Experimental

Pages: 64

Pages: 64

Part 1 of 3, p. 1 to 20

Network Working Group F. Strauss Request for Comments: 3780 TU Braunschweig Category: Experimental J. Schoenwaelder International University Bremen May 2004 SMIng - Next Generation Structure of Management Information Status of this Memo This memo defines an Experimental Protocol for the Internet community. It does not specify an Internet standard of any kind. Discussion and suggestions for improvement are requested. Distribution of this memo is unlimited. Copyright Notice Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2004). All Rights Reserved. Abstract This memo defines the base SMIng (Structure of Management Information, Next Generation) language. SMIng is a data definition language that provides a protocol-independent representation for management information. Separate RFCs define mappings of SMIng to specific management protocols, including SNMP. Table of Contents 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.1. The History of SMIng . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.2. Terms of Requirement Levels. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2. SMIng Data Modeling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.1. Identifiers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3. Base Types and Derived Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3.1. OctetString. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 3.2. Pointer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.3. ObjectIdentifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.4. Integer32. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 3.5. Integer64. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 3.6. Unsigned32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 3.7. Unsigned64 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 3.8. Float32. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 3.9. Float64. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 3.10. Float128 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 3.11. Enumeration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 3.12. Bits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

3.13. Display Formats. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 4. The SMIng File Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 4.1. Comments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 4.2. Textual Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 4.3. Statements and Arguments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 5. The module Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 5.1. The module's import Statement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 5.2. The module's organization Statement. . . . . . . . . . . 23 5.3. The module's contact Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 5.4. The module's description Statement . . . . . . . . . . . 23 5.5. The module's reference Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 5.6. The module's revision Statement. . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 5.6.1. The revision's date Statement . . . . . . . . . . 24 5.6.2. The revision's description Statement. . . . . . . 24 5.7. Usage Example. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 6. The extension Statement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 6.1. The extension's status Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 6.2. The extension's description Statement. . . . . . . . . . 26 6.3. The extension's reference Statement. . . . . . . . . . . 26 6.4. The extension's abnf Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 6.5. Usage Example. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 7. The typedef Statement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 7.1. The typedef's type Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 7.2. The typedef's default Statement. . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 7.3. The typedef's format Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 7.4. The typedef's units Statement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 7.5. The typedef's status Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 7.6. The typedef's description Statement. . . . . . . . . . . 29 7.7. The typedef's reference Statement. . . . . . . . . . . . 29 7.8. Usage Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 8. The identity Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 8.1. The identity's parent Statement. . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 8.2. The identity's status Statement. . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 8.3. The identity' description Statement. . . . . . . . . . . 31 8.4. The identity's reference Statement . . . . . . . . . . . 31 8.5. Usage Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 9. The class Statement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 9.1. The class' extends Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 9.2. The class' attribute Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 9.2.1. The attribute's type Statement. . . . . . . . . . 32 9.2.2. The attribute's access Statement. . . . . . . . . 32 9.2.3. The attribute's default Statement . . . . . . . . 33 9.2.4. The attribute's format Statement. . . . . . . . . 33 9.2.5. The attribute's units Statement . . . . . . . . . 33 9.2.6. The attribute's status Statement. . . . . . . . . 34 9.2.7. The attribute's description Statement . . . . . . 34 9.2.8. The attribute's reference Statement . . . . . . . 34 9.3. The class' unique Statement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

9.4. The class' event Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 9.4.1. The event's status Statement. . . . . . . . . . . 35 9.4.2. The event's description Statement . . . . . . . . 35 9.4.3. The event's reference Statement . . . . . . . . . 36 9.5. The class' status Statement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 9.6. The class' description Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 9.7. The class' reference Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 9.8. Usage Example. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 10. Extending a Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 11. SMIng Language Extensibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 12. Security Considerations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 13. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 14. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 14.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 14.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Appendix A. NMRG-SMING Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Appendix B. SMIng ABNF Grammar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Full Copyright Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 1. Introduction In traditional management systems, management information is viewed as a collection of managed objects, residing in a virtual information store, termed the Management Information Base (MIB). Collections of related objects are defined in MIB modules. These modules are written in conformance with a specification language, the Structure of Management Information (SMI). There are different versions of the SMI. The SMI version 1 (SMIv1) is defined in [RFC1155], [RFC1212], [RFC1215], and the SMI version 2 (SMIv2) in [RFC2578], [RFC2579], and [RFC2580]. Both are based on adapted subsets of OSI's Abstract Syntax Notation One, ASN.1 [ASN1]. In a similar fashion, policy provisioning information is viewed as a collection of Provisioning Classes (PRCs) and Provisioning Instances (PRIs) residing in a virtual information store, termed the Policy Information Base (PIB). Collections of related Provisioning Classes are defined in PIB modules. PIB modules are written using the Structure of Policy Provisioning Information (SPPI) [RFC3159] which is an adapted subset of SMIv2. The SMIv1 and the SMIv2 are bound to the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) [RFC3411], while the SPPI is bound to the Common Open Policy Service Provisioning (COPS-PR) Protocol [RFC3084]. Even though the languages have common rules, it is hard to use common data definitions with both protocols. It is the purpose of this document to define a common data definition language, named SMIng, that can

formally specify data models independent of specific protocols and applications. The appendix of this document defines a core module that supplies common SMIng definitions. A companion document contains an SMIng language extension to define SNMP specific mappings of SMIng definitions in compatibility with SMIv2 MIB modules [RFC3781]. Additional language extensions may be added in the future, e.g., to define COPS-PR specific mappings of SMIng definitions in a way that is compatible with SPPI PIBs. Section 2 gives an overview of the basic concepts of data modeling using SMIng, while the subsequent sections present the concepts of the SMIng language in detail: the base types, the SMIng file structure, and all SMIng core statements. The remainder of the document describes extensibility features of the language and rules to follow when changes are applied to a module. Appendix B contains the grammar of SMIng in ABNF [RFC2234] notation. 1.1. The History of SMIng SMIng started in 1999 as a research project to address some drawbacks of SMIv2, the current data modeling language for management information bases. Primarily, its partial dependence on ASN.1 and a number of exception rules turned out to be problematic. In 2000, the work was handed over to the IRTF Network Management Research Group where it was significantly detailed. Since the work of the RAP Working Group on COPS-PR and SPPI emerged in 1999/2000, SMIng was split into two parts: a core data definition language (defined in this document) and protocol mappings to allow the application of core definitions through (potentially) multiple management protocols. The replacement of SMIv2 and SPPI by a single merged data definition language was also a primary goal of the IETF SMING Working Group that was chartered at the end of 2000. The requirements for a new data definition language were discussed several times within the IETF SMING Working Group and changed significantly over time [RFC3216], so that another proposal (in addition to SMIng), named SMI Data Structures (SMI-DS), was presented to the Working Group. In the end, neither of the two proposals found enough consensus and support, and the attempt to merge the existing concepts did not succeed, resulting in the Working Group being closed down in April 2003. In order to record the work of the NMRG (Network Management Research Group) on SMIng, this memo and the accompanying memo on the SNMP protocol mapping [RFC3781] have been published for informational purposes.

Note that throughout these documents, the term "SMIng" refers to the specific data modeling language that is specified in this document, whereas the term "SMING" refers to the general effort within the IETF Working Group to define a new management data definition language as an SMIv2 successor and probably an SPPI merger, for which "SMIng" and "SMI-DS" were two specific proposals. 1.2. Terms of Requirement Levels The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119]. 2. SMIng Data Modeling SMIng is a language designed to specify management information in a structured way readable to computer programs, e.g., MIB compilers, as well as to human readers. Management information is modeled in classes. Classes can be defined from scratch or by derivation from a parent class. Derivation from multiple parent classes is not possible. The concept of classes is described in Section 9. Each class has a number of attributes. Each attribute represents an atomic piece of information of a base type, a sub-type of a base type, or another class. The concept of attributes is described in Section 9.2. The base types of SMIng include signed and unsigned integers, octet strings, enumeration types, bitset types, and pointers. Pointers are references to class instances, attributes of class instances, or arbitrary identities. The SMIng type system is described in Section 3. Related class and type definitions are defined in modules. A module may refer to definitions from other modules by importing identifiers from those modules. Each module may serve one or multiple purposes: o the definition of management classes, o the definition of events, o the definition of derived types, o the definition of arbitrary untyped identities serving as values of pointers,

o the definition of SMIng extensions allowing the local module or other modules to specify information beyond the scope of the base SMIng in a machine readable notation. Some extensions for the application of SMIng in the SNMP framework are defined in [RFC3781], o the definition of information beyond the scope of the base SMIng statements, based on locally defined or imported SMIng extensions. Each module is identified by an upper-case identifier. The names of all standard modules must be unique (but different versions of the same module should have the same name). Developers of enterprise modules are encouraged to choose names for their modules that will have a low probability of colliding with standard or other enterprise modules, e.g., by using the enterprise or organization name as a prefix. 2.1. Identifiers Identifiers are used to identify different kinds of SMIng items by name. Each identifier is valid in a namespace which depends on the type of the SMIng item being defined: o The global namespace contains all module identifiers. o Each module defines a new namespace. A module's namespace may contain definitions of extension identifiers, derived type identifiers, identity identifiers, and class identifiers. Furthermore, a module may import identifiers of these kinds from other modules. All these identifiers are also visible within all inner namespaces of the module. o Each class within a module defines a new namespace. A class' namespace may contain definitions of attribute identifiers and event identifiers. o Each enumeration type and bitset type defines a new namespace of its named numbers. These named numbers are visible in each expression of a corresponding value, e.g., default values and sub-typing restrictions. o Extensions may define additional namespaces and have additional rules of other namespaces' visibility. Within every namespace each identifier MUST be unique.

Each identifier starts with an upper-case or lower-case character, dependent on the kind of SMIng item, followed by zero or more letters, digits, and hyphens. All identifiers defined in a namespace MUST be unique and SHOULD NOT only differ in case. Identifiers MUST NOT exceed 64 characters in length. Furthermore, the set of all identifiers defined in all modules of a single standardization body or organization SHOULD be unique and mnemonic. This promotes a common language for humans to use when discussing a module. To reference an item that is defined in the local module, its definition MUST sequentially precede the reference. Thus, there MUST NOT be any forward references. To reference an item that is defined in an external module it MUST be imported (Section 5.1). Identifiers that are neither defined nor imported MUST NOT be visible in the local module. When identifiers from external modules are referenced, there is the possibility of name collisions. As such, if different items with the same identifier are imported or if imported identifiers collide with identifiers of locally defined items, then this ambiguity is resolved by prefixing those identifiers with the names of their modules and the namespace operator `::', i.e., `Module::item'. Of course, this notation can be used to refer to identifiers even when there is no name collision. Note that SMIng core language keywords MUST NOT be imported. See the `...Keyword' rules of the SMIng ABNF grammar in Appendix B for a list of those keywords. 3. Base Types and Derived Types SMIng has a set of base types, similar to those of many programming languages, but with some differences due to special requirements from the management information model. Additional types may be defined, derived from those base types or from other derived types. Derived types may use subtyping to formally restrict the set of possible values. An initial set of commonly used derived types is defined in the SMIng standard module NMRG-SMING [RFC3781]. The different base types and their derived types allow different kinds of subtyping, namely size restrictions of octet strings (Section 3.1), range restrictions of numeric types (Section 3.4

through Section 3.10), restricted pointer types (Section 3.2), and restrictions on the sets of named numbers for enumeration types (Section 3.11) and bit sets (Section 3.12). 3.1. OctetString The OctetString base type represents arbitrary binary or textual data. Although SMIng has a theoretical size limitation of 2^16-1 (65535) octets for this base type, module designers should realize that there may be implementation and interoperability limitations for sizes in excess of 255 octets. Values of octet strings may be denoted as textual data enclosed in double quotes or as arbitrary binary data denoted as a `0x'-prefixed hexadecimal value of an even number of at least two hexadecimal digits, where each pair of hexadecimal digits represents a single octet. Letters in hexadecimal values MAY be upper-case, but lower- case characters are RECOMMENDED. Textual data may contain any number (possibly zero) of any 7-bit displayable ASCII characters, including tab characters, spaces, and line terminator characters (nl or cr & nl). Some characters require a special encoding (see Section 4.2). Textual data may span multiple lines, where each subsequent line prefix containing only white space up to the column where the first line's data starts SHOULD be skipped by parsers for a better text formatting. When defining a type derived (directly or indirectly) from the OctetString base type, the size in octets may be restricted by appending a list of size ranges or explicit size values, separated by pipe `|' characters, with the whole list enclosed in parenthesis. A size range consists of a lower bound, two consecutive dots `..', and an upper bound. Each value can be given in decimal or `0x'-prefixed hexadecimal notation. Hexadecimal numbers must have an even number of at least two digits. Size restricting values MUST NOT be negative. If multiple values or ranges are given, they all MUST be disjoint and MUST be in ascending order. If a size restriction is applied to an already size restricted octet string, the new restriction MUST be equal or more limiting, that is, raising the lower bounds, reducing the upper bounds, removing explicit size values or ranges, or splitting ranges into multiple ranges with intermediate gaps.

Value Examples: "This is a multiline textual data example." // legal "This is "illegally" quoted." // illegal quotes "This is \"legally\" quoted." // legally encoded quotes "But this is 'ok', as well." // legal apostrophe quoting "" // legal zero length 0x123 // illegal odd hex length 0x534d496e670a // legal octet string Restriction Examples: OctetString (0 | 4..255) // legal size spec OctetString (4) // legal exact size OctetString (-1 | 1) // illegal negative size OctetString (5 | 0) // illegal ordering OctetString (1 | 1..10) // illegal overlapping 3.2. Pointer The Pointer base type represents values that reference class instances, attributes of class instances, or arbitrary identities. The only values of the Pointer type that can be present in a module can refer to identities. They are denoted as identifiers of the concerned identities. When defining a type derived (directly or indirectly) from the Pointer base type, the values may be restricted to a specific class, attribute or identity, and all (directly or indirectly) derived items thereof by appending the identifier of the appropriate construct enclosed in parenthesis. Value Examples: null // legal identity name snmpUDPDomain // legal identity name Restriction Examples: Pointer (snmpTransportDomain) // legal restriction 3.3. ObjectIdentifier The ObjectIdentifier base type represents administratively assigned names for use with SNMP and COPS-PR. This type SHOULD NOT be used in protocol independent SMIng modules. It is meant to be used in SNMP and COPS-PR mappings of attributes of type Pointer (Section 3.2).

Values of this type may be denoted as a sequence of numerical non- negative sub-identifier values in which each MUST NOT exceed 2^32-1 (4294967295). Sub-identifiers may be denoted in decimal or `0x'- prefixed hexadecimal. They are separated by single dots and without any intermediate white space. Alternatively (and preferred in most cases), the first element may be a previously defined or imported lower-case identifier, representing a static object identifier prefix. Although the number of sub-identifiers in SMIng object identifiers is not limited, module designers should realize that there may be implementations that stick with the SMIv1/v2 limit of 128 sub- identifiers. Object identifier derived types cannot be restricted in any way. Value Examples: 1.3.6.1 // legal numerical oid mib-2.1 // legal oid with identifier prefix internet.4.1.0x0627.0x01 // legal oid with hex subids iso.-1 // illegal negative subid iso.org.6 // illegal non-heading identifier IF-MIB::ifNumber.0 // legal fully qualified instance oid 3.4. Integer32 The Integer32 base type represents integer values between -2^31 (-2147483648) and 2^31-1 (2147483647). Values of type Integer32 may be denoted as decimal or hexadecimal numbers, where only decimal numbers can be negative. Decimal numbers other than zero MUST NOT have leading zero digits. Hexadecimal numbers are prefixed by `0x' and MUST have an even number of at least two hexadecimal digits, where letters MAY be upper-case, but lower- case characters are RECOMMENDED. When defining a type derived (directly or indirectly) from the Integer32 base type, the set of possible values may be restricted by appending a list of ranges or explicit values, separated by pipe `|' characters, and the whole list enclosed in parenthesis. A range consists of a lower bound, two consecutive dots `..', and an upper bound. Each value can be given in decimal or `0x'-prefixed hexadecimal notation. Hexadecimal numbers must have an even number of at least two digits. If multiple values or ranges are given they all MUST be disjoint and MUST be in ascending order. If a value restriction is applied to an already restricted type, the new restriction MUST be equal or more limiting, that is raising the lower

bounds, reducing the upper bounds, removing explicit values or ranges, or splitting ranges into multiple ranges with intermediate gaps. Value Examples: 015 // illegal leading zero -123 // legal negative value - 1 // illegal intermediate space 0xabc // illegal hexadecimal value length -0xff // illegal sign on hex value 0x80000000 // illegal value, too large 0xf00f // legal hexadecimal value Restriction Examples: Integer32 (0 | 5..10) // legal range spec Integer32 (5..10 | 2..3) // illegal ordering Integer32 (4..8 | 5..10) // illegal overlapping 3.5. Integer64 The Integer64 base type represents integer values between -2^63 (-9223372036854775808) and 2^63-1 (9223372036854775807). Values of type Integer64 may be denoted as decimal or hexadecimal numbers, where only decimal numbers can be negative. Decimal numbers other than zero MUST NOT have leading zero digits. Hexadecimal numbers are prefixed by `0x' and MUST have an even number of hexadecimal digits, where letters MAY be upper-case, but lower-case characters are RECOMMENDED. When defining a type derived (directly or indirectly) from the Integer64 base type, the set of possible values may be restricted by appending a list of ranges or explicit values, separated by pipe `|' characters, with the whole list enclosed in parenthesis. A range consists of a lower bound, two consecutive dots `..', and an upper bound. Each value can be given in decimal or `0x'-prefixed hexadecimal notation. Hexadecimal numbers must have an even number of at least two digits. If multiple values or ranges are given, they all MUST be disjoint and MUST be in ascending order. If a value restriction is applied to an already restricted type, the new restriction MUST be equal or more limiting, that is raising the lower bounds, reducing the upper bounds, removing explicit values or ranges, or splitting ranges into multiple ranges with intermediate gaps.

Value Examples: 015 // illegal leading zero -123 // legal negative value - 1 // illegal intermediate space 0xabc // illegal hexadecimal value length -0xff // illegal sign on hex value 0x80000000 // legal value Restriction Examples: Integer64 (0 | 5..10) // legal range spec Integer64 (5..10 | 2..3) // illegal ordering Integer64 (4..8 | 5..10) // illegal overlapping 3.6. Unsigned32 The Unsigned32 base type represents positive integer values between 0 and 2^32-1 (4294967295). Values of type Unsigned32 may be denoted as decimal or hexadecimal numbers. Decimal numbers other than zero MUST NOT have leading zero digits. Hexadecimal numbers are prefixed by `0x' and MUST have an even number of hexadecimal digits, where letters MAY be upper-case, but lower-case characters are RECOMMENDED. When defining a type derived (directly or indirectly) from the Unsigned32 base type, the set of possible values may be restricted by appending a list of ranges or explicit values, separated by pipe `|' characters, with the whole list enclosed in parenthesis. A range consists of a lower bound, two consecutive dots `..', and an upper bound. Each value can be given in decimal or `0x'-prefixed hexadecimal notation. Hexadecimal numbers must have an even number of at least two digits. If multiple values or ranges are given, they all MUST be disjoint and MUST be in ascending order. If a value restriction is applied to an already restricted type, the new restriction MUST be equal or more limiting, that is raising the lower bounds, reducing the upper bounds, removing explicit values or ranges, or splitting ranges into multiple ranges with intermediate gaps. Value Examples: 015 // illegal leading zero -123 // illegal negative value 0xabc // illegal hexadecimal value length 0x80000000 // legal hexadecimal value 0x8080000000 // illegal value, too large

Restriction Examples: Unsigned32 (0 | 5..10) // legal range spec Unsigned32 (5..10 | 2..3) // illegal ordering Unsigned32 (4..8 | 5..10) // illegal overlapping 3.7. Unsigned64 The Unsigned64 base type represents positive integer values between 0 and 2^64-1 (18446744073709551615). Values of type Unsigned64 may be denoted as decimal or hexadecimal numbers. Decimal numbers other than zero MUST NOT have leading zero digits. Hexadecimal numbers are prefixed by `0x' and MUST have an even number of hexadecimal digits, where letters MAY be upper-case, but lower-case characters are RECOMMENDED. When defining a type derived (directly or indirectly) from the Unsigned64 base type, the set of possible values may be restricted by appending a list of ranges or explicit values, separated by pipe `|' characters, with the whole list enclosed in parenthesis. A range consists of a lower bound, two consecutive dots `..', and an upper bound. Each value can be given in decimal or `0x'-prefixed hexadecimal notation. Hexadecimal numbers must have an even number of at least two digits. If multiple values or ranges are given, they all MUST be disjoint and MUST be in ascending order. If a value restriction is applied to an already restricted type, the new restriction MUST be equal or more limiting, that is raising the lower bounds, reducing the upper bounds, removing explicit values or ranges, or splitting ranges into multiple ranges with intermediate gaps. Value Examples: 015 // illegal leading zero -123 // illegal negative value 0xabc // illegal hexadecimal value length 0x8080000000 // legal hexadecimal value Restriction Examples: Unsigned64 (1..10000000000) // legal range spec Unsigned64 (5..10 | 2..3) // illegal ordering 3.8. Float32 The Float32 base type represents floating point values of single precision as described by [IEEE754].

Values of type Float32 may be denoted as a decimal fraction with an optional exponent, as known from many programming languages. See the grammar rule `floatValue' of Appendix B for the detailed syntax. Special values are `snan' (signalling Not-a-Number), `qnan' (quiet Not-a-Number), `neginf' (negative infinity), and `posinf' (positive infinity). Note that -0.0 and +0.0 are different floating point values. 0.0 is equal to +0.0. When defining a type derived (directly or indirectly) from the Float32 base type, the set of possible values may be restricted by appending a list of ranges or explicit values, separated by pipe `|' characters, with the whole list enclosed in parenthesis. A range consists of a lower bound, two consecutive dots `..', and an upper bound. If multiple values or ranges are given, they all MUST be disjoint and MUST be in ascending order. If a value restriction is applied to an already restricted type, the new restriction MUST be equal or more limiting, that is raising the lower bounds, reducing the upper bounds, removing explicit values or ranges, or splitting ranges into multiple ranges with intermediate gaps. The special values `snan', `qnan', `neginf', and `posinf' must be explicitly listed in restrictions if they shall be included, where `snan' and `qnan' cannot be used in ranges. Note that encoding is not subject to this specification. It has to be described by protocols that transport objects of type Float32. Note also that most floating point encodings disallow the representation of many values that can be written as decimal fractions as used in SMIng for human readability. Therefore, explicit values in floating point type restrictions should be handled with care. Value Examples: 00.1 // illegal leading zero 3.1415 // legal value -2.5E+3 // legal negative exponential value Restriction Examples: Float32 (-1.0..1.0) // legal range spec Float32 (1 | 3.3 | 5) // legal, probably unrepresentable 3.3 Float32 (neginf..-0.0) // legal range spec Float32 (-10.0..10.0 | 0) // illegal overlapping

3.9. Float64 The Float64 base type represents floating point values of double precision as described by [IEEE754]. Values of type Float64 may be denoted as a decimal fraction with an optional exponent, as known from many programming languages. See the grammar rule `floatValue' of Appendix B for the detailed syntax. Special values are `snan' (signalling Not-a-Number), `qnan' (quiet Not-a-Number), `neginf' (negative infinity), and `posinf' (positive infinity). Note that -0.0 and +0.0 are different floating point values. 0.0 is equal to +0.0. When defining a type derived (directly or indirectly) from the Float64 base type, the set of possible values may be restricted by appending a list of ranges or explicit values, separated by pipe `|' characters, with the whole list enclosed in parenthesis. A range consists of a lower bound, two consecutive dots `..', and an upper bound. If multiple values or ranges are given, they all MUST be disjoint and MUST be in ascending order. If a value restriction is applied to an already restricted type, the new restriction MUST be equal or more limiting, that is raising the lower bounds, reducing the upper bounds, removing explicit values or ranges, or splitting ranges into multiple ranges with intermediate gaps. The special values `snan', `qnan', `neginf', and `posinf' must be explicitly listed in restrictions if they shall be included, where `snan' and `qnan' cannot be used in ranges. Note that encoding is not subject to this specification. It has to be described by protocols that transport objects of type Float64. Note also that most floating point encodings disallow the representation of many values that can be written as decimal fractions as used in SMIng for human readability. Therefore, explicit values in floating point type restrictions should be handled with care. Value Examples: 00.1 // illegal leading zero 3.1415 // legal value -2.5E+3 // legal negative exponential value Restriction Examples: Float64 (-1.0..1.0) // legal range spec Float64 (1 | 3.3 | 5) // legal, probably unrepresentable 3.3 Float64 (neginf..-0.0) // legal range spec Float64 (-10.0..10.0 | 0) // illegal overlapping

3.10. Float128 The Float128 base type represents floating point values of quadruple precision as described by [IEEE754]. Values of type Float128 may be denoted as a decimal fraction with an optional exponent, as known from many programming languages. See the grammar rule `floatValue' of Appendix B for the detailed syntax. Special values are `snan' (signalling Not-a-Number), `qnan' (quiet Not-a-Number), `neginf' (negative infinity), and `posinf' (positive infinity). Note that -0.0 and +0.0 are different floating point values. 0.0 is equal to +0.0. When defining a type derived (directly or indirectly) from the Float128 base type, the set of possible values may be restricted by appending a list of ranges or explicit values, separated by pipe `|' characters, with the whole list enclosed in parenthesis. A range consists of a lower bound, two consecutive dots `..', and an upper bound. If multiple values or ranges are given, they all MUST be disjoint and MUST be in ascending order. If a value restriction is applied to an already restricted type, the new restriction MUST be equal or more limiting, that is raising the lower bounds, reducing the upper bounds, removing explicit values or ranges, or splitting ranges into multiple ranges with intermediate gaps. The special values `snan', `qnan', `neginf', and `posinf' must be explicitly listed in restrictions if they shall be included, where `snan' and `qnan' cannot be used in ranges. Note that encoding is not subject to this specification. It has to be described by protocols that transport objects of type Float128. Note also that most floating point encodings disallow the representation of many values that can be written as decimal fractions as used in SMIng for human readability. Therefore, explicit values in floating point type restrictions should be handled with care. Value Examples: 00.1 // illegal leading zero 3.1415 // legal value -2.5E+3 // legal negative exponential value Restriction Examples: Float128 (-1.0..1.0) // legal range spec Float128 (1 | 3.3 | 5) // legal, probably unrepresentable 3.3 Float128 (neginf..-0.0) // legal range spec Float128 (-10.0..10.0 | 0) // illegal overlapping

3.11. Enumeration The Enumeration base type represents values from a set of integers in the range between -2^31 (-2147483648) and 2^31-1 (2147483647), where each value has an assigned name. The list of those named numbers has to be comma-separated, enclosed in parenthesis, and appended to the `Enumeration' keyword. Each named number is denoted by its lower- case identifier followed by the assigned integer value, denoted as a decimal or `0x'-prefixed hexadecimal number, enclosed in parenthesis. Hexadecimal numbers must have an even number of at least two digits. Every name and every number in an enumeration type MUST be unique. It is RECOMMENDED that values be positive, start at 1, and be numbered contiguously. All named numbers MUST be given in ascending order. Values of enumeration types may be denoted as decimal or `0x'- prefixed hexadecimal numbers or preferably as their assigned names. Hexadecimal numbers must have an even number of at least two digits. When types are derived (directly or indirectly) from an enumeration type, the set of named numbers may be equal or restricted by removing one or more named numbers, but no named numbers may be added or changed regarding its name, value, or both. Type and Value Examples: Enumeration (up(1), down(2), testing(3)) Enumeration (down(2), up(1)) // illegal order 0 // legal (though not recommended) value up // legal value given by name 2 // legal value given by number 3.12. Bits The Bits base type represents bit sets. That is, a Bits value is a set of flags identified by small integer numbers starting at 0. Each bit number has an assigned name. The list of those named numbers has to be comma-separated, enclosed in parenthesis, and appended to the `Bits' keyword. Each named number is denoted by its lower-case identifier followed by the assigned integer value, denoted as a decimal or `0x'-prefixed hexadecimal number, enclosed in parenthesis. Hexadecimal numbers must have an even number of at least two digits. Every name and every number in a bits type MUST be unique. It is RECOMMENDED that numbers start at 0 and be numbered contiguously. Negative numbers are forbidden. All named numbers MUST be given in ascending order.

Values of bits types may be denoted as a comma-separated list of decimal or `0x'-prefixed hexadecimal numbers or preferably their assigned names enclosed in parenthesis. Hexadecimal numbers must have an even number of at least two digits. There MUST NOT be any element (by name or number) listed more than once. Elements MUST be listed in ascending order. When defining a type derived (directly or indirectly) from a bits type, the set of named numbers may be restricted by removing one or more named numbers, but no named numbers may be added or changed regarding its name, value, or both. Type and Value Examples: Bits (readable(0), writable(1), executable(2)) Bits (writable(1), readable(0) // illegal order () // legal empty value (readable, writable, 2) // legal value (0, readable, executable) // illegal, readable(0) appears twice (writable, 4) // illegal, element 4 out of range 3.13. Display Formats Attribute and type definitions allow the specification of a format to be used when a value of that attribute or an attribute of that type is displayed. Format specifications are represented as textual data. When the attribute or type has an underlying base type of Integer32, Integer64, Unsigned32, or Unsigned64, the format consists of an integer-format specification containing two parts. The first part is a single character suggesting a display format, either: `x' for hexadecimal, `d' for decimal, `o' for octal, or `b' for binary. For all types, when rendering the value, leading zeros are omitted, and for negative values, a minus sign is rendered immediately before the digits. The second part is always omitted for `x', `o', and `b', and need not be present for `d'. If present, the second part starts with a hyphen and is followed by a decimal number, which defines the implied decimal point when rendering the value. For example `d-2' suggests that a value of 1234 be rendered as `12.34'. When the attribute or type has an underlying base type of OctetString, the format consists of one or more octet-format specifications. Each specification consists of five parts, with each part using and removing zero or more of the next octets from the

value and producing the next zero or more characters to be displayed. The octets within the value are processed in order of significance, most significant first. The five parts of a octet-format specification are: 1. The (optional) repeat indicator. If present, this part is a `*', and indicates that the current octet of the value is to be used as the repeat count. The repeat count is an unsigned integer (which may be zero) specifying how many times the remainder of this octet-format specification should be successively applied. If the repeat indicator is not present, the repeat count is one. 2. The octet length: one or more decimal digits specifying the number of octets of the value to be used and formatted by this octet- specification. Note that the octet length can be zero. If less than this number of octets remain in the value, then the lesser number of octets are used. 3. The display format, either: `x' for hexadecimal, `d' for decimal, `o' for octal, `a' for ASCII, or `t' for UTF-8 [RFC3629]. If the octet length part is greater than one, and the display format part refers to a numeric format, then network byte-ordering (big-endian encoding) is used to interpret the octets in the value. The octets processed by the `t' display format do not necessarily form an integral number of UTF-8 characters. Trailing octets which do not form a valid UTF-8 encoded character are discarded. 4. The (optional) display separator character. If present, this part is a single character produced for display after each application of this octet-specification; however, this character is not produced for display if it would be immediately followed by the display of the repeat terminator character for this octet specification. This character can be any character other than a decimal digit and a `*'. 5. The (optional) repeat terminator character, which can be present only if the display separator character is present and this octet specification begins with a repeat indicator. If present, this part is a single character produced after all the zero or more repeated applications (as given by the repeat count) of this octet specification. This character can be any character other than a decimal digit and a `*'. Output of a display separator character or a repeat terminator character is suppressed if it would occur as the last character of the display.

If the octets of the value are exhausted before all the octet format specifications have been used, then the excess specifications are ignored. If additional octets remain in the value after interpreting all the octet format specifications, then the last octet format specification is re-interpreted to process the additional octets, until no octets remain in the value. Note that for some types, no format specifications are defined. For derived types and attributes that are based on such types, format specifications SHOULD be omitted. Implementations MUST ignore format specifications they cannot interpret. Also note that the SMIng grammar (Appendix B) does not specify the syntax of format specifications. Display Format Examples: Base Type Format Example Value Rendered Value ----------- ------------------- ---------------- ----------------- OctetString 255a "Hello World." Hello World. OctetString 1x: "Hello!" 48:65:6c:6c:6f:21 OctetString 1d:1d:1d.1d,1a1d:1d 0x0d1e0f002d0400 13:30:15.0,-4:0 OctetString 1d.1d.1d.1d/2d 0x0a0000010400 10.0.0.1/1024 OctetString *1x:/1x: 0x02aabbccddee aa:bb/cc:dd:ee Integer32 d-2 1234 12.34