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RFC 3015


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Megaco Protocol Version 1.0

Part 1 of 6, p. 1 to 21
None       Next RFC Part

Obsoleted by:    3525
Obsoletes:    2885    2886


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Network Working Group                                           F. Cuervo
Request for Comments: 3015                                      N. Greene
Obsoletes: 2885, 2886                                           A. Rayhan
Category: Standards Track                                 Nortel Networks
                                                               C. Huitema
                                                    Microsoft Corporation
                                                                 B. Rosen
                                                                  Marconi
                                                                J. Segers
                                                      Lucent Technologies
                                                            November 2000


                      Megaco Protocol Version 1.0

Status of this Memo

   This document specifies an Internet standards track protocol for the
   Internet community, and requests discussion and suggestions for
   improvements.  Please refer to the current edition of the "Internet
   Official Protocol Standards" (STD 1) for the standardization state
   and status of this protocol.  Distribution of this memo is unlimited.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2000).  All Rights Reserved.

Abstract

   This document defines the protocol used between elements of a
   physically decomposed multimedia gateway, i.e. a Media Gateway and a
   Media Gateway Controller.  The document is common text with ITU-T
   Recommendation H.248 and is a result of applying the changes in RFC
   2886 to the text of RFC 2885.

   The protocol presented in this document meets the requirements for a
   media gateway control protocol as presented in RFC 2805.

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Table of Contents

   1. SCOPE........................................................  6
   2. REFERENCES...................................................  6
        2.1 Normative references...................................  6
        2.2 Informative references.................................  9
   3. DEFINITIONS.................................................. 10
   4. ABBREVIATIONS................................................ 11
   5. CONVENTIONS.................................................. 11
   6. CONNECTION MODEL............................................. 11
        6.1 Contexts............................................... 14
                6.1.1 Context Attributes and Descriptors........... 15
                6.1.2 Creating, Deleting and Modifying Contexts.... 15
        6.2 Terminations........................................... 15
                6.2.1 Termination Dynamics......................... 16
                6.2.2 TerminationIDs............................... 17
                6.2.3 Packages..................................... 17
                6.2.4 Termination Properties and Descriptors....... 18
                6.2.5 Root Termination............................. 21
   7. COMMANDS..................................................... 21
        7.1 Descriptors............................................ 22
                7.1.1 Specifying Parameters........................ 22
                7.1.2 Modem Descriptor............................. 23
                7.1.3 Multiplex Descriptor......................... 23
                7.1.4 Media Descriptor............................. 24
                7.1.5 Termination State Descriptor................. 24
                7.1.6 Stream Descriptor............................ 25
                7.1.7 LocalControl Descriptor...................... 26
                7.1.8 Local and Remote Descriptors................. 27
                7.1.9 Events Descriptor............................ 30
                7.1.10 EventBuffer Descriptor...................... 32
                7.1.11 Signals Descriptor.......................... 32
                7.1.12 Audit Descriptor............................ 34
                7.1.13 ServiceChange Descriptor.................... 35
                7.1.14 DigitMap Descriptor......................... 36
                7.1.15 Statistics Descriptor....................... 41
                7.1.16 Packages Descriptor......................... 41
                7.1.17 ObservedEvents Descriptor................... 42
                7.1.18  Topology Descriptor........................ 42
        7.2 Command Application Programming Interface.............. 45
                7.2.1 Add.......................................... 46
                7.2.2 Modify....................................... 47
                7.2.3 Subtract..................................... 48
                7.2.4 Move......................................... 49
                7.2.5 AuditValue................................... 50
                7.2.6 AuditCapabilities............................ 52
                7.2.7 Notify....................................... 53
                7.2.8 ServiceChange................................ 54

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                7.2.9 Manipulating and Auditing Context Attributes. 58
                7.2.10 Generic Command Syntax...................... 58
        7.3 Command Error Codes.................................... 58
   8. TRANSACTIONS................................................. 60
        8.1 Common Parameters...................................... 62
                8.1.1 Transaction Identifiers...................... 62
                8.1.2 Context Identifiers.......................... 62
        8.2 Transaction Application Programming Interface.......... 63
                8.2.1 TransactionRequest........................... 63
                8.2.2 TransactionReply............................. 63
                8.2.3 TransactionPending........................... 65
        8.3 Messages............................................... 65
   9. TRANSPORT.................................................... 65
        9.1 Ordering of Commands................................... 66
        9.2 Protection against Restart Avalanche................... 67
   10. SECURITY CONSIDERATIONS..................................... 68
        10.1 Protection of Protocol Connections.................... 68
        10.2 Interim AH scheme..................................... 69
        10.3 Protection of Media Connections....................... 70
   11.  MG-MGC CONTROL INTERFACE................................... 71
        11.1 Multiple Virtual MGs.................................. 71
        11.2 Cold Start............................................ 72
        11.3 Negotiation of Protocol Version....................... 72
        11.4 Failure of an MG...................................... 73
        11.5 Failure of an MGC..................................... 74
   12. PACKAGE DEFINITION.......................................... 75
        12.1 Guidelines for defining packages...................... 75
                12.1.1 Package..................................... 76
                12.1.2 Properties.................................. 76
                12.1.3 Events...................................... 77
                12.1.4 Signals..................................... 77
                12.1.5 Statistics.................................. 77
                12.1.6 Procedures.................................. 78
        12.2 Guidelines to defining Properties, Statistics and
        Parameters to Events and Signals........................... 78
        12.3 Lists................................................. 78
        12.4 Identifiers........................................... 78
        12.5 Package Registration.................................. 79
   13.  IANA CONSIDERATIONS........................................ 79
        13.1 Packages.............................................. 79
        13.2 Error Codes........................................... 79
        13.3 ServiceChange Reasons................................. 80
   ANNEX A: BINARY ENCODING OF THE PROTOCOL (NORMATIVE)............ 80
        A.1 Coding of wildcards.................................... 81
        A.2 ASN.1 syntax specification............................. 82
        A.3 Digit maps and path names.............................. 99
   ANNEX B TEXT ENCODING OF THE PROTOCOL (NORMATIVE)...............100
        B.1 Coding of wildcards....................................100

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        B.2 ABNF specification.....................................100
   ANNEX C TAGS FOR MEDIA STREAM PROPERTIES (NORMATIVE)............112
        C.1 General Media Attributes...............................113
        C.2 Mux Properties.........................................114
        C.3 General bearer properties..............................115
        C.4 General ATM properties.................................115
        C.5 Frame Relay............................................118
        C.6 IP.....................................................118
        C.7 ATM AAL2...............................................119
        C.8 ATM AAL1...............................................120
        C.9 Bearer Capabilities....................................121
        C.10 AAL5 Properties.......................................129
        C.11 SDP Equivalents.......................................130
        C.12 H.245.................................................131
   ANNEX D TRANSPORT OVER IP (NORMATIVE)...........................131
        D.1 Transport over IP/UDP using Application Level Framing..131
                D.1.1 Providing At-Most-Once Functionality.........132
                D.1.2 Transaction identifiers and three-way handshake
                ...................................................132
                D.1.3 Computing retransmission timers..............133
                D.1.4 Provisional responses........................134
                D.1.5 Repeating Requests, Responses and
                Acknowledgements...................................135
        D.2 Using TCP..............................................136
                D.2.1 Providing the At-Most-Once functionality.....137
                D.2.2 Transaction identifiers and three way handshake
                ...................................................137
                D.2.3 Computing retransmission timers..............137
                D.2.4 Provisional responses........................137
                D.2.5 Ordering of commands.........................138
   ANNEX E BASIC PACKAGES (NORMATIVE)..............................138
        E.1 Generic................................................138
                E.1.1 Properties...................................138
                E.1.2 Events.......................................138
                E.1.3 Signals......................................140
                E.1.4 Statistics...................................140
        E.2 Base Root Package......................................140
                E.2.1 Properties...................................140
                E.2.2 Events.......................................142
                E.2.3 Signals......................................142
                E.2.4 Statistics...................................142
                E.2.5 Procedures...................................142
        E.3 Tone Generator Package.................................142
                E.3.1 Properties...................................142
                E.3.2 Events.......................................143
                E.3.3 Signals......................................143
                E.3.4 Statistics...................................143
                E.3.5 Procedures...................................143

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        E.4 Tone Detection Package.................................144
                E.4.1 Properties...................................144
                E.4.2 Events.......................................144
                E.4.3 Signals......................................146
                E.4.4 Statistics...................................146
                E.4.5 Procedures...................................146
        E.5 Basic DTMF Generator Package...........................147
                E.5.1 Properties...................................147
                E.5.2 Events.......................................147
                E.5.3 Signals......................................147
                E.5.4 Statistics...................................148
                E.5.5 Procedures...................................148
        E.6 DTMF detection Package.................................148
                E.6.1 Properties...................................149
                E.6.2 Events.......................................149
                E.6.3 Signals......................................150
                E.6.4 Statistics...................................150
                E.6.5 Procedures...................................150
        E.7 Call Progress Tones Generator Package..................151
                E.7.1 Properties...................................151
                E.7.2 Events.......................................151
                E.7.3 Signals......................................151
                E.7.4 Statistics...................................152
                E.7.5 Procedures...................................152
        E.8 Call Progress Tones Detection Package..................152
                E.8.1 Properties...................................152
                E.8.2 Events.......................................153
                E.8.3 Signals......................................153
                E.8.4 Statistics...................................153
                E.8.5 Procedures...................................153
        E.9 Analog Line Supervision Package........................153
                E.9.1 Properties...................................153
                E.9.2 Events.......................................153
                E.9.3 Signals......................................156
                E.9.4 Statistics...................................157
                E.9.5 Procedures...................................157
                E.9.6 Error Code...................................157
        E.10 Basic Continuity Package..............................157
                E.10.1 Properties..................................157
                E.10.2 Events......................................157
                E.10.3 Signals.....................................158
                E.10.4 Statistics..................................158
                E.10.5 Procedures..................................159
        E.11 Network Package.......................................159
                E.11.1 Properties..................................159
                E.11.2 Events......................................160
                E.11.3 Signals.....................................161
                E.11.4 Statistics..................................161

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                E.11.5 Procedures..................................162
        E.12 RTP  Package..........................................162
                E.12.1 Properties..................................162
                E.12.2 Events......................................162
                E.12.3 Signals.....................................163
                E.12.4 Statistics..................................163
                E.12.5 Procedures..................................164
        E.13 TDM Circuit Package...................................164
                E.13.1 Properties..................................164
                E.13.2 Events......................................165
                E.13.3 Signals.....................................165
                E.13.4 Statistics..................................165
                E.13.5 Procedures..................................165
   APPENDIX A EXAMPLE CALL FLOWS (INFORMATIVE).....................166
        A.1 Residential Gateway to Residential Gateway Call........166
                A.1.1 Programming Residential GW Analog Line
                Terminations for Idle Behavior.....................166
                A.1.2 Collecting Originator Digits and Initiating
                Termination........................................168
   AUTHORS ADDRESS.................................................178
   FULL COPYRIGHT STATEMENT........................................179

1. SCOPE

   This document defines the protocol used between elements of a
   physically decomposed multimedia gateway.  There are no functional
   differences from a system view between a decomposed gateway, with
   distributed sub-components potentially on more than one physical
   device, and a monolithic gateway such as described in H.246. This
   document does not define how gateways, multipoint control units or
   interactive voice response units (IVRs) work.  Instead it creates a
   general framework that is suitable for these applications.

   Packet network interfaces may include IP, ATM or possibly others. The
   interfaces will support a variety of SCN signalling systems,
   including tone signalling, ISDN, ISUP, QSIG, and GSM.  National
   variants of these signalling systems will be supported where
   applicable.

   The protocol definition in this document is common text with ITU-T
   Recommendation H.248.  It meets the requirements documented in RFC
   2805.

2. REFERENCES

2.1 Normative references

   ATM Forum (1994): "User-Network Interface, Version 4.0".

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   ITU-T Recommendation H.225.0: "Call Signalling Protocols and Media
   Stream Packetization for Packet Based Multimedia Communications
   Systems".

   ITU-T Recommendation H.235: "Security and encryption for H-Series
   (H.323 and other H.245-based) multimedia terminals".

   ITU-T Recommendation H.245: "Control Protocol for Multimedia
   Communication".

   ITU-T Recommendation H.323: "Packet Based Multimedia Communication
   Systems".

   ITU-T Recommendation I.363.1, "B-ISDN ATM Adaptation Layer
   specification: Type 1 AAL".

   ITU-T Recommendation I.363.2, "B-ISDN ATM Adaptation Layer
   specification: Type 2 AAL".

   ITU-T Recommendation I.363.5, "B-ISDN ATM Adaptation Layer
   specification: Type 5 AAL".

   ITU-T Recommendation I.363.5, "B-ISDN ATM Adaptation Layer
   specification: Type 5 AAL".

   ITU-T Recommendation I.366.1, "Segmentation and Reassembly Service
   Specific Convergence Sublayer for the AAL type 2".

   ITU-T Recommendation I.366.2, "AAL type 2 service specific
   convergence sublayer for trunking".

   ITU-T Recommendation I.371, "Traffic control and congestion control
   in B-ISDN".

   ITU-T Recommendation Q.763, "Signalling System No. 7 - ISDN user part
   formats and codes".

   ITU-T Recommendation Q.765, "Signalling System No. 7 - Application
   transport mechanism".

   ITU-T Recommendation Q.931: "Digital Subscriber Signalling System No.
   1 (DSS 1) - ISDN User-Network Interface Layer 3 Specification for
   Basic Call Control".

   ITU-T Recommendation Q.2630.1, "AAL Type 2 Signalling Protocol
   (Capability Set 1)".

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   ITU-T Recommendation Q.2931, "Broadband Integrated Services Digital
   Network (B-ISDN) - Digital Subscriber Signalling System No. 2 (DSS 2)
   - User-Network Interface (UNI) - Layer 3 specification for basic
   call/connection control".

   ITU-T Recommendation Q.2941.1, "Digital Subscriber Signalling System
   No. 2 - Generic Identifier Transport".

   ITU-T Recommendation Q.2961, "Broadband integrated services digital
   network (B-ISDN) - Digital subscriber signalling system no.2 (DSS 2)
   - additional traffic parameters".

   ITU-T Recommendation Q.2965.1, "Digital subscriber signalling system
   No. 2 _ Support of Quality of Service classes."

   ITU-T Recommendation Q.2965.2,  "Digital subscriber signalling system
   No. 2 _ Signalling of individual Quality of Service parameters."

   ITU-T Recommendation Q.2961.2, "Digital subscriber signalling system
   No. 2 - Additional traffic parameters: Support of ATM transfer
   capability in the broadband bearer capability information element."

   ITU-T Recommendation X.213, "Information technology - Open System
   Interconnection - Network service definition plus Amendment 1
   (08/1997), Addition of the Internet protocol address format
   identifier".

   ITU-T Recommendation V.76 (08/96), "Generic multiplexer using V.42
   LAPM-based procedures".

   ITU-T Recommendation X.680 (1997): "Information technology-Abstract
   Syntax Notation One (ASN.1): Specification of basic notation".

   ITU-T Recommendation H.246 (1998), "Interworking of H-series
   multimedia terminals with H-series multimedia terminals and
   voice/voiceband terminals on GSTN and ISDN".

   Rose, M. and D. Cass, "ISO Transport Service on top of the TCP,
   Version 3", RFC 1006, May 1987.

   Crocker, D. and P. Overell, "Augmented BNF for Syntax Specifications:
   ABNF", RFC 2234, November 1997.

   Handley, M. and V. Jacobson, "SDP: Session Description Protocol", RFC
   2327, April 1998.

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   Kent, S. and R. Atkinson, "IP Authentication Header", RFC 2402,
   November 1998.

   Kent, S. and R. Atkinson, "IP Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP)",
   RFC 2406, November 1998.

2.2 Informative references

   ITU-T Recommendation E.180/Q.35 (1998): "Technical characteristics of
   tones for the telephone service".

   CCITT Recommendation G.711 (1988), "Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) of
   voice frequencies".

   ITU-T Recommendation H.221 (05/99),"Frame structure for a 64 to 1920
   kbit/s channel in audiovisual teleservices".

   ITU-T Recommendation H.223 (1996), "Multiplexing protocol for low bit
   rate multimedia communication".

   Postel, J., "User Datagram Protocol", RFC 768, August 1980.

   Postel, J., "Internet protocol", RFC 791, September 1981.

   Postel, J., "TRANSMISSION CONTROL PROTOCOL", RFC 793, September 1981.

   Simpson, W., "The Point-to-Point Protocol", RFC 1661, July 1994.

   Schulzrinne, H., Casner, S., Frederick, R. and V. Jacobson, "RTP: A
   Transport Protocol for Real-Time Applications", RFC 1889, January
   1996.

   Schulzrinne, H., "RTP Profile for Audio and Video Audio and Video
   Conferences with Minimal Control", RFC 1890, January 1996.

   Kent, S. and  R. Atkinson, "Security Architecture for the Internet
   Protocol", RFC 2401, November 1998.

   Deering, S. and R. Hinden, "Internet Protocol, Version 6 (IPv6)
   Specification", RFC 2460, December 1998.

   Handley, M., Schulzrinne, H., Schooler, E. and J. Rosenberg, "SIP:
   Session Initiation Protocol", RFC 2543, March 1999.

   Greene, N., Ramalho, M. and B. Rosen, "Media Gateway control protocol
   architecture and  requirements", RFC 2805, April 1999.

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3. DEFINITIONS

   Access Gateway: A type of gateway that provides a User to Network
   Interface (UNI) such as ISDN.

   Descriptor: A syntactic element of the protocol that groups related
   properties.  For instance, the properties of a media flow on the MG
   can be set by the MGC by including the appropriate descriptor in a
   command.

   Media Gateway (MG): The media gateway converts media provided in one
   type of network to the format required in another type of network.
   For example, a MG could terminate bearer channels from a switched
   circuit network (e.g., DS0s) and media streams from a packet network
   (e.g., RTP streams in an IP network).  This gateway may be capable of
   processing audio, video and T.120 alone or in any combination, and
   will be capable of full duplex media translations.  The MG may also
   play audio/video messages and perform other IVR functions, or may
   perform media conferencing.

   Media Gateway Controller (MGC): Controls the parts of the call state
   that pertain to connection control for media channels in a MG.

   Multipoint Control Unit (MCU): An entity that controls the setup and
   coordination of a multi-user conference that typically includes
   processing of audio, video and data.

   Residential Gateway: A gateway that interworks an analogue line to a
   packet network. A residential gateway typically contains one or two
   analogue lines and is located at the customer premises.

   SCN FAS Signalling Gateway: This function contains the SCN Signalling
   Interface that terminates SS7, ISDN or other signalling links where
   the call control channel and bearer channels are collocated in the
   same physical span.

   SCN NFAS Signalling Gateway: This function contains the SCN
   Signalling Interface that terminates SS7 or other signalling links
   where the call control channels are separated from bearer channels.

   Stream: Bidirectional media or control flow received/sent by a media
   gateway as part of a call or conference.

   Trunk: A communication channel between two switching systems such as
   a DS0 on a T1 or E1 line.

   Trunking Gateway: A gateway between SCN network and packet network
   that typically terminates a large number of digital circuits.

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4. ABBREVIATIONS

   This recommendation defines the following terms.

   ATM          Asynchronous Transfer Mode
   CAS          Channel Associated Signalling
   DTMF         Dual Tone Multi-Frequency
   FAS          Facility Associated Signalling
   GSM          Global System for Mobile communications
   GW           GateWay
   IANA         Internet Assigned Numbers Authority
   IP           Internet Protocol
   ISUP         ISDN User Part
   IVR          Interactive Voice Response
   MG           Media Gateway
   MGC          Media Gateway Controller
   NFAS         Non-Facility Associated Signalling
   PRI          Primary Rate Interface
   PSTN         Public Switched Telephone Network
   QoS          Quality of Service
   RTP          Real-time Transport Protocol
   SCN          Switched Circuit Network
   SG           Signalling Gateway
   SS7          Signalling System No. 7

5. CONVENTIONS

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC2119.

6. CONNECTION MODEL

   The connection model for the protocol describes the logical entities,
   or objects, within the Media Gateway that can be controlled by the
   Media Gateway Controller.  The main abstractions used in the
   connection model are Terminations and Contexts.

   A Termination sources and/or sinks one or more streams.  In a
   multimedia conference, a Termination can be multimedia and sources or
   sinks multiple media streams.  The media stream parameters, as well
   as modem, and bearer parameters are encapsulated within the
   Termination.

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         +------------------------------------------------------+
         |Media Gateway                                         |
         | +-------------------------------------------------+  |
         | |Context                          +-------------+ |  |
         | |                                 | Termination | |  |
         | |                                 |-------------| |  |
         | |  +-------------+             +->| SCN Bearer  |<---+->
         | |  | Termination |   +-----+   |  |   Channel   | |  |
         | |  |-------------|   |     |---+  +-------------+ |  |
       <-+--->| RTP Stream  |---|  *  |                      |  |
         | |  |             |   |     |---+  +-------------+ |  |
         | |  +-------------+   +-----+   |  | Termination | |  |
         | |                              |  |-------------| |  |
         | |                              +->| SCN Bearer  |<---+->
         | |                                 |   Channel   | |  |
         | |                                 +-------------+ |  |
         | +-------------------------------------------------+  |
         |                                                      |
         |                                                      |
         |                    +------------------------------+  |
         |                    |Context                       |  |
         |  +-------------+   |              +-------------+ |  |
         |  | Termination |   | +-----+      | Termination | |  |
         |  |-------------|   | |     |      |-------------| |  |
       <-+->| SCN Bearer  |   | |  *  |------| SCN Bearer  |<---+->
         |  |   Channel   |   | |     |      |   Channel   | |  |
         |  +-------------+   | +-----+      +-------------+ |  |
         |                    +------------------------------+  |
         |                                                      |
         |                                                      |
         | +-------------------------------------------------+  |
         | |Context                                          |  |
         | |  +-------------+                +-------------+ |  |
         | |  | Termination |   +-----+      | Termination | |  |
         | |  |-------------|   |     |      |-------------| |  |
       <-+--->| SCN Bearer  |---|  *  |------| SCN Bearer  |<---+->
         | |  |   Channel   |   |     |      |   Channel   | |  |
         | |  +-------------+   +-----+      +-------------+ |  |
         | +-------------------------------------------------+  |
         | ___________________________________________________  |
         +------------------------------------------------------+

              Figure 1: Example of H.248 Connection Model

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   A Context is an association between a collection of Terminations.
   There is a special type of Context, the null Context, which contains
   all Terminations that are not associated to any other Termination.
   For instance, in a decomposed access gateway, all idle lines are
   represented by Terminations in the null Context.

   Figure 1 above is a graphical depiction of these concepts.  The
   diagram of Figure 1 gives several examples and is not meant to be an
   all-inclusive illustration.  The asterisk box in each of the Contexts
   represents the logical association of Terminations implied by the
   Context.

   The example below shows an example of one way to accomplish a call-
   waiting scenario in a decomposed access gateway, illustrating the
   relocation of a Termination between Contexts.  Terminations T1 and T2
   belong to Context C1 in a two-way audio call.  A second audio call is
   waiting for T1 from Termination T3.  T3 is alone in Context C2.  T1
   accepts the call from T3, placing T2 on hold.  This action results in
   T1 moving into Context C2, as shown below.

         +------------------------------------------------------+
         |Media Gateway                                         |
         | +-------------------------------------------------+  |
         | |Context C1                                       |  |
         | |  +-------------+                +-------------+ |  |
         | |  | Term. T2    |   +-----+      | Term. T1    | |  |
         | |  |-------------|   |     |      |-------------| |  |
       <-+--->| RTP Stream  |---|  *  |------| SCN Bearer  |<---+->
         | |  |             |   |     |      |   Channel   | |  |
         | |  +-------------+   +-----+      +-------------+ |  |
         | +-------------------------------------------------+  |
         |                                                      |
         | +-------------------------------------------------+  |
         | |Context C2                                       |  |
         | |                                 +-------------+ |  |
         | |                    +-----+      | Term. T3    | |  |
         | |                    |     |      |-------------| |  |
         | |                    |  *  |------| SCN Bearer  |<---+->
         | |                    |     |      |   Channel   | |  |
         | |                    +-----+      +-------------+ |  |
         | +-------------------------------------------------+  |
         +------------------------------------------------------+

     Figure 2: Example Call Waiting Scenario / Alerting Applied to T1

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         +------------------------------------------------------+
         |Media Gateway                                         |
         | +-------------------------------------------------+  |
         | |Context C1                                       |  |
         | |  +-------------+                                |  |
         | |  | Term. T2    |   +-----+                      |  |
         | |  |-------------|   |     |                      |  |
       <-+--->| RTP Stream  |---|  *  |                      |  |
         | |  |             |   |     |                      |  |
         | |  +-------------+   +-----+                      |  |
         | +-------------------------------------------------+  |
         |                                                      |
         | +-------------------------------------------------+  |
         | |Context C2                                       |  |
         | |  +-------------+                +-------------+ |  |
         | |  | Term. T1    |   +-----+      | Term. T3    | |  |
         | |  |-------------|   |     |      |-------------| |  |
       <-+--->| SCN Bearer  |---|  *  |------| SCN Bearer  |<---+->
         | |  |   Channel   |   |     |      |   Channel   | |  |
         | |  +-------------+   +-----+      +-------------+ |  |
         | +-------------------------------------------------+  |
         +------------------------------------------------------+

          Figure 3. Example Call Waiting Scenario / Answer by T1

6.1 Contexts

   A Context is an association between a number of Terminations.  The
   Context describes the topology (who hears/sees whom) and the media
   mixing and/or switching parameters if more than two Terminations are
   involved in the association.

   There is a special Context called the null Context. It contains
   Terminations that are not associated to any other Termination.
   Terminations in the null Context can have their parameters examined
   or modified, and may have events detected on them.

   In general, an Add command is used to add Terminations to Contexts.
   If the MGC does not specify an existing Context to which the
   Termination is to be added, the MG creates a new Context.  A
   Termination may be removed from a Context with a Subtract command,
   and a Termination may be moved from one Context to another with a
   Move command. A Termination SHALL exist in only one Context at a
   time.

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   The maximum number of Terminations in a Context is a MG property.
   Media gateways that offer only point-to-point connectivity might
   allow at most two Terminations per Context. Media gateways that
   support multipoint conferences might allow three or more terminations
   per Context.

6.1.1 Context Attributes and Descriptors

   The attributes of Contexts are:

   *  ContextID.

   *  The topology (who hears/sees whom).
      The topology of a Context describes the flow of media between the
      Terminations within a Context.  In contrast, the mode of a
      Termination (send/receive/_) describes the flow of the media at
      the ingress/egress of the media gateway.

   *  The priority is used for a context in order to provide the MG with
      information about a certain precedence handling for a context. The
      MGC can also use the priority to control autonomously the traffic
      precedence in the MG in a smooth way in certain situations (e.g.
      restart), when a lot of contexts must be handled simultaneously.

   *  An indicator for an emergency call is also provided to allow a
      preference handling in the MG.

6.1.2 Creating, Deleting and Modifying Contexts

   The protocol can be used to (implicitly) create Contexts and modify
   the parameter values of existing Contexts.  The protocol has commands
   to add Terminations to Contexts, subtract them from Contexts, and to
   move Terminations between Contexts.  Contexts are deleted implicitly
   when the last remaining Termination is subtracted or moved out.

6.2 Terminations

   A Termination is a logical entity on a MG that sources and/or sinks
   media and/or control streams.  A Termination is described by a number
   of characterizing Properties, which are grouped in a set of
   Descriptors that are included in commands. Terminations have unique
   identities (TerminationIDs), assigned by the MG at the time of their
   creation.

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   Terminations representing physical entities have a semi-permanent
   existence.  For example, a Termination representing a TDM channel
   might exist for as long as it is provisioned in the gateway.
   Terminations representing ephemeral information flows, such as RTP
   flows, would usually exist only for the duration of their use.

   Ephemeral Terminations are created by means of an Add command.  They
   are destroyed by means of a Subtract command.  In contrast, when a
   physical Termination is Added to or Subtracted from a Context, it is
   taken from or to the null Context, respectively.

   Terminations may have signals applied to them.  Signals are MG
   generated media streams such as tones and announcements as well as
   line signals such as hookswitch.  Terminations may be programmed to
   detect Events, the occurrence of which can trigger notification
   messages to the MGC, or action by the MG.  Statistics may be
   accumulated on a Termination.  Statistics are reported to the MGC
   upon request (by means of the AuditValue command, see section 7.2.5)
   and when the Termination is taken out of the call it is in.

   Multimedia gateways may process multiplexed media streams.  For
   example, Recommendation H.221 describes a frame structure for
   multiple media streams multiplexed on a number of digital 64 kbit/s
   channels.  Such a case is handled in the connection model in the
   following way.  For every bearer channel that carries part of the
   multiplexed streams, there is a Termination.  The Terminations that
   source/sink the digital channels are connected to a separate
   Termination called the multiplexing Termination. This Termination
   describes the multiplex used (e.g. how the H.221 frames are carried
   over the digital channels used).  The MuxDescriptor is used to this
   end.  If multiple media are carried, this Termination contains
   multiple StreamDescriptors. The media streams can be associated with
   streams sourced/sunk by other Terminations in the Context.

   Terminations may be created which represent multiplexed bearers, such
   as an ATM AAL Type 2 bearer.  When a new multiplexed bearer is to be
   created, an ephemeral termination is created in a context established
   for this purpose.  When the termination is subtracted, the
   multiplexed bearer is destroyed.

6.2.1 Termination Dynamics

   The protocol can be used to create new Terminations and to modify
   property values of existing Terminations.  These modifications
   include the possibility of adding or removing events and/or signals.
   The Termination properties, and events and signals are described in

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   the ensuing sections. An MGC can only release/modify terminations and
   the resources that the termination represents which it has previously
   seized via, e.g., the Add command.

6.2.2 TerminationIDs

   Terminations are referenced by a TerminationID, which is an arbitrary
   schema chosen by the MG.

   TerminationIDs of physical Terminations are provisioned in the Media
   Gateway. The TerminationIDs may be chosen to have structure.  For
   instance, a TerminationID may consist of trunk group and a trunk
   within the group.

   A wildcarding mechanism using two types of wildcards can be used with
   TerminationIDs.  The two wildcards are ALL and CHOOSE.  The former is
   used to address multiple Terminations at once, while the latter is
   used to indicate to a media gateway that it must select a Termination
   satisfying the partially specified TerminationID.  This allows, for
   instance, that a MGC instructs a MG to choose a circuit within a
   trunk group.

   When ALL is used in the TerminationID of a command, the effect is
   identical to repeating the command with each of the matching
   TerminationIDs.  Since each of these commands may generate a
   response, the size of the entire response may be large.  If
   individual responses are not required, a wildcard response may be
   requested.  In such a case, a single response is generated, which
   contains the UNION of all of the individual responses which otherwise
   would have been generated, with duplicate values suppressed.  For
   instance, given a Termination Ta with properties p1=a, p2=b and
   Termination Tb with properties p2=c, p3=d, a UNION response would
   consist of a wildcarded TerminationId and the sequence of properties
   p1=a, p2=b,c and p3=d.  Wildcard response may be particularly useful
   in the Audit commands.

   The encoding of the wildcarding mechanism is detailed in Annexes A
   and B.

6.2.3 Packages

   Different types of gateways may implement Terminations that have
   widely differing characteristics.  Variations in Terminations are
   accommodated in the protocol by allowing Terminations to have
   optional Properties, Events, Signals and Statistics implemented by
   MGs.

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   In order to achieve MG/MGC interoperability, such options are grouped
   into Packages, and a Termination realizes a set of such Packages.
   More information on definition of packages can be found in section
   12.  An MGC can audit a Termination to determine which Packages it
   realizes.

   Properties, Events, Signals and Statistics defined in Packages, as
   well as parameters to them, are referenced by identifiers (Ids).
   Identifiers are scoped. For each package, PropertyIds, EventIds,
   SignalIds, StatisticsIds and ParameterIds have unique name spaces and
   the same identifier may be used in each of them.  Two PropertyIds in
   different packages may also have the same identifier, etc.

6.2.4 Termination Properties and Descriptors

   Terminations have properties.  The properties have unique
   PropertyIDs.  Most properties have default values, which are
   explicitly defined in this standard or in a package (see Section 12)
   or set by provisioning.  If not provisioned otherwise, all
   descriptors except TerminationState and LocalControl default to
   empty/"no value" when a Termination is first created or returned to
   the null Context.  The default contents of the two exceptions are
   described in sections 7.1.5 and 7.1.7.

   There are a number of common properties for Terminations and
   properties specific to media streams. The common properties are also
   called the termination state properties.  For each media stream,
   there are local properties and properties of the received and
   transmitted flows.

   Properties not included in the base protocol are defined in Packages.
   These properties are referred to by a name consisting of the
   PackageName and a PropertyId.  Most properties have default values
   described in the Package description. Properties may be read- only or
   read/write.  The possible values of a property may be audited, as can
   their current values.  For properties that are read/write, the MGC
   can set their values.  A property may be declared as "Global" which
   has a single value shared by all terminations realizing the package.
   Related properties are grouped into descriptors for convenience.

   When a Termination is Added to a Context, the value of its read/write
   properties can be set by including the appropriate descriptors as
   parameters to the Add command.  Properties not mentioned in the
   command retain their prior values.  Similarly, a property of a
   Termination in a Context may have its value changed by the Modify
   command.  Properties not mentioned in the Modify command retain their
   prior values. Properties may also have their values changed when a

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   Termination is moved from one Context to another as a result of a
   Move command.  In some cases, descriptors are returned as output from
   a command.

   The following table lists all of the possible Descriptors and their
   use.  Not all descriptors are legal as input or output parameters to
   every command.

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   +------------------+-----------------------------------------------+
   | Descriptor Name  | Description                                   |
   |------------------|-----------------------------------------------|
   | Modem            | Identifies modem type and properties          |
   |                  | when applicable.                              |
   | Mux              | Describes multiplex type for multimedia       |
   |                  | terminations (e.g. H.221, H.223, H.225.0)     |
   |                  | and Terminations forming the input mux.       |
   | Media            | A list of media stream specifications         |
   |                  | (see 7.1.4).                                  |
   | TerminationState | Properties of a Termination (which can be     |
   |                  | defined in Packages) that are not stream      |
   |                  | specific.                                     |
   | Stream           | A list of remote/local/localControl           |
   |                  | descriptors for a single stream.              |
   | Local            | Contains properties that specify the media    |
   |                  | flows that the MG receives from the remote    |
   |                  | entity.                                       |
   | Remote           | Contains properties that specify the media    |
   |                  | flows that the MG sends to the remote entity. |
   | LocalControl     | Contains properties (which can be defined in  |
   |                  | packages) that are of interest between the MG |
   |                  | and the MGC.                                  |
   | Events           | Describes events to be detected by the MG and |
   |                  | what to do when an event is detected.         |
   | EventBuffer      | Describes events to be detected by the MG     |
   |                  | when Event Buffering is active.               |
   | Signals          | Describes signals and/or actions to be        |
   |                  | applied (e.g. Busy Tone) to the Terminations. |
   | Audit            | In Audit commands, identifies which           |
   |                  | information is desired.                       |
   | Packages         | In AuditValue, returns a list of Packages     |
   |                  | realized by Termination.                      |
   | DigitMap         | Defines patterns against which sequences of a |
   |                  | specified set of events are to be matched so  |
   |                  | they can be reported as a group rather than   |
   |                  | singly.                                       |
   | ServiceChange    | In ServiceChange, what, why service change    |
   |                  | occurred, etc.                                |
   | ObservedEvents   | In Notify or AuditValue, report of events     |
   |                  | observed.                                     |
   | Statistics       | In Subtract and Audit, Report of Statistics   |
   |                  | kept on a Termination.                        |
   +------------------------------------------------------------------+

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6.2.5 Root Termination

   Occasionally, a command must refer to the entire gateway, rather than
   a termination within it.  A special TerminationID, "Root" is reserved
   for this purpose.  Packages may be defined on Root.  Root thus may
   have properties, events and statistics (signals  are not appropriate
   for root).  Accordingly, the root TerminationID may appear in:

   *  a Modify command - to change a property or set an event
   *  a Notify command - to report an event
   *  an AuditValue return - to examine the values of properties and
      statistics implemented on root
   *  an AuditCapability - to determine what properties of root are
      implemented
   *  a ServiceChange - to declare the gateway in or out of service.

   Any other use of the root TerminationID is an error.



(page 21 continued on part 2)

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