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RFC 1739

Pages: 46
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A Primer On Internet and TCP/IP Tools

Obsoleted by:    2151

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Network Working Group                                         G. Kessler
Request for Comments: 1739                                    S. Shepard
Category: Informational                            Hill Associates, Inc.
                                                           December 1994

                 A Primer On Internet and TCP/IP Tools

Status of this Memo

   This memo provides information for the Internet community.  This memo
   does not specify an Internet standard of any kind.  Distribution of
   this memo is unlimited.

Table of Contents

   1. Introduction ..................................................  2
   2. A Beginner's Guide to TCP/IP-based Utilities and Applications .  2
   2.1. NSLOOKUP ....................................................  3
   2.2. PING ........................................................  5
   2.3. FINGER ......................................................  6
   2.4. TRACEROUTE ..................................................  7
   2.5. FTP ......................................................... 10
   2.6. TELNET ...................................................... 14
   2.7. User Database Lookup Tools .................................. 17
   2.7.1. WHOIS/NICNAME ............................................. 17
   2.7.2. KNOWBOT ................................................... 20
   2.7.3. NETFIND ................................................... 21
   2.8. Information Servers ......................................... 24
   2.8.1. ARCHIE .................................................... 24
   2.8.2. GOPHER .................................................... 27
   2.8.3. Other Information Servers ................................. 30
   2.9. Uniform Resource Locator Format ............................. 31
   3. Distribution Lists and Mailing Lists .......................... 32
   3.1. Internet Discussion Lists ................................... 33
   3.2. Usenet ...................................................... 33
   3.3. BITNET/EARN ................................................. 35
   4. Internet Documentation ........................................ 36
   4.1. Request for Comments (RFCs) ................................. 36
   4.2. Internet Standards .......................................... 38
   4.3. For Your Information Documents .............................. 39
   4.4. RARE Technical Reports ...................................... 40
   5. Perusing the Internet ......................................... 40
   6. Acronyms and Abbreviations .................................... 42
   7. Security Considerations ....................................... 43
   8. Acknowledgements .............................................. 43
   9. References .................................................... 43
   10. Authors' Addresses ........................................... 46

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1. Introduction

   This memo is an introductory guide to some of the TCP/IP and Internet
   tools and utilities that allow users to access the wide variety of
   information on the network, from determining if a particular host is
   up to viewing a multimedia thesis on foreign policy.  It also
   describes discussion lists accessible from the Internet, ways to
   obtain Internet documents, and resources that help users weave their
   way through the Internet.  This memo may be used as a tutorial for
   individual self-learning, a step-by-step laboratory manual for a
   course, or as the basis for a site's users manual.  It is intended as
   a basic guide only and will refer to other sources for more detailed

2. A Beginner's Guide to TCP/IP-based Utilities and Applications

   This section provides descriptions and detailed examples of several
   TCP/IP utilities and applications, including actual sessions using
   these utilities (with some extraneous information removed).  Each
   section below describes a single TCP/IP-based tool, it's application,
   and, in some cases, how it works.  The text description is followed
   by an actual sample session.

   The sample dialogues shown below were made using the Multinet TCP/IP
   software for VAX/VMS or DOS versions of FTP Software's PC/TCP.  While
   the examples below can be used as a guide to using and learning about
   the capabilities of these tools, the reader should understand that
   not all of these utilities may be found at all TCP/IP hosts nor in
   all commercial software packages.  Furthermore, the user interface
   for different packages will be different and the actual command line
   may appear differently than shown here; this will be particularly
   true for graphical user interfaces running over Windows, X-Windows,
   OS/2, or Macintosh systems.  The Internet has many exciting things to
   offer but standardized interfaces to the protocols is not yet one of
   them!  This guide will not provide any detail or motivation about the
   Internet Protocol Suite; more information about the TCP/IP protocols
   and related issues may be found in RFC 1180 [18], Comer [22], Feit
   [23], and Kessler [30].

   In the commands shown in the descriptions below, any item appearing
   in square brackets ([]) is optional and the vertical-bar (|) means
   "or"; parameters appearing with no brackets or within curly brackets
   ({}) are mandatory.  In the sample dialogues, most user input is in
   capital letters (only where allowed) and lines containing user input
   are designated with a "**" in the far-left margin.

   AUTHOR'S NOTE: The sample dialogues are easier to read in the
   secondary, Postscript version of this RFC.

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   NSLOOKUP is the name server lookup program that comes with many
   TCP/IP software packages.  A user can use NSLOOKUP to examine entries
   in the Domain Name System (DNS) database that pertain to a particular
   host or domain; one common use is to determine a host system's IP
   address from its name or the host's name from its IP address.  The
   general form of the command to make a single query is:

        NSLOOKUP  [IP_address | host_name]

   If the program is started without any parameters, the user will be
   prompted for input; the user can enter either an IP address or host
   name at that time, and the program will respond with the name and
   address of the default name sever, the name server actually used to
   resolve each request, and the IP address and host name that was
   queried.  "Exit" is used to quit the NSLOOKUP application.

   Three simple queries are shown in the example below:

  1. Requests the address of the host named "", a system at
     the University of Vermont (UVM).  As it turns out, this is not the
     true name of the host, but a shortened version of the name that is
     accepted as an alias by the network.  The full name of the host and
     the IP address are listed by NSLOOKUP.

  2. Requests the address of host "", which is the
     same host as in the first query.  Note that NSLOOKUP provides a
     "non-authoritative" answer.  Since NSLOOKUP just queried this same
     address, the information is still in its cache memory.  Rather than
     send additional messages to the name server, the answer is one that
     it remembers from before; the server didn't look up the information
     again, however, so it is not guaranteed to still be accurate
     (because the information might have changed within the last few

  3. Requests the name of the host with the given IP address.  The
     result points to the Internet gateway to Australia,

   One additional query is shown in the dialogue below.  NSLOOKUP
   examines information that is stored by the DNS.  The default NSLOOKUP
   queries examine basic address records (called "A records") to
   reconcile the host name and IP address, although other information is
   also available.  In the final query below, for example, the user
   wants to know where electronic mail addressed to the "" domain
   actually gets delivered, since "" is not the name of an actual
   host.  This is accomplished by changing the query type to look for

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   mail exchange (MX) records by issuing a "set type" command (which
   must be in lower case).  The query shows that mail addressed to
   "" is handled though a mail server called "". The
   DNS is beyond the scope of this introduction, although more
   information about the concepts and structure of the DNS can be found
   in STD 13/RFC 1034 [12] and RFC 1591 [13].  The "help" command can be
   issued at the program prompt for information about NSLOOKUP's more
   advanced commands.

   TECHNICAL NOTE: There are other tools that might be available on your
   system or with your software for examining the DNS.  Alternatives to
   NSLOOKUP include HOST and DIG.


      Default Server:  LOCALHOST

      Server:  LOCALHOST


      Server:  LOCALHOST

      Non-authoritative answer:

   ** >
      Server:  LOCALHOST

      Name:    munnari.OZ.AU

   ** > set type=MX
   ** > UVM.EDU
      Server:  LOCALHOST
      Address: preference = 10, mail exchanger =

Top      ToC       Page 5   internet address =

   ** > EXIT


2.2. PING

   Ping is one of the most widely available tools bundled with TCP/IP
   software packages.  Ping uses a series of Internet Control Message
   Protocol (ICMP) Echo messages to determine if a remote host is active
   or inactive, and to determine the round-trip delay in communicating
   with it.  The Ping command, referred to as the Packet Internetwork
   Groper in some references, has the following general format:

        PING [-s] {IP_address | host_name} [size] [quantity]

   In the first test below, we ping the host "" to
   determine whether it is up and running.  This simple use of the
   command contains no optional parameters.

   In the second test, the "-s" parameter tells the system to send an
   ICMP Echo message every second.  The optional "size" parameter
   specifies that each message should be 64 bytes in length (which is
   the default size); the optional "quantity" parameter indicates that
   this test will only send 12 messages (the default is to run the test
   continuously until interrupted).  The results of the second test
   displays the round-trip delay of each Echo message that is returned
   to the sending host; at the end of the test, summary statistics are


      PING THUMPER.BELLCORE.COM ( 56 data bytes
      64 bytes from icmp_seq=0 time=150 ms
      64 bytes from icmp_seq=1 time=110 ms
      64 bytes from icmp_seq=2 time=130 ms
      64 bytes from icmp_seq=3 time=130 ms
      64 bytes from icmp_seq=4 time=320 ms
      64 bytes from icmp_seq=5 time=110 ms
      64 bytes from icmp_seq=6 time=440 ms
      64 bytes from icmp_seq=7 time=90 ms
      64 bytes from icmp_seq=9 time=100 ms
      64 bytes from icmp_seq=10 time=110 ms

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      ----THUMPER.BELLCORE.COM PING Statistics----
      12 packets transmitted, 10 packets received, 16% packet loss
      round-trip (ms)  min/avg/max = 90/169/440



   The Finger program may be used to find out who is logged in on
   another system or to find out detailed information about a specific
   user.  This command has also introduced a brand new verb; "fingering"
   someone on the Internet is not necessarily a rude thing to do!  The
   Finger User Information Protocol is described in RFC 1288 [20].  The
   most general format of the Finger command is:

        FINGER [username]@host_name

   The first example below shows the result of fingering an individual
   user at a remote system.  The first line of the response shows the
   username, the user's real name, their process identifier,
   application, and terminal port number.  Additional information may be
   supplied at the option of the user in "plan" and/or "project" files
   that they supply; these files are often named PLAN.TXT or
   PROJECT.TXT, respectively, and reside in a user's root directory (or
   somewhere in an appropriate search path).

   The second example shows the result of fingering a remote system.
   This lists all of the processes currently running at the fingered
   system or other information, depending upon how the remote system's
   administrator set up the system to respond to the Finger command.

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      KUMQUAT  Gary Kessler            20A02991 MAIL           TXA3
      Last login Fri 15-Jul-1994 2:59 PM-EDT


      Gary C. Kessler
      Adjunct Faculty Member, Graduate College

      Senior Member of Technical Staff
      Hill Associates               +1 802-655-8633 or 655-0940 (office)
      17 Roosevelt Highway          +1 802-655-7974 (fax)
      Colchester, VT  05446         +1 802-879-5242 (home)
      INTERNET: or

      Friday, July 15, 1994 4:00PM-EDT   Up 21 03:41:31
      7+0 Jobs on SMCVAX  Load ave  0.24 0.31 0.25

       User    Personal Name       Subsys
      DENIS    Denis Stratford     MAIL
      GOODWIN  Dave Goodwin        RTPAD
      JAT      John Trono          EDT
      KUMQUAT  Gary Kessler        MAIL
      INFO     SMC Info Service    TELNET
      SYSTEM   System Manager      *DCL*
      SMITH    Jim Smith           LYNX



   Traceroute is another common TCP/IP tool, this one allowing users to
   learn about the route that packets take from their local host to a
   remote host.  Although used often by network and system managers as a
   simple, yet powerful, debugging aid, traceroute can be used by end
   users to learn something about the structure of the Internet.

   The Traceroute command has the following general format (where "#"
   represents a positive integer value associated with the qualifier):

      TRACEROUTE [-m #] [-q #] [-w #] [-p #] {IP_address | host_name}

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   where  -m   is the maximum allowable TTL value, measured as the
                number of hops allowed before the program terminates
               (default = 30)
          -q   is the number of UDP packets that will be sent with each
               time-to-live setting (default = 3)
          -w   is the amount of time, in seconds, to wait for an answer
               from a particular router before giving up (default = 5)
          -p   is the invalid port address at the remote host (default =

   The Traceroute example below shows the route between a host at St.
   Michael's College in Colchester, Vermont ( and a
   host at Bellcore in Red Bank, New Jersey (  The
   output has some interesting points:

   1. NEARnet, the New England Academic and Research Network, is a
      regional network serving the northeastern U.S.  The packets' route
      runs from St. Mike's NEARnet gateway (smc-gw) to the University of
      Vermont (uvm-gw), etc.  Note that some intermediate systems (see
      lines 4 and 16) do not have names associated with them.

   2. From NEARnet (lines 1-6), the packets travel on the National
      Science Foundation Network (NSFNET) T3 backbone (lines 7-11).  The
      NSFNET backbone nodes are identified as "" since the NSFNET
      is operated by Advanced Networks and Services, Inc. (ANS).  The
      packets travel within ANS' network on their core nodal switching
      subsystems ("cnss") until ready to jump off the backbone; line 11
      indicates an ANS exterior nodal switching subsystem ("enss").  The
      datagrams are then carried on the JvNCnet (lines 12-16), a regional
      network in New Jersey (note the use of SMDS!).  Finally, the
      datagrams are placed on Bellcore's internal network (lines 17 and
      18) for final delivery.

   3. Note that not all of the datagrams take the same route.  In
      particular, only two of the datagrams go through the ANS gateway
      referred to at line 10.  Note also line 17; here, the first two
      datagrams go through one router at Bellcore, while the third
      datagram goes through a companion router.

   TECHNICAL NOTE: Traceroute works by sending a sequence of User
   Datagram Protocol (UDP) datagrams to an invalid port address at the
   remote host.  Using the default settings, three datagrams are sent,
   each with a Time-To-Live (TTL) field value set to one.  The TTL value
   of 1 causes the datagram to "timeout" as soon as it hits the first
   router in the path; this router will then respond with an ICMP Time
   Exceeded Message (TEM) indicating that the datagram has expired.
   Another three UDP messages are now sent, each with the TTL value set
   to 2, which causes the second router to return ICMP TEMs.  This

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   process continues until the packets actually reach the other
   destination.  Since these datagrams are trying to access an invalid
   port at the destination host, ICMP Destination Unreachable Messages
   are returned indicating an unreachable port; this event signals the
   Traceroute program that it is finished!  The Traceroute program
   displays the round-trip delay associated with each of the attempts.

   As an interesting aside, Traceroute did not begin life as a general-
   purpose utility, but as a quick-and-dirty debugging aid used to find
   a routing problem.  The code (complete with comments!) is available
   by anonymous FTP in the file "traceroute.tar.Z" from the host
   "".  (See Section 2.5 for a discussion of anonymous

   traceroute to THUMPER.BELLCORE.COM (, 30 hops max, 38
   byte packets
    1 ( 50 ms  20 ms  10 ms
    2 ( 160 ms  50 ms  30 ms
    3 ( 470 ms  60 ms  60 ms
    4 ( 50 ms  50 ms  40 ms
    5 ( 50 ms  40 ms  40 ms
    6 ( 60 ms  90 ms  40 ms
    7 ( 70 ms 100 ms  60 ms
    8 ( 70 ms  40 ms  40 ms
    9 ( 50 ms  60 ms  70 ms
   10 * ( 340 ms  110 ms
   11 ( 90 ms  420 ms  190 ms
   12 ( 70 ms  50 ms  70 ms
   13 ( 390 ms  110 ms  60 ms
   14 ( 70 ms  50 ms  60 ms
   15 ( 80 ms  130 ms  100 ms
   16 ( 80 ms  70 ms  100 ms
   17 ( 120 ms  120 ms ( 130 ms
   18 ( 130 ms  430 ms  80 ms


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2.5. FTP

   The File Transfer Protocol (FTP) [16] is one of the most useful and
   powerful TCP/IP utilities for the general user.  FTP allows users to
   upload and download files between local and remote hosts.  Anonymous
   FTP, in particular, is commonly available at file archive sites to
   allow users to access files without having to pre-establish an
   account at the remote host.  The general form of the FTP command is:

        FTP [IP_address | host_name]

   As shown, FTP can be initiated in several ways.  In the example shown
   below, an FTP control connection is initiated to a host by supplying
   a host name with the FTP command; optionally, the host's IP address
   in dotted decimal form could be used.  If neither host name nor IP
   address are supplied in the command line, a connection to a host can
   be initiated by typing "OPEN host_name" or "OPEN IP_address" once the
   FTP application has been started.

   The remote host will now ask for a username and password.  If a
   legitimate, registered user of this host supplies a valid username
   and password, then the user will have access to any files and
   directories to which this username has privilege.  For anonymous FTP
   access, the username "anonymous" is used and the password (not shown
   in actual use) is "guest" (although an increasing number of systems
   ask that anonymous FTP users supply their Internet address as the

   The first command issued in the example below is "help ?", used to
   obtain a list of available FTP commands and help topics.  Although
   not always shown, nearly all TCP/IP applications have a help command.

   An example of the help for FTP's "type" command is shown in the
   sample dialogue.  This command is very important one, by the way; if
   transferring a binary or executable file, be sure to set the type to
   "image" (or "binary" on some systems).

   The "dir" command provides a directory listing of the files in the
   current directory at the remote host; the UNIX "ls" command may also
   usually be used.  Note that an FTP data transfer connection is
   established for the transfer of the directory information to the
   local host.  The output from the "dir" command will show a file
   listing that is consistent with the native operating system of the
   remote host.  Although the TCP/IP suite is often associated with
   UNIX, it can (and does) run with nearly all common operating systems.

   The directory information shown in the sample dialogue happens to be
   in UNIX format and includes the following information:

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   o File attributes.  The first character identifies this as a
     directory (d), link (l), or individual file (-).  The next nine
     characters list the access permissions for three groups, namely,
     the owner, the owner's group, and all other users.  Three access
     privileges may be assigned to each file for each of these groups:
     read (r), write (w), execute (x), and/or search (s).

   o File owner and owner's group.

   o File size, in bytes.

   o Date of last modification.  If the date is followed by a timestamp,
     then the date is from the current year.

   o File name.

   After the directory information has been transferred, FTP closes the
   data transfer connection.

   The command "cd" is used to change to another directory, in this case
   the "Gov" directory (note that file and directory names may be case-
   sensitive).  As in DOS, "cd .." will change to the parent of the
   current directory.  The "CWD command successful" is the only
   indication that the user's "cd" command was correctly executed; the
   "show-directory" (may be truncated to fewer characters, as shown)
   command, if available, may be used to see which directory you are in.

   Another "dir" command is used to find all files ending with the
   characters ".act"; note the use of the "*" wildcard character.  We
   can now copy (download) the file of choice (The Fair Credit Reporting
   Act, 1992) by using the "get" (or "receive") command, which has the
   following general format:

      GET  remote_file_name  local_file_name

   FTP opens another data transfer connection for this file transfer
   purpose; note that the effective data transfer rate is 39.98 kbps.

   FTP's "put" (or "send") command allows uploading from the local host
   to the remote.  "Put" is often not available when using anonymous

   Finally, we terminate the FTP connection by using the "close"
   command.  The user can initiate another FTP connection using the
   "open" command or can leave FTP by issuing a "quit" command.  "Quit"
   can also be used to close a connection and terminate a session.

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   TECHNICAL NOTE: It is important to note that different FTP packages
   have different commands available and even those with similar names
   may act differently.  In the example shown here (using MultiNet for
   VMS), the "show" command will display the current directory; in
   another package (e.g., FTP Software's PC/TCP), "show" will display a
   file from the remote host at the local host.  Some packages have
   nothing equivalent to either of these commands!

      SMCVAX.SMCVT.EDU MultiNet FTP user process 3.2(106)
      Connection opened (Assuming 8-bit connections)
   ** Username: ANONYMOUS
   ** Password: GUEST

      Commands may be one of the following:
      ACCOUNT                       AGET
      APPEND                        APUT
      ASCII                         ATTACH
      BELL                          BINARY
      BYE                           BYTE
      CD                            CDUP
      CLOSE                         CONFIRM
      CPATH                         CREATE-DIRECTORY
      CWD                           DELETE
      DIRECTORY                     DISCONNECT
      EXIT                          EXIT-ON-ERROR
      GET                           HASH
      HELP                          LCD
      LDIR                          LOCAL-CD
      LOCAL-DIRECTORY               LOCAL-PWD
      LOGIN                         LPWD
      LS                            MDELETE
      MGET                          MKDIR
      MODE                          MPUT
      MULTIPLE                      PASSWORD
      PORT                          PROMPT-FOR-MISSING-ARGUMENTS
      PROMPT-ON-CONNECT             PUSH
      PUT                           PWD
      QUIT                          QUOTE
      RECEIVE                       REMOTE-HELP
      REMOVE-DIRECTORY              RENAME
      RETAIN                        RM
      RMDIR                         SEND
      SHOW-DIRECTORY                SITE
      SPAWN                         STATISTICS
      STATUS                        STREAM

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      STRUCTURE                     TAKE
      TENEX                         TYPE
      USER                          VERBOSE

      The TYPE command changes the FTP transfer type.  The possible
      arguments to the TYPE command are ASCII, IMAGE, BACKUP, and
      LOGICAL-BYTE ASCII type is used for transferring ASCII text files.
      IMAGE type is used for transferring binary files.  BACKUP type is
      used for transferring VAX/VMS backup savesets with 2048 byte block

      <Opening ASCII mode data connection for /bin/ls.
      total 25
      drwxr-xr-x  2 9013     daemon      512 Jul  1  1993 .cap
      drwxr-xr-x  4 9013     daemon      512 Jul  1  1993 About
      -rw-r--r--  1 9013     daemon      791 Apr  6  1993 About_Gopher
      drwxr-xr-x  3 9013     daemon      512 Jul 12  1993 Books
      drwxr-xr-x 13 9013     daemon      512 Jul  1  1993 Clinton
      lrwxrwxrwx  1 root     daemon       12 Feb 26 07:02 Economic_Plan
      -> Gov/Economic
      drwxr-xr-x  4 9013     daemon      512 Jul  1  1993 Etext
      lrwxrwxrwx  1 root     daemon       13 Feb 26 07:01 GAO_Reports ->
      drwxr-xr-x 29 9013     daemon     1024 Feb  3 00:15 Gov
      drwxr-xr-x 16 9013     daemon      512 Jul  1  1993 Library
      lrwxrwxrwx  1 root     daemon        9 Feb 26 06:56 NAFTA ->
      drwxr-xr-x  2 9013     daemon      512 Jul  1  1993 Other
      drwxr-xr-x  3 9013     daemon     3072 Apr  7 20:59 alt.etext
      drwxr-xr-x  8 root     42          512 Jul  1  1993 ba.internet
      dr-xr-xr-x  2 bin      wheel       512 Jul  1  1993 bin
      drwxr-xr-x  2 root     daemon      512 Feb 15 06:14 dev
      drwxr-xr-x  3 root     wheel       512 Jul  1  1993 etc
      drwxr-xr-x 11 9038     daemon      512 Dec 17 05:37 game_archive
      drwx-wx-wx  3 root     daemon     1024 Apr 18 02:09 incoming
      drwxr-xr-x  3 root     ftp         512 Oct 29 02:35 pub
      drwxr-xr-x  2 root     daemon      512 Jul  1  1992 tmp
      drwxr-xr-x  3 root     daemon      512 Jul  1  1993 usr
      drwxr-xr-x  3 9013     42         1024 Jul  1  1993 waffle
      <Transfer complete.
      1490 bytes transferred at 4966 bps.
      Run time = 10. ms, Elapsed time = 2400. ms.

      <CWD command successful.

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      <"/Gov" is current directory.

      <Opening ASCII mode data connection for /bin/ls.
      -rw-r--r--  1 9013     42        32695 Dec 10 21:37 brady.act
      -r--r--r--  1 9013     42       168649 Mar 26  1993 disable.act
      -r--r--r--  1 9013     42        62602 Mar 30  1993 ecpa.act
      -r--r--r--  1 9013     42        29519 Mar 30  1993 faircredit.act
      -r--r--r--  1 9013     42        57206 Mar 30  1993 privacy.act
      -r--r--r--  1 9013     42        16261 Mar 26  1993 warpower.act
      <Transfer complete.
      401 bytes transferred at 7638 bps.
      Run time = 0. ms, Elapsed time = 420. ms.

      <Opening ASCII mode data connection for faircredit.act (29519
      <Transfer complete.
      30132 bytes transferred at 39976 bps.
      Run time = 40. ms, Elapsed time = 6030. ms.



   TELNET [17] is TCP/IP's virtual terminal protocol.  Using TELNET, a
   user connected to one host can login to another host, appearing like
   a directly-attached terminal at the remote system; this is TCP/IP's
   definition of a "virtual terminal."  The general form of the TELNET
   command is:

        TELNET  [IP_address | host_name]  [port]

   As shown, a TELNET connection is initiated when the user enters the
   "TELNET" command and supplies either a "host_name" or "IP_address";
   if neither are given, TELNET will ask for one once the application

   In the example below, a user logged onto a PC on a LAN will use
   TELNET to attach to the remote host "".   Once logged
   in via TELNET, the user can do anything on the remote host that they
   could do if they were on a directly-connected terminal or had dialed-
   up by modem.  The commands that are used are those available on the
   remote system to which the user is attached.  In the sample dialogue

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   below, the user attached to SMCVAX will use basic VAX/VMS commands:

   o  The "dir" command lists the files having a "COM" file extension.
   o  The "mail" command enters the MAIL system (there are no messages).
   o  "Pinging" the home host shows that it is alive!

   When finished, "logout" logs the user off the remote host; TELNET
   automatically closes the connection to the remote host and returns
   control to the local system.

   It is important to note that TELNET is a very powerful tool, one that
   may provide users with access to many Internet utilities and services
   that might not be otherwise available.  Many of these features are
   accessed by specifying a port number with the TELNET command, in
   addition to a host's address, and knowledge of port numbers provides
   another mechanism for users to access information with Telnet.

   This guide discusses several TCP/IP and Internet utilities that
   require local client software, such as Finger, Whois, Archie, and
   Gopher.  But what if your software does not include a needed client?
   In some cases, Telnet may be used to access a remote client and
   provide the same functionality.

   This is done by specifying a port number with the TELNET command.
   Just as TCP/IP hosts have a unique IP address, applications on the
   host are associated with an address, called a "port".  Finger, for
   example, is associated with the well-known port number 79.  In the
   absence of a Finger client, TELNETing to port 79 at a remote host may
   provide the same information.  You can "finger" another host with
   TELNET by using a command like:

                              TELNET host_name 79

   Other well-known TCP/IP port numbers include 20 (FTP data transfer),
   21 (FTP control), 25 (SMTP), 43 (whois), 70 (Gopher), and 185

   Some services are available on the Internet using TELNET and special
   port numbers.  A geographical information database, for example, may
   be accessed by TELNETing to port 3000 at host
   ""; current weather information is available at
   port 3000 at hosts "" and

Top      ToC       Page 16 
   FTP Software PC/TCP tn 2.31 01/07/94 12:38
   Copyright (c) 1986-1993 by FTP Software, Inc. All rights reserved

   - Connected to St. Michael's College -

** Username: KUMQUAT
** Password:

   St. Michael's College VAX/VMS System.
   Node SMCVAX.

       Last interactive login on Thursday,  9-JUN-1994 11:55
       Last non-interactive login on Thursday,  9-JUN-1994 08:20

   Good Afternoon User KUMQUAT.  Logged in on 12-JUN-1994 at 3:27 PM.

   User [GUEST,KUMQUAT] has 4292 blocks used, 5708 available,
   of 10000 authorized and permitted overdraft of 100 blocks on $1$DIA2

   Directory $1$DIA2:[GUEST.KUMQUAT]

   BACKUP.COM;24         24  16-JUL-1990 16:22:46.68  (RWED,RWED,RE,)
   DELTREE.COM;17         3  16-JUL-1990 16:22:47.58  (RWED,RWED,RE,)
   EXPANDZ.COM;7          2  22-FEB-1993 10:00:04.35  (RWED,RWED,RE,)
   FTSLOGBLD.COM;3        1  16-JUL-1990 16:22:48.57  (RWED,RWED,RE,)
   FTSRRR.COM;2           1  16-JUL-1990 16:22:48.73  (RWED,RWED,RE,)
   LOGIN.COM;116          5   1-DEC-1993 09:33:21.61  (RWED,RWED,RE,)
   SNOOPY.COM;6           1  16-JUL-1990 16:22:52.06  (RWED,RWED,RE,)
   SYLOGIN.COM;83         8  16-JUL-1990 16:22:52.88  (RWED,RWED,RE,RE)
   SYSHUTDWN.COM;1        0  16-JUL-1990 16:22:53.04  (RWED,RWED,RE,)
   SYSTARTUP.COM;88      15  16-JUL-1990 16:22:53.21  (RWED,RWED,RE,)
   WATCH_MAIL.COM;1     173  10-MAY-1994 09:59:52.65  (RWED,RWED,RE,)

   Total of 11 files, 233 blocks.


   PING HILL.COM ( 56 data bytes
   64 bytes from icmp_seq=0 time=290 ms
   64 bytes from icmp_seq=1 time=260 ms
   64 bytes from icmp_seq=2 time=260 ms
   64 bytes from icmp_seq=3 time=260 ms
   64 bytes from icmp_seq=4 time=260 ms

Top      ToC       Page 17 
   ----HILL.COM PING Statistics----
   5 packets transmitted, 5 packets received, 0% packet loss
   round-trip (ms)  min/avg/max = 260/266/290

     KUMQUAT      logged out at 12-JUN-1994 15:37:04.29

   Connection #0 closed


2.7. User Database Lookup Tools


   WHOIS and NICNAME are TCP/IP applications that search databases to
   find the name of network and system administrators, RFC authors,
   system and network points-of-contact, and other individuals who are
   registered in appropriate databases.  The original NICNAME/WHOIS
   protocol is described in RFC 954 [4].

   WHOIS may be accessed by TELNETing to an appropriate WHOIS server and
   logging in as "WHOIS" (no password is required); the most common
   Internet name server is located at the Internet Network Information
   Center (InterNIC) at "".  This specific database, in
   particular, only contains INTERNET domains, IP network numbers, and
   points of contact; policies governing the InterNIC database are
   described in RFC 1400 [19].  The MILNET database resides at
   "" and PSI's White Pages pilot service is located at

   Many software packages contain a WHOIS/NICNAME client that
   automatically establishes the TELNET connection to a default name
   server database, although users can usually specify any name server
   database that they want.

   The accompanying dialogues shows several types of WHOIS/NICNAME
   information queries.  In the session below, we request information
   about an individual (Denis Stratford) by using WHOIS locally, a
   specific domain ( by using NICNAME locally, and a high-level
   domain (edu) using TELNET to a WHOIS server.

Top      ToC       Page 18 
      Stratford, Denis (DS378)      denis@@SMCVAX.SMCVT.EDU
         St. Michael's College
         Jemery Hall, Room 274
         Winooski Park
         Colchester, VT 05439
         (802) 654-2384

         Record last updated on 02-Nov-92.

      Hill Associates (HILL-DOM)
         17 Roosevelt Highway
         Colchester, VT 05446

         Domain Name: HILL.COM

         Administrative Contact:
            Kessler, Gary C.  (GK34)  kumquat@HILL.COM
            (802) 655-8633
         Technical Contact, Zone Contact:
            Monaghan, Carol A.  (CAM4)  cam@HILL.COM
            (802) 655-8630

         Record last updated on 15-Jun-94.

         Domain servers in listed order:

      Connected to RS.INTERNIC.NET, a SUN 670 running SUNOS-4.1.3

      * -- InterNIC Registration Services Center  --

      Cmdinter Ver 1.3 Mon Mar 21 13:42:27 1994 EST
   ** [dec-vt220] InterNIC> WHOIS
      Connected to the rs Database
      InterNIC WHOIS Version: 1.0 Mon, 21 Mar 94 13:42:32

   ** Whois: DOMAIN EDU
      Education top-level domain (EDU-DOM)
         Network Solutions, Inc.
         505 Huntmar park Dr.

Top      ToC       Page 19 
         Herndon, VA 22070

         Domain Name: EDU

         Administrative Contact, Technical Contact, Zone Contact:
          Network Solutions, Inc.  (HOSTMASTER)  HOSTMASTER@INTERNIC.NET
          (703) 742-4777 (FAX) (703) 742-4811

         Record last updated on 16-May-94.

         Domain servers in listed order:

         AOS.ARL.ARMY.MIL   ,
         NS.NASA.GOV        ,

    Would you like to see the known domains under this top-level domain?
   ** Y

         There are 1504 known sub-domains:

         0.EDU            Reserved Domain
         1.EDU            Reserved Domain
         2.EDU            Reserved Domain
         22CF.EDU         22nd Century Foundation
         3.EDU            Reserved Domain
   ** There are 1499 more matches.  Show them? N

   ** Whois: EXIT

   ** [dec-vt220] InterNIC> QUIT

      Connection #0 closed

Top      ToC       Page 20 
2.7.2. KNOWBOT

   KNOWBOT is an automated username database search tool that is related
   to WHOIS.  The Knowbot Information Service (KIS) provides a simple
   WHOIS-like interface that allows users to query several Internet user
   databases (White Pages services) all at one time.  A single KIS query
   will automatically search the InterNIC, MILNET, MCImail, and PSI
   White Pages Pilot Project; other databases may also be included.

   KNOWBOT may be accessed by TELNETing to port 185 at host
   "" or "".  The "help" command
   will supply sufficient information to get started.  The sample
   dialogue below shows use of the "query" command to locate a user
   named "Gary Kessler"; this command automatically starts a search
   through the default set of Internet databases.


                      Knowbot Information Service
      KIS Client (V2.0).    Copyright CNRI 1990.    All Rights Reserved.

      Please enter your email address in our guest book...
   ** (Your email address?) > KUMQUAT@HILL.COM


      Trying whois at
      The whois server is being queried:
      No match for "KESSLER and GARY"

      The whois server is being queried:

      Kessler, Gary C. (GK34)         kumquat@HILL.COM
         Hill Associates
         17 Roosevelt Highway
         Colchester, VT 05446
         (802) 655-8633

      The whois server is being queried:

      Kessler, Gary P. (GK15)         sa75@TECNET1.JCTE.JCS.MIL
         Simulation & Control Technology Dept
         Patuxent River, MD 20670
         301-826-3192 (DSN) 326-3192 (FAX) 301-826-4555
         MILNET TAC user (Issued: 11-jul-1994)

Top      ToC       Page 21 
         TAC authorizing host: TECNET1.JCTE.JCS.MIL (NATC-3COM)

      Trying mcimail at
      Trying ripe at
      Trying whois at
      No match found for .KESSLER,GARY

   ** > QUIT
      KIS exiting
      Connection #0 closed

2.7.3. NETFIND

   NETFIND is another tool that may be used to locate people on the
   network.  NETFIND's advantage is that it searches for users by
   utilizing extant tools such as Finger and SMTP, thus providing the
   potential to find any user on any host without relying on databases.
   For NETFIND to be successful, however, the system manager of existing
   systems must set up Finger and SMTP to respond correctly to NETFIND's
   queries.  NETFIND is still relatively new and use will grow over

   NETFIND is a menu-driven, text-based system.  Users need to TELNET to
   an available NETFIND server.  Once connected, login as "netfind"
   (must be lower-case; no password required) and follow the menu
   prompts.  The sample dialogue below shows the search for "Tom
   Maufer", who is known to work at Goddard Space Flight Center ("gsfc")
   at NASA ("").

   The primary NETFIND server is located at the University of Colorado
   in Boulder (; alternate servers include: (AARNet, Melbourne, Australia) (Nat. Council for Tech. & Sci. Res., Venezuela) (InterNIC Directory & DB Svcs., S. Plainfield, NJ) (California State University, Fullerton, CA) (Korea Network Information Center, Taejon, Korea) (Technet Unit, Singapore) (Catholic University of Chile, Santiago) (Imperial College, London, England) (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis) (Australian National University, Canberra) (McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada) (Association FNET, Le Kremlin-Bicetre, France) (Warsaw University, Warsaw, Poland) (University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil)

Top      ToC       Page 22 (OpenConnect Systems, Dallas, Texas) (San Jose State University, San Jose, California) (Liberec Univ. of Technology, Czech Republic) (Academy of Sciences, Banska Bystrica, Slovakia) (University of Alabama at Birmingham)

      SunOS UNIX (ds)

   ** login: netfind

      Welcome to the InterNIC Directory & Database Server

      Top level choices:
              1. Help
              2. Search
              3. Seed database lookup
              4. Options
              5. Quit (exit server)
   ** --> 2

   ** Enter person and keys (blank to exit) --> MAUFER GSFC NASA GOV

      Please select at most 3 of the following domains to search:
             0. (goddard space flight center, united states
      national aeronautics and space administration, greenbelt, maryland)
             1. (compton gamma ray observatory
      science support center, goddard space flight center, united states
      national aeronautics and space administration, greenbelt, maryland)
             2. (compton gamma ray observatory science
      support center, goddard space flight center, united states national
      aeronautics and space administration, greenbelt, maryland)
             3. (goddard space flight center, united
      states national aeronautics and space administration, greenbelt,

   ** Enter selection (e.g., 2 0 1) --> 0
      ( 1) SMTP_Finger_Search: checking domain
      Mail is forwarded to
      NOTE: this is a domain mail forwarding arrangement - mail intended
            for "maufer" should be addressed to ""
            rather than "".

Top      ToC       Page 23 
      ( 1) SMTP_Finger_Search: checking host
      Domain search completed.  Proceeding to host search.

              Login name: maufer         In real life: Tom Maufer - CBSI
              Directory: /vault/maufer   Shell: /bin/csh
              Last login Fri Sep 24, 1993 on ttypc from rocinante.gsfc.n
              No unread mail
              No Plan.

      - The most promising email address for "maufer"
        based on the above finger search is

   ** Continue the search ([n]/y) ? --> N
   ** Enter person and keys (blank to exit) -->

      Top level choices:
              1. Help
              2. Search
              3. Seed database lookup
              4. Options
              5. Quit (exit server)
   ** --> 5
      Exiting Netfind server...

      Connection #0 closed

Top      ToC       Page 24 
2.8. Information Servers

2.8.1. ARCHIE

   Archie is a tool for locating files on the Internet, originally
   developed at the Computer Science Department at McGill University in
   Montreal.  Archie allows users to find software, data, and other
   information files that reside at anonymous FTP archive sites across
   the Internet; the name of the program, reportedly, is derived from
   the word "archive" and not from the comic book character.  Archie
   tracks the contents of over 1,000 anonymous FTP archive sites
   containing over 2 million files.  The Archie server automatically
   updates the information from each registered site about once a month,
   providing relatively up-to-date information without unduly stressing
   the network.

   Before using Archie, you must identify a server address.  The sites
   below all support Archie; most (but not all) Archie sites support the
   "servers" command which lists all known Archie servers.  Due to the
   popularity of Archie and its high processing demands, many sites
   limit access to non-peak hours and/or limit the number of
   simultaneous Archie users.  Available Archie sites include:              Australia      Austria    Austria      Canada      Finland    Germany           Israel      Italy        Japan      Korea    Korea      Norway      Spain        Sweden       Switzerland    Taiwan    United Kingdom         USA (NE)    USA (NJ)     USA (NJ)        USA (NY)    USA (MD)

Top      ToC       Page 25 
   Archie servers may be accessed using TELNET.  When TELNETing to an
   Archie site, login as "archie" (you MUST use lower case); just hit
   <ENTER> if a password is requested.

   Once connected, the "help" command assists users in obtaining more
   information about using Archie.  Two more useful Archie commands are
   "prog", used to search for files in the database, and "whatis", which
   searches for keywords in the program descriptions.

   In the accompanying dialogue, the "set maxhits" command is used to
   limit the number of responses to any following "prog" commands; if
   this is not done, the user may get an enormous amount of information!

   In this example, the user issues a request to find entries related to
   "mpeg", ISO's Moving Pictures Experts Group video compression
   standard.  Armed with this information, a user can use anonymous FTP
   to examine these directories and files.

   The next request is for files with "security" as a keyword
   descriptor.  These responses can be used for subsequent "prog"

   Exit archie using the "exit" command.  At this point, TELNET closes
   the connection and control returns to the local host.

   Additional information about Archie can be obtained by sending e-mail
   to Bunyip Information Systems (  Client
   software is not required to use Archie, but can make life a little
   easier; some such software can be downloaded using anonymous FTP from
   the "/pub/archie/" directory at host "" or in
   "/pub/archie/clients/" at "".  Most shareware and
   commercial Archie clients hide the complexity described in this
   section; users usually connect to a pre-configured Archie server
   merely by typing an "ARCHIE" command line.

** C:\> TELNET
   SunOS UNIX (crcnis2)

** login: archie
** Password:

    Welcome to the ARCHIE server at the University of Nebraska - Lincoln

   # Bunyip Information Systems, 1993

** unl-archie> HELP
   These are the commands you can use in help:

Top      ToC       Page 26 
             .    go up one level in the hierarchy

             ?    display a list of valid subtopics at the current level

   done, ^D, ^C  quit from help entirely

        <string>  help on a topic or subtopic
         "help show"

   will give you the help screen for the "show" command

         "help set search"

   Will give you the help information for the "search" variable.

   The command "manpage" will give you a complete copy of the archie
   manual page.
** help> DONE

** unl-archie> SET MAXHITS 5
** unl-archie> PROG MPEG
   # Search type: sub.
   # Your queue position: 1
   # Estimated time for completion: 02:18

   Host    (
     Location: /pub/applications/graphics
       DIRECTORY    drwxrwxr-x     512 bytes  00:00  7 Jul 1993  mpeg
     Location: /pub/comp/amiga/gfx
       DIRECTORY    drwxr-xr-x     512 bytes  00:00  7 Sep 1993  mpeg

   Host    (
     Location: /stsci/epa
       DIRECTORY    drwxr-xr-x     512 bytes  12:55 21 Jun 1994  mpeg

   Host    (
     Location: /graphics
       DIRECTORY    drwxr-xr-x     512 bytes  04:51  3 Apr 1994  mpeg

   Host    (
     Location: /share/in-notes/media-types/video
       FILE    -rw-r--r--      15 bytes  18:45 11 Jan 1994  mpeg

** unl-archie> WHATIS SECURITY
   RFC 1037          Greenberg, B.; Keene, S. NFILE - a file access
                      protocol. 1987 December; 86 p.

Top      ToC       Page 27 
   RFC 1038          St. Johns, M. Draft revised IP security option.
                      1988 January; 7 p.
   cops              System Security analysis tool
   forktest          Find security holes in shell-escapes
   kerberos          Host security package
   safe-mkdir        mkdir() and security hole *****FIX****

** unl-archie> EXIT
   # Bye.
   Connection #0 closed

2.8.2. GOPHER

   The Internet Gopher protocol was developed at the University of
   Minnesota's Microcomputer Center in 1991, as a distributed
   information search and retrieval tool for the Internet.  Gopher is
   described in RFC 1436 [1]; the name derives from the University's

   Gopher provides a tool so that publicly available information at a
   host can be organized in a hierarchical fashion, allowing it to be
   perused using a simple menu system.  Gopher allows a user to view a
   file on demand without requiring additional file transfer protocols.
   Gopher also has the capability to "link" gophers on the Internet, so
   that each Gopher site can be used as a stepping stone to access other
   sites and reducing the amount of duplicate information and effort on
   the network.

   In many cases, users can access Gopher by TELNETing to a valid Gopher
   location; if the site provides a remote Gopher client, the user will
   see a text-based, menu interface.  The number of Gopher sites is
   growing rapidly; as the dialogue below shows, most Gopher sites have
   a menu item that will allow you to identify other Gopher sites.  If
   using TELNET, login with the username "gopher" (this MUST be in
   lowercase); no password is required.  Note that not all Gopher sites
   provide a remote Gopher client; users may need local Gopher client
   software on their system.

   The Gopher server at "" has a tremendous amount of
   information for the new user, including lists of frequently asked
   questions and pointers to various Internet discussion lists.  In the
   sample dialogue below, the remote Gopher client is accessed by
   TELNETing to the host.  With the menu interface shown here, the user
   merely follows the prompts.  Initially, the main menu will appear;
   selecting item 2 causes Gopher to seize and display the "InterNIC
   Information Services" menu.  Move to the desired menu item by typing

Top      ToC       Page 28 
   the item number or by moving the "pointer" (-->) down to the desired
   entry using the <DOWN-ARROW> key on the keyboard, and then hitting
   <ENTER>.  To quit the program at any time, press "q" (quit); "?" and
   "u" will provide help or go back up to the previous menu,
   respectively.  Users may also search for strings within files using
   the "/" command or download the file being interrogated using the "D"

   Menu item 7 (selected in the dialogue shown here) is titled
   "Beginners: Start Here", an excellent place for new users to obtain
   information about the Internet, available tools, terms and concepts,
   and, perhaps most importantly, some of the cultural aspects of the
   Internet community.

   Further information about Gopher can be obtained by contacting the
   Internet Gopher Team at the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis
   (  This is also the site of the first
   Gopher server (  A Gopher-related
   discussion list is maintained at
   (see Section 3.1 for information on subscribing to Internet
   discussion lists).  More information on Gopher clients can be found
   in the Gopher Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) file, which can be
   downloaded using anonymous FTP in file
   "/pub/usenet/news.answers/gopher-faq" at the host "";
   this FAQ also lists sources for a number of Gopher clients for a wide
   range of hardware/software platforms.


   SunOS UNIX (ds)

** login: gopher
   SunOS Release 4.1.3 (DS) #3: Tue Feb 8 10:52:45 EST 1994

            Welcome to the InterNIC Directory and Database Server.

   Internet Gopher Information Client v1.11
   Root gopher server:

   --> 1.  Information About the InterNIC/
       2.  InterNIC Information Services (General Atomics)/
       3.  InterNIC Registration Services (NSI)/
       4.  InterNIC Directory and Database Services (AT&T)/

   Press ? for Help, q to Quit                               Page: 1/1

Top      ToC       Page 29 
** View item number: 2

   Internet Gopher Information Client v1.11
   InterNIC Information Services (General Atomics)

   --> 1.  README.
       2.  About the InfoGuide/
       3.  About InterNIC Information Services/
       4.  About the Internet/
       5.  Getting Connected to the Internet/
       6.  Beginners: Start Here/
       7.  Using the Internet/
       8.  Internet Resources/
       9.  Advanced Users: NIC Staff, System Administrators, Programmer
       10. Frequently Asked Questions at InterNIC IS/
       11. Scout Report/
       12. WAIS search InfoGuide (and elsewhere) by keyword/
       13. InfoGuide INDEX.

   Press ? for Help, q to Quit                               Page: 1/1
** View item number: 6

   Internet Gopher Information Client v1.11
   Beginners: Start Here

   --> 1.  About This Directory.
       2.  Introductions to the Internet/
       3.  Glossaries And Definitions/
       4.  Network Tools/
       5.  Further Reading/
       6.  Collection of Usenet FAQs/
       7.  Internet Culture and Netiquette/

   Press ? for Help, q to Quit                               Page: 1/1
** q
   Really quit (y/n) ?
** y

   Connection closed by Foreign Host

Top      ToC       Page 30 
2.8.3. Other Information Servers

   There are a number of other information servers that are growing in
   popularity and use.  The problem with being blessed with so much
   information from Archie, Gopher, and other sources is exactly that -
   too much information.  To make it easier for users to locate the
   system on which their desired information resides, a number of other
   tools have been created.

   Veronica (Very Easy Rodent-Oriented Net-wide Index to Computerized
   Archives) was developed at the University of Nevada in Reno as an
   adjunct to Gopher.  As the number of Gopher sites continues to grow,
   it has become increasingly harder to find information in
   "Gopherspace" since Gopher is designed to search a single database at
   a time.  Veronica maintains an index of titles of Gopher items and
   performs a keyword search on all of the Gopher sites that it has
   knowledge of and access to, obviating the need for the user to
   perform a menu-by-menu, site-by-site search for information.  When a
   user selects an item from the menu of a Veronica search, "sessions"
   are automatically established with the appropriate Gopher servers,
   and a list of data items is returned to the originating Gopher client
   in the form of a Gopher menu so that the user can access the files.

   Veronica is available as an option on many Gopher servers, including

   Another Gopher-adjunct is Jughead (Jonzy's Universal Gopher Hierarchy
   Excavation And Display).  Jughead supports key word searches and the
   use of logical operators (AND, OR, and NOT).  The result of a Jughead
   search is a display of all menu items which match the search string
   which are located in the University of Manchester and UMIST
   Information Server, working from a static database that is re-created
   every day.  Jughead is available from many Gopher sites (including
   ""), although Veronica may be a better tool for global

   Archie and Gopher are primarily used for the indexing of text-based
   files.  The World Wide Web (WWW or W3) Project, initiated by the CERN
   Institute for Particle Physics in Geneva, Switzerland, is designed to
   combine aspects of information retrieval with multimedia
   communications.  The WWW Project is intended to allow users to access
   information in many different types of formats, including text,
   sound, image, and video.  WWW treats all searchable Internet files as
   hypertext documents.  "Hypertext" is a new term which merely refers
   to text that contains pointers to other text, allowing a user reading
   one document to jump to another document for more information on a
   given topic, and then return to the same location in the original
   document.  The original WWW site is at CERN and may be accessed via

Top      ToC       Page 31 
   Telnet at "".  The user will be automatically logged in
   and a help menu can be displayed by entering the "h" command.

   To generally access WWW servers, users must run client software
   called a "browser".  The browser reads documents from WWW servers and
   can access files by FTP, gopher, and other methods.  WWW can also
   handle hypermedia documents; "hypermedia" is another new term,
   referring to a file using any medium that contains pointers to
   another medium.  WWW browsers, then, are able to display images,
   sound, or animations in addition to text.  WWW sources and additional
   information may be accessed via anonymous FTP from the "/pub/WWW"
   directory at "" or the "/Web" directory at

   The most commonly used WWW browser is Mosaic, developed at the
   National Center for Supercomputer Applications (NCSA) at the
   University of Illinois.  Mosaic provides a uniform mechanism for
   finding the location of information, as well as determining the data
   type, presentation method, and linkages to other information.  A
   large number of shareware Mosaic clients are available at
   "".  It should be noted that commercial versions of
   Mosaic will also become available for a variety of platforms after
   the summer of 1994.

   The Wide Area Information Server (WAIS, pronounced "ways") was
   initiated jointly by Apple Computer, Dow Jones, KMPG Peat Marwick,
   and Thinking Machines Corp.  It is a set of free-ware, share-ware,
   and commercial software products for a wide variety of
   hardware/software platforms, which work together to help users find
   information on the Internet.  WAIS provides a single interface
   through which a user can access many different information databases.

   The user interface allow a query to be formulated in English and the
   WAIS server will automatically choose the appropriate databases to
   search.  Further information about WAIS can be obtained by reading
   the WAIS FAQ, from host "" in file

2.9.  Uniform Resource Locator Format

   As more and more protocols have become available to identify files,
   archive and server sites, news lists, and other information resources
   on the Internet, it was inevitable that some shorthand would arise to
   make it a little easier to designate these sources.  The common
   shorthand that is employed is called the Uniform Resource Locator
   (URL) format.

Top      ToC       Page 32 
   The list below provides information on how the URL format should be
   interpreted for the protocols and resources that have been discussed
   in this document.  A complete description of the URL format may be
   found in [2].

     Used to identify a specific file.  E.g., the file "htmlasst" in the
     "edu" directory at host "ftp.cs.da" would be denoted with URL as:

     Used to identify an FTP site.  E.g.:

     Used to identify a Gopher site and menu path.  E.g.:

     Used to identify a WWW server location.  "http" refers to the
     HyperText Transport Protocol; file names commonly use the ".html"
     extension, indicating use of the HyperText Markup Language.  E.g.:

   mailto:"e-mail address"
     Identifies an individual Internet mail address.  E.g.:

     Identifies a TELNET site (the trailing "/" is optional).  E.g.:

3. Discussion Lists

   Among the most useful features of the Internet are the discussion
   lists that have become available to allow individuals to discuss
   topics of mutual concern.  Discussion list topics range from SCUBA
   diving and home brewing of beer to AIDS research and foreign policy.
   Several, naturally, deal specifically with the Internet, TCP/IP
   protocols, and the impact of new technologies.

   Most of the discussion lists accessible from the Internet are
   "unmoderated", meaning that anyone can send a message to the list's
   central repository and the message will then be automatically
   forwarded to all subscribers of the list.  These lists provide very
   fast turn-around between submission of a message and delivery, but
   often result in a lot of messages (including inappropriate "junk
   mail").  A "moderated" list has an extra step; a human list moderator

Top      ToC       Page 33 
   examines all messages before they are forwarded to ensure that the
   messages are appropriate to the list and not needlessly inflammatory!

   Users should be warned that some lists generate a significant amount
   of messages each day.  Before subscribing to too many lists, be sure
   that you are aware of local policies and/or charges governing access
   to discussion lists and e-mail storage.

3.1. Internet Discussion Lists

   A list of the known interest groups may be found by Gophering to
   "".  Follow the menu path "InterNIC Information
   Services" | "Using the Internet" | "Basic Internet Services" |
   "Electronic Mail" | "Mailing Lists" to find the 8-part list of lists.

   Be careful if you download these files; the list is nearly 1.5 MB in
   size, listing over 800 lists!  Along the way, you will find a wealth
   of other information.

   Mail can be sent to an Internet list at an address with the following


   The common convention when users want to subscribe, unsubscribe, or
   handle any other administrative matter is to send a message to the
   list administrator; do NOT send administrivia to the main list
   address!  The list administrator can usually be found at:


   To subscribe to a list, it is often enough to place the word
   "subscribe" in the main body of the message, although a line with the

        SUBSCRIBE  list_name  your_full_name

   will satisfy most mail servers.  A similar message may be used to get
   off a list; just use the word "unsubscribe".

   Not every list follows this convention, but it is a safe bet if you
   don't have better information!

3.2. Usenet

   Usenet, also known as NETNEWS or Usenet news, is another information
   source with its own set of special interest mailing lists organized
   into "newsgroups".  Usenet originated on UNIX systems but has

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   migrated to many other types of hosts, although most Usenet servers
   are still UNIX-based.  Usenet clients, called "newsreaders", are
   available for virtually any operating system.

   While Usenet newsgroups are usually accessible at Internet sites, a
   prospective Usenet client host must have appropriate newsreader
   software to be able to read news.  Users will have to check with
   their local host or network administrator to find out what Usenet
   newsgroups are locally available, as well as the local policies for
   using them.

   Usenet newsgroup names are hierarchical in nature.  The first part of
   the name, called the "hierarchy", provides an indication about the
   general subject area.  There are two types of hierarchies, called
   "mainstream" and "alternative"; the total number of newsgroups is in
   the thousands.  The "news.announce.newusers" newsgroup is a good
   place for new Usenet users to find a detailed introduction to the use
   of Usenet, as well as an introduction to its culture.

   Usenet mainstream hierarchies are established by a process that
   requires the approval of a majority of Usenet members.  Most sites
   that receive a NETNEWS feed receive all of these hierarchies, which

        comp      Computers
        misc      Miscellaneous
        news      Network news
        rec       Recreation
        sci       Science
        soc       Social issues
        talk      Various discussion lists

   The alternative hierarchies include lists that may be set up at any
   site that has the server software and disk space.  These lists are
   not formally part of Usenet and, therefore, may not be received by
   all sites getting NETNEWS.  The alternative hierarchies include:

        alt       Alternate miscellaneous discussion lists
        bionet    Biology, medicine, and life sciences
        bit       BITNET discussion lists
        biz       Various business-related discussion lists
        ddn       Defense Data Network
        gnu       GNU lists
        ieee      IEEE information
        info      Various Internet and other networking information
        k12       K-12 education
        u3b       AT&T 3B computers
        vmsnet    Digital's VMS operating system

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   A list of newsgroups may be found at host "" in the path
   "/pub/usenet/news.answers"; see the "/active-newsgroups" and "/alt-
   hierarchies" subdirectories.

   There is often some overlap between Usenet newsgroups and Internet
   discussion lists.  Some individuals join both lists in these
   circumstances or, often, there is cross-posting of messages.  Some
   Usenet newsgroup discussions are forwarded onto an Internet mailing
   list by an individual site to provide access to those users who do
   not have Usenet available.

   Users not connected to Usenet may post messages to a Usenet newsgroup
   using Internet e-mail.  First, replace the periods in the Usenet
   discussion list name with hyphens (e.g., the folk music discussion
   list, "", would become "rec-music-folk").  Then, send
   an e-mail message to:


   Usenet news may be read using Gopher.  Connect to the host
   "" using the path "News & Weather" | "USENET News" or
   host "" using the path "Usenet News Reader".


   Another important set of discussion groups is maintained using a
   program called LISTSERV.  LISTSERV is a service provided widely on
   BITNET and EARN (European Academic and Research Network), although it
   is also available to Internet users.

   LISTSERV commands are placed in the main body of e-mail messages sent
   to an appropriate list server location.  To find out what lists are
   available, send a message to "" with the
   command "list global" in the main body of the message; whatever you
   place in the "Subject:" field will be ignored.

   Once you have found a list of interest, you can send a message to the
   appropriate address with any appropriate command, including:

     HELP                                 Get help & a list of commands
     SUBSCRIBE list_name your_full_name   Subscribe to a list
     UNSUBSCRIBE list_name                Unsubscribe from a list
     INDEX                                Get a list of LISTSERV files
     GET file_name                        Obtain a file from the server

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4. Internet Documentation

   To fully appreciate and understand what is going on within the
   Internet community, users might wish to obtain the occasional
   Internet specification.  The main body of Internet documents are
   Request for Comments (RFCs), although a variety of RFC subsets have
   been defined for various specific purposes.  The sections below will
   describe the RFCs and other documentation, and how to get these

   NOTE: For complete, up-to-date information on obtaining Internet
   documentation, users should Gopher to "" and follow
   the path "InterNIC Information Services" | "About the Internet" |
   "Internet Documentation", and then select the desired set of
   documents.  This Gopher path is referred to as the "documentation
   root path" in the remainder of this section.

4.1. Request for Comments (RFCs)

   RFCs are the body of literature comprising Internet protocols,
   standards, research questions, hot topics, humor (especially those
   dated 1 April), and general information.  Each RFC is uniquely issued
   a number which is never reused or reissued; if a document is revised,
   it is given a new RFC number and the old RFC is said to be
   "obsoleted."  Announcements are sent to the RFC-DIST mailing list
   whenever a new RFC is issued; anyone may join this list by sending e-
   mail to "".

   RFCs may be obtained through the mail (i.e., postal service), but it
   is easier and faster to get them on-line.  One easy way to obtain
   RFCs on-line is to use RFC-INFO, an e-mail-based service to help
   users locate and retrieve RFCs and other Internet documents.  To use
   the service, send e-mail to "" and leave the
   "Subject:" field blank; commands that may go in the main body of the
   message include:

     HELP                       (Help file)
     HELP: ways_to_get_rfcs     (Help file on how to get RFCs)

        Doc-ID: RFCxxxx         (Retrieve RFC xxxx; use all 4 digits)

     LIST: RFC                  (List all RFCs...)
       [options]                   (...[matching the following options])

       KEYWORDS: xxx             (Title contains string "xxx")
       AUTHOR: xxx               (Written by "xxx")
       ORGANIZATION:             (Issued by company "xxx")

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       DATED-AFTER: mmm-dd-yyyy
       DATED-BEFORE: mmm-dd-yyyy
       OBSOLETES: RFCxxxx        (List RFCs obsoleting RFC xxxx)

   An alternative way to obtain RFCs by e-mail is to send an e-mail
   message to "", leaving the "Subject:" field blank.

   In the main body of the message, use one or more of the following
   commands.  The RFC index, or a specific reference to an RFC, will
   indicate whether the RFC is available in ASCII text or PostScript
   format.  By convention, all RFCs are available in ASCII while some
   are also available in PostScript where use of graphics and/or
   different fonts adds more information or clarity.  The instructions
   below show how to get the index; be aware that this file is very
   large, containing the citing for over 1,700 documents.  Note that not
   all RFCs numbered below 698 (July 1975) are available on-line:

      SEND HELP                  (Help file)
      SEND RFC/RFC-INDEX         (RFC Index)
      SEND RFC/RFCxxxx.TXT       (ASCII version of RFC xxxx)
      SEND RFC/RFCxxxx.PS        (PostScript version of RFC xxxx)

        TABLE 1.  Some of the RFC Repositories.


        U.S.           rfc
        U.S.         rfc
        U.S.           in-notes
        U.S.   info/rfc
        U.K.      rfc
        Europe              rfc
        Pacific         rfc

   To obtain an RFC via anonymous FTP, connect to one of the RFC
   repositories listed in Table 1 using FTP.  After connecting, change
   to the appropriate RFC directory (as shown in Table 1) using the "cd"
   command.  To obtain a particular file, use the "get" command:

      GET RFC-INDEX.TXT local_name    (RFC Index)
      GET RFCxxxx.TXT   local_name    (ASCII version of RFC XXXX)
      GET RFCxxxx.PS    local_name    (PostScript version of RFC XXXX)

   Finally, check out the path "RFC's (Request for Comments)" under the
   documentation root path for the RFC index, complete instructions on
   obtaining RFCs, and a complete set of RFCs.

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   The sample dialogue below, although highly abbreviated, shows a user
   obtaining RFC 1594 (Answers to Commonly asked "New Internet User"
   Questions) using the first three methods described above.

** Subject:
   Enter your message below. Press CTRL/Z when complete, CTRL/C to quit
** ^Z

** Subject:
   Enter your message below. Press CTRL/Z when complete, CTRL/C to quit
** Doc-ID: RFC1594
** ^Z

** Username: ANONYMOUS
** Password:
** NIC.DDN.MIL> CD rfc
** NIC.DDN.MIL> GET rfc1594.txt RFC-1594.TXT

4.2. Internet Standards

   RFCs describe many aspects of the Internet.  By the early 1990s,
   however, so many specifications of various protocols had been written
   that it was not always clear as to which documents represented
   standards for the Internet.  For that reason, a subset of RFCs have
   been designated as STDs to identify them as Internet standards.

   Unlike RFC numbers that are never reused, STD numbers always refer to
   the latest version of the standard.  UDP, for example, would be
   completely identified as "STD-6/RFC-768."  Note that STD numbers
   refer to a standard, which is not necessarily a single document; an
   STD, therefore, might refer to several RFCs.  STD 19, for example, is
   the NetBIOS Service Protocols standard and comprises RFCs 1001 and
   1002; a complete citation for this standard would be "STD-19/RFC-

Top      ToC       Page 39 

   The availability of new STDs is announced on the RFC-DIST mailing
   list.  STD-1 [14] always refers to the latest list of "Internet
   Official Protocol Standards".  The Internet standards process is
   described in RFC 1602 [6] and STD notes are explained in RFC 1311

   STDs can be obtained as RFCs via anonymous FTP from any RFC
   repository.  In addition, some RFC sites (such as "")
   provide an STD directory so that STD documents can be found in the
   path "/STD/xx.TXT", where "xx" refers to the STD number.

   STD documents may be obtained as RFCs using the methods described in
   Section 4.1.  STDs may also be obtained via the RFC-INFO server using
   the "RETRIEVE: STD" and "Doc-ID: STDxxxx" commands.  Also, check out
   the path "STD's (Standard RFC's)" under the documentation root path
   for the STD index, complete instructions on obtaining STDs, and a
   complete set of STDs.

4.3. For Your Information Documents

   The For Your Information (FYI) series of RFCs provides Internet users
   with information about many topics related to the Internet.  FYI
   topics range from historical to explanatory to tutorial, and are
   aimed at the wide spectrum of people that use the Internet.  The FYI
   series includes answers to frequently asked questions by both
   beginning and seasoned users of the Internet, an annotated
   bibliography of Internet books, and an explanation of the domain name

   Like the STDs, an FYI number always refers to the latest version of
   an FYI.  FYI 4, for example, refers to the answers to commonly asked
   questions by new Internet users; its complete citation would be "FYI-
   4/RFC-1594."  The FYI notes are explained in FYI 1 [9].

   FYIs can be obtained as RFCs via anonymous FTP from any RFC
   repository.  In addition, some RFC sites (such as "")
   provide an FYI directory so that FYI documents can be found in the
   path "/FYI/xx.TXT", where "xx" refers to the FYI number.

   FYI documents may be obtained as RFCs using the methods described in
   Section 4.1.  FYIs may also be obtained via the RFC-INFO server using
   the "RETRIEVE: FYI" and "Doc-ID: FYIxxxx" commands.  Also, check out
   the path "FYI's (For Your Information RFC's)" under the documentation
   root path for the FYI index, complete instructions on obtaining FYIs,
   and a complete set of FYIs.

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4.4. RARE Technical Reports

   The Reseaux Associes pour la Recherche Europeenne (RARE) is the
   Association of European Research Networks and their users.  RARE's
   charter is to promote and participate in the creation of a high-
   quality European computer communications infrastructure for the
   support of research endeavors.  RARE member networks use Open Systems
   Interconnection (OSI) protocols and TCP/IP.  Since the summer of
   1993, to promote a closer relationship between RARE and the IETF,
   RARE Technical Reports (RTRs) are also published as RFCs.

   RTR documents may be obtained as RFCs using the methods described in
   Section 4.1.  RTRs may also be obtained via the RFC-INFO server using
   the "RETRIEVE: RTR" and "Doc-ID: RTRxxxx" commands.  Also, check out
   the path "RTR's (RARE Technical Report RFC's)" under the
   documentation root path for the RTR index, complete instructions on
   obtaining RTRs, and a complete set of RTRs.  They may also be
   obtained via anonymous FTP from "".

   NOTE: As of December 1994, RARE and EARN have merged to form TERENA
   (Trans-European Research and Education Network Association).

5. Perusing the Internet...

   This guide is intended to provide the reader with a rudimentary
   ability to use the utilities that are provided by TCP/IP and the
   Internet.  By now, it is clear that the user's knowledge, ability,
   and willingness to experiment are about the only limits to what can
   be accomplished.

   The next step is to explore the nooks and crannies of the network.
   One software tool that will users in this quest is the Merit Computer
   Center's (Ann Arbor, MI) "Cruise of the Internet", available at no
   cost from the host "" using FTP.  For more information,
   read the "readme" files in the directories "internet/resources/
   cruise.mac" and "internet/resources/cruise.dos"  for Mac and PC
   versions, respectively.  For general information about resources at
   this site, see the READ.ME file in the root directory or send e-mail
   to "".

   Several RFCs provide invaluable information about finding things on
   the Internet.  One of the best such sources is FYI 10/RFC 1402,
   titled "There's Gold in them thar Networks! -or- Searching for
   Treasure in all the Wrong Places" [11], an excellent guide for
   someone who wants to look around the Internet for a wide range of
   material.  Other good sources include the "Hitchhiker's Guide to the
   Internet" (RFC 1118) [7] and the "Guide to Network Resource Tools"
   (FYI 23/RFC 1580) [3].  Answers to frequently asked questions for

Top      ToC       Page 41 
   both new and experienced users of the Internet may be found in FYI
   4/RFC 1594 [10] and FYI 7/RFC 1207 [8], respectively.

   There are many other sources that cite locations from which to access
   specific information about a wide range of subjects using such tools
   as FTP, Telnet, Gopher, and WWW.  These include:

   o The INTERNET SERVICES LIST, maintained by Scott Yanoff of the
     University of Wisconsin in Milwaukee and updated at least once a
     month.  This list can be obtained at <URL:
     pub/> or <URL:gopher://
     Information Services/Special Internet Connections>.

   o An excellent starting point for searching the World Wide Web is to
     point your WWW browser at "

   o The Scout Report is a weekly service by the InterNIC Information
     Services team.  To subscribe to the Scout Report mailing list, send
     e-mail to "" and place the line "subscribe
     scout-report" in the main body of the message.  Optionally, Gopher
     to "" and follow the path "InterNIC Information
     Services" | "Scout Report" or point your WWW browser at

   o "The INTERNET Yellow Pages" by Harley Hahn and Rick Stout [28].

   More books and specialized articles came out about the Internet in
   1993 and 1994 than in all previous years (squared!).  Some of them
   are directly related to finding your way around, or finding things
   on, the Internet; a very partial list includes:

   o "The Internet Directory" by Eric Braun [21]

   o "The MAC Internet Tour Guide", "The PC Internet Tour Guide", and
     "The Windows Internet Tour Guide"  by Michael Fraase [24, 25, 26]

   o "The Internet Navigator" by Paul Gilster [27]

   o "Zen and the Art of the Internet" by Brendan Kehoe [29]

   o "The Whole Internet User's Guide & Catalog" by Ed Krol [31]

   o "INTERNET: Getting Started" by April Marine, Susan Kirkpatrick,
     Vivian Neou, and Carol Ward [33]

   o "Finding it on the Internet: The Next Challenge for Librarianship"
     by Brian Nielsen [34]

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   o "Navigating the Internet" by Richard Smith and Mark Gibbs [35]

   A much more comprehensive list of Internet-related books may be found
   in FYI 19/RFC 1463 [5].

   Finally, Carl Malamud has written a delightful book called "Exploring
   the Internet: A Technical Travelogue" [32], chronicling not the
   Internet as much as the people who built it and use it.  This book
   will not teach you how to perform an anonymous FTP file transfer nor
   how to use Gopher, but provides insights about our network (and
   Carl's gastro-pathology) that no mere statistics can convey.

6. Acronyms and Abbreviations

   ASCII     American Standard Code for Information Interchange
   BITNET    Because It's Time Network
   DDN       Defense Data Network
   DNS       Domain Name System
   EARN      European Academic Research Network
   FAQ       Frequently Asked Questions list
   FTP       File Transfer Protocol
   FYI       For Your Information series of RFCs
   HTML      HyperText Markup Language
   HTTP      HyperText Transport Protocol
   ICMP      Internet Control Message Protocol
   IP        Internet Protocol
   ISO       International Organization for Standardization
   NetBIOS   Network Basic Input/Output System
   NIC       Network Information Center
   NICNAME   Network Information Center name service
   NSF       National Science Foundation
   NSFNET    National Science Foundation Network
   RFC       Request For Comments
   RARE      Reseaux Associes pour la Recherche Europeenne
   RTR       RARE Technical Reports
   SMDS      Switched Multimegabit Data Service
   SMTP      Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
   STD       Internet Standards series of RFCs
   TCP       Transmission Control Protocol
   TTL       Time-To-Live
   UDP       User Datagram Protocol
   URL       Uniform Resource Locator
   WAIS      Wide Area Information Server
   W3        World Wide Web
   WWW       World Wide Web

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7. Security Considerations

   Security issues are not discussed in this memo.

8. Acknowledgements

   Our thanks are given to all sites where we FTPed, TELNETed, GOPHERed,
   and otherwise used system resources, particularly St. Michael's
   College in Colchester, Vermont (  We also
   appreciate the comments and suggestions from our colleagues at Hill
   Associates, our students, and other members of the Internet
   community, particularly Mark Delany and the rest of the gang at the
   Australian Public Access Network Association, Margaret Hall (BBN),
   John Martin (RARE), Tom Maufer (NASA), Michael Patton (BBN), and
   Brian Williams.  Special thanks are due to Joyce Reynolds for her
   continued encouragement and direction.

9. References

   [1] Anklesaria, F., McCahill, M., Lindner, P, Johnson, D., Torrey,
       D., and B. Alberti, "The Internet Gopher Protocol", RFC 1436,
       University of Minnesota, March 1993.

   [2] Berners-Lee, T., Masinter, L., and M. McCahill, Editors, "Uniform
       Resource Locators (URL)", RFC 1738, CERN, Xerox PARC, University
       of Minnesota, December 1994.

   [3] EARN Staff, "Guide to Network Resource Tools", FYI 23, RFC 1580,
       EARN Association, March 1994.

   [4] Harrenstien, K., Stahl, M., and E. Feinler, "NICNAME/WHOIS", RFC
       954, SRI, October 1985.

   [5] Hoffman, E. and L. Jackson, "FYI on Introducing the Internet-- A
       Short Bibliography of Introductory Internetworking Readings", FYI
       19, RFC 1463, Merit Network, Inc., NASA, May 1993.

   [6] Internet Architecture Board, Internet Engineering Steering Group,
       "The Internet Standards Process -- Revision 2", RFC 1602, IAB,
       IESG, March 1994.

   [7] Krol, E., "Hitchhiker's Guide to the Internet", RFC 1118,
       University of Illinois Urbana, September 1989.

   [8] Malkin, G., Marine, A., and J. Reynolds, "FYI on Questions and
       Answers: Answers to Commonly Asked 'Experienced Internet User'
       Questions", FYI 7, RFC 1207, FTP Software, SRI, USC/Information
       Sciences Institute, February 1991.

Top      ToC       Page 44 
   [9] Malkin, G., and J. Reynolds, "F.Y.I. on F.Y.I.: Introduction to
       the F.Y.I. Notes", FYI 1, RFC 1150, Proteon, USC/Information
       Sciences Institute, March 1990.

  [10] Marine, A., Reynolds, J., and G. Malkin, "FYI on Questions and
       Answers - Answers to Commonly asked 'New Internet User'
       Questions", FYI 4, RFC 1594, NASA Ames Research Center,
       USC/Information Sciences Institute, Xylogics, March 1994.

  [11] Martin, J., "There's Gold in them thar Networks! Searching for
       Treasure in all the Wrong Places", FYI 10, RFC 1402, Ohio State
       University, January 1993.

  [12] Mockapetris, P., "Domain Names - Concepts and Facilities", STD
       13, RFC 1034, USC/Information Sciences Institute, November 1987.

  [13] Postel, J., "Domain Name System Structure and Delegation",
       USC/Information Sciences Institute, RFC 1591, March 1994.

  [14] Postel, J., Editor, "Internet Official Protocol Standards", STD
       1, RFC 1720, Internet Architecture Board, November 1994.

  [15] Postel, J., "Introduction to the STD Notes", RFC 1311,
       USC/Information Sciences Institute, March 1992.

  [16] Postel, J., and J. Reynolds, "File Transfer Protocol (FTP), STD
       9, RFC 959, USC/Information Sciences Institute, October 1985.

  [17] Postel, J. and J. Reynolds, "TELNET Protocol Specification", STD
       8, RFC 854, USC/Information Sciences Institute, May 1983.

  [18] Socolofsky, T., and C. Kale, "TCP/IP Tutorial", RFC 1180, Spider
       Systems Ltd., January 1991.

  [19] Williamson, S., "Transition and Modernization of the Internet
       Registration Service", RFC 1400, Network Solutions, Inc., March

  [20] Zimmerman, D., "The Finger User Information Protocol", RFC 1288,
       Rutgers University, December 1991.

  [21] Braun, E., "The Internet Directory", New York: Fawcett Columbine,

  [22] Comer, D., "Internetworking with TCP/IP, Vol. I: Principles,
       Protocols, and Architecture", 2/e.  Englewood Cliffs (NJ):
       Prentice-Hall, 1991.

Top      ToC       Page 45 
  [23] Feit, S., "TCP/IP", New York: McGraw-Hill, 1993.

  [24] Fraase, M., "The MAC Internet Tour Guide", Chapel Hill (NC):
       Ventana Press, 1994.

  [25] Fraase, M., "The PC Internet Tour Guide", Chapel Hill (NC):
       Ventana Press, 1994.

  [26] Fraase, M., "The Windows Internet Tour Guide", Chapel Hill (NC):
       Ventana Press, 1994.

  [27] Gilster, P., "The Internet Navigator", New York: John Wiley &
       Sons, 1993.

  [28] Hahn, H., and R. Stout, "The Internet Yellow Pages", Berkeley
       (CA): Osborne McGraw-Hill, 1994.

  [29] Kehoe, B., "Zen and the Art of the Internet", Englewood Cliffs
       (NJ): Prentice-Hall, 1993.

  [30] Kessler, G., "An Overview of TCP/IP Protocols and the Internet",
       August 1994.  <URL:gopher://
       Services/Advanced Users/tcp-ip>.

  [31] Krol, E., "The Whole Internet User's Guide & Catalog", Sebastopol
       (CA): O'Reilly & Associates, 1992.

  [32] Malamud, C., "Exploring the Internet: A Technical Travelogue",
       Englewood Cliffs (NJ): PTR Prentice Hall, 1992.

  [33] Marine, A., Kirkpatrick, S., Neou, V., and C. Ward.  "INTERNET:
       Getting Started", Englewood Cliffs (NJ): PTR Prentice Hall, 1993.

  [34] Nielsen, B., "Finding it on the Internet: The Next Challenge for
       Librarianship."  Database, Vol. 13, October 1990, pp. 105-107.

  [35] Smith, R., and M. Gibbs, "Navigating the Internet", Carmel (IN):
       SAMS, 1994.

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10. Authors' Addresses

       Gary C. Kessler
       Hill Associates
       17 Roosevelt Highway
       Colchester, VT  05446

       Phone:  +1 802-655-8633
       Fax:    +1 802-655-7974

       Steven D. Shepard
       Hill Associates
       17 Roosevelt Highway
       Colchester, VT  05446

       Phone:  +1 802-655-8646
       Fax:    +1 802-655-7974