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RFC 3920

 
 
 

Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP): Core

Part 2 of 4, p. 19 to 48
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5.  Use of TLS

5.1.  Overview

   XMPP includes a method for securing the stream from tampering and
   eavesdropping.  This channel encryption method makes use of the
   Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocol [TLS], along with a
   "STARTTLS" extension that is modelled after similar extensions for
   the IMAP [IMAP], POP3 [POP3], and ACAP [ACAP] protocols as described
   in RFC 2595 [USINGTLS].  The namespace name for the STARTTLS
   extension is 'urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-tls'.

   An administrator of a given domain MAY require the use of TLS for
   client-to-server communications, server-to-server communications, or
   both.  Clients SHOULD use TLS to secure the streams prior to
   attempting the completion of SASL negotiation (Section 6), and
   servers SHOULD use TLS between two domains for the purpose of
   securing server-to-server communications.

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   The following rules apply:

   1.  An initiating entity that complies with this specification MUST
       include the 'version' attribute set to a value of "1.0" in the
       initial stream header.

   2.  If the TLS negotiation occurs between two servers, communications
       MUST NOT proceed until the Domain Name System (DNS) hostnames
       asserted by the servers have been resolved (see Server-to-Server
       Communications (Section 14.4)).

   3.  When a receiving entity that complies with this specification
       receives an initial stream header that includes the 'version'
       attribute set to a value of at least "1.0", after sending a
       stream header in reply (including the version flag), it MUST
       include a <starttls/> element (qualified by the
       'urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-tls' namespace) along with the list
       of other stream features it supports.

   4.  If the initiating entity chooses to use TLS, TLS negotiation MUST
       be completed before proceeding to SASL negotiation; this order of
       negotiation is required to help safeguard authentication
       information sent during SASL negotiation, as well as to make it
       possible to base the use of the SASL EXTERNAL mechanism on a
       certificate provided during prior TLS negotiation.

   5.  During TLS negotiation, an entity MUST NOT send any white space
       characters (matching production [3] content of [XML]) within the
       root stream element as separators between elements (any white
       space characters shown in the TLS examples below are included for
       the sake of readability only); this prohibition helps to ensure
       proper security layer byte precision.

   6.  The receiving entity MUST consider the TLS negotiation to have
       begun immediately after sending the closing ">" character of the
       <proceed/> element.  The initiating entity MUST consider the TLS
       negotiation to have begun immediately after receiving the closing
       ">" character of the <proceed/> element from the receiving
       entity.

   7.  The initiating entity MUST validate the certificate presented by
       the receiving entity; see Certificate Validation (Section 14.2)
       regarding certificate validation procedures.

   8.  Certificates MUST be checked against the hostname as provided by
       the initiating entity (e.g., a user), not the hostname as
       resolved via the Domain Name System; e.g., if the user specifies
       a hostname of "example.com" but a DNS SRV [SRV] lookup returned

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       "im.example.com", the certificate MUST be checked as
       "example.com".  If a JID for any kind of XMPP entity (e.g.,
       client or server) is represented in a certificate, it MUST be
       represented as a UTF8String within an otherName entity inside the
       subjectAltName, using the [ASN.1] Object Identifier
       "id-on-xmppAddr" specified in Section 5.1.1 of this document.

   9.  If the TLS negotiation is successful, the receiving entity MUST
       discard any knowledge obtained in an insecure manner from the
       initiating entity before TLS takes effect.

   10. If the TLS negotiation is successful, the initiating entity MUST
       discard any knowledge obtained in an insecure manner from the
       receiving entity before TLS takes effect.

   11. If the TLS negotiation is successful, the receiving entity MUST
       NOT offer the STARTTLS extension to the initiating entity along
       with the other stream features that are offered when the stream
       is restarted.

   12. If the TLS negotiation is successful, the initiating entity MUST
       continue with SASL negotiation.

   13. If the TLS negotiation results in failure, the receiving entity
       MUST terminate both the XML stream and the underlying TCP
       connection.

   14. See Mandatory-to-Implement Technologies (Section 14.7) regarding
       mechanisms that MUST be supported.

5.1.1.  ASN.1 Object Identifier for XMPP Address

   The [ASN.1] Object Identifier "id-on-xmppAddr" described above is
   defined as follows:

   id-pkix OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) identified-organization(3)
           dod(6) internet(1) security(5) mechanisms(5) pkix(7) }

   id-on  OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { id-pkix 8 }  -- other name forms

   id-on-xmppAddr  OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { id-on 5 }

   XmppAddr ::= UTF8String

   This Object Identifier MAY also be represented in the dotted display
   format as "1.3.6.1.5.5.7.8.5".

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5.2.  Narrative

   When an initiating entity secures a stream with a receiving entity
   using TLS, the steps involved are as follows:

   1.  The initiating entity opens a TCP connection and initiates the
       stream by sending the opening XML stream header to the receiving
       entity, including the 'version' attribute set to a value of at
       least "1.0".

   2.  The receiving entity responds by opening a TCP connection and
       sending an XML stream header to the initiating entity, including
       the 'version' attribute set to a value of at least "1.0".

   3.  The receiving entity offers the STARTTLS extension to the
       initiating entity by including it with the list of other
       supported stream features (if TLS is required for interaction
       with the receiving entity, it SHOULD signal that fact by
       including a <required/> element as a child of the <starttls/>
       element).

   4.  The initiating entity issues the STARTTLS command (i.e., a
       <starttls/> element qualified by the
       'urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-tls' namespace) to instruct the
       receiving entity that it wishes to begin a TLS negotiation to
       secure the stream.

   5.  The receiving entity MUST reply with either a <proceed/> element
       or a <failure/> element qualified by the
       'urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-tls' namespace.  If the failure case
       occurs, the receiving entity MUST terminate both the XML stream
       and the underlying TCP connection.  If the proceed case occurs,
       the entities MUST attempt to complete the TLS negotiation over
       the TCP connection and MUST NOT send any further XML data until
       the TLS negotiation is complete.

   6.  The initiating entity and receiving entity attempt to complete a
       TLS negotiation in accordance with [TLS].

   7.  If the TLS negotiation is unsuccessful, the receiving entity MUST
       terminate the TCP connection.  If the TLS negotiation is
       successful, the initiating entity MUST initiate a new stream by
       sending an opening XML stream header to the receiving entity (it
       is not necessary to send a closing </stream> tag first, since the
       receiving entity and initiating entity MUST consider the original
       stream to be closed upon successful TLS negotiation).

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   8.  Upon receiving the new stream header from the initiating entity,
       the receiving entity MUST respond by sending a new XML stream
       header to the initiating entity along with the available features
       (but not including the STARTTLS feature).

5.3.  Client-to-Server Example

   The following example shows the data flow for a client securing a
   stream using STARTTLS (note: the alternate steps shown below are
   provided to illustrate the protocol for failure cases; they are not
   exhaustive and would not necessarily be triggered by the data sent in
   the example).

   Step 1: Client initiates stream to server:

   <stream:stream
       xmlns='jabber:client'
       xmlns:stream='http://etherx.jabber.org/streams'
       to='example.com'
       version='1.0'>

   Step 2: Server responds by sending a stream tag to client:

   <stream:stream
       xmlns='jabber:client'
       xmlns:stream='http://etherx.jabber.org/streams'
       id='c2s_123'
       from='example.com'
       version='1.0'>

   Step 3: Server sends the STARTTLS extension to client along with
   authentication mechanisms and any other stream features:

   <stream:features>
     <starttls xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-tls'>
       <required/>
     </starttls>
     <mechanisms xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-sasl'>
       <mechanism>DIGEST-MD5</mechanism>
       <mechanism>PLAIN</mechanism>
     </mechanisms>
   </stream:features>

   Step 4: Client sends the STARTTLS command to server:

   <starttls xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-tls'/>

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   Step 5: Server informs client that it is allowed to proceed:

   <proceed xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-tls'/>

   Step 5 (alt): Server informs client that TLS negotiation has failed
   and closes both stream and TCP connection:

   <failure xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-tls'/>
   </stream:stream>

   Step 6: Client and server attempt to complete TLS negotiation over
   the existing TCP connection.

   Step 7: If TLS negotiation is successful, client initiates a new
   stream to server:

   <stream:stream
       xmlns='jabber:client'
       xmlns:stream='http://etherx.jabber.org/streams'
       to='example.com'
       version='1.0'>

   Step 7 (alt): If TLS negotiation is unsuccessful, server closes TCP
   connection.

   Step 8: Server responds by sending a stream header to client along
   with any available stream features:

   <stream:stream
       xmlns='jabber:client'
       xmlns:stream='http://etherx.jabber.org/streams'
       from='example.com'
       id='c2s_234'
       version='1.0'>
   <stream:features>
     <mechanisms xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-sasl'>
       <mechanism>DIGEST-MD5</mechanism>
       <mechanism>PLAIN</mechanism>
       <mechanism>EXTERNAL</mechanism>
     </mechanisms>
   </stream:features>

   Step 9: Client continues with SASL negotiation (Section 6).

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5.4.  Server-to-Server Example

   The following example shows the data flow for two servers securing a
   stream using STARTTLS (note: the alternate steps shown below are
   provided to illustrate the protocol for failure cases; they are not
   exhaustive and would not necessarily be triggered by the data sent in
   the example).

   Step 1: Server1 initiates stream to Server2:

   <stream:stream
       xmlns='jabber:server'
       xmlns:stream='http://etherx.jabber.org/streams'
       to='example.com'
       version='1.0'>

   Step 2: Server2 responds by sending a stream tag to Server1:

   <stream:stream
       xmlns='jabber:server'
       xmlns:stream='http://etherx.jabber.org/streams'
       from='example.com'
       id='s2s_123'
       version='1.0'>

   Step 3: Server2 sends the STARTTLS extension to Server1 along with
   authentication mechanisms and any other stream features:

   <stream:features>
     <starttls xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-tls'>
       <required/>
     </starttls>
     <mechanisms xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-sasl'>
       <mechanism>DIGEST-MD5</mechanism>
       <mechanism>KERBEROS_V4</mechanism>
     </mechanisms>
   </stream:features>

   Step 4: Server1 sends the STARTTLS command to Server2:

   <starttls xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-tls'/>

   Step 5: Server2 informs Server1 that it is allowed to proceed:

   <proceed xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-tls'/>

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   Step 5 (alt): Server2 informs Server1 that TLS negotiation has failed
   and closes stream:

   <failure xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-tls'/>
   </stream:stream>

   Step 6: Server1 and Server2 attempt to complete TLS negotiation via
   TCP.

   Step 7: If TLS negotiation is successful, Server1 initiates a new
   stream to Server2:

   <stream:stream
       xmlns='jabber:server'
       xmlns:stream='http://etherx.jabber.org/streams'
       to='example.com'
       version='1.0'>

   Step 7 (alt): If TLS negotiation is unsuccessful, Server2 closes TCP
   connection.

   Step 8: Server2 responds by sending a stream header to Server1 along
   with any available stream features:

   <stream:stream
       xmlns='jabber:server'
       xmlns:stream='http://etherx.jabber.org/streams'
       from='example.com'
       id='s2s_234'
       version='1.0'>
   <stream:features>
     <mechanisms xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-sasl'>
       <mechanism>DIGEST-MD5</mechanism>
       <mechanism>KERBEROS_V4</mechanism>
       <mechanism>EXTERNAL</mechanism>
     </mechanisms>
   </stream:features>

   Step 9: Server1 continues with SASL negotiation (Section 6).

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6.  Use of SASL

6.1.  Overview

   XMPP includes a method for authenticating a stream by means of an
   XMPP-specific profile of the Simple Authentication and Security Layer
   (SASL) protocol [SASL].  SASL provides a generalized method for
   adding authentication support to connection-based protocols, and XMPP
   uses a generic XML namespace profile for SASL that conforms to the
   profiling requirements of [SASL].

   The following rules apply:

   1.  If the SASL negotiation occurs between two servers,
       communications MUST NOT proceed until the Domain Name System
       (DNS) hostnames asserted by the servers have been resolved (see
       Server-to-Server Communications (Section 14.4)).

   2.  If the initiating entity is capable of SASL negotiation, it MUST
       include the 'version' attribute set to a value of at least "1.0"
       in the initial stream header.

   3.  If the receiving entity is capable of SASL negotiation, it MUST
       advertise one or more authentication mechanisms within a
       <mechanisms/> element qualified by the
       'urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-sasl' namespace in reply to the
       opening stream tag received from the initiating entity (if the
       opening stream tag included the 'version' attribute set to a
       value of at least "1.0").

   4.  During SASL negotiation, an entity MUST NOT send any white space
       characters (matching production [3] content of [XML]) within the
       root stream element as separators between elements (any white
       space characters shown in the SASL examples below are included
       for the sake of readability only); this prohibition helps to
       ensure proper security layer byte precision.

   5.  Any XML character data contained within the XML elements used
       during SASL negotiation MUST be encoded using base64, where the
       encoding adheres to the definition in Section 3 of RFC 3548
       [BASE64].

   6.  If provision of a "simple username" is supported by the selected
       SASL mechanism (e.g., this is supported by the DIGEST-MD5 and
       CRAM-MD5 mechanisms but not by the EXTERNAL and GSSAPI
       mechanisms), during authentication the initiating entity SHOULD
       provide as the simple username its sending domain (IP address or
       fully qualified domain name as contained in a domain identifier)

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       in the case of server-to-server communications or its registered
       account name (user or node name as contained in an XMPP node
       identifier) in the case of client-to-server communications.

   7.  If the initiating entity wishes to act on behalf of another
       entity and the selected SASL mechanism supports transmission of
       an authorization identity, the initiating entity MUST provide an
       authorization identity during SASL negotiation.  If the
       initiating entity does not wish to act on behalf of another
       entity, it MUST NOT provide an authorization identity.  As
       specified in [SASL], the initiating entity MUST NOT provide an
       authorization identity unless the authorization identity is
       different from the default authorization identity derived from
       the authentication identity as described in [SASL].  If provided,
       the value of the authorization identity MUST be of the form
       <domain> (i.e., a domain identifier only) for servers and of the
       form <node@domain> (i.e., node identifier and domain identifier)
       for clients.

   8.  Upon successful SASL negotiation that involves negotiation of a
       security layer, the receiving entity MUST discard any knowledge
       obtained from the initiating entity which was not obtained from
       the SASL negotiation itself.

   9.  Upon successful SASL negotiation that involves negotiation of a
       security layer, the initiating entity MUST discard any knowledge
       obtained from the receiving entity which was not obtained from
       the SASL negotiation itself.

   10. See Mandatory-to-Implement Technologies (Section 14.7) regarding
       mechanisms that MUST be supported.

6.2.  Narrative

   When an initiating entity authenticates with a receiving entity using
   SASL, the steps involved are as follows:

   1.  The initiating entity requests SASL authentication by including
       the 'version' attribute in the opening XML stream header sent to
       the receiving entity, with the value set to "1.0".

   2.  After sending an XML stream header in reply, the receiving entity
       advertises a list of available SASL authentication mechanisms;
       each of these is a <mechanism/> element included as a child
       within a <mechanisms/> container element qualified by the
       'urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-sasl' namespace, which in turn is a
       child of a <features/> element in the streams namespace.  If Use
       of TLS (Section 5) needs to be established before a particular

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       authentication mechanism may be used, the receiving entity MUST
       NOT provide that mechanism in the list of available SASL
       authentication mechanisms prior to TLS negotiation.  If the
       initiating entity presents a valid certificate during prior TLS
       negotiation, the receiving entity SHOULD offer the SASL EXTERNAL
       mechanism to the initiating entity during SASL negotiation (refer
       to [SASL]), although the EXTERNAL mechanism MAY be offered under
       other circumstances as well.

   3.  The initiating entity selects a mechanism by sending an <auth/>
       element qualified by the 'urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-sasl'
       namespace to the receiving entity and including an appropriate
       value for the 'mechanism' attribute.  This element MAY contain
       XML character data (in SASL terminology, the "initial response")
       if the mechanism supports or requires it; if the initiating
       entity needs to send a zero-length initial response, it MUST
       transmit the response as a single equals sign ("="), which
       indicates that the response is present but contains no data.

   4.  If necessary, the receiving entity challenges the initiating
       entity by sending a <challenge/> element qualified by the
       'urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-sasl' namespace to the initiating
       entity; this element MAY contain XML character data (which MUST
       be computed in accordance with the definition of the SASL
       mechanism chosen by the initiating entity).

   5.  The initiating entity responds to the challenge by sending a
       <response/> element qualified by the
       'urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-sasl' namespace to the receiving
       entity; this element MAY contain XML character data (which MUST
       be computed in accordance with the definition of the SASL
       mechanism chosen by the initiating entity).

   6.  If necessary, the receiving entity sends more challenges and the
       initiating entity sends more responses.

   This series of challenge/response pairs continues until one of three
   things happens:

   1.  The initiating entity aborts the handshake by sending an <abort/>
       element qualified by the 'urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-sasl'
       namespace to the receiving entity.  Upon receiving an <abort/>
       element, the receiving entity SHOULD allow a configurable but
       reasonable number of retries (at least 2), after which it MUST
       terminate the TCP connection; this enables the initiating entity
       (e.g., an end-user client) to tolerate incorrectly-provided
       credentials (e.g., a mistyped password) without being forced to
       reconnect.

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   2.  The receiving entity reports failure of the handshake by sending
       a <failure/> element qualified by the
       'urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-sasl' namespace to the initiating
       entity (the particular cause of failure SHOULD be communicated in
       an appropriate child element of the <failure/> element as defined
       under SASL Errors (Section 6.4)).  If the failure case occurs,
       the receiving entity SHOULD allow a configurable but reasonable
       number of retries (at least 2), after which it MUST terminate the
       TCP connection; this enables the initiating entity (e.g., an
       end-user client) to tolerate incorrectly-provided credentials
       (e.g., a mistyped password) without being forced to reconnect.

   3.  The receiving entity reports success of the handshake by sending
       a <success/> element qualified by the
       'urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-sasl' namespace to the initiating
       entity; this element MAY contain XML character data (in SASL
       terminology, "additional data with success") if required by the
       chosen SASL mechanism.  Upon receiving the <success/> element,
       the initiating entity MUST initiate a new stream by sending an
       opening XML stream header to the receiving entity (it is not
       necessary to send a closing </stream> tag first, since the
       receiving entity and initiating entity MUST consider the original
       stream to be closed upon sending or receiving the <success/>
       element).  Upon receiving the new stream header from the
       initiating entity, the receiving entity MUST respond by sending a
       new XML stream header to the initiating entity, along with any
       available features (but not including the STARTTLS and SASL
       features) or an empty <features/> element (to signify that no
       additional features are available); any such additional features
       not defined herein MUST be defined by the relevant extension to
       XMPP.

6.3.  SASL Definition

   The profiling requirements of [SASL] require that the following
   information be supplied by a protocol definition:

   service name: "xmpp"

   initiation sequence: After the initiating entity provides an opening
      XML stream header and the receiving entity replies in kind, the
      receiving entity provides a list of acceptable authentication
      methods.  The initiating entity chooses one method from the list
      and sends it to the receiving entity as the value of the
      'mechanism' attribute possessed by an <auth/> element, optionally
      including an initial response to avoid a round trip.

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   exchange sequence: Challenges and responses are carried through the
      exchange of <challenge/> elements from receiving entity to
      initiating entity and <response/> elements from initiating entity
      to receiving entity.  The receiving entity reports failure by
      sending a <failure/> element and success by sending a <success/>
      element; the initiating entity aborts the exchange by sending an
      <abort/> element.  Upon successful negotiation, both sides
      consider the original XML stream to be closed and new stream
      headers are sent by both entities.

   security layer negotiation: The security layer takes effect
      immediately after sending the closing ">" character of the
      <success/> element for the receiving entity, and immediately after
      receiving the closing ">" character of the <success/> element for
      the initiating entity.  The order of layers is first [TCP], then
      [TLS], then [SASL], then XMPP.

   use of the authorization identity: The authorization identity may be
      used by xmpp to denote the non-default <node@domain> of a client
      or the sending <domain> of a server.

6.4.  SASL Errors

   The following SASL-related error conditions are defined:

   o  <aborted/> -- The receiving entity acknowledges an <abort/>
      element sent by the initiating entity; sent in reply to the
      <abort/> element.

   o  <incorrect-encoding/> -- The data provided by the initiating
      entity could not be processed because the [BASE64] encoding is
      incorrect (e.g., because the encoding does not adhere to the
      definition in Section 3 of [BASE64]); sent in reply to a
      <response/> element or an <auth/> element with initial response
      data.

   o  <invalid-authzid/> -- The authzid provided by the initiating
      entity is invalid, either because it is incorrectly formatted or
      because the initiating entity does not have permissions to
      authorize that ID; sent in reply to a <response/> element or an
      <auth/> element with initial response data.

   o  <invalid-mechanism/> -- The initiating entity did not provide a
      mechanism or requested a mechanism that is not supported by the
      receiving entity; sent in reply to an <auth/> element.

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   o  <mechanism-too-weak/> -- The mechanism requested by the initiating
      entity is weaker than server policy permits for that initiating
      entity; sent in reply to a <response/> element or an <auth/>
      element with initial response data.

   o  <not-authorized/> -- The authentication failed because the
      initiating entity did not provide valid credentials (this includes
      but is not limited to the case of an unknown username); sent in
      reply to a <response/> element or an <auth/> element with initial
      response data.

   o  <temporary-auth-failure/> -- The authentication failed because of
      a temporary error condition within the receiving entity; sent in
      reply to an <auth/> element or <response/> element.

6.5.  Client-to-Server Example

   The following example shows the data flow for a client authenticating
   with a server using SASL, normally after successful TLS negotiation
   (note: the alternate steps shown below are provided to illustrate the
   protocol for failure cases; they are not exhaustive and would not
   necessarily be triggered by the data sent in the example).

   Step 1: Client initiates stream to server:

   <stream:stream
       xmlns='jabber:client'
       xmlns:stream='http://etherx.jabber.org/streams'
       to='example.com'
       version='1.0'>

   Step 2: Server responds with a stream tag sent to client:

   <stream:stream
       xmlns='jabber:client'
       xmlns:stream='http://etherx.jabber.org/streams'
       id='c2s_234'
       from='example.com'
       version='1.0'>

   Step 3: Server informs client of available authentication mechanisms:

   <stream:features>
     <mechanisms xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-sasl'>
       <mechanism>DIGEST-MD5</mechanism>
       <mechanism>PLAIN</mechanism>
     </mechanisms>
   </stream:features>

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   Step 4: Client selects an authentication mechanism:

   <auth xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-sasl'
         mechanism='DIGEST-MD5'/>

   Step 5: Server sends a [BASE64] encoded challenge to client:

   <challenge xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-sasl'>
   cmVhbG09InNvbWVyZWFsbSIsbm9uY2U9Ik9BNk1HOXRFUUdtMmhoIixxb3A9ImF1dGgi
   LGNoYXJzZXQ9dXRmLTgsYWxnb3JpdGhtPW1kNS1zZXNzCg==
   </challenge>

   The decoded challenge is:

   realm="somerealm",nonce="OA6MG9tEQGm2hh",\
   qop="auth",charset=utf-8,algorithm=md5-sess

   Step 5 (alt): Server returns error to client:

   <failure xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-sasl'>
     <incorrect-encoding/>
   </failure>
   </stream:stream>

   Step 6: Client sends a [BASE64] encoded response to the challenge:

   <response xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-sasl'>
   dXNlcm5hbWU9InNvbWVub2RlIixyZWFsbT0ic29tZXJlYWxtIixub25jZT0i
   T0E2TUc5dEVRR20yaGgiLGNub25jZT0iT0E2TUhYaDZWcVRyUmsiLG5jPTAw
   MDAwMDAxLHFvcD1hdXRoLGRpZ2VzdC11cmk9InhtcHAvZXhhbXBsZS5jb20i
   LHJlc3BvbnNlPWQzODhkYWQ5MGQ0YmJkNzYwYTE1MjMyMWYyMTQzYWY3LGNo
   YXJzZXQ9dXRmLTgK
   </response>

   The decoded response is:

   username="somenode",realm="somerealm",\
   nonce="OA6MG9tEQGm2hh",cnonce="OA6MHXh6VqTrRk",\
   nc=00000001,qop=auth,digest-uri="xmpp/example.com",\
   response=d388dad90d4bbd760a152321f2143af7,charset=utf-8

   Step 7: Server sends another [BASE64] encoded challenge to client:

   <challenge xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-sasl'>
   cnNwYXV0aD1lYTQwZjYwMzM1YzQyN2I1NTI3Yjg0ZGJhYmNkZmZmZAo=
   </challenge>

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   The decoded challenge is:

   rspauth=ea40f60335c427b5527b84dbabcdfffd

   Step 7 (alt): Server returns error to client:

   <failure xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-sasl'>
     <temporary-auth-failure/>
   </failure>
   </stream:stream>

   Step 8: Client responds to the challenge:

   <response xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-sasl'/>

   Step 9: Server informs client of successful authentication:

   <success xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-sasl'/>

   Step 9 (alt): Server informs client of failed authentication:

   <failure xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-sasl'>
     <temporary-auth-failure/>
   </failure>
   </stream:stream>

   Step 10: Client initiates a new stream to server:

   <stream:stream
       xmlns='jabber:client'
       xmlns:stream='http://etherx.jabber.org/streams'
       to='example.com'
       version='1.0'>

   Step 11: Server responds by sending a stream header to client along
   with any additional features (or an empty features element):

   <stream:stream
       xmlns='jabber:client'
       xmlns:stream='http://etherx.jabber.org/streams'
       id='c2s_345'
       from='example.com'
       version='1.0'>
   <stream:features>
     <bind xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-bind'/>
     <session xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-session'/>
   </stream:features>

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6.6.  Server-to-Server Example

   The following example shows the data flow for a server authenticating
   with another server using SASL, normally after successful TLS
   negotiation (note: the alternate steps shown below are provided to
   illustrate the protocol for failure cases; they are not exhaustive
   and would not necessarily be triggered by the data sent in the
   example).

   Step 1: Server1 initiates stream to Server2:

   <stream:stream
       xmlns='jabber:server'
       xmlns:stream='http://etherx.jabber.org/streams'
       to='example.com'
       version='1.0'>

   Step 2: Server2 responds with a stream tag sent to Server1:

   <stream:stream
       xmlns='jabber:server'
       xmlns:stream='http://etherx.jabber.org/streams'
       from='example.com'
       id='s2s_234'
       version='1.0'>

   Step 3: Server2 informs Server1 of available authentication
   mechanisms:

   <stream:features>
     <mechanisms xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-sasl'>
       <mechanism>DIGEST-MD5</mechanism>
       <mechanism>KERBEROS_V4</mechanism>
     </mechanisms>
   </stream:features>

   Step 4: Server1 selects an authentication mechanism:

   <auth xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-sasl'
         mechanism='DIGEST-MD5'/>

   Step 5: Server2 sends a [BASE64] encoded challenge to Server1:

   <challenge xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-sasl'>
   cmVhbG09InNvbWVyZWFsbSIsbm9uY2U9Ik9BNk1HOXRFUUdtMmhoIixxb3A9
   ImF1dGgiLGNoYXJzZXQ9dXRmLTgsYWxnb3JpdGhtPW1kNS1zZXNz
   </challenge>

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   The decoded challenge is:

   realm="somerealm",nonce="OA6MG9tEQGm2hh",\
   qop="auth",charset=utf-8,algorithm=md5-sess

   Step 5 (alt): Server2 returns error to Server1:

   <failure xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-sasl'>
     <incorrect-encoding/>
   </failure>
   </stream:stream>

   Step 6: Server1 sends a [BASE64] encoded response to the challenge:

   <response xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-sasl'>
   dXNlcm5hbWU9ImV4YW1wbGUub3JnIixyZWFsbT0ic29tZXJlYWxtIixub25j
   ZT0iT0E2TUc5dEVRR20yaGgiLGNub25jZT0iT0E2TUhYaDZWcVRyUmsiLG5j
   PTAwMDAwMDAxLHFvcD1hdXRoLGRpZ2VzdC11cmk9InhtcHAvZXhhbXBsZS5v
   cmciLHJlc3BvbnNlPWQzODhkYWQ5MGQ0YmJkNzYwYTE1MjMyMWYyMTQzYWY3
   LGNoYXJzZXQ9dXRmLTgK
   </response>

   The decoded response is:

   username="example.org",realm="somerealm",\
   nonce="OA6MG9tEQGm2hh",cnonce="OA6MHXh6VqTrRk",\
   nc=00000001,qop=auth,digest-uri="xmpp/example.org",\
   response=d388dad90d4bbd760a152321f2143af7,charset=utf-8

   Step 7: Server2 sends another [BASE64] encoded challenge to Server1:

   <challenge xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-sasl'>
   cnNwYXV0aD1lYTQwZjYwMzM1YzQyN2I1NTI3Yjg0ZGJhYmNkZmZmZAo=
   </challenge>

   The decoded challenge is:

   rspauth=ea40f60335c427b5527b84dbabcdfffd

   Step 7 (alt): Server2 returns error to Server1:

   <failure xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-sasl'>
     <invalid-authzid/>
   </failure>
   </stream:stream>

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   Step 8: Server1 responds to the challenge:

   <response xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-sasl'/>

   Step 8 (alt): Server1 aborts negotiation:

   <abort xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-sasl'/>

   Step 9: Server2 informs Server1 of successful authentication:

   <success xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-sasl'/>

   Step 9 (alt): Server2 informs Server1 of failed authentication:

   <failure xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-sasl'>
     <aborted/>
   </failure>
   </stream:stream>

   Step 10: Server1 initiates a new stream to Server2:

   <stream:stream
       xmlns='jabber:server'
       xmlns:stream='http://etherx.jabber.org/streams'
       to='example.com'
       version='1.0'>

   Step 11: Server2 responds by sending a stream header to Server1 along
   with any additional features (or an empty features element):

   <stream:stream
       xmlns='jabber:client'
       xmlns:stream='http://etherx.jabber.org/streams'
       from='example.com'
       id='s2s_345'
       version='1.0'>
   <stream:features/>

7.  Resource Binding

   After SASL negotiation (Section 6) with the receiving entity, the
   initiating entity MAY want or need to bind a specific resource to
   that stream.  In general this applies only to clients: in order to
   conform to the addressing format (Section 3) and stanza delivery
   rules (Section 10) specified herein, there MUST be a resource
   identifier associated with the <node@domain> of the client (which is

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   either generated by the server or provided by the client
   application); this ensures that the address for use over that stream
   is a "full JID" of the form <node@domain/resource>.

   Upon receiving a success indication within the SASL negotiation, the
   client MUST send a new stream header to the server, to which the
   server MUST respond with a stream header as well as a list of
   available stream features.  Specifically, if the server requires the
   client to bind a resource to the stream after successful SASL
   negotiation, it MUST include an empty <bind/> element qualified by
   the 'urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-bind' namespace in the stream
   features list it presents to the client upon sending the header for
   the response stream sent after successful SASL negotiation (but not
   before):

   Server advertises resource binding feature to client:

   <stream:stream
       xmlns='jabber:client'
       xmlns:stream='http://etherx.jabber.org/streams'
       id='c2s_345'
       from='example.com'
       version='1.0'>
   <stream:features>
     <bind xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-bind'/>
   </stream:features>

   Upon being so informed that resource binding is required, the client
   MUST bind a resource to the stream by sending to the server an IQ
   stanza of type "set" (see IQ Semantics (Section 9.2.3)) containing
   data qualified by the 'urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-bind' namespace.

   If the client wishes to allow the server to generate the resource
   identifier on its behalf, it sends an IQ stanza of type "set" that
   contains an empty <bind/> element:

   Client asks server to bind a resource:

   <iq type='set' id='bind_1'>
     <bind xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-bind'/>
   </iq>

   A server that supports resource binding MUST be able to generate a
   resource identifier on behalf of a client.  A resource identifier
   generated by the server MUST be unique for that <node@domain>.

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   If the client wishes to specify the resource identifier, it sends an
   IQ stanza of type "set" that contains the desired resource identifier
   as the XML character data of a <resource/> element that is a child of
   the <bind/> element:

   Client binds a resource:

   <iq type='set' id='bind_2'>
     <bind xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-bind'>
       <resource>someresource</resource>
     </bind>
   </iq>

   Once the server has generated a resource identifier for the client or
   accepted the resource identifier provided by the client, it MUST
   return an IQ stanza of type "result" to the client, which MUST
   include a <jid/> child element that specifies the full JID for the
   connected resource as determined by the server:

   Server informs client of successful resource binding:

   <iq type='result' id='bind_2'>
     <bind xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-bind'>
       <jid>somenode@example.com/someresource</jid>
     </bind>
   </iq>

   A server SHOULD accept the resource identifier provided by the
   client, but MAY override it with a resource identifier that the
   server generates; in this case, the server SHOULD NOT return a stanza
   error (e.g., <forbidden/>) to the client but instead SHOULD
   communicate the generated resource identifier to the client in the IQ
   result as shown above.

   When a client supplies a resource identifier, the following stanza
   error conditions are possible (see Stanza Errors (Section 9.3)):

   o  The provided resource identifier cannot be processed by the server
      in accordance with Resourceprep (Appendix B).

   o  The client is not allowed to bind a resource to the stream (e.g.,
      because the node or user has reached a limit on the number of
      connected resources allowed).

   o  The provided resource identifier is already in use but the server
      does not allow binding of multiple connected resources with the
      same identifier.

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   The protocol for these error conditions is shown below.

   Resource identifier cannot be processed:

   <iq type='error' id='bind_2'>
     <bind xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-bind'>
       <resource>someresource</resource>
     </bind>
     <error type='modify'>
       <bad-request xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-stanzas'/>
     </error>
   </iq>

   Client is not allowed to bind a resource:

   <iq type='error' id='bind_2'>
     <bind xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-bind'>
       <resource>someresource</resource>
     </bind>
     <error type='cancel'>
       <not-allowed xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-stanzas'/>
     </error>
   </iq>

   Resource identifier is in use:

   <iq type='error' id='bind_2'>
     <bind xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-bind'>
       <resource>someresource</resource>
     </bind>
     <error type='cancel'>
       <conflict xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-stanzas'/>
     </error>
   </iq>

   If, before completing the resource binding step, the client attempts
   to send an XML stanza other than an IQ stanza with a <bind/> child
   qualified by the 'urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-bind' namespace, the
   server MUST NOT process the stanza and SHOULD return a
   <not-authorized/> stanza error to the client.

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8.  Server Dialback

8.1.  Overview

   The Jabber protocols from which XMPP was adapted include a "server
   dialback" method for protecting against domain spoofing, thus making
   it more difficult to spoof XML stanzas.  Server dialback is not a
   security mechanism, and results in weak verification of server
   identities only (see Server-to-Server Communications (Section 14.4)
   regarding this method's security characteristics).  Domains requiring
   robust security SHOULD use TLS and SASL; see Server-to-Server
   Communications (Section 14.4) for details.  If SASL is used for
   server-to-server authentication, dialback SHOULD NOT be used since it
   is unnecessary.  Documentation of dialback is included mainly for the
   sake of backward-compatibility with existing implementations and
   deployments.

   The server dialback method is made possible by the existence of the
   Domain Name System (DNS), since one server can (normally) discover
   the authoritative server for a given domain.  Because dialback
   depends on DNS, inter-domain communications MUST NOT proceed until
   the Domain Name System (DNS) hostnames asserted by the servers have
   been resolved (see Server-to-Server Communications (Section 14.4)).

   Server dialback is uni-directional, and results in (weak)
   verification of identities for one stream in one direction.  Because
   server dialback is not an authentication mechanism, mutual
   authentication is not possible via dialback.  Therefore, server
   dialback MUST be completed in each direction in order to enable
   bi-directional communications between two domains.

   The method for generating and verifying the keys used in server
   dialback MUST take into account the hostnames being used, the stream
   ID generated by the receiving server, and a secret known by the
   authoritative server's network.  The stream ID is security-critical
   in server dialback and therefore MUST be both unpredictable and
   non-repeating (see [RANDOM] for recommendations regarding randomness
   for security purposes).

   Any error that occurs during dialback negotiation MUST be considered
   a stream error, resulting in termination of the stream and of the
   underlying TCP connection.  The possible error conditions are
   specified in the protocol description below.

   The following terminology applies:

   o  Originating Server -- the server that is attempting to establish a
      connection between two domains.

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   o  Receiving Server -- the server that is trying to authenticate that
      the Originating Server represents the domain which it claims to
      be.

   o  Authoritative Server -- the server that answers to the DNS
      hostname asserted by the Originating Server; for basic
      environments this will be the Originating Server, but it could be
      a separate machine in the Originating Server's network.

8.2.  Order of Events

   The following is a brief summary of the order of events in dialback:

   1.  The Originating Server establishes a connection to the Receiving
       Server.

   2.  The Originating Server sends a 'key' value over the connection to
       the Receiving Server.

   3.  The Receiving Server establishes a connection to the
       Authoritative Server.

   4.  The Receiving Server sends the same 'key' value to the
       Authoritative Server.

   5.  The Authoritative Server replies that key is valid or invalid.

   6.  The Receiving Server informs the Originating Server whether it is
       authenticated or not.

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   We can represent this flow of events graphically as follows:

   Originating               Receiving
     Server                    Server
   -----------               ---------
       |                         |
       |   establish connection  |
       | ----------------------> |
       |                         |
       |   send stream header    |
       | ----------------------> |
       |                         |
       |   send stream header    |
       | <---------------------- |
       |                         |                   Authoritative
       |   send dialback key     |                       Server
       | ----------------------> |                   -------------
       |                         |                         |
                                 |   establish connection  |
                                 | ----------------------> |
                                 |                         |
                                 |   send stream header    |
                                 | ----------------------> |
                                 |                         |
                                 |   send stream header    |
                                 | <---------------------- |
                                 |                         |
                                 |   send verify request   |
                                 | ----------------------> |
                                 |                         |
                                 |   send verify response  |
                                 | <---------------------- |
                                 |
       |  report dialback result |
       | <---------------------- |
       |                         |

8.3.  Protocol

   The detailed protocol interaction between the servers is as follows:

   1.  The Originating Server establishes TCP connection to the
       Receiving Server.

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   2.  The Originating Server sends a stream header to the Receiving
       Server:

   <stream:stream
       xmlns:stream='http://etherx.jabber.org/streams'
       xmlns='jabber:server'
       xmlns:db='jabber:server:dialback'>

   Note: The 'to' and 'from' attributes are OPTIONAL on the root stream
   element.  The inclusion of the xmlns:db namespace declaration with
   the name shown indicates to the Receiving Server that the Originating
   Server supports dialback.  If the namespace name is incorrect, then
   the Receiving Server MUST generate an <invalid-namespace/> stream
   error condition and terminate both the XML stream and the underlying
   TCP connection.

   3.  The Receiving Server SHOULD send a stream header back to the
       Originating Server, including a unique ID for this interaction:

   <stream:stream
       xmlns:stream='http://etherx.jabber.org/streams'
       xmlns='jabber:server'
       xmlns:db='jabber:server:dialback'
       id='457F9224A0...'>

   Note: The 'to' and 'from' attributes are OPTIONAL on the root stream
   element.  If the namespace name is incorrect, then the Originating
   Server MUST generate an <invalid-namespace/> stream error condition
   and terminate both the XML stream and the underlying TCP connection.
   Note well that the Receiving Server SHOULD reply but MAY silently
   terminate the XML stream and underlying TCP connection depending on
   security policies in place; however, if the Receiving Server desires
   to proceed, it MUST send a stream header back to the Originating
   Server.

   4.  The Originating Server sends a dialback key to the Receiving
       Server:

   <db:result
       to='Receiving Server'
       from='Originating Server'>
     98AF014EDC0...
   </db:result>

   Note: This key is not examined by the Receiving Server, since the
   Receiving Server does not keep information about the Originating
   Server between sessions.  The key generated by the Originating Server
   MUST be based in part on the value of the ID provided by the

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   Receiving Server in the previous step, and in part on a secret shared
   by the Originating Server and Authoritative Server.  If the value of
   the 'to' address does not match a hostname recognized by the
   Receiving Server, then the Receiving Server MUST generate a
   <host-unknown/> stream error condition and terminate both the XML
   stream and the underlying TCP connection.  If the value of the 'from'
   address matches a domain with which the Receiving Server already has
   an established connection, then the Receiving Server MUST maintain
   the existing connection until it validates whether the new connection
   is legitimate; additionally, the Receiving Server MAY choose to
   generate a <not-authorized/> stream error condition for the new
   connection and then terminate both the XML stream and the underlying
   TCP connection related to the new request.

   5.  The Receiving Server establishes a TCP connection back to the
       domain name asserted by the Originating Server, as a result of
       which it connects to the Authoritative Server.  (Note: As an
       optimization, an implementation MAY reuse an existing connection
       here.)

   6.  The Receiving Server sends the Authoritative Server a stream
       header:

   <stream:stream
       xmlns:stream='http://etherx.jabber.org/streams'
       xmlns='jabber:server'
       xmlns:db='jabber:server:dialback'>

   Note: The 'to' and 'from' attributes are OPTIONAL on the root stream
   element.  If the namespace name is incorrect, then the Authoritative
   Server MUST generate an <invalid-namespace/> stream error condition
   and terminate both the XML stream and the underlying TCP connection.

   7.  The Authoritative Server sends the Receiving Server a stream
       header:

   <stream:stream
       xmlns:stream='http://etherx.jabber.org/streams'
       xmlns='jabber:server'
       xmlns:db='jabber:server:dialback'
       id='1251A342B...'>

   Note: If the namespace name is incorrect, then the Receiving Server
   MUST generate an <invalid-namespace/> stream error condition and
   terminate both the XML stream and the underlying TCP connection
   between it and the Authoritative Server.  If a stream error occurs
   between the Receiving Server and the Authoritative Server, then the
   Receiving Server MUST generate a <remote-connection-failed/> stream

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   error condition and terminate both the XML stream and the underlying
   TCP connection between it and the Originating Server.

   8.  The Receiving Server sends the Authoritative Server a request for
       verification of a key:

   <db:verify
       from='Receiving Server'
       to='Originating Server'
       id='457F9224A0...'>
     98AF014EDC0...
   </db:verify>

   Note: Passed here are the hostnames, the original identifier from the
   Receiving Server's stream header to the Originating Server in Step 3,
   and the key that the Originating Server sent to the Receiving Server
   in Step 4.  Based on this information, as well as shared secret
   information within the Authoritative Server's network, the key is
   verified.  Any verifiable method MAY be used to generate the key.  If
   the value of the 'to' address does not match a hostname recognized by
   the Authoritative Server, then the Authoritative Server MUST generate
   a <host-unknown/> stream error condition and terminate both the XML
   stream and the underlying TCP connection.  If the value of the 'from'
   address does not match the hostname represented by the Receiving
   Server when opening the TCP connection (or any validated domain
   thereof, such as a validated subdomain of the Receiving Server's
   hostname or another validated domain hosted by the Receiving Server),
   then the Authoritative Server MUST generate an <invalid-from/> stream
   error condition and terminate both the XML stream and the underlying
   TCP connection.

   9.  The Authoritative Server verifies whether the key was valid or
       invalid:

   <db:verify
       from='Originating Server'
       to='Receiving Server'
       type='valid'
       id='457F9224A0...'/>

   or

   <db:verify
       from='Originating Server'
       to='Receiving Server'
       type='invalid'
       id='457F9224A0...'/>

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   Note: If the ID does not match that provided by the Receiving Server
   in Step 3, then the Receiving Server MUST generate an <invalid-id/>
   stream error condition and terminate both the XML stream and the
   underlying TCP connection.  If the value of the 'to' address does not
   match a hostname recognized by the Receiving Server, then the
   Receiving Server MUST generate a <host-unknown/> stream error
   condition and terminate both the XML stream and the underlying TCP
   connection.  If the value of the 'from' address does not match the
   hostname represented by the Originating Server when opening the TCP
   connection (or any validated domain thereof, such as a validated
   subdomain of the Originating Server's hostname or another validated
   domain hosted by the Originating Server), then the Receiving Server
   MUST generate an <invalid-from/> stream error condition and terminate
   both the XML stream and the underlying TCP connection.  After
   returning the verification to the Receiving Server, the Authoritative
   Server SHOULD terminate the stream between them.

   10. The Receiving Server informs the Originating Server of the
       result:

   <db:result
       from='Receiving Server'
       to='Originating Server'
       type='valid'/>

   Note: At this point, the connection has either been validated via a
   type='valid', or reported as invalid.  If the connection is invalid,
   then the Receiving Server MUST terminate both the XML stream and the
   underlying TCP connection.  If the connection is validated, data can
   be sent by the Originating Server and read by the Receiving Server;
   before that, all XML stanzas sent to the Receiving Server SHOULD be
   silently dropped.

   The result of the foregoing is that the Receiving Server has verified
   the identity of the Originating Server, so that the Originating
   Server can send, and the Receiving Server can accept, XML stanzas
   over the "initial stream" (i.e., the stream from the Originating
   Server to the Receiving Server).  In order to verify the identities
   of the entities using the "response stream" (i.e., the stream from
   the Receiving Server to the Originating Server), dialback MUST be
   completed in the opposite direction as well.

   After successful dialback negotiation, the Receiving Server SHOULD
   accept subsequent <db:result/> packets (e.g., validation requests
   sent to a subdomain or other hostname serviced by the Receiving
   Server) from the Originating Server over the existing validated
   connection; this enables "piggybacking" of the original validated
   connection in one direction.

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   Even if dialback negotiation is successful, a server MUST verify that
   all XML stanzas received from the other server include a 'from'
   attribute and a 'to' attribute; if a stanza does not meet this
   restriction, the server that receives the stanza MUST generate an
   <improper-addressing/> stream error condition and terminate both the
   XML stream and the underlying TCP connection.  Furthermore, a server
   MUST verify that the 'from' attribute of stanzas received from the
   other server includes a validated domain for the stream; if a stanza
   does not meet this restriction, the server that receives the stanza
   MUST generate an <invalid-from/> stream error condition and terminate
   both the XML stream and the underlying TCP connection.  Both of these
   checks help to prevent spoofing related to particular stanzas.



(page 48 continued on part 3)

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