned64
   Data Type Semantics: totalCounter
   ElementId: 85
   Status: current
   Units: octets

5.10.5.  postOctetTotalCount

   Description:
      The definition of this Information Element is identical to the
      definition of Information Element 'octetTotalCount', except that
      it reports a potentially modified value caused by a middlebox
      function after the packet passed the Observation Point.
   Abstract Data Type: unsigned64
   Data Type Semantics: totalCounter
   ElementId: 171
   Status: current
   Units: octets

5.10.6.  octetTotalSumOfSquares

   Description:
      The total sum of the squared numbers of octets in incoming packets
      for this Flow at the Observation Point since the Metering Process
      (re-)initialization for this Observation Point.  The number of
      octets includes IP header(s) and IP payload.
   Abstract Data Type: unsigned64
   ElementId: 199
   Status: current
   Units: octets

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5.10.7.  packetDeltaCount

   Description:
      The number of incoming packets since the previous report (if any)
      for this Flow at the Observation Point.

   Abstract Data Type: unsigned64
   Data Type Semantics: deltaCounter
   ElementId: 2
   Status: current
   Units: packets

5.10.8.  postPacketDeltaCount

   Description:
      The definition of this Information Element is identical to the
      definition of Information Element 'packetDeltaCount', except that
      it reports a potentially modified value caused by a middlebox
      function after the packet passed the Observation Point.
   Abstract Data Type: unsigned64
   Data Type Semantics: deltaCounter
   ElementId: 24
   Status: current
   Units: packets

5.10.9.  packetTotalCount

   Description:
      The total number of incoming packets for this Flow at the
      Observation Point since the Metering Process (re-)initialization
      for this Observation Point.
   Abstract Data Type: unsigned64
   Data Type Semantics: totalCounter
   ElementId: 86
   Status: current
   Units: packets

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5.10.10.  postPacketTotalCount

   Description:
      The definition of this Information Element is identical to the
      definition of Information Element 'packetTotalCount', except that
      it reports a potentially modified value caused by a middlebox
      function after the packet passed the Observation Point.
   Abstract Data Type: unsigned64
   Data Type Semantics: totalCounter
   ElementId: 172
   Status: current
   Units: packets

5.10.11.  droppedOctetDeltaCount

   Description:
      The number of octets since the previous report (if any) in packets
      of this Flow dropped by packet treatment.  The number of octets
      includes IP header(s) and IP payload.
   Abstract Data Type: unsigned64
   Data Type Semantics: deltaCounter
   ElementId: 132
   Status: current
   Units: octets

5.10.12.  droppedPacketDeltaCount

   Description:
      The number of packets since the previous report (if any) of this
      Flow dropped by packet treatment.
   Abstract Data Type: unsigned64
   Data Type Semantics: deltaCounter
   ElementId: 133
   Status: current
   Units: packets

5.10.13.  droppedOctetTotalCount

   Description:
      The total number of octets in packets of this Flow dropped by
      packet treatment since the Metering Process (re-)initialization
      for this Observation Point.  The number of octets includes IP
      header(s) and IP payload.
   Abstract Data Type: unsigned64
   Data Type Semantics: totalCounter
   ElementId: 134
   Status: current
   Units: octets

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5.10.14.  droppedPacketTotalCount

   Description:
      The number of packets of this Flow dropped by packet treatment
      since the Metering Process (re-)initialization for this
      Observation Point.
   Abstract Data Type: unsigned64
   Data Type Semantics: totalCounter
   ElementId: 135
   Status: current
   Units: packets

5.10.15.  postMCastPacketDeltaCount

   Description:
      The number of outgoing multicast packets since the previous report
      (if any) sent for packets of this Flow by a multicast daemon
      within the Observation Domain.  This property cannot necessarily
      be observed at the Observation Point, but may be retrieved by
      other means.
   Abstract Data Type: unsigned64
   Data Type Semantics: deltaCounter
   ElementId: 19
   Status: current
   Units: packets

5.10.16.  postMCastOctetDeltaCount

   Description:
      The number of octets since the previous report (if any) in
      outgoing multicast packets sent for packets of this Flow by a
      multicast daemon within the Observation Domain.  This property
      cannot necessarily be observed at the Observation Point, but may
      be retrieved by other means.  The number of octets includes IP
      header(s) and IP payload.
   Abstract Data Type: unsigned64
   Data Type Semantics: deltaCounter
   ElementId: 20
   Status: current
   Units: octets

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5.10.17.  postMCastPacketTotalCount

   Description:
      The total number of outgoing multicast packets sent for packets of
      this Flow by a multicast daemon within the Observation Domain
      since the Metering Process (re-)initialization.  This property
      cannot necessarily be observed at the Observation Point, but may
      be retrieved by other means.
   Abstract Data Type: unsigned64
   Data Type Semantics: totalCounter
   ElementId: 174
   Status: current
   Units: packets

5.10.18.  postMCastOctetTotalCount

   Description:
      The total number of octets in outgoing multicast packets sent for
      packets of this Flow by a multicast daemon in the Observation
      Domain since the Metering Process (re-)initialization.  This
      property cannot necessarily be observed at the Observation Point,
      but may be retrieved by other means.  The number of octets
      includes IP header(s) and IP payload.
   Abstract Data Type: unsigned64
   Data Type Semantics: totalCounter
   ElementId: 175
   Status: current
   Units: octets

5.10.19.  tcpSynTotalCount

   Description:
      The total number of packets of this Flow with TCP "Synchronize
      sequence numbers" (SYN) flag set.
   Abstract Data Type: unsigned64
   Data Type Semantics: totalCounter
   ElementId: 218
   Status: current
   Units: packets
   Reference:
      See RFC 793 for the definition of the TCP SYN flag.

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5.10.20.  tcpFinTotalCount

   Description:
      The total number of packets of this Flow with TCP "No more data
      from sender" (FIN) flag set.
   Abstract Data Type: unsigned64
   Data Type Semantics: totalCounter
   ElementId: 219
   Status: current
   Units: packets
   Reference:
      See RFC 793 for the definition of the TCP FIN flag.

5.10.21.  tcpRstTotalCount

   Description:
      The total number of packets of this Flow with TCP "Reset the
      connection" (RST) flag set.
   Abstract Data Type: unsigned64
   Data Type Semantics: totalCounter
   ElementId: 220
   Status: current
   Units: packets
   Reference:
      See RFC 793 for the definition of the TCP RST flag.

5.10.22.  tcpPshTotalCount

   Description:
      The total number of packets of this Flow with TCP "Push Function"
      (PSH) flag set.
   Abstract Data Type: unsigned64
   Data Type Semantics: totalCounter
   ElementId: 221
   Status: current
   Units: packets
   Reference:
      See RFC 793 for the definition of the TCP PSH flag.

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5.10.23.  tcpAckTotalCount

   Description:
      The total number of packets of this Flow with TCP "Acknowledgment
      field significant" (ACK) flag set.
   Abstract Data Type: unsigned64
   Data Type Semantics: totalCounter
   ElementId: 222
   Status: current
   Units: packets
   Reference:
      See RFC 793 for the definition of the TCP ACK flag.

5.10.24.  tcpUrgTotalCount

   Description:
      The total number of packets of this Flow with TCP "Urgent Pointer
      field significant" (URG) flag set.
   Abstract Data Type: unsigned64
   Data Type Semantics: totalCounter
   ElementId: 223
   Status: current
   Units: packets
   Reference:
      See RFC 793 for the definition of the TCP URG flag.

5.11.  Miscellaneous Flow Properties

   Information Elements in this section describe properties of Flows
   that are related to Flow start, Flow duration, and Flow termination,
   but they are not timestamps as the Information Elements in Section
   5.9 are.

   +-----+---------------------------+-----+---------------------------+
   |  ID | Name                      |  ID | Name                      |
   +-----+---------------------------+-----+---------------------------+
   |  36 | flowActiveTimeout         | 161 | flowDurationMilliseconds  |
   |  37 | flowIdleTimeout           | 162 | flowDurationMicroseconds  |
   | 136 | flowEndReason             |  61 | flowDirection             |
   +-----+---------------------------+-----+---------------------------+

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5.11.1.  flowActiveTimeout

   Description:
      The number of seconds after which an active Flow is timed out
      anyway, even if there is still a continuous flow of packets.
   Abstract Data Type: unsigned16
   ElementId: 36
   Status: current
   Units: seconds

5.11.2.  flowIdleTimeout

   Description:
      A Flow is considered to be timed out if no packets belonging to
      the Flow have been observed for the number of seconds specified by
      this field.
   Abstract Data Type: unsigned16
   ElementId: 37
   Status: current
   Units: seconds

5.11.3.  flowEndReason

   Description:
      The reason for Flow termination.  The range of values includes the
      following:

      0x01: idle timeout
            The Flow was terminated because it was considered to be
            idle.

      0x02: active timeout
            The Flow was terminated for reporting purposes while it was
            still active, for example, after the maximum lifetime of
            unreported Flows was reached.

      0x03: end of Flow detected
            The Flow was terminated because the Metering Process
            detected signals indicating the end of the Flow, for
            example, the TCP FIN flag.

      0x04: forced end
            The Flow was terminated because of some external event, for
            example, a shutdown of the Metering Process initiated by a
            network management application.

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      0x05: lack of resources
            The Flow was terminated because of lack of resources
            available to the Metering Process and/or the Exporting
            Process.

   Abstract Data Type: unsigned8
   Data Type Semantics: identifier
   ElementId: 136
   Status: current

5.11.4.  flowDurationMilliseconds

   Description:
      The difference in time between the first observed packet of this
      Flow and the last observed packet of this Flow.
   Abstract Data Type: unsigned32
   ElementId: 161
   Status: current
   Units: milliseconds

5.11.5.  flowDurationMicroseconds

   Description:
      The difference in time between the first observed packet of this
      Flow and the last observed packet of this Flow.
   Abstract Data Type: unsigned32
   ElementId: 162
   Status: current
   Units: microseconds

5.11.6.  flowDirection

   Description:
      The direction of the Flow observed at the Observation Point.
      There are only two values defined.

      0x00: ingress flow
      0x01: egress flow

   Abstract Data Type: unsigned8
   Data Type Semantics: identifier
   ElementId: 61
   Status: current

5.12.  Padding

   This section contains a single Information Element that can be used
   for padding of Flow Records.

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   IPFIX implementations may wish to align Information Elements within
   Data Records or to align entire Data Records to 4-octet or 8-octet
   boundaries.  This can be achieved by including one or more
   paddingOctets Information Elements in a Data Record.

   +-----+---------------------------+-----+---------------------------+
   |  ID | Name                      |  ID | Name                      |
   +-----+---------------------------+-----+---------------------------+
   | 210 | paddingOctets             |     |                           |
   +-----+---------------------------+-----+---------------------------+

5.12.1.  paddingOctets

   Description:
      The value of this Information Element is always a sequence of 0x00
      values.
   Abstract Data Type: octetArray
   ElementId: 210
   Status: current

6.  Extending the Information Model

   A key requirement for IPFIX is to allow for extending the set of
   Information Elements that are reported.  This section defines the
   mechanism for extending this set.

   Extension can be done by defining new Information Elements.  Each new
   Information Element MUST be assigned a unique Information Element
   identifier as part of its definition.  These unique Information
   Element identifiers are the connection between the record structure
   communicated by the protocol using Templates and a consuming
   application.  For generally applicable Information Elements, using
   IETF and IANA mechanisms to extend the information model is
   RECOMMENDED.

   Names of new Information Elements SHOULD be chosen according to the
   naming conventions given in Section 2.3.

   For extensions, the type space defined in Section 3 can be used.  If
   required, new abstract data types can be added.  New abstract data
   types MUST be defined in IETF Standards Track documents.

   Enterprises may wish to define Information Elements without
   registering them with IANA.  IPFIX explicitly supports
   enterprise-specific Information Elements.  Enterprise-specific
   Information Elements are described in Sections 2.1 and 4.

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   However, before creating enterprise-specific Information Elements,
   the general applicability of such Information Elements should be
   considered.  IPFIX does not support enterprise-specific abstract data
   types.

7.  IANA Considerations

7.1.  IPFIX Information Elements

   This document specifies an initial set of IPFIX Information Elements.
   The list of these Information Elements with their identifiers is
   given in Section 4.  The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA)
   has created a new registry for IPFIX Information Element identifiers
   and filled it with the initial list in Section 4.

   New assignments for IPFIX Information Elements will be administered
   by IANA through Expert Review [RFC2434], i.e., review by one of a
   group of experts designated by an IETF Area Director.  The group of
   experts MUST check the requested Information Element for completeness
   and accuracy of the description and for correct naming according to
   the naming conventions in Section 2.3.  Requests for Information
   Elements that duplicate the functionality of existing Information
   Elements SHOULD be declined.  The smallest available identifier
   SHOULD be assigned to a new Information Element.

   The specification of new IPFIX Information Elements MUST use the
   template specified in Section 2.1 and MUST be published using a
   well-established and persistent publication medium.  The experts will
   initially be drawn from the Working Group Chairs and document editors
   of the IPFIX and PSAMP Working Groups.

7.2.  MPLS Label Type Identifier

   Information Element #46, named mplsTopLabelType, carries MPLS label
   types.  Values for 5 different types have initially been defined.
   For ensuring extensibility of this information, IANA has created a
   new registry for MPLS label types and filled it with the initial list
   from the description Information Element #46, mplsTopLabelType.

   New assignments for MPLS label types will be administered by IANA
   through Expert Review [RFC2434], i.e., review by one of a group of
   experts designated by an IETF Area Director.  The group of experts
   must double check the label type definitions with already defined
   label types for completeness, accuracy, and redundancy.  The
   specification of new MPLS label types MUST be published using a
   well-established and persistent publication medium.

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7.3.  XML Namespace and Schema

   Appendix B defines an XML schema for IPFIX Information Element
   definitions.  All Information Elements specified in this document are
   defined by the XML specification in Appendix A that is a valid XML
   record according to the schema in Appendix B.  This schema may also
   be used for specifying further Information Elements in future
   extensions of the IPFIX information model in a machine-readable way.

   Appendix B uses URNs to describe an XML namespace and an XML schema
   for IPFIX Information Elements conforming to a registry mechanism
   described in [RFC3688].  Two URI assignments have been made.

   1.  Registration for the IPFIX information model namespace
       *  URI: urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:ipfix-info-15
       *  Registrant Contact: IETF IPFIX Working Group <ipfix@ietf.org>,
          as designated by the IESG <iesg@ietf.org>.
       *  XML: None.  Namespace URIs do not represent an XML.

   2.  Registration for the IPFIX information model schema
       *  URI: urn:ietf:params:xml:schema:ipfix-info-15
       *  Registrant Contact: IETF IPFIX Working Group <ipfix@ietf.org>,
          as designated by the IESG <iesg@ietf.org>.
       *  XML: See Appendix B of this document.

8.  Security Considerations

   The IPFIX information model itself does not directly introduce
   security issues.  Rather, it defines a set of attributes that may for
   privacy or business issues be considered sensitive information.

   For example, exporting values of header fields may make attacks
   possible for the receiver of this information, which would otherwise
   only be possible for direct observers of the reported Flows along the
   data path.

   The underlying protocol used to exchange the information described
   here must therefore apply appropriate procedures to guarantee the
   integrity and confidentiality of the exported information.  Such
   protocols are defined in separate documents, specifically the IPFIX
   protocol document [RFC5101].

   This document does not specify any Information Element carrying
   keying material.  If future extensions will do so, then appropriate
   precautions need to be taken for properly protecting such sensitive
   information.

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9.  Acknowledgements

   The editors thank Paul Callato for creating the initial version of
   this document, and Thomas Dietz for developing the XSLT scripts that
   generate large portions of the text part of this document from the
   XML appendices.

10.  References

10.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC5101]  Claise, B., "Specification of the IPFIX Protocol for the
              Exchange", RFC 5101, January 2008.

10.2.  Informative References

   [IEEE.754.1985]
              Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers,
              "Standard for Binary Floating-Point Arithmetic", IEEE
              Standard 754, August 1985.

   [IEEE.802-11.1999]
              "Information technology - Telecommunications and
              information exchange between systems - Local and
              metropolitan area networks - Specific requirements - Part
              11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical
              Layer (PHY) specifications", IEEE Standard 802.11, 1999,
              <http://standards.ieee.org/getieee802/download/802.11-
              1999.pdF>.

   [IEEE.802-1Q.2003]
              Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, "Local
              and Metropolitan Area Networks: Virtual Bridged Local Area
              Networks", IEEE Standard 802.1Q, March 2003.

   [IEEE.802-3.2002]
              "Information technology - Telecommunications and
              information exchange between systems - Local and
              metropolitan area networks - Specific requirements - Part
              3: Carrier sense multiple access with collision detection
              (CSMA/CD) access method and physical layer
              specifications", IEEE Standard 802.3, September 2002.

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   [ISO.10646-1.1993]
              International Organization for Standardization,
              "Information Technology - Universal Multiple-octet coded
              Character Set (UCS) - Part 1: Architecture and Basic
              Multilingual Plane", ISO Standard 10646-1, May 1993.

   [ISO.646.1991]
              International Organization for Standardization,
              "Information technology - ISO 7-bit coded character set
              for information interchange", ISO Standard 646, 1991.

   [RFC0768]  Postel, J., "User Datagram Protocol", STD 6, RFC 768,
              August 1980.

   [RFC0791]  Postel, J., "Internet Protocol", STD 5, RFC 791, September
              1981.

   [RFC0792]  Postel, J., "Internet Control Message Protocol", STD 5,
              RFC 792, September 1981.

   [RFC0793]  Postel, J., "Transmission Control Protocol", STD 7, RFC
              793, September 1981.

   [RFC1108]  Kent, S., "U.S. Department of Defense Security Options for
              the Internet Protocol", RFC 1108, November 1991.

   [RFC1112]  Deering, S., "Host extensions for IP multicasting", STD 5,
              RFC 1112, August 1989.

   [RFC1191]  Mogul, J. and S. Deering, "Path MTU discovery", RFC 1191,
              November 1990.

   [RFC1323]  Jacobson, V., Braden, R., and D. Borman, "TCP Extensions
              for High Performance", RFC 1323, May 1992.

   [RFC1385]  Wang, Z., "EIP: The Extended Internet Protocol", RFC 1385,
              November 1992.

   [RFC1812]  Baker, F., Ed., "Requirements for IP Version 4 Routers",
              RFC 1812, June 1995.

   [RFC1930]  Hawkinson, J. and T. Bates, "Guidelines for creation,
              selection, and registration of an Autonomous System (AS)",
              BCP 6, RFC 1930, March 1996.

   [RFC2113]  Katz, D., "IP Router Alert Option", RFC 2113, February
              1997.

Top      Up      ToC       Page 86 
   [RFC2434]  Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an
              IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 2434,
              October 1998.

   [RFC2460]  Deering, S. and R. Hinden, "Internet Protocol, Version 6
              (IPv6) Specification", RFC 2460, December 1998.

   [RFC2578]  McCloghrie, K., Perkins, D., and J. Schoenwaelder,
              "Structure of Management Information Version 2 (SMIv2)",
              STD 58, RFC 2578, April 1999.

   [RFC2629]  Rose, M., "Writing I-Ds and RFCs using XML", RFC 2629,
              June 1999.

   [RFC2675]  Borman, D., Deering, S., and R. Hinden, "IPv6 Jumbograms",
              RFC 2675, August 1999.

   [RFC2863]  McCloghrie, K. and F. Kastenholz, "The Interfaces Group
              MIB", RFC 2863, June 2000.

   [RFC3031]  Rosen, E., Viswanathan, A., and R. Callon, "Multiprotocol
              Label Switching Architecture", RFC 3031, January 2001.

   [RFC3032]  Rosen, E., Tappan, D., Fedorkow, G., Rekhter, Y.,
              Farinacci, D., Li, T., and A. Conta, "MPLS Label Stack
              Encoding", RFC 3032, January 2001.

   [RFC3193]  Patel, B., Aboba, B., Dixon, W., Zorn, G., and S. Booth,
              "Securing L2TP using IPsec", RFC 3193, November 2001.

   [RFC3234]  Carpenter, B. and S. Brim, "Middleboxes: Taxonomy and
              Issues", RFC 3234, February 2002.

   [RFC3260]  Grossman, D., "New Terminology and Clarifications for
              Diffserv", RFC 3260, April 2002.

   [RFC3270]  Le Faucheur, F., Wu, L., Davie, B., Davari, S., Vaananen,
              P., Krishnan, R., Cheval, P., and J. Heinanen, "Multi-
              Protocol Label Switching (MPLS) Support of Differentiated
              Services", RFC 3270, May 2002.

   [RFC3376]  Cain, B., Deering, S., Kouvelas, I., Fenner, B., and A.
              Thyagarajan, "Internet Group Management Protocol, Version
              3", RFC 3376, October 2002.

   [RFC3444]  Pras, A. and J. Schoenwaelder, "On the Difference between
              Information Models and Data Models", RFC 3444, January
              2003.

Top      Up      ToC       Page 87 
   [RFC3688]  Mealling, M., "The IETF XML Registry", BCP 81, RFC 3688,
              January 2004.

   [RFC3954]  Claise, B., Ed., "Cisco Systems NetFlow Services Export
              Version 9", RFC 3954, October 2004.

   [RFC4271]  Rekhter, Y., Ed., Li, T., Ed., and S. Hares, Ed., "A
              Border Gateway Protocol 4 (BGP-4)", RFC 4271, January
              2006.

   [RFC4291]  Hinden, R. and S. Deering, "IP Version 6 Addressing
              Architecture", RFC 4291, February 2006.

   [RFC4302]  Kent, S., "IP Authentication Header", RFC 4302, December
              2005.

   [RFC4303]  Kent, S., "IP Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP)", RFC
              4303, December 2005.

   [RFC4364]  Rosen, E. and Y. Rekhter, "BGP/MPLS IP Virtual Private
              Networks (VPNs)", RFC 4364, February 2006.

   [RFC4382]  Nadeau, T., Ed., and H. van der Linde, Ed., "MPLS/BGP
              Layer 3 Virtual Private Network (VPN) Management
              Information Base", RFC 4382, February 2006.

   [RFC4443]  Conta, A., Deering, S., and M. Gupta, Ed., "Internet
              Control Message Protocol (ICMPv6) for the Internet
              Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) Specification", RFC 4443, March
              2006.

   [RFC4960]  Stewart, R., Ed., "Stream Control Transmission Protocol",
              RFC 4960, September 2007.

   [RFC5036]  Andersson, L., Ed., Minei, I., Ed., and B. Thomas, Ed.,
              "LDP Specification", RFC 5036, October 2007.


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