Network Working Group V. Gurbani, Ed. Request for Comments: 3910 A. Brusilovsky Category: Standards Track I. Faynberg Lucent Technologies, Inc. J. Gato Vodafone Espana H. Lu Bell Labs/Lucent Technologies M. Unmehopa Lucent Technologies, Inc. October 2004 The SPIRITS (Services in PSTN requesting Internet Services) Protocol Status of this Memo This document specifies an Internet standards track protocol for the Internet community, and requests discussion and suggestions for improvements. Please refer to the current edition of the "Internet Official Protocol Standards" (STD 1) for the standardization state and status of this protocol. Distribution of this memo is unlimited. Copyright Notice Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2004). Abstract This document describes the Services in PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network) requesting Internet Services (SPIRITS) protocol. The purpose of the SPIRITS protocol is to support services that originate in the cellular or wireline PSTN and necessitate interactions between the PSTN and the Internet. On the PSTN side, the SPIRITS services are most often initiated from the Intelligent Network (IN) entities. Internet Call Waiting and Internet Caller-ID Delivery are examples of SPIRITS services, as are location-based services on the cellular network. The protocol defines the building blocks from which many other services can be built. Table of Contents 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.1. Conventions used in this document. . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. Overview of operations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2.1. Terminology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3. Using XML for subscription and notification . . . . . . . . . 7 4. XML format definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
5. Call-related events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 5.1. IN-specific requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 5.2. Detection points and required parameters . . . . . . . 12 5.2.1. Originating-side DPs. . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 5.2.2. Terminating-side DPs. . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 5.3. Services through dynamic DPs . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 5.3.1. Normative usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 5.3.2. Event package name. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 5.3.3. Event package parameters. . . . . . . . . . . 16 5.3.4. SUBSCRIBE bodies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 5.3.5. Subscription duration . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 5.3.6. NOTIFY bodies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 5.3.7. Notifier processing of SUBSCRIBE requests . . 18 5.3.8. Notifier generation of NOTIFY requests. . . . 18 5.3.9. Subscriber processing of NOTIFY requests. . . 19 5.3.10. Handling of forked requests . . . . . . . . . 19 5.3.11. Rate of notifications . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 5.3.12. State Agents. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 5.3.13. Examples. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 5.3.14. Use of URIs to retrieve state . . . . . . . . 25 5.4. Services through static DPs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 5.4.1. Internet Call Waiting . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 5.4.2. Call disposition choices. . . . . . . . . . . 26 5.4.3. Accepting an ICW session using VoIP . . . . . 28 6. Non-call related events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 6.1. Non-call events and their required parameters. . . . . 29 6.2. Normative usage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 6.3. Event package name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 6.4. Event package parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 6.5. SUBSCRIBE bodies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 6.6. Subscription duration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 6.7. NOTIFY bodies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 6.8. Notifier processing of SUBSCRIBE requests. . . . . . . 32 6.9. Notifier generation of NOTIFY requests . . . . . . . . 32 6.10. Subscriber processing of NOTIFY requests . . . . . . . 33 6.11. Handling of forked requests. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 6.12. Rate of notifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 6.13. State Agents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 6.14. Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 6.15. Use of URIs to retrieve state. . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 7. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 7.1. Registering event packages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 7.2. Registering MIME type. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 7.3. Registering URN. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 7.4. Registering XML schema . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 8. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 9. XML schema definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 10. Acknowledgements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
11. Acronyms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 12. References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 13. Contributors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 14. Authors' Addresses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 15. Full Copyright Statement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 1. Introduction SPIRITS (Services in the PSTN Requesting Internet Services) is an IETF architecture and an associated protocol that enables call processing elements in the telephone network to make service requests that are then processed on Internet hosted servers. The term Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) is used here to include the wireline circuit-switched network, as well as the wireless circuit- switched network. The earlier IETF work on the PSTN/Internet Interworking (PINT) resulted in the protocol (RFC 2848) in support of the services initiated in the reverse direction - from the Internet to PSTN. This document has been written in response to the SPIRITS WG chairs call for SPIRITS Protocol proposals. Among other contributions, this document is based on: o Informational "Pre-SPIRITS implementations"  o Informational "The SPIRITS Architecture"  o Informational "SPIRITS Protocol Requirements"  1.1. Conventions used in this document The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in BCP 14, RFC 2119 . 2. Overview of operations The purpose of the SPIRITS protocol is to enable the execution of services in the Internet based on certain events occurring in the PSTN. The term PSTN is used here to include all manner of switching; i.e. wireline circuit-switched network, as well as the wireless circuit-switched network. In general terms, an Internet host is interested in getting notifications of certain events occurring in the PSTN. When the event of interest occurs, the PSTN notifies the Internet host. The Internet host can execute appropriate services based on these notifications.
+------+ | PSTN | |Events| +------+ / \ / \ +-------+ +--------+ |Call | |Non-Call| |Related| |Related | +-------+ +--+-----+ / \ | / \ | +---/--+ +---\---+ +--+-----------------+ |Static| |Dynamic| |Mobility Management/| | | | | |Registration/De- | +------+ +-------+ |registration | +--------------------+ Figure 1: The SPIRITS Hierarchy. Figure 1 contains the SPIRITS events hierarchy, including their subdivision in two discrete classes for service execution: events related to the setup, teardown and maintenance of a call and events un-related to call setup, teardown or maintenance. Example of the latter class of events are geo-location mobility events that are tracked by the cellular PSTN. SPIRITS will specify the framework to provide services for both of these types of events. Call-related events, its further subdivisions, and how they enable services in the Internet is contained in Section 5. Services enabled from events not related to call setup, teardown, or maintenance are covered in detail in Section 6. For reference, the SPIRITS architecture from  is reproduced below. This document is focused on interfaces B and C only. Interface D is a matter of local policy; the PSTN operator may have a functional interface between the SPIRITS client or a message passing interface. This document does not discuss interface D in any detail.
+--------------+ | Subscriber's | | IP Host | +--------------+ | | | | | +----------+ | | +----------+ | | | PINT | | A | | PINT | | | | Client +<-------/-------->+ Gateway +<-----+ | +----------+ | | +----------+ | | | | | | | | +----------+ | | +----------+ | | | | SPIRITS | | B | | SPIRITS | | | | | Server +<-------/-------->+ Gateway | | | | +----------+ | | +--------+-+ | | | | | ^ | | +--------------+ +----------|---+ | | | IP Network | | ------------------------------------------|--------|--- PSTN / C / E | | v | +----+------+ | | SPIRITS | | | Client | v +-------------------+ +---+-----D-----+-++ | Service Switching |INAP/SS7 | Service Control | | Function +---------+ Function | +----+--------------+ +------------------+ | |line +-+  Subscriber's telephone Figure 2: The SPIRITS Architecture. (Note: The interfaces A-E are described in detail in the SPIRITS Architecture document .) The PSTN today supports service models such as the Intelligent Network (IN), whereby some features are executed locally on switching elements called Service Switching Points (SSPs). Other features are executed on service elements called Service Control Points (SCPs). The SPIRITS architecture  permits these SCP elements to act as intelligent entities to leverage and use Internet hosts and capabilities to further enhance the telephone end-user's experience.
The protocol used on interfaces B and C consists of the SPIRITS protocol, and is based on SIP and SIP event notification . The requirements of a SPIRITS protocol and the choice of using SIP as an enabler are detailed in . The SPIRITS protocol is a set of two "event packages" . It contains the procedural rules and semantic context that must be applied to these rules for processing SIP transactions. The SPIRITS protocol has to carry subscriptions for events from the SPIRITS server to the SPIRITS client and notifications of these events from the SPIRITS client to the SPIRITS server. Extensible Markup Language (XML)  is used to codify the subscriptions and notifications. Finally, in the context of ensuing discussion, the terms "SPIRITS server" and "SPIRITS client" are somewhat confusing since the roles appear reversed; to wit, the "SPIRITS server" issues a subscription which is accepted by a "SPIRITS client". To mitigate such ambiguity, from now on, we will refer to the "SPIRITS server" as a "SPIRITS subscriber" and to the "SPIRITS client" as a "SPIRITS notifier". This convention adheres to the nomenclature outlined in ; the SPIRITS server in Figure 2 is a subscriber (issues subscriptions to events), and the SPIRITS client in Figure 2 is a notifier (issues notifications whenever the event of interest occurs). 2.1. Terminology For ease of reference, we provide a terminology of the SPIRITS actors discussed in the preceding above: Service Control Function (SCF): A PSTN entity that executes service logic. It provides capabilities to influence the call processing occurring in the Service Switching Function (SSF). For more information on how a SCF participates in the SPIRITS architecture, please see Sections 5 and 5.1. SPIRITS client: see SPIRITS notifier. SPIRITS server: see SPIRITS subscriber. SPIRITS notifier: A User Agent (UA) in the PSTN that accepts subscriptions from SPIRITS subscribers. These subscriptions contain events that the SPIRITS subscribers are interested in receiving a notification for. The SPIRITS notifier interfaces with the Service Control Function such that when the said event occurs, a notification will be sent to the relevant SPIRITS subscriber.
SPIRITS subscriber: A UA in the Internet that issues a subscription containing events in the PSTN that it is interested in receiving a notification for. 3. Using XML for subscription and notification The SPIRITS protocol requirements mandate that "SPIRITS-related parameters be carried in a manner consistent with SIP practices" (RFC3298:Section 3). SIP already provides payload description capabilities through the use of headers (Content-Type, Content- Length). This document defines a new MIME type -- "application/spirits-event+xml" -- and registers it with IANA (Section 7). This MIME type MUST be present in the "Content-Type" header of SPIRITS requests and responses, and it describes an XML document that contains SPIRITS-related information. This document defines a base XML schema for subscriptions to PSTN events. The list of events that can be subscribed to is defined in the SPIRITS protocol requirements document  and this document provides an XML schema for it. All SPIRITS subscribers (any SPIRITS entity capable of issuing a SUBSCRIBE, REGISTER, or INVITE request) MUST support this schema. All SPIRITS notifiers (any SPIRITS entity capable of receiving and processing a SUBSCRIBE, REGISTER, or INVITE request) MUST support this schema. The schema is defined in Section 9. The support for the SIP REGISTER request is included for PINT compatibility (RFC3298:Section 6). The support for the SIP INVITE request is mandated because pre- existing SPIRITS implementations did not use the SIP event notification scheme. Instead, the initial PSTN detection point always arrived via the SIP INVITE request. This document also defines a base XML schema for notifications of events (Section 9). All SPIRITS notifiers MUST generate XML documents that correspond to the base notification schema. All SPIRITS subscribers MUST support XML documents that correspond to this schema. The set of events that can be subscribed to and the amount of notification that is returned by the PSTN entity may vary among different PSTN operators. Some PSTN operators may have a rich set of events that can be subscribed to, while others have only the primitive set of events outlined in the SPIRITS protocol requirements document . This document defines a base XML schema (in Section 9) which MUST be used for the subscription and notification of the primitive set of events. In order to support a richer set of event
subscription and notification, implementations MAY use additional XML namespaces corresponding to alternate schemas in a SPIRITS XML document. However, all implementations MUST support the base XML schema defined in Section 9 of this document. Use of the base schema ensures interoperability across implementations, and the inclusion of additional XML namespaces allows for customization. A logical flow of the SPIRITS protocol is depicted below (note: this example shows a temporal flow; XML documents and related SPIRITS protocol syntax is specified in later sections of this document). In the flow below, S is the SPIRITS subscriber and N is the SPIRITS notifier. The SPIRIT Gateway is presumed to have a pure proxying functionality and thus is omitted for simplicity: 1 S->N Subscribe (events of interest in an XML document instance using base subscription schema) 2 N->S 200 OK (Subscribe) 3 N->S Notify 4 S->N 200 OK (Notify communicating current resource state) 5 ... 6 N->S Notify (Notify communicating change in resource state; payload is an XML document instance using XML extensions to the base notification schema) 7 S->N 200 OK (Notify) In line 1, the SPIRITS subscriber subscribes to certain events using an XML document based on the base schema defined in this document. In line 6, the SPIRITS notifier notifies the SPIRITS subscriber of the occurrence of the event using extensions to the base notification schema. Note that this document defines a base schema for event notification as well; the SPIRITS notifier could have availed itself of these. Instead, it chooses to pass to the SPIRITS subscriber an XML document composed of extensions to the base notification schema. The SPIRITS subscriber, if it understands the extensions, can interpret the XML document accordingly. However, in the event that the SPIRITS subscriber is not programmed to understand the extensions, it MUST search the XML document for the mandatory elements. These elements MUST be present in all notification schemas and are detailed in Section 9. 4. XML format definition This section defines the XML-encoded SPIRITS payload format. Such a payload is a well formed XML document and is produced by SPIRITS notifiers and SPIRITS subscribers.
The namespace URI for elements defined in this document is a Uniform Resource Name (URN) , using the namespace identifier 'ietf' defined in  and extended by : urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:spirits-1.0 SPIRITS XML documents may have a default namespace, or they may be associated with a namespace prefix following the convention established in XML namespaces . Regardless, the elements and attributes of SPIRITS XML documents MUST conform to the SPIRITS XML schema specified in Section 9. The <spirits-event> element The root of a SPIRITS XML document (characterized by a Content- Type header of "application/spirits-event+xml">) is the <spirits- event> element. This element MUST contain a namespace declaration ('xmlns') to indicate the namespace on which the XML document is based. XML documents compliant to the SPIRITS protocol MUST contain the URN "urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:spirits-1.0" in the namespace declaration. Other namespaces may be specified as needed. <spirits-event> element MUST contain at least one <Event> element, and MAY contain more than one. The <Event> element The <Event> element contains three attributes, two of which are mandatory. The first mandatory attribute is a 'type' attribute whose value is either "INDPs" or "userprof". These types correspond, respectively, to call-related events described in Section 5 and non-call related events described in Section 6. The second mandatory attribute is a 'name' attribute. Values for this attribute MUST be limited to the SPIRITS mnemonics defined in Section 5.2.1, Section 5.2.2, and Section 6.1. The third attribute, which is optional, is a 'mode' attribute. The value of 'mode' is either "N" or "R", corresponding respectively to (N)otification or (R)equest (RFC3298:Section 4). The default value of this attribute is "N". If the 'type' attribute of the <Event> element is "INDPs", then it MUST contain at least one or more of the following elements (unknown elements MAY be ignored): <CallingPartyNumber>, <CalledPartyNumber>, <DialledDigits>, or <Cause>. These elements
are defined in Section 5.2; they MUST not contain any attributes and MUST not be used further as parent elements. These elements contain a string value as described in Section 5.2.1 and 5.2.2. If the 'type' attribute of the <Event> element is "userprof", then it MUST contain a <CalledPartyNumber> element and it MAY contain a <Cell-ID> element. None of these elements contain any attributes and neither must be used further as a parent element. These elements contain a string value as described in Section 6.1. All other elements MAY be ignored if not understood. A SPIRITS-compliant XML document using the XML namespace defined in this document might look like the following example: <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <spirits-event xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:spirits-1.0"> <Event type="INDPs" name="OD" mode="N"> <CallingPartyNumber>5551212</CallingPartyNumber> </Event> <Event type="INDPs" name="OAB" mode="N"> <CallingPartyNumber>5551212</CallingPartyNumber> </Event> </spirits-event> 5. Call-related events For readers who may not be familiar with the service execution aspects of PSTN/IN, we provide a brief tutorial next. Interested readers are urged to consult  for a detailed treatment of this subject. Services in the PSTN/IN are executed based on a call model. A call model is a finite state machine used in SSPs and other call processing elements that accurately and concisely reflects the current state of a call at any given point in time. Call models consist of states called PICs (Points In Call) and transitions between states. Inter-state transitions pass through elements called Detection Points or DPs. DPs house one or more triggers. Every trigger has a firing criteria associated with it. When a trigger is armed (made active), and its associated firing criteria are satisfied, it fires. The particulars of firing criteria may vary based on the call model being supported. When a trigger fires, a message is formatted with call state information and transmitted by the SSP to the SCP. The SCP then reads this call related data and generates a response which the SSP then uses in further call processing.
Detection Points are of two types: TDPs (or Trigger Detection Points), and EDPs (or Event Detection Points). TDPs are provisioned with statically armed triggers (armed through Service Management Tools). EDPs are dynamically armed triggers (armed by the SCP as call processing proceeds). DPs may also be classified as "Request" or "Notification" DPs. Thus, one can have TDP-R's, TDP-N's, EDP-R's and EDP-N's. The "-R" type of DPs require the SSP to suspend call processing when communication with the SCP is initiated. Call processing resumes when a response is received. The "-N" type of DPs enable the SSP to continue with call processing when the trigger fires, after it sends out the message to the SCP, notifying it that a certain event has occurred. Call models typically support different types of detection points. Note that while INAP and the IN Capability Set (CS)-2  call model are used in this document as examples, and for ease of explanation, other call models possess similar properties. For example, the Wireless Intelligent Network (WIN) call model also supports the dynamic arming of triggers. Thus, the essence of this discussion applies not just to the wireline domain, but applies equally well to the wireless domain as well. When the SCP receives the INAP formatted message from the SSP, if the SCP supports the SPIRITS architecture, it can encode the INAP message contents into a SPIRITS protocol message which is then transmitted to SPIRITS-capable elements in the IP network. Similarly, when it receives responses back from said SPIRITS capable elements, it can reformat the response content into the INAP format and forward these messages back to SSPs. Thus the process of inter-conversion and/or encoding between the INAP parameters and the SPIRITS protocol is of primary interest. An SCP is a physical manifestation of the Service Control Function. An SSP is a physical manifestation of the Service Switching Function (and the Call Control Function). To support uniformity of nomenclature between the various SPIRITS drafts, we shall use the terms SCP and SCF, and SSP and SSF interchangeably in this document. 5.1. IN-specific requirements Section 4 of  outlines the IN-related requirements on the SPIRITS protocol. The SUBSCRIBE request arriving at the SPIRITS notifier MUST contain the events to be monitored (in the form of a DP list), the mode (request or a notification, the difference being that for a
request, the SPIRITS subscriber can influence subsequent call processing and for a notification, no further influence is needed), and any DP-related parameters. Section 4 of  also enumerates a list of Capability Set 3 (CS-3) DPs for SPIRITS services. It is a requirement (RFC3298:Section 4) that the SPIRITS protocol specify the relevant parameters of the DPs. These DPs and their relevant parameters to be carried in a SUBSCRIBE request are codified in an XML schema. All SPIRITS subscribers MUST understand this schema for subscribing to the DPs in the PSTN. The schema is defined in Section 9. When a DP fires, a notification -- using a SIP NOTIFY request -- is transmitted from the SPIRITS notifier to the SPIRITS subscriber. The NOTIFY request contains an XML document which describes the DP that fired and any relevant parameters. The DPs and their relevant parameters to be carried in a NOTIFY request are codified in an XML schema. All SPIRITS notifiers MUST understand this schema; this schema MAY be extended. The schema is defined in Section 9. In addition, Appendices A and B of  contain a select subset of CS-2 DPs that may be of interest to the reader. However, this document will only refer to CS-3 DPs outlined in . 5.2. Detection points and required parameters The IN CS-3 DPs envisioned for SPIRITS services (RFC3298:Section 4) are described next. IN DPs are characterized by many parameters, however, not all such parameters are required -- or even needed -- by SPIRITS. This section, thus, serves to list the mandatory parameters for each DP that MUST be specified in subscriptions and notifications. Implementations can specify additional parameters as XML extensions associated with a private (or public and standardized) namespace. The exhaustive list of IN CS-3 DPs and their parameters can be found in reference . Each DP is given a SPIRITS-specific mnemonic for use in the subscriptions and notifications. 5.2.1. Originating-side DPs Origination Attempt Authorized SPIRITS mnemonic: OAA Mandatory parameter in SUBSCRIBE: CallingPartyNumber Mandatory parameters in NOTIFY: CallingPartyNumber, CalledPartyNumber
CallingPartyNumber: A string used to identify the calling party for the call. The actual length and encoding of this parameter depend on the particulars of the dialing plan used. CalledPartyNumber: A string containing the number (e.g., called directory number) used to identify the called party. The actual length and encoding of this parameter depend on the particulars of the dialing plan used. Collected Information SPIRITS mnemonic: OCI Mandatory parameter in SUBSCRIBE: CallingPartyNumber Mandatory parameters in NOTIFY: CallingPartyNumber, DialledDigits DialledDigits: This parameter contains non-translated address information collected/received from the originating user/line/trunk Analyzed Information SPIRITS mnemonic: OAI Mandatory parameter in SUBSCRIBE: CallingPartyNumber Mandatory parameters in NOTIFY: CallingPartyNumber, DialledDigits Origination Answer SPIRITS mnemonic: OA Mandatory parameter in SUBSCRIBE: CallingPartyNumber Mandatory parameters in NOTIFY: CallingPartyNumber, CalledPartyNumber Origination Term Seized SPIRITS mnemonic: OTS Mandatory parameter in SUBSCRIBE: CallingPartyNumber Mandatory parameter in NOTIFY: CallingPartyNumber, CalledPartyNumber Origination No Answer SPIRITS mnemonic: ONA Mandatory parameter in SUBSCRIBE: CallingPartyNumber Mandatory parameter in NOTIFY: CallingPartyNumber, CalledPartyNumber Origination Called Party Busy SPIRITS mnemonic: OCPB Mandatory parameter in SUBSCRIBE: CallingPartyNumber Mandatory parameters in NOTIFY: CallingPartyNumber, CalledPartyNumber Route Select Failure SPIRITS mnemonic: ORSF Mandatory parameter in SUBSCRIBE: CallingPartyNumber Mandatory parameter in NOTIFY: CallingPartyNumber, CalledPartyNumber
Origination Mid Call SPIRITS mnemonic: OMC Mandatory parameter in SUBSCRIBE: CallingPartyNumber Mandatory parameter in NOTIFY: CallingPartyNumber Origination Abandon SPIRITS mnemonic: OAB Mandatory parameter in SUBSCRIBE: CallingPartyNumber Mandatory parameter in NOTIFY: CallingPartyNumber Origination Disconnect SPIRITS mnemonic: OD Mandatory parameter in SUBSCRIBE: CallingPartyNumber Mandatory parameter in NOTIFY: CallingPartyNumber, CalledPartyNumber 5.2.2. Terminating-side DPs Termination Answer SPIRITS mnemonic: TA Mandatory parameter in SUBSCRIBE: CalledPartyNumber Mandatory parameters in NOTIFY: CallingPartyNumber, CalledPartyNumber Termination No Answer SPIRITS mnemonic: TNA Mandatory parameter in SUBSCRIBE: CalledPartyNumber Mandatory parameters in NOTIFY: CallingPartyNumber, CalledPartyNumber Termination Mid-Call SPIRITS mnemonic: TMC Mandatory parameter in SUBSCRIBE: CalledPartyNumber Mandatory parameter in NOTIFY: CalledPartyNumber Termination Abandon SPIRITS mnemonic: TAB Mandatory parameter in SUBSCRIBE: CalledPartyNumber Mandatory parameter in NOTIFY: CalledPartyNumber Termination Disconnect SPIRITS mnemonic: TD Mandatory parameter in SUBSCRIBE: CalledPartyNumber Mandatory parameters in NOTIFY: CalledPartyNumber, CallingPartyNumber Termination Attempt Authorized SPIRITS mnemonic: TAA Mandatory parameter in SUBSCRIBE: CalledPartyNumber Mandatory parameters in NOTIFY: CalledPartyNumber, CallingPartyNumber
Termination Facility Selected and Available SPIRITS mnemonic: TFSA Mandatory parameter in SUBSCRIBE: CalledPartyNumber Mandatory parameter in NOTIFY: CalledPartyNumber Termination Busy SPIRITS mnemonic: TB Mandatory parameter in SUBSCRIBE: CalledPartyNumber Mandatory parameters in NOTIFY: CalledPartyNumber, CallingPartyNumber, Cause Cause: This parameter contains a string value of either "Busy" or "Unreachable". The difference between these is translated as a requirement (RFC3298:Section 5) to aid in the SPIRITS subscriber in determining if the called party is indeed busy (engaged), or if the called party is unavailable (as it would be if it were on the cellular PSTN and the mobile subscriber was not registered with the network). 5.3. Services through dynamic DPs Triggers in the PSTN can be armed dynamically, often outside the context of a call. The SIP event notification mechanism  is, therefore, a convenient means to exploit in those cases where triggers housed in EDPs fire (see section 3 of ). Note that  uses the term "persistent" to refer to call-related DP arming and associated interactions. The SIP Events Package enables IP endpoints (or hosts) to subscribe to and receive subsequent notification of events occurring in the PSTN. With reference to Figure 2, this includes communication on the interfaces marked "B" and "C". 5.3.1. Normative usage A subscriber will issue a SUBSCRIBE request which identifies a set of events (DPs) it is interested in getting the notification of. This set MUST contain at least one DP, it MAY contain more than one. The SUBSCRIBE request is routed to the notifier, where it is accepted, pending a successful authentication. When any of the DPs identified in the set of events fires, the notifier will format a NOTIFY request and direct it towards the subscriber. The NOTIFY request will contain information pertinent to the event that was triggered. The un-encountered DPs MUST be subsequently dis-armed by the SPIRITS notifier and/or the SCF.
The dialog established by the SUBSCRIBE terminates when the event of interest occurs and this notification is passed to the subscriber through a NOTIFY request. If the subscriber is interested in the future occurrence of the same event, it MUST issue a new SUBSCRIBE request, establishing a new dialog. When the subscriber receives a NOTIFY request, it can subsequently choose to act in a manner appropriate to the notification. The remaining sections fill in the specific package responsibilities raised in RFC3265 , Section 4.4. 5.3.2. Event package name This document defines two event packages; the first of these is defined in this section and is called "spirits-INDPs". This package MUST be used for events corresponding to IN detection points in the cellular or wireline PSTN. All entities that implement the SPIRITS protocol and support IN detection points MUST set the "Event" request header  to "spirits-INDPs." The "Allow-Events" general header  MUST include the token "spirits-INDPs" if the entity implements the SPIRITS protocol and supports IN detection points. Event: spirits-INDPs Allow-Events: spirits-INDPs The second event package is defined and discussed in Section 6. 5.3.3. Event package parameters The "spirits-INDPs" event package does not support any additional parameters to the Event header. 5.3.4. SUBSCRIBE bodies SUBSCRIBE requests that serve to terminate the subscription MAY contain an empty body; however, SUBSCRIBE requests that establish a dialog MUST contain a body which encodes three pieces of information: (1) The set of events (DPs) that is being subscribed to. A subscriber MAY subscribe to multiple DPs in one SUBSCRIBE request, or MAY issue a different SUBSCRIBE request for each DP it is interested in receiving a notification for. The protocol allows for both forms of representation, however, it recommends the former manner of subscribing to DPs if the service depends on any of the DPs being triggered.
(2) Because of the requirement  that IN be informed whether the detection point is set as the request or notification, all events in the "spirits-INDPs" package (but not in the "spirits-user-prof" package) are required to provide a "mode" parameter, whose values are "R" (for Request) and "N" for notification. (3) A list of the values of the parameters associated with the event detection point (Note: the term "event" here refers to the IN usage -- a dynamically armed DP is called an Event Detection Point). Please see Section 5.2.1 and Section 5.2.2 for a list of parameters associated with each DP. The default body type for SUBSCRIBEs in SPIRITS is denoted by the MIME type "application/spirits-event+xml". The "Accept" header, if present, MUST include this MIME type. 5.3.5. Subscription duration For package "spirits-INDPs", the purpose of the SUBSCRIBE request is to arm the DP, since as far as IN is concerned, being armed is the first essential pre-requisite. A DP maybe armed either statically (for instance, through service provisioning), or dynamically (by the SCF). A statically armed DP remains armed until it is disarmed proactively. A dynamically armed DP remains armed for the duration of a call (or more appropriately, no longer than the duration of a particular SSF-SCF relationship). Dynamically armed DPs are automatically disarmed when the event of interest occurs in the notifier. It is up to the subscriber to re- arm the DPs within the context of a call, if it so desires. Statically armed DPs are considered outside the scope of the SPIRITS protocol requirements  and thus will not be considered any further. 5.3.6. NOTIFY bodies Bodies in NOTIFY requests for the "spirits-INDPs" package are optional. If present, they MUST be of the MIME type "application/spirits-event+xml". The body in a NOTIFY request encapsulates the following pieces of information which can be used by the subscriber: (1) The event that resulted in the NOTIFY being generated (typically, but not always, this will be the same event present in the corresponding SUBSCRIBE request).
(2) The "mode" parameter; it is simply reflected back from the corresponding SUBSCRIBE request. (3) A list of values of the parameters associated with the event that the NOTIFY is being generated for. Depending on the actual event, the list of the parameters will vary. If the subscriber armed multiple DPs as part of a single SUBSCRIBE request, all the un-encountered DPs that were part of the same SUBSCRIBE dialog MUST be dis-armed by the SPIRITS notifier and/or the SCF/SCP. 5.3.7. Notifier processing of SUBSCRIBE requests When the notifier receives a SUBSCRIBE request, it MUST authenticate the request and ensure that the subscriber is authorized to access the resource being subscribed to, in this case, PSTN/IN events on a certain PSTN line. Once the SUBSCRIBE request has been authenticated and authorized, the notifier interfaces with the SCF over interface D to arm the detection points corresponding to the PSTN line contained in the SUBSCRIBE body. The particulars about interface D is out of scope for this document; here we will simply assume that the notifier can affect the arming (and disarming) of triggers in the PSTN through interface D. 5.3.8. Notifier generation of NOTIFY requests If the notifier expects the arming of triggers to take more than 200 ms, it MUST send a 202 response to the SUBSCRIBE request immediately, accepting the subscription. It should then send a NOTIFY request with an empty body. This NOTIFY request MUST have a "Subscription- State" header with a value of "pending". This immediate NOTIFY with an empty body is needed since the resource identified in the SUBSCRIBE request does not have as yet a meaningful state. Once the notifier has successfully interfaced with the SCF, it MUST send a subsequent NOTIFY request with an empty body and a "Subscription-State" header with a value of "active." When the event of interest identified in the SUBSCRIBE request occurs, the notifier sends out a new NOTIFY request which MUST contain a body (see Section 5.3.6). The NOTIFY request MUST have a "Subscription-State" header and its value MUST be set to "terminated" with a reason parameter of "fired".
5.3.9. Subscriber processing of NOTIFY requests The exact steps executed at the subscriber when it gets a NOTIFY request will depend on the service being implemented. As a generality, the UA associated with the subscriber should somehow impart this information to the user by visual or auditory means, if at all possible. If the NOTIFY request contained a "Subscription-State" header with a value of "terminated" and a reason parameter of "fired", the UA associated with the subscriber MAY initiate a new subscription for the event that was just reported through the NOTIFY request. Whether or not to initiate a new subscription when an existing one expires is up to the context of the service that is being implemented. For instance, a user may configure her UA to always re-subscribe to the same event when it fires, but this is not necessarily the normative case. 5.3.10. Handling of forked requests Forking of SUBSCRIBE requests is prohibited. Since the SUBSCRIBE request is targeted towards the PSTN, highly irregular behaviors occur if the request is allowed to fork. The normal SIP DNS lookup and routing rules  should result in a target set with exactly one element: the notifier. 5.3.11. Rate of notifications For reasons of security more than network traffic, it is RECOMMENDED that the notifier issue two or, at most three NOTIFY requests for a subscription. If the subscription was accepted with a 202 response, a NOTIFY will be sent immediately towards the subscriber. This NOTIFY serves to inform the subscriber that the request has been accepted and is being acted on. Once the resource (detection points) identified in the SUBSCRIBE request have been initialized, the notifier MUST send a second NOTIFY request. This request contains the base state of the resource. When an event of interest occurs which leads to the firing of the trigger associated with the detection points identified in the SUBSCRIBE request, a final NOTIFY is sent to the subscriber. This NOTIFY request contains more information about the event of interest.
If the subscription was accepted with a 200 response, the notifier simply sends two NOTIFY requests: one containing the base state of the resource, and the other containing information that lead to the firing of the detection point. 5.3.12. State agents State agents are not used in SPIRITS. 5.3.13. Examples This section contains example call flows for a SPIRITS service called Internet Caller-ID Delivery (ICID). One of the benchmark SPIRITS service, as described in section 2.2 of  is Internet Caller-ID delivery: This service allows the subscriber to see the caller's number or name or both while being connected to the Internet. If the subscriber has only one telephone line and is using the very line for the Internet connection, the service is a subset of the ICW service and follows the relevant description in Section 2.1. Otherwise, the subscriber's IP host serves as an auxiliary device of the telephone to which the call is first sent. We present an example of a SPIRITS call flow to realize this service. Note that this is an example only, not a normative description of the Internet Caller-ID service. Further text and details of SIP messages below refer to the call flow provided in Figure 3. Figure 3 depicts the 4 entities that are an integral part of any SPIRITS service (the headings of the entities refer to the names established in Figure 1 in ) -- the SPIRITS subscriber, the SPIRITS notifier and the SCF. Note that the SPIRITS gateway is not included in this figure; logically, SPIRITS messages flow between the SPIRITS server and the SPIRITS client. A gateway, if present, may act as a proxy.
SPIRITS server SPIRITS client SCF ("subscriber") ("notifier") S N | | | | F1 SUBSCRIBE | | +--------------------->+ | | | | | | F2 Arm DP | | F3 200 OK (SUBS) +--------------->| |<---------------------| | | | | | F4 NOTIFY | | |<---------------------+ | | | | | F5 200 OK (NOT) | | +--------------------->| | | | | ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ | | F6 Evt. Not. | | |<---------------+ | F7 NOTIFY + | |<---------------------| | | | | | F8 200 OK (NOT) | | +--------------------->| | | | | | | | \|/ \|/ \|/ v v v Figure 3: Sample call flow This call flow depicts an overall operation of a "subscriber" successfully subscribing to the IN Termination_Attempt_Authorized DP (the "subscriber" is assumed to be a user, possibly at work, who is interested in knowing when he/she gets a phone call to his/her home phone number) -- this interaction is captured in messages F1 through F8 in Figure 3. The user sends (F1) a SIP SUBSCRIBE request identifying the DP it is interested in along with zero or more parameters relevant to that DP (in this example, the Termination_Attempt_DP will be employed). The SPIRITS notifier in turns interacts with the SCF to arm the Termination_Attempt_DP for the service (F2). An immediate NOTIFY with the current state information is send to the subscriber (F4, F5).
At some point after the above sequence of events has transpired, the PSTN gets a call to the users phone. The SSF informs the SCF of this event when it encounters an armed Termination_Attempt_DP (not shown in Figure 3). The SCF informs the SPIRITS notifier of this event (F6). When the SPIRITS notifier receives this event, it forms a SIP NOTIFY request and directs it to the SPIRITS subscriber (F7). This NOTIFY will contain all the information elements necessary to identify the caller to the subscriber. The subscriber, upon receiving the notification (F8) may pop open a window with the date/time and the number of the caller. The rest of this section contains the details of the SIP messages in Figure 3. The call flow details below assume that the SPIRITS gateway is, for the purpose of this example, a SIP proxy that serves as the default outbound proxy for the notifier and an ingress host of the myprovider.com domain for the subscriber. The subscriber and notifier may be in separate administrative domains. F1: S->N SUBSCRIBE sip:myprovider.com SIP/2.0 From: <sip:firstname.lastname@example.org>;tag=8177-afd-991 To: <sip:email@example.com> CSeq: 18992 SUBSCRIBE Call-ID: firstname.lastname@example.org Contact: <sip:email@example.com> Via: SIP/2.0/UDP host.example.com;branch=z9hG4bK776asdhds Expires: 3600 Event: spirits-INDPs Allow-Events: spirits-INDPs, spirits-user-prof Accept: application/spirits-event+xml Content-Type: application/spirits-event+xml Content-Length: ... <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <spirits-event xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:spirits-1.0"> <Event type="INDPs" name="TAA" mode="N"> <CalledPartyNumber>6302240216</CalledPartyNumber> </Event> </spirits-event> The subscriber forms a SIP SUBSCRIBE request which identifies the DP that it wants to subscribe to (in this case, the TAA DP) and the actual line it wants that DP armed for (in this case, the line
associated with the phone number 6302240216). This request eventually arrives at the SIPRITS notifier, N, which authenticates it (not shown) and sends a successful response to the subscriber: F3: N->S SIP/2.0 200 OK From: <sip:firstname.lastname@example.org>;tag=8177-afd-991 To: <sip:email@example.com>;tag=SPIRITS-TAA-6302240216 CSeq: 18992 SUBSCRIBE Call-ID: firstname.lastname@example.org Contact: <sip:notifier.myprovider.com> Via: SIP/2.0/UDP host.example.com;branch=z9hG4bK776asdhds Expires: 3600 Accept: application/spirits-event+xml Content-Length: 0 The notifier interacts with the SCF to arm the DP and also sends an immediate NOTIFY towards the subscriber informing the subscriber of the current state of the notification: F4: N->S NOTIFY sip:email@example.com SIP/2.0 From: <sip:firstname.lastname@example.org>;tag=SPIRITS-TAA-6302240216 To: <sip:email@example.com>;tag=8177-afd-991 Via: SIP/2.0/UDP gateway.myprovider.com;branch=z9hG4bK-9$0-1 Via: SIP/2.0/UDP notifier.myprovider.com;branch=z9hG4bKqo--9 Call-ID: firstname.lastname@example.org Contact: <sip:notifier.myprovider.com> Subscription-State: active CSeq: 3299 NOTIFY Accept: application/spirits-event+xml Content-Length: 0 F5: S->N SIP/2.0 200 OK From: <sip:email@example.com>;tag=SPIRITS-TAA-6302240216 To: <sip:firstname.lastname@example.org>;tag=8177-afd-991 Via: SIP/2.0/UDP gateway.myprovider.com;branch=z9hG4bK-9$0-1 Via: SIP/2.0/UDP notifier.myprovider.com;branch=z9hG4bKqo--9 Call-ID: email@example.com Contact: <sip:firstname.lastname@example.org> CSeq: 3299 NOTIFY Accept: application/spirits-event+xml Content-Length: 0
At some later point in time (before the subscription established in F1 expires at the notifier), a call arrives at the number identified in XML-encoded body of F1 -- 6302240216. The SCF notifies the notifier (F6). Included in this notification is the relevant information from the PSTN, namely, the phone number of the party attempting to call 6302240216. The notifier uses this information to create a SIP NOTIFY request and sends it to the subscriber. The SIP NOTIFY request has a XML-encoded body with the relevant information from the PSTN: F7: N->S NOTIFY sip:email@example.com SIP/2.0 From: <sip:firstname.lastname@example.org>;tag=SPIRITS-TAA-6302240216 To: <sip:email@example.com>;tag=8177-afd-991 Via: SIP/2.0/UDP notifier.myprovider.com;branch=z9hG4bK9inn-=u7 Call-ID: firstname.lastname@example.org Contact: <sip:notifier.myprovider.com> CSeq: 3300 NOTIFY Subscription-State: terminated;reason=fired Accept: application/spirits-event+xml Event: spirits-INDPs Allow-Events: spirits-INDPs, spirits-user-prof Content-Type: application/spirits-event+xml Content-Length: ... <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <spirits-event xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:spirits-1.0"> <Event type="INDPs" name="TAA" mode="N"> <CalledPartyNumber>6302240216</CalledPartyNumber> <CallingPartyNumber>3125551212</CallingPartyNumber> </Event> </spirits-event> There are two important issues to note in the call flows for F7: (1) The body of the NOTIFY request contains the information passed to the SPIRITS notifier from the SCF. In this particular example, this is the phone number of the party (3125551212) that attempted to call 6302240216. (2) Since the notification occurred, the subscription established in F1 terminated (as evident by the Subscription-State header). The subscription terminated normally due to the DP associated with TAA firing (hence the reason code of "fired" in the Subscription-State header). If the subscriber
wants to get notified of another attempt to call the number 6302240216, he/she should send a new SUBSCRIBE request to the notifier. The subscriber can take any appropriate action upon the receipt of the NOTIFY in F7. A reasonable implementation may pop up a window populated with the information contained in the body of F12, along with a button asking the subscriber if they would like to re- subscribe to the same event. Alternatively, a re-subscription could be generated automatically by the subscriber's UA based on his/her preferences. To complete the protocol, the subscriber also sends a 200 OK message towards the notifier: F8: S->N 200 OK SIP/2.0 From: <sip:email@example.com>;tag=SPIRITS-TAA-6302240216 To: <sip:firstname.lastname@example.org>;tag=8177-afd-991 Via: SIP/2.0/UDP notifier.myprovider.com;z9hG4bK9inn-=u7 Call-ID: email@example.com CSeq: 3300 NOTIFY Content-Length: 0 5.3.14. Use of URIs to retrieve state The "spirits-INDPs" package MUST NOT use URIs to retrieve state. It is expected that most state information for this package is compact enough to fit in a SIP message. However, to err on the side of caution, implementations MUST follow the convention outlined in Section 18.1.1 of  and use a congestion controlled transport if the size of the request is within 200 bytes of the path MTU if known, or if the request size is larger than 1300 bytes and the path MTU is unknown. 5.4. Services through static DPs We mentioned in Section 5.1 that the first trigger that fires during call processing is typically a TDP since there isn't any pre-existing control relationship between the SSF and the SCF. Some Internet hosts may have expressed an interest in executing services based on TDPs (through an a-priori arrangement, which is not a part of this specification). Thus, the PSTN will notify such hosts. To do so, it will send a SIP request (typically an INVITE) towards the Internet host. The body of the SIP request MUST contain multi-part MIME with two MIME components: the first part corresponding to the normal payload, if any, of the request; and the second part will contain
SPIRITS-specific information (e.g., the DP that fired). Responses to the INVITE request, or subsequent SUBSCRIBE messages from the Internet host to the PSTN within a current call context may result in EDPs being armed. 5.4.1. Internet Call Waiting (ICW) ICW as a benchmark SPIRITS service actually predates SPIRITS itself. Pre-SPIRITS implementations of ICW are detailed in . However, as the document notes, while a diversity of implementations exists, these implementations are not interoperable. At the time  was published, the industry did not have the depth of experience with SIP as is the case now. The use of SIP in  does not constitute normative usage of SIP as described in ; for instance, no mention is made of the SDP (if any) in the initial INVITE (especially since this pertains to "accept the call using VoIP" case). Thus this section serves to provide a normative description of ICW in SPIRITS. The description of ICW is deceptively simple: it is a service most useful for single line phone subscribers that use the line to establish an Internet session. In a nutshell, the service enables a subscriber engaged in an Internet dial-up session to o be notified of an incoming call to the very same telephone line that is being used for the Internet connection, o specify the desirable treatment of the call, and o have the call handled as specified. 5.4.2. Call disposition choices Section 2 of  details the call disposition outcome of a ICW session. They are reproduced here as a numbered list for further discussion: 1. Accepting the call over the PSTN line, thus terminating the Internet (modem) connection 2. Accepting the call over the Internet using Voice over IP (VoIP) 3. Rejecting the call 4. Playing a pre-recorded message to the calling party and disconnecting the call 5. Forwarding the call to voice mail
6. Forwarding the call to another number 7. Rejecting (or Forwarding) on no Response - If the subscriber fails to respond within a certain period of time after the dialog box has been displayed, the incoming call can be either rejected or handled based on the treatment pre-defined by the subscriber. It should be pointed out for the sake of completeness that ICW as a SPIRITS service is not possible without making the SCP aware of the fact that the subscriber line is being used for an Internet session. That awareness, however, is not a part of the ICW service, but solely a pre-requisite. One of the following three methods MUST be utilized to impart this information to the SCP: A. ICW subscriber based method: the ICW client on the subscriber's PC notifies the SCP of the Internet session by issuing a SIP REGISTER request. B. IN based method: SCP maintains a list of Internet Service Provider (ISP) access numbers for a geographical area; when one of these numbers is dialed and connected to, it (the SCP) assumes that the calling party is engaged in an Internet session. C. Any combination of methods A and B. ICW depends on a TDP to be provisioned in the SSP. When the said TDP is encountered, the SSP suspends processing of the call and sends a request to the SPIRITS-capable SCP. The SCP determines that the subscriber line is being used for an Internet session. It instructs the SPIRITS notifier on the SCP to create a SIP INVITE request and send it to the SPIRITS subscriber running on the subscriber's IP host. The SPIRITS subscriber MUST return one of the possible call disposition outcomes catalogued in Section 5.4.2. Note that outcomes 1 and 4 through 7 can all be coalesced into one case, namely redirecting (using the SIP 3xx response code) the call to an alternative SIP URI. In case of 1, the URI of the redirected call MUST match the very same number being used by the customer to get online. Rejecting the call implies sending a non-2xx and non-3xx final response; the remaining outcomes result in the call being redirected to an alternate URI which provides the desired service (i.e., play a pre-recorded announcement, or record a voice message).
Further processing of a SPIRITS notifier when it receives a final response can be summarized by the following steps: 1. If the response is a 4xx, 5xx, or 6xx class of response, generate and transmit an ACK request and instruct the SSP to play a busy tone to the caller. 2. Else, for all 3xx responses, generate and transmit an ACK request, and compare the redirected URI to the subscriber's line number: 2a. If the comparison indicates a match, instruct the SSP to hold onto the call for just enough time to allow the SPIRITS subscriber to disconnect the modem, thus freeing up the line; and then continue with normal call processing, which will result in the subscriber's phone to ring. 2b. If the comparison fails, instruct the SSP to route the call to the redirected URI. 3. Else, for a 2xx response, follow the steps in section 5.4.3. 5.4.3. Accepting an ICW session using VoIP One call handling option in ICW is to "accept an incoming call using VoIP". The SPIRITS notifier has no way of knowing a-priori if the subscriber (callee) will be choosing this option; nonetheless, it has to account for such a choice by adding a SDP in the body of the INVITE request. A possible way of accomplishing this is to have the SPIRITS notifier control a PSTN gateway and allocate appropriate resources on it. Once this is done, the SPIRITS notifier adds network information (IP address of the gateway and port numbers where media will be received) and codec information as the SDP portion of the body in the INVITE request. SPIRITS requires the DP information to be carried in the request body as well. To that extent, the SPIRITS notifier MUST also add the information associated with the TDP that triggered the service. Thus, the body of the INVITE MUST contain multi-part MIME, with two components. The SPIRITS notifier transmits the INVITE request to the subscriber and now waits for a final response. Further processing when the SPIRITS subscriber returns a 200 OK MUST be handled as follows: On the receipt of a 200 OK containing the SDP of the subscriber's UA, the SPIRITS notifier will instruct the SSP to terminate the call on a pre-allocated port on the gateway. This port MUST be correlated by the gateway to the SDP that was sent in the earlier INVITE.
The end result is that the caller and callee hold a voice session with part of the session occurring over VoIP.